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Sample records for age-and sex-matched controls

  1. Diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drug prescription in patients with dementia: a comparison to age- and sex-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence of undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia is inconsistent. This may largely be due to methodological differences and shortcomings of studies. In a large cohort of patients with incident dementia and age- and sex-matched controls we examined (1) how often they receive diagnoses indicating pain, (2) how often they receive analgesics and (3) in which agents and formulations. Methods Using health insurance claims data we identified 1,848 patients with a first diagnosis of dementia aged ≥ 65 years and 7,385 age- and sex-matched controls. We analysed differences in diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drugs prescribed between these two groups within the incidence year. We further fitted logistic regression models and stepwise adjusted for several covariates to study the relation between dementia and analgesics. Results On average, patients were 78.7 years old (48% female). The proportions receiving at least one diagnosis indicating pain were similar between the dementia and control group (74.4% vs. 72.5%; p = 0.11). The proportion who received analgesics was higher in patients with dementia in the crude analysis (47.5% vs. 44.7%; OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), but was significantly lower when adjusted for socio-demographic variables, care dependency, comorbidities and diagnoses indicating pain (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68-0.88). Analgesics in liquid form such as metamizole and tramadol were more often used in dementia. Conclusions Our findings show a comparable documentation of diagnoses indicating pain in persons with incident dementia compared to those without. However, there still seems to be an undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia. Irrespective of dementia, analgesics seem to be more often prescribed to sicker patients and to control pain in the context of mobility. PMID:24520876

  2. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls: results of a claims data analysis.

    PubMed

    Luque Ramos, A; Hoffmann, F; Callhoff, J; Zink, A; Albrecht, K

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the vaccination status for influenza and pneumonia and the prevalence of hospitalised pneumonia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and population controls in Germany. Members of a large statutory health insurance fund in Germany who were continuously insured between 2009 and 2013 and had a diagnosis of RA in 2013 were age and sex matched 1:5 to members without RA. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations were evaluated with regard to age, sex and region of residence. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors for influenza vaccination in RA patients. Prevalences of pneumonia that required hospitalisation were compared to regional vaccination rates. The data of 111,482 RA patients and 557,410 matched controls were available for analysis. Compared to controls, RA patients were vaccinated more frequently against influenza (40.8 vs. 32.2 %) and pneumonia (15.0 vs. 10.0 %). Vaccination rates increased with older age and differed between the federal states (highest in East Germany, lowest in South Germany). The region of residence, comorbidities, rheumatologic care and biologic treatment was associated with a higher probability of an influenza vaccination. Prevalences of pneumonia that required hospitalisation were 2-3 times higher in patients compared to controls and tended to be higher in regions with low vaccination rates. The increased pneumonia prevalence in RA patients confirms their status as a risk group. RA patients are vaccinated more frequently than controls, but vaccination rates are still low. The lower pneumonia prevalence in East Germany indicates that vaccination may help to reduce pneumonia in RA. PMID:27372078

  3. A case–control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblad, Andreas; Wiklund, Tony; Bennström, Halina; Leppert, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. Methods: A prospective case–control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18–65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar’s test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results: There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group. Conclusions: These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants’ fast integration into society. PMID:25249583

  4. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls. PMID:26735615

  5. Speech tempo and fundamental frequency patterns: a case study of male monozygotic twins and an age- and sex-matched sibling.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Sandra P; Rixon, Emma

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes an investigation into the speaking characteristics of a set of male monozygotic (MZ) twins (T1 and T2) and an age- and sex-matched sibling (S). Measures of speech tempo and fundamental frequency (F0) were analysed in the speech samples of a reading passage. Results showed significant between-sibling differences for sentence durations and F0 parameters; however, Euclidean distance (ED) measures revealed the smallest distances between the F0 parameters of the MZ twins. The smallest ED values were also observed between T1 and T2 for word durations, pause durations, all-voiced sample durations, and all the all-voiced sample F0 parameters. Greater similarities were observed across all three siblings for the speech tempo and dynamic F0 parameters. PMID:23194081

  6. Cardiac Size and Sex Matching in Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Netzer, Giora; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Rajagopal, Keshava; Scharf, Steven; Eberlein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated whether worsened outcomes in sex mismatch are related to mismatch of organ size in heart transplantation. Background Sizing for organ allocation in heart transplantation currently incorporates only body weight differences between the donor and recipient. Weight correlates poorly to cardiac size, and donor–recipient weight differences are not associated with differential survival. Heart size correlates with sex, and donor–recipient sex mismatch conveys worse-than-expected outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 31,634 donor–recipient adult heart transplant pairings from the United Network for Organ Sharing transplantation registry. We used predictive models to calculate the predicted total heart mass (pHM) for recipient and donor pairs. We assessed organ size mismatch by calculating the percent difference between the donor and recipient pHM as [(pHMrecipient − pHMdonor)/(pHMrecipient)]*100. Results The most-undersized pHM septile demonstrated higher mortality during the first year post-transplantation (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.27; p < 0.001), which remained robust in adjusted models (HR: 1.25; p = 0.03). Survival did not vary across septiles of weight differences. On univariate analysis, sex mismatch was associated with higher mortality in male patients, but not in female patients. Controlling for differences in pHM reversed these associations. Adjusted models demonstrated worse survival associated with sex mismatch in female patients (1-year HR: 1.28; p = 0.02) but no difference in male patients (1-year HR, 1.00; p = 1.0). Conclusions Differences in donor–recipient pHM modulated the survival associated with donor–recipient sex mismatch and identified donor heart undersizing as an otherwise occult and potentially preventable cause of mortality following orthotopic heart transplantation. PMID:24611131

  7. Unique Relations of Age and Delinquency with Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Context processing has significant empirical support as an explanation of age- and psychopathology-related deficiencies in cognitive control. We examined whether context processing generalizes to younger individuals who are in trouble with the law. We tested whether age and delinquency might have unique relations to context processing skills in…

  8. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  9. Aging and Executive Control: Reports of a Demise Greatly Exaggerated

    PubMed Central

    Verhaeghen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    I report a series of meta-analyses on aging and executive control. A first set of analyses failed to find evidence for specific age-related deficits in tasks of selective attention (inhibition of return, negative priming, flanker, and Stroop) or tasks tapping local task-shifting costs (reading with distractors is an exception) but found evidence for specific age-related deficits in tasks of divided attention (dual tasking and global task-shifting costs). The second set examined whether executive control explained any age-related variance in complex cognition (episodic memory, reasoning, spatial abilities) over and beyond the effects of speed and working memory; it did not. Thus, the purported decline in executive control with advancing age is clearly not general, and it may ultimately play only a small role in explaining age-related deficits in complex cognition. PMID:25866452

  10. Case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.

    1988-05-01

    A case-control study based on data from a cancer registry was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, alcohol use, and occupation on renal cell cancer risk. Information was obtained for 326 male and female cases and 978 age- and sex-matched controls. Elevated risks were identified for cigarette smokers and for men employed as truck drivers. No relationship between alcohol consumption and renal cancer was observed.

  11. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  12. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  13. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  14. Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Trichotillomania (Hair Pulling Disorder): The Importance of Controlling for Age and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Elle; Francazio, Sarah; Gunstad, John; Flessner, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder, HPD) is characterized by significant psychological distress, childhood-onset, and, in adults, certain cognitive deficits such as inhibitory control. A total absence of such literature exists within pediatric HPD samples, including research investigating neurocognitive aspects of disparate pulling-styles. The present study aims to address these gaps in the literature. Youth with HPD and healthy controls (N = 45) were compared on an automated neurocognitive task-stop-signal task (SST)-assessing inhibitory control. Youth with HPD (n = 17), controlling for age and attention issues, were found to perform better on the stop-signal reaction time compared to controls (n = 28). No significant relationships between performance on the SST and HPD severity, distress/impairment, or pulling-styles were noted. Findings from the current study suggest that children with HPD may not exhibit deficits in motor inhibition as compared to controls when the effects of age and attentional problems are controlled. PMID:26001984

  15. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  16. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID

  17. [Bone aging and frailty syndrome after 10 years of ARV treatment in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Cournil, A; Eymard-Duvernay, S; Diouf, A

    2014-10-01

    This study compares two indicators of aging (bone loss and frailty syndrome) between patients of the cohort and age- and sex-matched subjects from the general population in Dakar. It shows that patients had a lower mineral bone density. By contrast, the prevalence of frailty (an indicator of general health status and physical condition) among patients was similar to the general population. PMID:24615435

  18. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: A longitudinal fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, David J.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age × Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control. PMID:25284272

  19. Specific reduction of calcium-binding protein (28-kilodalton calbindin-D) gene expression in aging and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Iacopino, A.M.; Christakos, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The present studies establish that there are specific, significant decreases in the neuronal calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D) gene expression in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. The specificity of the changes observed in calbindin mRNA levels was tested by reprobing blots with calmodulin, cyclophilin, and B-actin cDNAs. Gross brain regions of the aging rat exhibited specific, significant decreases in calbindin{center dot}mRNA and protein levels in the cerebellum, corpus striatum, and brain-stem region but not in the cerebral cortex or hippocampus. Discrete areas of the aging human brain exhibited significant decreases in calbindin protein and mRNA in the cerebellum, corpus striatum, and nucleus basalis but not in the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, locus ceruleus, or nucleus raphe dorsalis. Comparison of diseased human brain tissue with age- and sex-matched controls yielded significant decreases calbindin protein and mRNA in the substantia nigra (Parkinson disease), in the corpus striatum (Huntington disease), in the nucleus basalis (Alzheimer disease), and in the hippocampus and nucleus raphe dorsalis (Parkinson, Huntington, and Alzheimer diseases) but not in the cerebellum, neocortex, amygdala, or locus ceruleus. These findings suggest that decreased calbindin gene expression may lead to a failure of calcium buffering or intraneuronal calcium homeostasis, which contributes to calcium-mediated cytotoxic events during aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  1. Epigenetic Control of Stem Cell Potential During Homeostasis, Aging, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Beerman, Isabel; Rossi, Derrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell decline is an important cellular driver of aging-associated pathophysiology in multiple tissues. Epigenetic regulation is central to establishing and maintaining stem cell function, and emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic dysregulation contributes to the altered potential of stem cells during aging. Unlike terminally differentiated cells, the impact of epigenetic dysregulation in stem cells is propagated beyond self; alterations can be heritably transmitted to differentiated progeny, in addition to being perpetuated and amplified within the stem cell pool through self-renewal divisions. This review focuses on recent studies examining epigenetic regulation of tissue-specific stem cells in homeostasis, aging, and aging-related disease. PMID:26046761

  2. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Alzheimer's Disease: A Case-Control Study in Comparison to Normal Aging, Parkinson's Disease, and Non-Alzheimer's Dementia.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jagan A; Bermel, Robert; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Rae-Grant, Alexander; Fernandez, Hubert; Bena, James; Jones, Stephen E; Ehlers, Justis P; Leverenz, James B

    2016-08-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, and macular volume (MV) utilizing spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were compared among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, non-Alzheimer's disease (non-AD) dementia, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Parkinson's disease (PD), and age- and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 116 participants were diagnosed and evaluated (21 AD, 20 aMCI, 20 non-AD, 20 PD, and 34 controls) after comprehensive neurological, neuropsychology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric evaluations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, GCL thickness, and MV were measured. Analysis of variance models were used to compare groups on MRI volumetric measures, cognitive test results, and SD-OCT measures. Associations between SD-OCT measures and other measures were performed using mixed-effect models. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis of retinal markers, including RNFL thickness, GCL thickness, and MV, did not differ between amnestic MCI, AD dementia, PD, non-AD, dementia, and age- and sex-matched controls in a well-characterized patient cohort. PMID:26888864

  3. Examining interference of different cognitive tasks on voluntary balance control in aging and stroke.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tanvi; Subramaniam, Savitha; Varghese, Rini

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the effect of semantic and working memory tasks when each was concurrently performed with a voluntary balance task to evaluate the differences in the resulting cognitive-motor interference (CMI) between healthy aging and aging with stroke. Older stroke survivors (n = 10), older healthy (n = 10) and young adults (n = 10) performed the limits of stability, balance test under single task (ST) and dual task (DT) with two different cognitive tasks, word list generation (WLG) and counting backwards (CB). Cognitive ability was evaluated by recording the number of words and digits counted while sitting (ST) and during balance tasks (DT). The balance and cognitive costs were computed using [(ST-DT)/ST] × 100 for all the variables. Across groups, the balance cost was significantly higher for the older stroke survivors group in the CB condition than older healthy (p < 0.05) and young adult groups (p < 0.05) but was similar between these two groups for the WLG task. Similarly, the cognitive cost was significantly higher in older stroke survivors than in older healthy (p < 0.05) and young adults (p < 0.01) for both the cognitive tasks. The working memory task resulted in greater CMI than the semantic one, and this difference seemed to be most apparent in older stroke survivors. Young adults showed the least CMI, with a similar performance on the two memory tasks. On the other hand, healthy aging and stroke impact both semantic and working memory. Stroke-related cognitive deficits may further significantly decrease working memory function. PMID:27302401

  4. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  5. The Role of Neuromuscular Changes in Aging and Knee Osteoarthritis on Dynamic Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G.; Garland, S. Jayne; Hunt, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint condition, with 30% of those over the age of 75 exhibiting severe radiographic disease. Nearly 50% of those with knee OA have experienced a fall in the past year. Falls are a considerable public health concern, with a high risk of serious injury and a significant socioeconomic impact. The ability to defend against a fall relies on adequate dynamic postural control, and alterations in dynamic postural control are seen with normal aging. Neuromuscular changes associated with aging may be responsible for some of these alterations in dynamic postural control. Even greater neuromuscular deficits, which may impact dynamic postural control and the ability to defend against a fall, are seen in people with knee OA. There is little evidence to date on how knee OA affects the ability to respond to and defend against falls and the neuromuscular changes that contribute to balance deficits. As a result, this review will: summarize the key characteristics of postural responses to an external perturbation, highlight the changes in dynamic postural control seen with normal aging, review the neuromuscular changes associated with aging that have known and possible effects on dynamic postural control, and summarize the neuromuscular changes and balance problems in knee OA. Future research to better understand the role of neuromuscular changes in knee OA and their effect on dynamic postural control will be suggested. Such an understanding is critical to the successful creation and implementation of fall prevention and treatment programs, in order to reduce the excessive risk of falling in knee OA. PMID:23696951

  6. Aging and the mechanisms underlying head and postural control during voluntary motion.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, R P; Emasithi, A

    1997-05-01

    The quality of sensory information that is necessary for balance and postural stability will depend to a great extent on head stability as the body moves. How older persons coordinate head and body motion for balance during volitional activities is not known. The purposes of this article are to present a basis for understanding the influence of aging on head control during voluntary motion and to discuss some data that demonstrate how elderly people might control head movement to improve gaze and the quality of vestibular inputs. A "top-down" or "head-first" control scheme is proposed as the mechanism that elderly people without disabilities use to maintain head position during self-initiated motion. This type of control ensures that the angular position of the head in space remains relatively constant--through the use of a head-stabilization-in-space (HSS) strategy--regardless of the magnitude or direction of displacements in the body's center of force. The HSS strategy is thought to reduce potential ambiguities in the interpretation of sensory inputs for balance and is derived primarily from a geocentric (orientation to the vertical) frame of reference. Egocentric (orientation of the head with respect to the body) or exocentric (orientation to objects in the environment) frames of reference, however, refine the control of head stabilization. Preliminary research suggests that elderly people use the HSS strategy to control head pitch during difficult balance tasks. These findings, if supported by more definitive studies, may be useful in the treatment of patients with balance disorders. The treatment of patients with balance dysfunction is discussed within the conceptual framework of a "head-first" organization scheme. PMID:9149758

  7. EFFECT OF SEX, AGE, AND BMI ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTOR SKILLS AND OBJECT CONTROL SKILLS AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Chu; Lin, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2015-12-01

    Purposive sampling was used to recruit 1,200 preschoolers between the ages of three and seven from 12 preschools throughout Taiwan in order to examine locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Fundamental motor skills were measured using the TGMD-2. Only age had a significant influence on locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills; sex had a small influence on object control skills, and BMI had a very limited influence on all three categories. The difference from previous studies related to BMI may be due to the different items included in the various tests, the number of trials conducted, and ways in which BMI was categorized. PMID:26682607

  8. Age and Cohort Patterns of Medical and Nonmedical Use of Controlled Medication Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Austic, Elizabeth; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Stoddard, Sarah; Ngo, Quyen Epstein; Boyd, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We identified peak annual incidence rates for medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedatives and anxiolytics (controlled medication), and explored cohort effects on age of initiation. Methods Data were gathered retrospectively between 2009–2012 from Detroit area students (n=5185). Modal age at last assessment was 17 years. A meta-analytic approach produced age-, year-, and cohort-specific risk estimates of first-time use of controlled medication. Cox regression models examined cohort patterns in age of initiation for medical and nonmedical use with any of four classes of controlled medication (opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedatives or anxiolytics). Results Peak annual incidence rates were observed at age 16, when 11.3% started medical use, and 3.4% started using another person’s prescription for a controlled medication (i.e., engaged in nonmedical use). In the more recent birth cohort group (1996–2000), 82% of medical users and 76% of nonmedical users reported initiating such use by age 12. In contrast, in the less recent birth cohort group (1991–1995), 42% of medical users and 35% of nonmedical users initiated such use by age 12. Time to initiation was 2.6 times less in the more recent birth cohort group (medical use: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=2.57 [95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.32, 2.85]; nonmedical use: aHR=2.57 [95% CI=2.17, 3.03]). Conclusions Peak annual incidence rates were observed at age 16 for medical and nonmedical use. More recent cohorts reported initiating both types of use at younger ages. Earlier interventions may be needed to prevent adolescent nonmedical use of controlled medication. PMID:26291544

  9. Age and Expertise Effects in Aviation Decision Making and Flight Control in a Flight Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy L.; Reade, Gordon; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a flight simulator task. Methods Seventy-two IFR-rated general aviators, aged 19–79 yr, made multiple approach, holding pattern entry, and landing decisions while navigating under Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions. Over three trials in which the fog level varied, subjects decided whether or not to land the aircraft. They also completed two holding pattern entries. Subjects’ flight control during approaches and holding patterns was measured. Results Older pilots (41+ yr) were more likely than younger pilots to land when visibility was inadequate (older pilots’ mean false alarm rate: 0.44 vs 0.25). They also showed less precise flight control for components of the approach, performing 0.16 SD below mean approach scores. Expertise attenuated an age-related decline in flight control during holding patterns: older IFR/CFI performed 0.73 SD below mean score; younger IFR/CFI, younger CFII/ATP, older CFII/ATP: 0.32, 0.26, 0.03 SD above mean score. Additionally, pilots with faster processing speed (by median split) had a higher mean landing decision false alarm rate (0.42 vs 0.28), yet performed 0.14 SD above the mean approach control score. Conclusions Results have implications regarding specialized training for older pilots and for understanding processes involved in older adults’ real world decision making and performance. PMID:20464816

  10. Exposure age and climate controls on weathering in deglaciated watersheds of western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribner, C. A.; Martin, E. E.; Martin, J. B.; Deuerling, K. M.; Collazo, D. F.; Marshall, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Fine-grained sediments deposited by retreating glaciers weather faster than the global average and this weathering can impact the global carbon cycle and oceanic fluxes of nutrients and radiogenic isotopes. Much work has focused on subglacial and proglacial weathering of continental ice sheets, but little is known about weathering and resulting fluxes from deglacial watersheds, which are disconnected from the ice sheets and discharge only annual precipitation and permafrost melt. We investigate the effects of exposure age and precipitation on weathering intensity in four deglacial watersheds on Greenland that form a transect from the coast near Sisimiut toward the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) near Kangerlussuaq based on evaluations of major ion compositions, Sr isotope ratios, and mineral saturation states of waters and sediments. The transect is underlain by Archean orthogneiss and is characterized by gradients in moraine ages (∼7.5-8.0 ky inland to ∼10 ky at the coast) and water balance (-150 mm/yr inland to +150 mm/yr at the coast). Anion compositions are generally dominated by HCO3, but SO4 becomes increasingly important toward the coast, reflecting a switch from trace carbonate dissolution to sulfide mineral oxidation. Coastal watersheds have a higher proportion of dissolved silica, higher Na/Cl, Si/Ca, and lower Ca/Sr ratios than inland watersheds, indicating an increase in the relative proportion of silicate weathering and an increase in the extent of weathering toward the coast. More extensive weathering near the coast is also apparent in differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of stream water and bedload (Δ87Sr/86Sr), which decreases from 0.017 inland to 0.005 at the coast, and in increased saturation states relative to amorphous SiO2 and quartz. The steep weathering gradient from inland to coastal watersheds reflects enhanced weathering compared to that expected from the 2 to 3 ky difference in exposure age caused by elevated coastal precipitation. The

  11. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  12. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the "elevated partial pressure of oxygen" (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom ("OWB-D"), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec ("OWB-R"), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  13. Aging and balance control in response to external perturbations: role of anticipatory and compensatory postural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APAs and CPAs, respectively), both, are known to be affected in the elderly. We examined the effect of aging on the ability of older adults to utilize APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture (CPAs). Ten elderly individuals were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations applied to the upper body in the sagittal plane. Body kinematics, electromyographic activity of 13 muscles, and ground reaction forces were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The elderly were capable of recognizing an upcoming predictable perturbation and activated muscles prior to it. However, the older adults used different muscle strategies and sequence of muscle recruitment than that reported in young adults. Additionally, when the perturbations were unpredictable, no APAs were seen which resulted in large CPAs and greater peak displacements of the center of pressure (COP) and center of mass (COM) following perturbations. As opposed to this, when the perturbations were predictable, APAs were seen in older adults resulting in significantly smaller CPAs. The presence and utilization of APAs in older adults also improved postural stability following the perturbation as seen by significantly smaller COP and COM peak displacements. Using APAs in older adults significantly reduces the need for large CPAs, resulting in greater postural stability following a perturbation. The results provide a foundation for investigating the role of training in improving the interplay between anticipatory and compensatory postural control in older adults. PMID:24532389

  14. [Aging and the control of the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Brunet, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway. Recent evidence indicates that the FOXO family of transcription factors plays a key role in the self-renewal of adult and embryonic stem cells, which could contribute to tissue regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms underlying aging should help better prevent and treat age-dependent diseases. PMID:22480657

  15. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mahesh Chand; Hemal, Alok; Satija, Mukul; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Bano, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC) and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high. PMID:26880923

  16. Individual differences in aging and cognitive control modulate the neural indexes of context updating and maintenance during task switching.

    PubMed

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Barceló, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the combined influence of age and cognitive control on the behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of local, restart and mixing costs. Two groups of middle-aged (49-60 y.o., N=40) and older (61-80 y.o., N=40) adults were split according to their overall z-score in a composite of six neuropsychological measures of executive function. All participants performed a task-cueing version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) adapted for measuring event-related potentials, whereby tonal cues instructed to switch or repeat the task rule. A single-task condition with identical sensory and motor response demands was used to aid interpretation of behavioural and brain responses to cues and target events. Working memory updating of stimulus-response mappings, as putatively indexed by local switch costs and cue-locked P3 activity (350-460 msec post-cue onset), was preserved in both older and low control adults. In turn, low control adults showed larger restart costs and enhanced cue-locked P2 amplitudes (190-250 msec) in the task-switching condition only, suggesting lesser preparatory control in the presence of interference. Low control adults showed comparatively larger mixing costs and smaller cue-locked fronto-central slow negativities (500-700 msec), suggesting an inefficient online maintenance of task-set information over time. In contrast, target-locked brain responses were mostly sensitive to age-related effects, with older adults showing two well-known effects: (1) an "anterior shift" in target P3 activity (350-460 msec), and (2) an attenuation of fronto-central slow negativities in single-task and task-switching conditions, respectively. The additive association found between age and cognitive control for different behavioural indexes of task-switch costs suggests a differential influence of these factors upon two successive information processing stages: individual differences in cognitive control mainly influenced the neural

  17. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  18. Life Strain, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: The Effects of Gender, Age, and Family SES Among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Xie, Yunping

    2016-09-01

    Very few studies have examined the pathways to delinquency and causal factors for demographic subgroups of adolescents in a different culture. This article explores the effects of gender, age, and family socioeconomic status (SES) in an integrated model of strain, social control, social learning, and delinquency among a sample of Chinese adolescents. ANOVA is used to check for significant differences between categories of demographic groups on the variables in the integrated model, and the differential effects of causal factors in the theoretical path models are examined. Further tests of interaction effects are conducted to compare path coefficients between "high-risk" youths (i.e., male, mid-teen, and low family SES adolescents) and other subgroups. The findings identified similar pathways to delinquency across subgroups and clarified the salience of causal factors for male, mid-teen, and low SES adolescents in a different cultural context. PMID:25850102

  19. Effects of aging and tactile stochastic resonance on postural performance and postural control in a sensory conflict task.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Postural control in certain situations depends on functioning of tactile or proprioceptive receptors and their respective dynamic integration. Loss of sensory functioning can lead to increased risk of falls in challenging postural tasks, especially in older adults. Stochastic resonance, a concept describing better function of systems with addition of optimal levels of noise, has shown to be beneficial for balance performance in certain populations and simple postural tasks. In this study, we tested the effects of aging and a tactile stochastic resonance stimulus (TSRS) on balance of adults in a sensory conflict task. Nineteen older (71-84 years of age) and younger participants (22-29 years of age) stood on a force plate for repeated trials of 20 s duration, while foot sole stimulation was either turned on or off, and the visual surrounding was sway-referenced. Balance performance was evaluated by computing an Equilibrium Score (ES) and anterior-posterior sway path length (APPlength). For postural control evaluation, strategy scores and approximate entropy (ApEn) were computed. Repeated-measures ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were conducted for statistical analysis. Our results showed that balance performance differed between older and younger adults as indicated by ES (p = 0.01) and APPlength (0.01), and addition of vibration only improved performance in the older group significantly (p = 0.012). Strategy scores differed between both age groups, whereas vibration only affected the older group (p = 0.025). Our results indicate that aging affects specific postural outcomes and that TSRS is beneficial for older adults in a visual sensory conflict task, but more research is needed to investigate the effectiveness in individuals with more severe balance problems, for example, due to neuropathy. PMID:25884289

  20. Dietary and Other Risk Factors in The Aetiology of Cholelithiasis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Daras, V.; Linos, D. A.; Kekis, V.; Tsoukas, M. M.; Golematis, V.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect of dietary factors and a variety of other risk factors on the development of cholelithiasis through a case control study. The study involved 96 cases and 118 age and sex matched controls. All cases and controls were interviewed with regard to a variety of risk factors and frequency of consumption of over 100 food items. Analysis was done both by chi square and a multiple logistic regression model. From all the dietry factors the only ones that showed a positive statistically signficantly (p<0.05) association was consumption of animal fat as expressed by eating all visible fat on the meat and using butter on the table. Interestingly high consumption of olive oil had a negative (protective) association with the disease. A negative association was also found with smoking and holding a job demanding hard labor. PMID:2487388

  1. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  2. Mitochondrial haplogroups and control region polymorphisms in Kaposi's sarcoma patients.

    PubMed

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Safaie-Naraghi, Zahra; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Nesheli, Asgar Baghernejad; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2015-09-01

    Inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production have recently considered as key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Since mitochondria are the major source of ROS production, this organelle may play a main role in KS development. However, there are no studies on mtDNA variations and haplogroups in this area. The focus of this study was to investigate the mtDNA variants and haplogroups in KS patients and their relationship to tumor development. To address this, we have genotyped mtDNA in 45 Iranian KS patients and 48 age and sex-matched Iranian controls. A strong positive correlation was observed between UK cluster and decreased risk of KS. Our results suggest that the UK cluster might be a protective haplogroup for KS development. It is probably superhaplogroup UK, with lower ATP and ROS production, may prevent KSHV reactivation from latent to lytic phase that is essential for KS development. PMID:25879916

  3. Environmental Illness: A controlled study of 26 subjects with 20th Century Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.W.; Rathe, A.; Goldstein, R.B. )

    1990-12-26

    Environmental illness is a polysymptomatic disorder believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation brought on by common foods and chemicals. The authors systematically evaluated 26 subjects who had been assigned a diagnosis of environmental illness. The subjects indicated a strong interest in their diagnosis, were generally satisfied with their clinical ecologist, and were dissatisfied with traditional medical approaches. Subjects reported varying treatments, including dietary restrictions, avoidance of offending agents, and physical treatments. Using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, they found that 15 (65%) of 23 subjects met criteria for a current or past mood, anxiety, or somatoform disorder compared with 13 (28%) of 46 age- and sex-matched community controls. They conclude that patients receiving this diagnosis may have one or more commonly recognized psychiatric disorders that could explain some or all of their symptoms.

  4. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  5. A Comparison of Measures of Endothelial Function in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Age and Gender Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Richard B.; Vun, Simon V.; Spark, J. Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study compared flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and serum nitric oxide (NO) measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) against age/gender matched controls. 25 patients (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) with established PAD and an age/gender matched group of 25 healthy controls (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) were studied. Endothelial function was measured using the % FMD, reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using PAT and serum NO (μmol). Difference for each method between PAD and control patients and correlation between the methods were investigated. FMD and RHI were lower in patients with PAD (median FMD for PAD = 2.16% versus control = 3.77%, p = 0.034 and median RHI in PAD = 1.64 versus control = 1.92, p = 0.005). NO levels were not significantly different between the groups (PAD median = 7.70 μmol, control median = 13.05 μmol, p = 0.662). These results were obtained in elderly patients and cannot be extrapolated to younger individuals. FMD and PAT both demonstrated a lower hyperaemic response in patients with PAD; however, FMD results in PAD patients were unequivocally reduced whereas half the PAD patients had RHI values above the established threshold for endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that FMD is a more appropriate method for the measurement of NO-mediated endothelial function. PMID:26942010

  6. Controls on the Flux, Age, and Composition of Terrestrial Organic Carbon Exported by Rivers to the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy; Holmes, Robert; Soule, Adam; Goetz, Scott; Laporte, Nadine; Wollheim, Wilfred

    2010-05-01

    Export of organic carbon, alkalinity and silicate-derived Ca and Mg ions to the ocean exerts critical controls on the sequestration of atmospheric carbon. As this export is mediated to a significant extent by river systems, understanding processes that control transport of land-derived matter to the coastal ocean is of fundamental importance to successful models of past and future climates. Scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Woods Hole Research Center and the University of New Hampshire have formed a river research consortium that aims at investigating large river systems with a holistic approach. The National Science Foundation is funding this initiative through its Emerging Topics in Biogeochemical Cycles (ETBC) program. Our project focuses on the biogeochemistries of the Lena and Kolyma rivers in the Russian Arctic, the Yangtze river in China, the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in India and Bangladesh, the Congo river in central Africa as well as the Fraser river basin in western Canada. Campaign-style sampling using a uniform sampling strategy is complemented by time-series sampling that is accomplished through collaborations with scientists at local institutions such as the East China Normal University in Shanghai (Yangtze), the University of the Fraser Valley in Abbotsford (Fraser), schools and research institutions in eastern Russia (Lena and Kolyma) and the University of Nancy, France (Ganges, Brahmaputra). We combine a standardized sampling approach for organic and inorganic constituents with spatial analyzes of digital, mostly satellite-based data products with the aim of obtaining an integrated understanding of the response of river ecosystems to past, ongoing and future environmental changes. We will present first results with a special emphasis on the age of terrestrial organic carbon exported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system.

  7. Controls on the Flux, Age, and Composition of Terrestrial Organic Carbon Exported by Rivers to the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Holmes, R. M.; Galy, V.; Soule, S.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    Export of organic carbon, alkalinity and silicate-derived Ca and Mg ions to the ocean exerts important controls on the sequestration of atmospheric carbon. As this export is mediated to a significant extent by river systems, understanding processes that control transport of land-derived matter to the coastal ocean is of fundamental importance to successful models of past and future climates. Scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Woods Hole Research Center and the University of New Hampshire have formed a river research consortium that aims at investigating large river systems with a holistic approach. The National Science Foundation is funding this initiative through its Emerging Topics in Biogeochemical Cycles (ETBC) program. Our project focuses on the biogeochemistries of the Lena and Kolyma rivers in the Russian Arctic, the Yangtze river in China, the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in India and Bangladesh, the Congo river in central Africa as well as the Fraser river basin in western Canada. Campaign-style sampling using a uniform sampling strategy is complemented by time-series sampling that is accomplished through collaborations with scientists at local institutions such as the East China Normal University in Shanghai (Yangtze), the University of the Fraser Valley in Abbotsford (Fraser), schools and research institutions in eastern Russia (Lena and Kolyma) and the University of Nancy, France (Ganges, Brahmaputra). We combine a standardized sampling approach for organic and inorganic constituents with spatial analyzes of digital, mostly satellite-based data products with the aim of obtaining an integrated understanding of the response of river ecosystems to past, ongoing and future environmental changes. We will present first results from the Ganges-Brahmaputra, Kolyma as well as the Fraser River systems.

  8. Effects of age and controlled oral dosing of Enterococcus faecium on epithelial properties in the piglet small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lodemann, U; Dillenseger, A; Aschenbach, J R; Martens, H

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is a licensed probiotic for piglets that has been shown to positively affect diarrhoea incidence and to act on transport properties and immunological parameters in the porcine intestine. The aim of the present study was to examine its effects on jejunal absorptive and secretory capacities around weaning. Furthermore, the possible involvement of heat shock proteins in the effects of probiotics on epithelial functions was investigated. A significant part of the probiotic was dosed orally to reduce the variability of intake of the probiotic. The piglets were randomly assigned to a control and a probiotic feeding group, the latter receiving 4.5×109 cfu/day of E. faecium directly into the mouth for 34 days starting after birth. Additionally, their feed was supplemented with the probiotic strain. Piglets were weaned at day 29 after birth. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with the mid-jejunum of piglets aged 14, 28, 31, 35 and 56 days. Changes in short-circuit current (ΔIsc) were measured after stimulation of Na+-coupled absorption with L-glutamine or glucose or with the secretagogue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The mRNA expression for SGLT1, CFTR and various heat shock proteins was determined. The transport properties changed significantly with age. The glucose-, L-glutamine- and PGE2-induced changes in Isc were highest at day 31 after birth. No significant differences between the feeding groups were observed. The mRNA of HSP60, HSC70, HSP70 and HSP90 was expressed in the jejunal tissues. The mRNA expression of HSC70 was higher and that of HSP60 was lower in the probiotic group. HSC70 expression increased with age. In conclusion, whereas age effects were observed on absorptive and secretory functions, controlled E. faecium dosing had no measurable effects on these functional parameters in this experimental setup. The possible role of heat shock proteins should be further evaluated. PMID:24311317

  9. Climate control on soil age and weathering thresholds in young, post-glacial soils of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. L.; Chadwick, O.; Vitousek, P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is often invoked as a major driver of soil and landscape evolution. But a coherent story has failed to emerge for how climate controls soil properties and weathering rates - partially due to competing influences of mineral residence times and supply rates in eroding landscapes. Here, we combine insights and methods across the related fields of geomorphology, soil science and geochemistry, to explore weathering thresholds in non-eroding, young soils along a strong precipitation gradient (400-4000 mm/yr) in the South Island of New Zealand. We studied ~30 soil profiles developed in thin (~1m) loess deposits that mantle LGM and post LGM moraines and outwash in the Waitaki catchment, extending from Lake Benmore to just below the Tasman glacier in the north. We find repeated thresholds (sharp, non-linear transitions) in soil chemistry, including exchangeable cations, pH and total elemental abundances. Abundance of pedogenic iron and aluminum increase with precipitation, stabilizing at ~2000 mm/yr. Plant-available phosphorous and exchangeable Ca and Mg are rapidly depleted as precipitation exceeds 1000 mm/yr. However total elemental abundances show up to 50% of major cations are retained at wetter sites, likely in less labile minerals. Preliminary numerical modeling of cation weathering kinetics provides some support for this interpretation. Together our data identify nonlinear changes in weathering intensity with rainfall, and show clear climate control on relatively young, post-glacial soil development. Additionally, we measured profiles and inventories of meteoric 10Be to quantify soil residence times across the climate gradient. This nuclide is cosmogenically produced in the atmosphere and binds strongly to reactive surfaces in soil following fallout. Exchangeable beryllium does not decrease with rainfall, despite decreasing pH along the climate gradient. Therefore we are confident that nuclide concentrations do not reflect leaching. Instead, these

  10. The association between obesity and acute myocardial infarction is age- and gender-dependent in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Goto, Masayuki; Matsushita, Hirooki; Takarada, Ken; Tomita, Makoto; Saito, Atsushi; Fuse, Koichi; Fujita, Satoru; Ikeda, Yoshio; Kitazawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Minoru; Sato, Masahito; Okabe, Masaaki; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2013-09-01

    Controversies concerning the association between obesity and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are still ongoing in Japan. We investigated the association between obesity defined by body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher and AMI by a case-control study using data from 1199 AMI cases and 4056 apparently healthy controls. The analysis was performed in age- and sex-matched samples of 621 case-control pairs younger than 80 years and in crude samples aged 40-79 years divided into 10-year age groups. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, current smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were compared between cases and controls, and a multivariable odds ratio (OR) of AMI was calculated for each risk factor in various age groups. The OR (95 % confidence interval (CI)) of AMI for obesity was 1.63 (1.23-2.17), P = 0.0008 in men younger than 80 years; 2.65 (1.41-5.00), P = 0.0025 in women younger than 80 years; 2.23 (1.46-3.41), P = 0.0002 in men aged 59 years or younger; 1.34 (0.90-2.01), P = 0.1510 in men aged 60-79 years; and 2.98 (1.56-5.71), P = 0.0010 in women aged 60-79 years using paired samples. The OR (95 % CI) of AMI for obesity was 4.92 (2.53-9.58), P < 0.0001 in men aged 40-49 years; 1.54 (1.07-2.21), P = 0.0197 in men aged 50-59 years; 1.07 (0.69-1.66), P = 0.7717 in men aged 60-69 years; 2.24 (1.20-4.20), P = 0.0118 in men aged 70-79 years; 2.48 (1.12-5.48), P = 0.0245 in women aged 60-69 years; and 3.05 (1.46-6.37), P = 0.0029 in women aged 70-79 years using crude samples. The association between obesity and AMI was age- and gender-dependent in a Japanese population. PMID:22975714

  11. Modification of breast cancer risk according to age and menopausal status: A combined analysis of five population-based case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Nelson, Heidi D.; Titus, Linda J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Remington, Patrick L.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While several risk factors for breast cancer have been identified, studies have not consistently shown whether these factors operate more strongly at certain ages or for just pre- or postmenopausal women. We evaluated whether risk factors for breast cancer differ according to age or menopausal status. Methods Data from five population-based case-control studies conducted during 1988-2008 were combined and analyzed. Cases (N=23,959) and population controls (N=28,304) completed telephone interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and tests for interaction by age and menopausal status. Results Odds ratios for first-degree family history of breast cancer were strongest for younger women—reaching two-fold elevations—but were still statistically significantly elevated by 58-69% among older women. Obesity was inversely associated with breast cancer among younger women and positively associated with risk for older women (interaction P<0.0001). Recent alcohol intake was more strongly related to breast cancer risk among older women, although consumption of 3 or more drinks/day among younger women also was associated with elevated odd ratios (P<0.0001). Associations with benign breast disease and most reproductive/menstrual factors did not vary by age. Repeating analysis stratifying by menopausal status produced similar results. Conclusions With few exceptions, menstrual and lifestyle factors are associated with breast cancer risk regardless of age or menopausal status. Variation in the association of family history, obesity, and alcohol use with breast cancer risk by age and menopausal status may need to be considered when determining individual risk for breast cancer. PMID:24647890

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleh Bandi, Mir Farhad; Naserbakht, Morteza; Tabasi, Abdolreza; Marghaiezadeh, Azin; Riazee Esfahani, Mohammad; Golzarian, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep apnea is temporary cessation or absence of breathing during sleep. Significant increase in blood pressure is clinically seen in apneic episodes. The aim of this study was to examine sleep apnea syndrome as a risk factor for non- arthritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in a case control study. Methods: Nineteen NAION patients (9 men and 10 women) and 31 age and sex matched control participants (18 men and 13 women) were evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Full night polysomnography was performed and proportion of OSAS was compared between the NAION patients and the control group. Other risk factors for NAION such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease and tobacco consumption were also evaluated. Chi square test and independent samples t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: OF the 19 NAION patients, 18 (95%) had OSAS, and of the control group 13 (41.9%) had OSAS. The frequency of OSAS was significantly higher among NAION patients compared to the controls (p< 0.001). The Mean Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) was 37.65/h SD= 37.61/h in NAION patients and it was 15.05/h SD= 11.97/h (p= 0.018) in controls. The frequency of diabetes and hypertension was significantly higher in the NAION patients than in controls. Conclusion: based on the results of this study, it seems that there is an association between NAION and OSAS. PMID:26913263

  13. A community-wide campaign to promote physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-wide campaign (CWC) for promoting physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a community as the unit of randomization was performed using a population-based random-sampled evaluation by self-administered questionnaires in the city of Unnan, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The evaluation sample included 6000 residents aged 40 to 79 years. We randomly allocated nine communities to the intervention group and three to the control group. The intervention was a CWC from 2009 to 2010 to promote physical activity, and it comprised information, education, and support delivery. The primary outcome was a change in engaging in regular aerobic, flexibility, and/or muscle-strengthening activities evaluated at the individual level. Results In total, 4414 residents aged 40–79 years responded to a self-administered questionnaire (73.6% response rate). Awareness of the CWC was 79% in the intervention group. Awareness and knowledge were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although there were no significant differences in belief and intention. The 1-year CWC did not significantly promote the recommended level of physical activity (adjusted odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.14). Conclusions This cluster RCT showed that the CWC did not promote physical activity in 1 year. Significant differences were observed in awareness and knowledge between intervention and control groups as short-term impacts of the campaign. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002683 PMID:23570536

  14. Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

  15. Effects of music videos on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chang, En-Ting; Li, Yin-Ming; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Lee, Li-Hua; Wang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Listening to soothing music has been used as a complementary therapy to improve sleep quality. However, there is no empirical evidence for the effects of music videos (MVs) on sleep quality in adults with insomnia as assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In this randomized crossover controlled trial, we compared the effects of a peaceful Buddhist MV intervention to a usual-care control condition before bedtime on subjective and objective sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia. The study was conducted in a hospital's sleep laboratory. We randomly assigned 38 subjects, aged 50-75 years, to an MV/usual-care sequence or a usual-care/MV sequence. After pretest data collection, testing was held on two consecutive nights, with subjects participating in one condition each night according to their assigned sequence. Each intervention lasted 30 min. Sleep was assessed using PSG and self-report questionnaires. After controlling for baseline data, sleep-onset latency was significantly shorter by approximately 2 min in the MV condition than in the usual-care condition (p = .002). The MV intervention had no significant effects relative to the usual care on any other sleep parameters assessed by PSG or self-reported sleep quality. These results suggest that an MV intervention may be effective in promoting sleep. However, the effectiveness of a Buddhist MV on sleep needs further study to develop a culturally specific insomnia intervention. Our findings also suggest that an MV intervention can serve as another option for health care providers to improve sleep onset in people with insomnia. PMID:25237150

  16. Rapid eye movements, muscle twitches and sawtooth waves in the sleep of narcoleptic patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Geisler, P; Meier-Ewert, K; Matsubayshi, K

    1987-12-01

    Seventeen unmedicated patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy and 17 age- and sex-matched controls were recorded polygraphically for 3 consecutive nights. Rapid eye movements (REMs), m. mentalis twitches and sawtooth waves in the EEG were visually scored. REM and twitch densities during REM sleep were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. The distribution pattern of REMs and twitches was altered in the patients: twitch density peaked in the first REM period and density of REMs showed an even distribution across all the REM periods of the night. In the controls both REM and twitch density increased from the first to the second REM period. We therefore assume that in the narcoleptics phasic activity of REM sleep is disinhibited. Densities of REMs, twitches and sawtooth waves did not correlate with one another in patients and controls. They appear to be independently regulated. The REM periods of the patients contained 3 times as many waking epochs as those of the controls. This suggests that in narcolepsy the transition REM/waking is selectively facilitated. The REM/NREM ratio of twitch and sawtooth wave densities was the same in patients and controls. PMID:2445541

  17. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, aging, and apolipoprotein E genotype in cognitively normal persons

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Lundt, Emily S.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lowe, Val J.; Kantarci, Kejal; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to examine associations between glucose metabolism, as measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), and age and to evaluate the impact of carriage of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on glucose metabolism and on the associations between glucose metabolism and age. We studied 806 cognitively normal (CN) and 70 amyloid-imaging-positive cognitively impaired participants (35 with mild cognitive impairment and 35 with Alzheimer’s disease [AD] dementia) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, Mayo Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and an ancillary study who had undergone structural MRI, FDG PET, and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. Using partial volume corrected and uncorrected FDG PET glucose uptake ratios, we evaluated associations of regional FDG ratios with age and carriage of an APOE ε4 allele in CN participants between the ages of 30 and 95 years, and compared those findings with the cognitively impaired participants. In region-of-interest (ROI) analyses, we found modest but statistically significant declines in FDG ratio in most cortical and subcortical regions as a function of age. We also found a main effect of APOE ε4 genotype on FDG ratio, with greater uptake in ε4 noncarriers compared with carriers but only in the posterior cingulate and/or precuneus, lateral parietal, and AD-signature meta-ROI. The latter consisted of voxels from posterior cingulate and/or precuneus, lateral parietal, and inferior temporal. In age- and sex-matched CN participants the magnitude of the difference in partial volume corrected FDG ratio in the AD-signature meta-ROI for APOE ε4 carriers compared with noncarriers was about 4 times smaller than the magnitude of the difference between age- and sex-matched elderly APOE ε4 carrier CN compared with AD dementia participants. In an analysis in participants older than 70 years (31.3% of whom had elevated PiB), there was no interaction between PiB status and APOE ε4 genotype

  18. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  19. Tooth Size in Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypodontia and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare tooth size between subjects with mild, moderate and severe hypodontia and a control group. Material and Methods: The study comprised 120 patients with hypodontia divided into three groups of 40 mild (≤2 teeth congenitally missing), 40 moderate (3-5 teeth congenitally missing) and 40 severe (≥6 teeth congenitally missing) hypodontia; and 40 age and sex matched controls. Tooth size was recorded by measuring the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of all fully erupted teeth on study models using digital callipers and compared between all hypodontia and control groups using Two-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tests of subgroup comparison. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed patients with hypodontia had significantly smaller mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions compared with controls (p<0.05). Furthermore patients with more severe hypodontia demonstrated significantly smaller tooth dimensions than those in the mild and moderate hypodontia subgroups (p<0.05). The most affected tooth in terms of tooth size reduction was the maxillary lateral incisor and the least affected tooth was the mandibular first molar. Conclusion: Patients with hypodontia have smaller tooth dimensions than control. Tooth size appears to be affected by the degree of hypodontia, with severe hypodontia having a greater effect on tooth size reduction. The findings of this study may contribute to understanding the aetiology of hypodontia and aid the multidisciplinary management of this complex condition. PMID:27583048

  20. Erythrocyte lithium efflux in bipolar patients and control subjects: the question of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Werstiuk, E S; Rathbone, M P; Grof, P

    1984-10-01

    The reproducibility of in vitro erythrocyte lithium efflux and lithium efflux in the presence of selected membrane transport inhibitors (phloretin, ouabain, 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulphonic acid stilbene, and p-chloromercury-benzene sulphonate) was investigated in bipolar patients and age- and sex-matched control subjects. Efflux experiments were repeated three times in each patient-control pair within a period of 14 days. No differences were detected between patients and control subjects in any of the parameters measured. All components of lithium efflux showed wide day-to-day variation in the same subject in both patients and control subjects. Intersubject variability, however, was significantly greater than intrasubject variation. Since intraindividual variation of phloretin-inhibited lithium efflux was found to be considerable, and no real patient-control differences could be detected, the significance of this in vitro parameter in bipolar affective illness seems somewhat questionable and should be carefully reconsidered. The relevance of these findings to the putative cell membrane dysfunction in this disease is discussed. PMID:6097931

  1. Comparison of Acoustic and Stroboscopic Findings and Voice Handicap Index between Allergic Rhinitis Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Eltaf Ayça Özbal; Koç, Bülent; Erbek, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In our experience Allergic Rhinitis (AR) patients suffer from voice problems more than health subjects. Aims: To investigate the acoustic analysis of voice, stroscopic findings of larynx and Voice Handicap Index scores in allergic rhinitis patients compared with healthy controls. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty adult patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without allergy. All assessments were performed in the speech physiology laboratory and the testing sequence was as follows: 1. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire, 2. Laryngovideostroboscopy, 3. Acoustic analyses. Results: No difference was observed between the allergic rhinitis and control groups regarding mean Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) values, Fo values, and stroboscopic assessment (p>0.05). On the other hand, mean VHI score (p=0.001) and s/z ratio (p=0.011) were significantly higher in the allergic rhinitis group than in controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of allergies could have effects on laryngeal dysfunction and voice-related quality of life. PMID:25667789

  2. Morphometric changes in the reward system of Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Clelia; Niccolini, Flavia; Wu, Kit; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Lawrence, Andrew D; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola; Politis, Marios

    2015-12-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) occur in a subset of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are receiving dopamine replacement therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate structural abnormalities within the mesocortical and limbic cortices and subcortical structures in PD patients with ICDs. We studied 18 PD patients with ICDs, 18 PD patients without ICDs and a group of 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Cortical thickness (CTh) and subcortical nuclei volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.3.0). We found significant differences in MRI measures between the three groups. There was volume loss in the nucleus accumbens of both PD patients with ICDs and without ICDs compared to the control group. In addition, PD patients with ICDs showed significant atrophy in caudate, hippocampus and amygdala compared to the group of healthy controls. PD patients with ICDs had significant increased cortical thickness in rostral anterior cingulate cortex and frontal pole compared to PD patients without ICDs. Cortical thickness in rostral anterior cingulate and frontal pole was increased in PD patients with ICDs compared to the control group, but the differences failed to reach corrected levels of statistical significance. PD patients with ICDs showed increased cortical thickness in medial prefrontal regions. We speculate that these findings reflect either a pre-existing neural trait vulnerability to impulsivity or the expression of a maladaptive synaptic plasticity under non-physiological dopaminergic stimulation. PMID:26410743

  3. Do Age and Weight Bearing Films Affect Lateral Joint Space and Fibular Height Measurements in Patients with Discoid Lateral Meniscus?

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Krochak, Ryan; Duarte, Andrew J.; Marchese, Joseph; Pace, James Lee; Broom, Alexander M.; Solomito, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Several radiographic parameters have been associated with discoid lateral meniscus. We sought to determine the effect of age and weight bearing (WB) on radiographic parameters associated with lateral discoid menisci in pediatric patients. Methods: Radiographs of patients with arthroscopically confirmed lateral discoid meniscus were compared to age, side, sex matched individuals with confirmed normal menisci. The radiographs were measured by a pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine attending and two orthopaedic residents for the following parameters: lateral joint space width (LJSW), fibular head height (FHH), width of the distal femur (WDF), tibial spine height (TSH), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (CLTP), and obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (OLTP). The results of this review focus on FHH and LJSW only. Results: 68 knees with discoid lateral menisci with a mean age of 11.6 ± 3.3 (15 WB films) were compared to 67 control knees with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.2 (15 WB films). Results indicated that there were significant differences between the discoid and control groups when comparing LJSW (8.7 ± 2.2 mm discoid compared to 7.6 ± 2.1 mm control p=0.002) and FHH (13.5 ± 4.5 mm discoid compared to 18.6 ± 3.9 mm control p<0.001). Inter-rater reliability was satisfactory for LJSW and FHH (ICC 0.635 and 0.759 respectively). WB films were noted to have better inter-rater reliability compared to NWB films for LJSW (ICC 0.729 vs 0.514 respectively) but reduced inter-rater reliability for FHH (ICC 0.625 vs 0.868 respectively). Subgroup analysis based on age was also done comparing patients under 10 years old, patients between 10-14 years old, and patients over 14 years old. The FHH measurement was significantly decreased (indicative of a high fibular head) in the discoid group in all age groups. However, LJSW was only noted to be significantly different in patients over the age of 14. Conclusion: Increased lateral joint space width and a high

  4. The – 148 C/T fibrinogen gene polymorphism and fibrinogen levels in ischaemic stroke: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    van Goor, M P J; Gomez-Garcia, E; Leebeek, F; Brouwers, G; Koudstaal, P; Dippel, D

    2005-01-01

    Design: A case–control study of patients with first ever ischaemic stroke, confirmed by computed tomography. Methods: Venous blood samples were collected for fibrinogen and routine coagulation tests one week after the stroke, and after three months in about half the patients. Population controls were age and sex matched. –148 C/T fibrinogen polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by digestion with restriction enzymes HindIII/AluI. Results: There were 124 patients and 125 controls, mean age 56 years (range 18 to 75); 34 patients (27%) and 41 controls (33%) were heterozygous for –148 C/T fibrinogen polymorphism; six patients (5%) and five controls (4%) had the T/T genotype. The odds ratio of ischaemic stroke associated with CC homozygotes v T carriers was 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.4). Relative risk for ischaemic stroke associated with fibrinogen levels in the highest quartile was 3.9 (1.9 to 8.4) at one week, decreasing to 1.4 (0.6 to 3.3) at three months. Conclusions: –148 C/T fibrinogen gene polymorphism was not a strong risk factor for ischaemic stroke. High fibrinogen levels early after acute stroke probably represent an acute phase response. PMID:15608011

  5. A controlled study of a simulated workplace laboratory for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fried, Ronna; Surman, Craig; Hammerness, Paul; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen; Hyder, Laran; Westerberg, Diana; Small, Jacqueline; Corkum, Lyndsey; Claudat, Kim; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-12-30

    Despite an extant literature documenting that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for significant difficulties in the workplace, there is little documentation of the underlying factors associated with these impairments. The main aim of this study was to examine specific deficiencies associated with ADHD on workplace performance in a simulated workplace laboratory relative to controls. Participants were 56 non-medicated young adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 63 age- and sex-matched controls without ADHD. Participants spent 10h in a workplace simulation laboratory. Areas assessed included: (1) simulated tasks documented in a government report (SCANS) often required in workplace settings (taxing vigilance; planning; cooperation; attention to detail), (2) observer ratings, and (3) self-reports. Robust findings were found in the statistically significant differences on self-report of ADHD symptoms found between participants with ADHD and controls during all workplace tasks and periods of the workday. Task performance was found to be deficient in a small number of areas, and there were a few statistically significant differences identified by observer ratings. Symptoms reported by participants with ADHD in the simulation including internal restlessness, intolerance of boredom and difficulty maintaining vigilance were significant and could adversely impact workplace performance over the long-term. PMID:22608823

  6. A controlled study of a simulated workplace laboratory for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Ronna; Surman, Craig; Hammerness, Paul; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen; Hyder, Laran; Westerberg, Diana; Small, Jacqueline; Corkum, Lyndsey; Claudat, Kim; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Despite an extant literature documenting that adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for significant difficulties in the workplace, there is little documentation of the underlying factors associated with these impairments. The main aim of this study was to examine specific deficiencies associated with ADHD on workplace performance in a simulated workplace laboratory relative to controls. Participants were 56 non-medicated young adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 63 age and sex matched controls without ADHD. Participants spent 10 hours in a workplace simulation laboratory. Areas assessed included: 1) simulated tasks documented in a government report (SCANS) often required in workplace settings (taxing vigilance; planning; cooperation; attention to detail), 2)observer ratings, and 3)self-reports. Robust findings were found in the statistically significant differences on self-report of ADHD symptoms found between participants with ADHD and controls during all workplace tasks and periods of the workday. Task performance was found to be deficient in a small number of areas and there were few statistically significant differences identified by observer ratings. Symptoms reported by participants with ADHD in the simulation including internal restlessness, intolerance of boredom and difficulty maintaining vigilance were significant and could adversely impact workplace performance over the long-term. PMID:22608823

  7. Predictors of unsuccessful magnetic resonance imaging scanning in older generalized anxiety disorder patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Mohlman, Jan; Eldreth, Dana A; Price, Rebecca B; Chazin, Daniel; Glover, Dorie A

    2012-02-01

    A thorough understanding of the neurobiology of late life anxiety is likely to depend on the use of brain imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in older adults, and is thus a focus for neurobiological studies using MRI. This study tested 1-3 weeks predictors of unsuccessful scan outcomes (i.e., scan trials in which the participant moved excessively or prematurely terminated the scan) in older adults with GAD (n = 39) and age- and sex-matched nonanxious controls (n = 21). It was hypothesized that successful completion of a prior MRI scan, clinical status (GAD versus control), and scores on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Peterson et al. 1986), a measure tapping psychological aspects of medical interventions, would predict scan outcome when current diagnoses of claustrophobia were controlled. In logistic regression analyses, unsuccessful scan outcome was predicted by prior MRI completion and ASI Mental Concerns subscale scores, but not clinical status. This model correctly classified 91% of successful and 71% of unsuccessful scans. An alternative model that included a single ASI item rather than Mental Concerns subscale scores showed similar performance, and a model including categorical anxiety sensitivity groups was also effective but slightly less accurate. Implications for improving the success rates of MRI with older adults are discussed. PMID:21318410

  8. Age-Related Differences in Attentional Networks of Alerting and Executive Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan-shan; Fan, Jin; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Wang, Chang-qing; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that aging is associated with impairment of attention. However, it is not known whether this represents a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. We used the attention network test to examine three groups of younger, middle-aged, and older participants with respect to the efficiency of…

  9. Comparison of Creativity between Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Banafsheh; Khademi, Mojgan; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare creativity in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Method: This was an analytic and descriptive study. Participants were 33 children aged 7–12 years selected from a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic at Imam Hossein hospital (Tehran, Iran), who were diagnosed with ADHD by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. They met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and had no comorbidity according to K-SADS (Kiddi-Scadule for Affective disorders and Schizophrenia). They were requested not to take any medication. They took the Figural TTCT (Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking) and Raven Intelligence test after using medication. Thirty-three age and sex-matched children selected from the regional schools were recruited for the control group. They did not have any psychiatric disorders according to K-SADS. The Figural TTCT and Raven Intelligence test were conducted for the controls as well. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the intelligence score and the mean±SD of the total score of creativity between children with ADHD (125.2 ± 42.6) and the control group (130.6 ± 47.5) (P value = 0.49). Children with ADHD had worse function in fluency and flexibility items and were not different in originality and elaboration items. Conclusion: The creativity of children with ADHD is not different from that of the control group. PMID:27437006

  10. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  11. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  12. Characterization of trace organic compounds associated with aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in a controlled atmosphere—volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Jenkins, Roger A.

    In this study, a wide range of volatile organic constituents of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke (ADSS) were determined in a controlled atmosphere, where ADSS is the sole source of target compounds. The ADSS was generated in a 30 m 3 environmental test chamber using a variety of cigarettes, including the Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarette and eight commercial brands, and a total of 24 experimental runs were conducted. Target analytes were divided into three groups, i.e. vapor and particulate phase markers for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), volatile organic compounds (VOC) including carbonyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The VOC samples were collected on triple sorbent traps, and then analyzed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), while the carbonyl compounds were sampled on DNPH cartridges, being analyzed by HPLC. ETS particles in the chamber were collected by high volume sampling, and then used for the determination of PAHs by GC/MS. Among more than 30 target VOCs, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde. The results from the chamber study were further used to generate characterized ratios of selected VOCs to 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP), a vapor phase ETS marker. The ratios appeared to be in generally good agreement with published values in the literature. This suggests that the characteristic ratios may be useful for quantifying the impact of ETS on the VOC concentrations in 'real world' indoor environments, which are affected by a complex mixture of components from multiple sources. The yields of ETS markers from this study are all slightly lower than those estimated by other studies, while VOC yields are in reasonable agreement in many cases with values in the literature. Among 16 target PAHs, chrysene appeared to be most abundant, followed by benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The average contents of BaP and

  13. An exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Chiarelli, A M; Risch, H A; Choi, B C

    1989-08-01

    An exploratory case-control study of childhood brain tumors was conducted in southern Ontario between 1977 and 1983, on 74 cases and 138 age- and sex-matched population controls. A significantly elevated risk (perhaps due to early case symptoms) was seen for skull X-rays at least 5 years prior to diagnosis, and for head or neck injuries which required medical attention. However, no evidence of an increased risk appeared for exposure to sick pets or to pesticides, maternal or paternal history of smoking, and various birth characteristics or antenatal exposure of the child, though these have previously been reported to be associated with childhood brain tumors. With respect to the hypothesis that N-nitroso compounds may be involved in the etiology of childhood brain tumors, most exposures of this type were not associated with risk, though a significant positive association was seen for consumption of beer by the mother during pregnancy, and a significant negative association was seen with consumption of fruit juice by the child. Other findings in the present study include an association with developmental problems relating to height and weight and with certain socioeconomic characteristics of the mother. Further investigation of these results in future studies is warranted. PMID:2743324

  14. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL. PMID:26829393

  15. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in COPD: relationship with emphysema and chronic cor pulmonale: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand signal transduction receptor that can initiate and perpetuate inflammation. Its soluble isoform (sRAGE) acts as a decoy receptor for RAGE ligands, and is thought to afford protection against inflammation. With the present study, we aimed at determining whether circulating sRAGE is correlated with emphysema and chronic cor pulmonale in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods In 200 COPD patients and 201 age- and sex-matched controls, we measured lung function by spirometry, and sRAGE by ELISA method. We also measured the plasma levels of two RAGE ligands, N-epsilon-carboxymethyl lysine and S100A12, by ELISA method. In the COPD patients, we assessed the prevalence and severity of emphysema by computed tomography (CT), and the prevalence of chronic cor pulmonale by echocardiography. Multiple quantile regression was used to assess the effects of emphysema, chronic cor pulmonale, smoking history, and comorbid conditions on the three quartiles of sRAGE. Results sRAGE was significantly lower (p = 0.007) in COPD patients (median 652 pg/mL, interquartile range 484 to 1076 pg/mL) than in controls (median 869 pg/mL, interquartile range 601 to 1240 pg/mL), and was correlated with the severity of emphysema (p < 0.001), the lower the level of sRAGE the greater the degree of emphysema on CT. The relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for smoking history and comorbid conditions. In addition, sRAGE was significantly lower in COPD patients with chronic cor pulmonale than in those without (p = 0.002). Such difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for smoking history, comorbidities, and emphysema severity. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of the two RAGE ligands between cases and controls. Conclusions sRAGE is significantly lower in patients with COPD than in age- and sex-matched individuals without airflow obstruction

  16. High Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Ebrahim; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Seif-Rabiei, Mohammad-Ali; Samaei, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bordetella pertussis has been suggested to take part in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between B. pertussis and COPD. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-B. pertussis IgG and IgA by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history and spirometric findings for each patient. Results: Of 90 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 66 (51%) had mild, 31 (34.4%) had moderate, and 13 (14.4%) had severe disease. There was no significant association between B. pertussis IgA seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti- B. pertussis IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001). No association was observed between B. pertussis infection and severity of COPD. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is an association between B. pertussis infection and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:26858762

  17. [Analysis suspected allergic factors to shenqi fuzheng injection based on prescription sequence analysis and nested case control study].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Xian-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study based on twenty 3A grade hospital information system (HIS) database in China, adopt toprescription sequence analysis (PSA) with nested case control study (NCCS) to analysis mainly suspected allergy factor of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (Shenqi Fuzheng). Study design according to start to stop using Shenqi Fuzheng whether using dexamethasone injection will crowd divided into cases group and control group, each case matched 4 controls were selected, two groups according to the ratio of the age and sex matched well. Square test, Fisher exact test, single factor and multiple factor logistic regression were used to analyze data Condition on admission, allergic history, dosage and drug combinations were taken into account in cases of suspected allergic reactions. After analysis in two subgroups we found that the single dose (P = 0.000 2) and the combined use of matrine (P < 0.000 1, OR = 14.312, confidence interval [8.184, 25.029]) had significant effects on the suspected allergic reaction. Study on the existing HIS data and the study method based on screening suspected risk factors for allergic reaction. This study can provide guidance for Shenqi Fuzheng injection safety using in clinical practice, and it can also provides new method for the clinical safety reevaluation of post-marketing Chinese medicine injection. PMID:25532396

  18. Serum Micronutrient Status of Haart-Naïve, HIV Infected Children in South Western Nigeria: A Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyabolu, H. C.; Adejuyigbe, E. A.; Adeodu, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Though micronutrients are vital in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection, most studies have been conducted in adults. Knowledge of the status of key micronutrients in HIV infected African children will indicate if supplementation may be beneficial to these children living in this resource-poor region. Objectives. We sought to determine the micronutrient status and associated factors of HAART-naïve HIV infected children and compare them with those of the HIV negative controls. Methods. We enrolled 70 apparently stable HAART naïve HIV infected children. Seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were equally enrolled as the controls. Their social class, anthropometry, clinical stage, CD4 counts, serum zinc, selenium, and vitamin C were determined. Results. The prevalence of zinc, selenium, and vitamin C deficiency in HIV infected subjects was 77.1%, 71.4%, and 70.0%, respectively, as compared to 44.3%, 18.6%, and 15.7% in HIV negative controls. Among the HIV infected subjects, 58.6% were deficient in the three micronutrients. Micronutrient status was related to the weight, clinical, and immunological stages but not BMI or social class. Conclusion. Deficiency of these key micronutrients is widely prevalent in HAART naïve HIV infected children irrespective of social class. This suggests that supplementation trial studies may be indicated in this population. PMID:25180086

  19. Right Ventricular Sex Differences in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Characterised by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Pair-Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Andrew J.; Capener, Dave; Hammerton, Charlotte; Thomas, Steven M.; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M.; Kiely, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sex differences exist in both the prevalence and survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Men are less frequently affected by the condition but have worse outcome as compared to females. We sought to characterise the sex related differences in right ventricular remodelling in age matched male and female patients with IPAH using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A case controlled pair-matched study was conducted with patients matched by age and sex. Steady state free precession (SSFP) MRI of the heart was performed at 1.5T. Cardiac volume, function and mass measurements were corrected for age, sex and BSA according to reference data. Results 40 age and sex matched patients with IPAH were identified. The mean age was 57 (SD 17) in both male and female cohorts. Men had proportionally lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume and LV stroke volume than females, p=0.028, p=0.007 and p=0.013, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in RV mass or haemodynamic indices of mPAP and PVR between males and females. Conclusion Male patients with IPAH have proportionally worse RV function despite similar afterload. We hypothesise that adaptive remodelling of the RV in response to increased afterload in IPAH is more effective in females. PMID:25996939

  20. A single photon emission computed tomography scan study of striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding with 123I-epidepride in patients with schizophrenia and controls.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, P; Silverstone, P H; McEwan, A J; Scott, J; Joshua, A; Golberg, K

    1997-01-01

    The usefulness of 123I-epidepride as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan D2 receptor ligand was examined in vivo in 13 medicated patients with schizophrenia and age- and sex-matched normal controls. To establish the effect of endogenous dopamine on 123I-epidepride binding, 4 of the 13 controls also received 20 mg D-amphetamine. The results showed that 123I-epidepride had high specific binding to the striatum in both patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. There was a trend for the total striatal binding of medicated patients with schizophrenia, as measured by total basal ganglia: frontal cortex (TBG:FC) ratios, to be less than the binding of controls (P = 0.053). This trend confirms previous work showing that antipsychotic medication decreases the number of D2 receptors available for binding to the radioligand. Interestingly, there was also a significant relationship between 123I-epidepride binding ratios and global functioning scales (Global Assessment of Functioning scale [GAF]) for schizophrenia (r = 0.56, P = 0.045), although there was no such relationship with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). In addition, our results showed that amphetamine-induced dopamine release did not alter 123I-epidepride binding, confirming the high specific binding of 123I-epidepride to the D2 receptor. We conclude that 123I-epidepride appears to be a very useful SPECT ligand for imaging the D2 receptor. PMID:9002391

  1. Case-Control Study on the Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis as a Cause of Diarrhea among Children in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Dharanidharan; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Sarkar, Anirban; Nandy, Ranjan K.; Rajendran, Krishnan; Sur, Dipika; Manna, Bamkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2013-01-01

    A total of 874 fecal specimens (446 diarrheal cases and 428 controls) from diarrheal children admitted in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata and age and sex matched asymptomatic subjects from an urban community were assessed for the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF). Isolates of B. fragilis were tested for the presence of enterotoxin gene (bft) by PCR. The detection rate of ETBF was 7.2% (63 of 874 specimens) that prevailed equally in diarrheal cases and controls (7.2% each; 32 of 446 cases and 31 of 428 controls). Male children up to one year age group was significantly (p<0.05) associated with ETBF infection as compared to children > 2 years of age in cases and controls. In 25 ETBF isolates, the bft gene was genotyped using PCR-RFLP and only two alleles were identified with prevalence rate of 40% and 60% for bft-1 and bft-3, respectively. All the ETBF isolates were susceptible for chloramphenicol and imipenem but resistant to clindamycin (48%), moxifloxacin (44%) and metronidazole (32%). Resistance of ETBF to moxifloxacin (44%) and metronidazole is an emerging trend. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that majority of the ETBF isolates are genetically diverse. In the dendrogram analysis, two clusters were identified, one with ETBF resistant to 5–8 antimicrobials and the other cluster with metronidazole and moxifloxacin susceptible isolates from diarrheal cases. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on ETBF from India indicating its clinical importance and molecular characteristics. PMID:23577134

  2. Age and Scientific Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  3. Increased risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Weng, Wen-Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The association between epilepsy and Tourette syndrome has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed a dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome. The study cohort consisted of 1062 patients with Tourette syndrome aged ≤ 18 years, and the control group consisted of three times the number of age- and sex-matched patients without Tourette syndrome, who were insurants, from the same database during the same period. The Tourette syndrome group had an 18.38-fold increased risk of epilepsy than the control group [hazard ratio=18.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)=8.26-40.92; P<0.001]. Even after adjusting for the comorbidities, the risk of epilepsy in the Tourette syndrome group with comorbidities remained high (hazard ratio=16.27, 95% CI=6.26-18.46; P<0.001), indicating that the increased risk was not associated with comorbidities. This population-based retrospective cohort study provides the first and strong evidence that Tourette syndrome is associated with a higher risk of epilepsy. A close follow-up of children with Tourette syndrome for the development of epilepsy is warranted. PMID:26597416

  4. A case-control study of brain structure and behavioral characteristics in 47,XXX syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lenroot, R K; Blumenthal, J D; Wallace, G L; Clasen, L S; Lee, N R; Giedd, J N

    2014-11-01

    Trisomy X, the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX), is a relatively common but under-recognized chromosomal disorder associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioral features of varying severity. The objective of this study was to determine whether there were neuroanatomical differences in girls with Trisomy X that could relate to cognitive and behavioral differences characteristic of the disorder during childhood and adolescence. MRI scans were obtained on 35 girls with Trisomy X (mean age 11.4, SD 5.5) and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cognitive and behavioral testing was also performed. Trisomy X girls underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Regional brain volumes and cortical thickness were compared between the two groups. Total brain volume was significantly decreased in subjects with Trisomy X, as were all regional volumes with the exception of parietal gray matter. Differences in cortical thickness had a mixed pattern. The subjects with Trisomy X had thicker cortex in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right medial temporal lobe, but decreased cortical thickness in both lateral temporal lobes. The most common psychiatric disorders present in this sample of Trisomy X girls included anxiety disorders (40%), attention-deficit disorder (17%) and depressive disorders (11%). The most strongly affected brain regions are consistent with phenotypic characteristics such as language delay, poor executive function and heightened anxiety previously described in population-based studies of Trisomy X and also found in our sample. PMID:25287572

  5. A case-control study of brain structure and behavioral characteristics in 47,XXX Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Clasen, Liv S.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

    2014-01-01

    Trisomy X, the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX), is a relatively common but under-recognized chromosomal disorder associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioral features of varying severity. The objective of this study was to determine whether there were neuroanatomical differences in girls with Trisomy X that could relate to cognitive and behavioral differences characteristic of the disorder during childhood and adolescence. MRI scans were obtained on 35 girls with Trisomy X (mean age 11.4, s.d. 5.5) and 70 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Cognitive and behavioral testing was also performed. Trisomy X girls underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Regional brain volumes and cortical thickness were compared between the two groups. Total brain volume was significantly decreased in subjects with Trisomy X, as were all regional volumes with the exception of parietal gray matter. Differences in cortical thickness had a mixed pattern. The subjects with Trisomy X had thicker cortex in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right medial temporal lobe, but decreased cortical thickness in both lateral temporal lobes. The most common psychiatric disorders present in this sample of Trisomy X girls included anxiety disorders, (40%), Attention-Deficit Disorder (17%), and depressive disorders (11%). The most strongly affected brain regions are consistent with phenotypic characteristics such as language delay, poor executive function, and heightened anxiety previously described in population-based studies of Trisomy X and also found in our sample. PMID:25287572

  6. Different Types of Periampullary Duodenal Diverticula Are Associated with Occurrence and Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones: A Case-Control Study from a Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Bo, Wenhui; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We here investigated the association of different types of periampullary diverticula (PAD) with pancreaticobiliary disease and with technical success of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods. A total of 850 consecutive patients who underwent their first ERCP were entered into a database. Of these patients, 161 patients (18.9%) had PAD and the age- and sex-matched control group comprised 483 patients. Results. PAD was correlated with common bile duct (CBD) stones (59.6% versus 35.0% in controls; P = 0.008) and negatively correlated with periampullary malignancy (6.8% versus 21.5% in controls; P = 0.004). The acute pancreatitis was more frequent (62.5%) in patients with PAD type 1 followed by PAD type 2 (28.9%, P = 0.017) and type 3 (28.0%, P = 0.006). No significant differences were observed in successful cannulation rate and post-ERCP complications among the 3 types of PAD. Type 1 PAD patients had less recurrence of CBD stones than did the patients who had type 2 or type 3 PAD (53.8% versus 85.7%; P = 0.043). Conclusions. PAD, especially type 1 PAD, is associated with an increased acute pancreatitis as well as occurrence and recurrence of CBD stones. PAD during an ERCP should not be considered as an obstacle to a successful cannulation. PMID:27143965

  7. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Malondialdehyde as Potential Predictors of Vascular Risk Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Cross-Sectional Case Control Study in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Morsi, Heba Kamal; Ismail, Manar Mohammad; Gaber, Hassan Abdelaziz Hassan; Elbasmy, Amani Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malondialdehyde (MDA) has been implicated in the development of many acute inflammatory, autoimmune diseases as well as chronic inflammatory metabolic disorders. Involvement of inflammatory response and oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying development of diabetes and its complications. Objective. To evaluate the clinical utility of MDA, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C ratio as noninvasive laboratory markers for prediction of T2DM vascular complications. Method. 63 Saudi T2DM patients and 16 age and sex matched controls were included. Serum MDA and MIF were assayed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and ELISA, respectively. TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were calculated. Results. Uncontrolled DM patients had significantly higher levels of MDA, MIF, TG/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios when compared with controlled DM patients and control group (p < 0.001). MDA had 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. MIF showed 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity and LDL-C/HDL-C had 97% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Meanwhile, TG/HDL-C had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in identifying diabetic patients who would suffer from vascular complications. Conclusion. MDA, MIF, and LDL-C/HDL-C could be new predictors of metabolic disturbance which promote vascular complications in T2DM. PMID:27298517

  8. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  9. Investigating Inhibitory Control in Children with Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606

  10. Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Svensson, Peter

    2008-10-15

    Somatosensory function in patients with persistent idiopathic types of orofacial pain like atypical odontalgia (AO) is not well described. This study tested the hypothesis that AO patients have significantly more somatosensory abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-six AO patients and 35 controls participated. Inclusion criteria for AO were pain in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, persistent pain >6 months, and lack of clinical and radiological findings. The examination included qualitative tests and a battery of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST). Most AO patients (85%) had qualitative somatosensory abnormality compared with few controls (14%). The most common qualitative abnormalities in AO patients were found with pin-prick 67.4%, cold 47.8%, and touch 46.5% compared with 11.4%, 8.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, in the control group (P<0.001). Between-group differences were seen for many intraoral QST: mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold (pinprick), dynamic mechanical allodynia (brush), dynamic mechanical allodynia (vibration), wind-up ratio, and pressure pain threshold (P<0.01). In the trigeminal area, between-group differences in thermal thresholds were nonsignificant while differences in cold detection at the thenar eminence were significant. Individual somatosensory profiles revealed complex patterns with hyper- and hyposensitivity to intraoral QST. Between-group differences in pressure pain thresholds (P<0.02) were observed at the thenar eminence. In conclusion, significant abnormalities in intraoral somatosensory function were observed in AO, which may reflect peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal pathways. More generalized sensitization of the nociceptive system may also be part of AO pathophysiology. PMID:18571324

  11. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of classical cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in RA patients, and to evaluate the relationships between metabolic syndrome and RA. Methods The study was conducted on 120 RA patients according to the 1987 revised American College of Rheumatology classification criteria, and 100 age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was assessed using six Metabolic Syndrome definitions (Joint Consensus 2009, National Cholesterol Education Programme 2004 and 2001, International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organisation and European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance). Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of metabolic Syndrome. Results The frequency of metabolic syndrome varied from 18 to 48.6% in RA according to the definition used and was significantly higher than controls (for all definitions p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, higher ESR was independently associated with the presence of Met S (OR =1.36; CI: 1.18–2.12; p = 0.03). Glucocorticoid use, but not other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), values remained significant independent predictors of the presence of metabolic syndrome in RA patients (OR = 1.45; CI: 1.12–2.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions In summary, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in RA varies according to the definition used and was significantly higher compared to controls (for all definitions p<0.05). Higher systemic inflammatory marker, and glucocorticoids use were independent predictors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with RA. These findings suggest that physicians should screen for metabolic syndrome in patients with RA to control its components and therefore reduce the risk of

  12. Age and Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Genoa is a software product that predicts progressive aging and failure in a variety of materials. It is the result of a SBIR contract between the Glenn Research Center and Alpha Star Corporation. Genoa allows designers to determine if the materials they plan on applying to a structure are up to the task or if alternate materials should be considered. Genoa's two feature applications are its progressive failure simulations and its test verification. It allows for a reduction in inspection frequency, rapid design solutions, and manufacturing with low cost materials. It will benefit the aerospace, airline, and automotive industries, with future applications for other uses.

  13. Ageing and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, P; Joshua, Elizabeth; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Ageing processes are defined as those that increase the susceptibility of individuals, as they grow older, to the factors that eventually lead to death. It is a complex multi-factorial process, where several factors may interact simultaneously and may operate at many levels of functional organization. The heterogeneity of ageing phenotype among individuals of the same species and differences in longevity among species are due to the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors in shaping the life span. The various theories of ageing and their proposed roles are discussed in this review. PMID:21731262

  14. Aging and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Idar, D.J.; Buntain, G.A.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.

    1998-12-31

    Components made from PBX 9502, an insensitive high explosive formulated with triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F 800 binder, have been in service for nearly two decades. Since that time, samples have been destructively evaluated to determine if potential changes that might affect safety, reliability, or performance have occurred in the high explosive with time. Data from routine, historical testing is reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on specific tests conducted to evaluate the effects of natural aging on handling sensitivity (through the small-scale tests of Human Electrostatic Discharge, friction, and Drop Weight Impact), compressive strength, and thermal ignition. Also reported are the effects of a radiation environment on TATB. Small-scale sensitivity tests show no differences between aged and unaged material. Observed differences in compressive strength behavior are attributed to conditions of original material rather than aging effects. Thermal ignition by flame and laser methods showed no changes between aged and unaged material. Extreme levels of radiation are shown to have only minimal effects in explosive response tests. PBX 9502 is concluded, once again, to be a very stable material, aging gracefully.

  15. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  16. Case-Control Study of Posttreatment Regression of Urinary Tract Morbidity Among Adults in Schistosoma haematobium-Endemic Communities in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Magak, Philip; Chang-Cojulun, Alicia; Kadzo, Hilda; Ireri, Edmund; Muchiri, Eric; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H

    2015-08-01

    Previous population-based studies have examined treatment impact on Schistosoma-associated urinary tract disease among children, but much less is known about longer-term treatment benefits for affected adult populations in areas where risk of recurrent infection is high. In communities in Msambweni, along the Kenya coast, we identified, using a portable ultrasound, 77 adults (aged 17-85) with moderate-to-severe obstructive uropathy or bladder disease due to Schistosoma haematobium. Treatment response was assessed by repeat ultrasound 1-2 years after praziquantel (PZQ) therapy and compared with interval changes among age- and sex-matched infected/treated control subjects who did not have urinary tract abnormalities at the time of initial examination. Of the 77 affected adults, 62 (81%) had improvement in bladder and/or kidney scores after treatment, 14 (18%) had no change, and one (1.3%) had progression of disease. Of the 77 controls, 75 (97%) remained disease free by ultrasound, while two (3%) had apparent progression with abnormal findings on follow-up examination. We conclude that PZQ therapy for S. haematobium is effective in significantly reducing urinary tract morbidity from urogenital schistosomiasis among adult age groups, and affected adults stand to benefit from inclusion in mass treatment campaigns. PMID:26013375

  17. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Siamak; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes. Methods A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Results Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. Conclusion Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR. PMID:25995637

  18. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Muema, Daniel M; Macharia, Gladys N; Hassan, Amin S; Mwaringa, Shalton M; Fegan, Greg W; Berkley, James A; Nduati, Eunice W; Urban, Britta C

    2015-08-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. PMID:26116511

  19. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Muema, Daniel M.; Macharia, Gladys N.; Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Fegan, Greg W.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. PMID:26116511

  20. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:26895718

  1. Ageing and the brain.

    PubMed

    Peters, R

    2006-02-01

    Ageing causes changes to the brain size, vasculature, and cognition. The brain shrinks with increasing age and there are changes at all levels from molecules to morphology. Incidence of stroke, white matter lesions, and dementia also rise with age, as does level of memory impairment and there are changes in levels of neurotransmitters and hormones. Protective factors that reduce cardiovascular risk, namely regular exercise, a healthy diet, and low to moderate alcohol intake, seem to aid the ageing brain as does increased cognitive effort in the form of education or occupational attainment. A healthy life both physically and mentally may be the best defence against the changes of an ageing brain. Additional measures to prevent cardiovascular disease may also be important. PMID:16461469

  2. Long-term outcomes of major trauma without head injury in the West of Scotland: pilot case-control study.

    PubMed

    Graham, Colin A; Gordon, Malcolm W G; Roy, Christopher W; Hanlon, Philip W

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the outcomes of survivors of blunt major trauma (without head injury) 2 years or more following injury. The study uses a case-control design, is set in the West of Scotland and includes trauma patients treated in Greater Glasgow NHS Board hospitals. Participants consisted of patients who had sustained major trauma (injury severity score >15) with little or no head injury at least 2 years before assessment, identified from the Scottish Trauma Audit Group database, and age and sex-matched controls nominated by the index case's general practitioner. Nineteen cases and seven controls completed the study from 223 potential cases and 39 potential controls. Participants and non-participants had comparable injury severity score, probability of survival (Ps) and length of stay. American Medical Association impairment scores show survivors were more impaired than controls (25.9 vs 7.4%, P=0.043). No differences were observed in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) or Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores, although a type II error is possible. Short-form 36 (SF36) Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores of survivors showed no difference compared with controls although survivors' PCS scores were below UK and US means (P=0.008). SF36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of survivors were below those of controls (45.07 vs 56.65, P=0.004) and normal values of the UK population (P=0.036). No differences in work status were noted, but small sample sizes were used. Non-head-injured survivors of major trauma in the West of Scotland have poorer health status (SF36), physically and mentally, than the UK population. They have greater impairment, but have an employment status comparable to that of the controls. The lack of differences in FIM and CIQ scores between survivors and controls may be due to small sample sizes. PMID:17198324

  3. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  4. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    PubMed Central

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh I.S.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues. PMID:25909343

  5. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1998-01-01

    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  6. Oocyte ageing and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhao-Jia; Schatten, Heide; Zhang, Cui-Lian; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    It has become a current social trend for women to delay childbearing. However, the quality of oocytes from older females is compromised and the pregnancy rate of older women is lower. With the increased rate of delayed childbearing, it is becoming more and more crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying the compromised quality of oocytes from older women, including mitochondrial dysfunctions, aneuploidy and epigenetic changes. Establishing proper epigenetic modifications during oogenesis and early embryo development is an important aspect in reproduction. The reprogramming process may be influenced by external and internal factors that result in improper epigenetic changes in germ cells. Furthermore, germ cell epigenetic changes might be inherited by the next generations. In this review, we briefly summarise the effects of ageing on oocyte quality. We focus on discussing the relationship between ageing and epigenetic modifications, highlighting the epigenetic changes in oocytes from advanced-age females and in post-ovulatory aged oocytes as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:25391845

  7. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Esaú L; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Salinas, Jorge L; Queiroz, Amanda M; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  8. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Esaú L.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Queiroz, Amanda M.; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M.; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  9. Long-term effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the peripheral nervous system. Clinical and neurophysiological controlled study on subjects with chloracne from the Seveso area.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, S; Pirovano, C; Scarlato, G; Tarchini, P; Zappa, A; Maranzana, M

    1988-01-01

    This work was set up to investigate the possible presence of peripheral nervous system involvement as a long-term effect of the exposure to dioxin in 152 subjects with chloracne from the Seveso area; 123 age- and sex-matched subjects living in nearby towns with similar environmental pollution formed the control group. The accident in Seveso took place in July, 1976, and this study was carried out from October, 1982, to May, 1983. Although a peripheral neuropathy was not found in any of the subjects, a significant increase of the number of individuals presenting at least two bilateral clinical signs (p less than 0.05) or one abnormal electrophysiological parameter (p less than 0.02) was found in the Seveso group. Principal component analysis did not show any subdivision between these two groups. The Fisher approach to discriminant analysis reveals a clear subdivision between the group of the most exposed subjects and randomly selected subgroups of control subjects. In conclusion, clinical and electrophysiological signs of peripheral nervous system involvement occur with a statistically increased frequency in the Seveso population 6 years after the accident, although a peripheral neuropathy was not evident in any of the chloracne patients using the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. PMID:2829044

  10. High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arreola-Cháidez, Emilio; López, Juan; Salcido-Meraz, Karla Itzel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Navarrete-Flores, José Antonio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Hernández-Ochoa, Marcia; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Through an age- and sex-matched case-control study, we sought to determine whether female sex workers have an increased risk of Toxoplasma gondii exposure and to determine the sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these workers associated with T. gondii exposure. Female workers (n = 136) and controls (n = 272) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgM positive sera were additionally tested with enzyme linked-fluorescence immunoassay (ELFA). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 21 (15.44%) of 136 cases and in 10 (3.67%) of 272 controls (OR = 4.05; 95% CI: 1.84–8.89; P = 0.0001). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels higher than 150 IU/ml were found in 13 (9.6%) of 136 cases and in 8 (2.9%) of 272 controls (P = 0.007). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in two cases and in six controls by EIA, but all were negative by ELFA. T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 10.47; 95% CI: 2.9–36.8; P < 0.01), injuries during sex work (OR = 6.30; 95% CI: 1.1–33.7; P = 0.03), and soil contact (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.2–14.0; P = 0.02). This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and female sex workers. PMID:26716017

  11. Ultrasound features of shoulder involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) courses, shoulder involvement is common. However, etiologies of shoulder pain in patients with AS remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ultrasound (US) abnormalities in shoulders of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to determine predictive factors of ultrasound shoulder enthesitis. Methods 38 patients with AS were included with 38 age and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients fulfilled the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. Clinical and demographical data were recorded. US examination of bilateral shoulders was performed by a musculoskeletal sonographer according to a defined protocol that included imaging of the insertions of supraspinatus, subscapularis and infraspinatus tendons, rotator cuff tendons, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, acromioclavicular joint, and glenohumeral joint. Results The mean age of patients and controls was 36 years, each group of patients and controls comprised 22 men (57.9%) and 16 women (42.1%). Disease duration was 9.6 ± 7.2 years. Among 38 patients with AS, 21 had coxitis (55%) and 19 had previous or current shoulder pain (50%). AS shoulders presented significantly more ultrasound enthesitis than controls shoulders (43 shoulders (56.6%) versus 8 shoulders (10.5%) respectively). Involvement of rotator cuff tendons was significantly higher in patients with AS compared with control subjects (16/38 (42.1%) versus 6 (15.2%) respectively). However, involvement of gleno-humeral and acromio-clavicular joints was infrequent in both groups. In patients with AS, we found that the presence of coxitis was the only significant predictive factors of shoulder enthesitis (Odds Ratio (OR) = 9.4; Confidence interval (CI) 95% (1.10; 81.9), p = 0.04). Conclusions Ultrasound abnormalities of shoulders are common in patients with AS, and the most frequent abnormalitie was enthesitis, which was associated with the

  12. Low vitamin D levels in healthy controls and patients with autoimmune neuromuscular disorders in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chroni, Elisabeth; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Punga, Anna Rostedt

    2016-03-01

    Normal autoimmune function is dependent on adequate levels of activated vitamin D, 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. A recent study presented deficiency of 25(OH)D levels in Swedish MG patients. We aimed to study 25(OH)D levels in patients with MG and autoimmune polyneuropathies (PNP) at a southern latitude in Greece. Plasma levels of 25(OH)D were analyzed in Greek patients with MG (n = 19), immune-mediated PNP (N = 11) and in 30 Greek healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Ten MG patients received supplementation with vitamin D3. The MG Composite Score (MGC) and MG quality of life assessed disease severity in MG patients, whereas the INCAT Disability Scale assessed clinical features in the PNP patients. MG patients with and without vitamin D3 supplementation had higher 25(OH)D levels (mean 58.8 ± 16.3 and 62.0 ± 22.4 nmol/L, respectively) than PNP patients (mean 42.1 ± 11.5 nmol/L, p = 0.01) and healthy controls (mean 45.7 ± 13.8 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Plasma 25(OH)D levels was lower with age in all groups. There were no correlations between 25(OH)D and disease duration, MGC score, or INCAT score. Vitamin D deficiency was found in all Greek patient groups and healthy controls. Levels of 25(OH)D were higher in MG patients with as well as without vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls, whereas CIDP/GBS patients had levels similar to controls. PMID:26183131

  13. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Haidar; Al-Jawad, Abdulfatah; Al-Shayeb, Mahdi; Al-Ali, Ali; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This is a pilot case-control study conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease and examine the possible association between oral health deterioration and SCD severity in a sample of Saudi SCD patients residing in the city of Al-Qatif, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Dental examination to determine the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and plaque index system were recorded for 33 SCD patients and 33 age and sex-matched controls in the Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered surveys used to assess socio-economic status; oral health behaviors for both SCD patients and controls were recorded. In addition, the disease severity index was established for all patients with SCD. SPSS data analysis software package version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Numerical variables were described as mean with a standard deviation. Results Decayed teeth were significantly more in individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 38 years with SCD compared to the control group (p = 0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD when compared to the control group (p = 0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment reflected in the survey responses of SCD patients as 15.2% only taking oral care during hospitalization. There were differences between the cases and controls in the known caries risk factors such as income level, flossing, and brushing habit. The DMFT, CPI, and plaque index systems did not differ significantly between the SCD patients and the control group. Conclusion Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD. PMID:25544813

  14. Aging and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor's Office for Senior Citizens, Chicago, IL.

    The process of learning with respect to age is discussed. Learning may be defined as the acquisition of information or skills. Three non-cognitive factors varying with age are loss of speed, health, and motivation. Studies on learning in relation to age have not controlled for non-learning factors. Perceptual and psychomotor studies are not…

  15. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Psoriasis Patients and its Relation to Disease Duration: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Praveenkumar, Udayakumar; Ganguly, Satyaki; Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Kuruvila, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies indicate a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriatic patients. This study aimed to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with psoriasis. It also studied the relation between presence of metabolic syndrome and disease duration in psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods This was a hospital-based, case-control study conducted with 30 clinically diagnosed patients of chronic plaque psoriasis and 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Height, weight, BMI, blood pressure and waist circumference were assessed in all the subjects. Fasting levels of serum glucose, serum triglycerides and serum HDL were estimated by automated clinical chemistry analyser. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the presence of at least 3 criteria of NCEP ATP III with Asian modification for waist circumference. Results Metabolic syndrome was more common in psoriatic patients than in controls but the difference was statistically insignificant (60% vs. 40%, p-value=0.12). The psoriasis group had a higher prevalence of elevated blood glucose levels and higher waist circumference compared to controls. Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of high triglyceride levels than controls, the difference being statistically insignificant (40% vs. 30%, p-value = 0.41). The prevalence of low HDL levels was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (86.7% vs. 60%, p-value = 0.02). There was no relation between presence of metabolic syndrome and duration of psoriasis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome as well as dyslipidaemia is commoner in psoriasis patients. This underlines the need for screening of all psoriasis patients for early diagnosis and treatment of associated metabolic syndrome to reduce the high burden of morbidity and mortality. PMID:27042565

  16. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewska, Beata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease. Materials and methods The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity. Results The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068), duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787), or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432) and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823), systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483), or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345). Conclusion Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. PMID:27143864

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Control Study in Nepalese Population

    PubMed Central

    KC, Rajendra; Khatiwada, Saroj; Deo Mehta, Kishun; Pandey, Pratikshya; Lamsal, Madhab; Majhi, Shankhar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess cardiovascular risk factors in Nepalese population with subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods. A case control study was conducted among 200 subjects (100 subclinical hypothyroid and 100 euthyroid) at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Demographic and anthropometric variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were taken. Blood samples were assayed for serum free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly higher diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP than controls. The odds ratio of having hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL), low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), undesirable LDL-cholesterol (>100 mg/dL), high hs-CRP (>1 mg/L), and high diastolic BP (>80 mmHg) and being overweight (BMI ≥ 23 Kg/m2) in subclinical hypothyroidism was 2.29 (95% CI; 1.2–4.38, p = 0.011), 1.73 (95% CI; 0.82–3.62, p = 0.141), 3.04 (95% CI; 1.66–5.56, p < 0.001), 2.02 (95% CI; 1.12–3.64, p = 0.018), 3.35 (95% CI; 1.72–6.55, p < 0.001), and 0.9 (95% CI; 0.48–1.67, p = 0.753), respectively, as compared to controls. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroid patients are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease than euthyroid subjects. PMID:26523236

  18. Arterial Structure and Function in Ambulatory Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Are Not Different from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Audra A.; Cotie, Lisa M.; Timmons, Brian W.; Gorter, Jan Willem; MacDonald, Maureen J.

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity in youth with cerebral palsy (CP) places them at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The current study assessed indices of arterial health in adolescents with CP, classified as levels I-II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) (n = 11, age 13.2 ± 2.1 yr), in comparison to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 11, age 12.4 ± 2.3 yr). Groups were similar in anthropometric measurements, resting blood pressures, and heart rates. There were no group differences in brachial flow-mediated dilation (11.1 ± 7.8 versus 6.1 ± 3.6), carotid intima-media thickness (0.42 ± 0.04 versus 0.41 ± 0.03 mm), and distensibility (0.008 ± 0.002 versus 0.008 ± 0.002 mmHg) or central (4.3 ± 0.6 versus 4.1 ± 0.9 m/s) and peripheral pulse wave velocity (7.1 ± 1.7 versus 7.6 ± 1.1 m/s); CP versus healthy controls, respectively. Vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) was lower in the CP group (CP: 38 ± 80 min versus controls: 196 ± 174 min); groups were similar in light and moderate intensity PA levels. Arterial health of ambulatory youth with CP is not different from a control group despite lower vigorous PA levels. Similar studies need to examine individuals with more pronounced mobility limitations (GMFCS level III–V). PMID:22778755

  19. Assessment of bone densitometry in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddasi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on interferon with that of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) who were not receiving interferon and healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Methods Overall, 30 patients with RRMS on interferon (treated patients), 30 patients with RRMS but not receiving interferon (untreated patients), and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The subjects were matched for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity and nutritional habits (as possible), duration of illness, frequency of attacks, and the amount of corticosteroid therapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur. The results of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were expressed as BMD (g/cm2), Z-scores, and T-scores. Results Osteopenia in patients with RRMS was 61.7% in proximal femur and 53.3% in lumbar spine (vs. 53.3% and 40% in healthy controls, respectively). There was an inverse relationship between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and lumbar and femoral BDM in the patients. In treated patients, there was an inverse relationship between the duration of interferon therapy and lumbar and femoral BDM. In untreated patients, there was a similar relation between the duration of the illness and BMD. Moreover, inverse relationships existed between the frequency of attacks and lumbar and femoral BDM in both treated and untreated groups. However, this association was only significant in the untreated group. Conclusion Patients with MS showed reduced BMD in comparison with healthy controls. This reduction was related to the frequency of attacks. We also found lower BMD in untreated patients compared to interferon-treated patients. PMID:24250890

  20. Aging and dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G R; Owsley, C; McGwin, G

    1999-11-01

    Older adults have serious difficulty seeing under low illumination and at night, even in the absence of ocular disease. Optical changes in the aged eye, such as pupillary miosis and increased lens density, cannot account for the severity of this problem, and little is known about its neural basis. Dark adaptation functions were measured on 94 adults ranging in age from the 20s to the 80s to assess the rate of rod-mediated sensitivity recovery after exposure to a 98% bleach. Fundus photography and a grading scale were used to characterize macular health in subjects over age 49 in order to control for macular disease. Thresholds for each subject were corrected for lens density based on individual estimates, and pupil diameter was controlled. Results indicated that during human aging there is a dramatic slowing in rod-mediated dark adaptation that can be attributed to delayed rhodopsin regeneration. During the second component of the rod-mediated phase of dark adaptation, the rate of sensitivity recovery decreased 0.02 log unit/min per decade, and the time constant of rhodopsin regeneration increased 8.4 s/decade. The amount of time to reach within 0.3 log units of baseline scotopic sensitivity increased 2.76 min/decade. These aging-related changes in rod-mediated dark adaptation may contribute to night vision problems commonly experienced by the elderly. PMID:10748929

  1. Lack of association between the CHL1 gene and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility in Han Chinese: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested a strong association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10510181 in the proximity of the gene encoding a cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM (CHL1) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in Caucasians. To clarify the role of CHL1 in the etiopathogenesis of AIS, we performed a case-control replication study in a Han Chinese population. Methods Five hundred female AIS patients between 10 and 18 years of age, as well as 500 age- and sex-matched controls were included. This study was conducted as a 2-stage case-control analysis: initial screening for the association between AIS and SNPs in and around the CHL1 gene (186 cases and 169 controls) followed by a confirmation test (314 cases and 331 controls). rs10510181 and 4 SNPs (rs2055314, rs331894, rs2272522, and rs2272524) in the CHL1 gene were selected for genotyping. Results Putative associations were shown between AIS and rs10510181, rs2055314, and rs2272522 in stage I. However, the associations were not confirmed in stage II. For rs10510181, the genotype frequencies were GG 28.8%, GA 46.2%, and AA 25.0% in AIS patients and GG 29.8%, GA 48.8%, and AA 21.4% in controls. No significant difference was found in genotype distribution between cases and controls (P = 0.39). Similarly, the genotype and allele distribution were comparable between case and control for rs2055314 and rs2272522. Conclusions There was no statistical association between polymorphisms of the CHL1 gene and idiopathic scoliosis in a Chinese population. PMID:24512353

  2. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  3. Is Alpha-1 Antichymotrypsin Gene Polymorphism a Risk Factor for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage? A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Li, Yunke; Li, Hao; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) signal peptide A/T polymorphism has been suggested to play a role in various brain diseases with arterial wall pathology. We conducted a case-control study and a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between this polymorphism and risk of primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Material/Methods A total of 188 patients and 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in our case-control study. The ACT polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-LDR. Further meta-analysis was conducted by searching literature from PUBMED, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases until December 2014, then combining data using STATA10.0. Results Similar genotype distribution was detected between PICH patients and healthy controls (p=0.523). Further analysis based on hypertension and location of hemorrhage did not observe significant association. Multiple logistic regression analysis also failed to identify ACT polymorphism as an independent risk factor for PICH. With regard to meta-analysis, a total of 6 case-control studies including 932 PICH patients and 1140 controls were enrolled. Pooled ORs failed to detect a significant association of ACT signal peptide A/T polymorphism with PICH (dominant model: OR=1.03, 95%CI=0.72–1.46; recessive model: OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.88–1.32). Subgroup analysis based on hypertension revealed no association in hypertensive PICH or in normotensive PICH. Conclusions Our case-control study in a Chinese population did not detect a significant association between ACT signal peptide A/T polymorphism and PICH. Moreover, meta-analysis combining data from relevant studies failed to provide evidence for the association. Further well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to verify our findings. PMID:26210716

  4. Exhausted Cytotoxic Control of Epstein-Barr Virus in Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin; Sauce, Delphine; Deback, Claire; Arnaud, Laurent; Mathian, Alexis; Miyara, Makoto; Boutolleau, David; Parizot, Christophe; Dorgham, Karim; Papagno, Laura; Appay, Victor; Amoura, Zahir; Gorochov, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathology has long been associated with an increased Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) seropositivity, viremia and cross-reactive serum antibodies specific for both virus and self. It has therefore been postulated that EBV triggers SLE immunopathology, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigate whether frequent peaks of EBV viral load in SLE patients are a consequence of dysfunctional anti-EBV CD8+ T cell responses. Both inactive and active SLE patients (n = 76 and 42, respectively), have significantly elevated EBV viral loads (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 29). Interestingly, less EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are able to secrete multiple cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β) in inactive and active SLE patients compared to controls (P = 0.0003 and 0.0084, respectively). Moreover, EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are also less cytotoxic in SLE patients than in controls (CD107a expression: P = 0.0009, Granzyme B release: P = 0.0001). Importantly, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific responses were not found significantly altered in SLE patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EBV-specific CD8+ T cell impairment is a consequence of their Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor up-regulation, as blocking this pathway reverses the dysfunctional phenotype. Finally, prospective monitoring of lupus patients revealed that disease flares precede EBV reactivation. In conclusion, EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SLE patients are functionally impaired, but EBV reactivation appears to be an aggravating consequence rather than a cause of SLE immunopathology. We therefore propose that autoimmune B cell activation during flares drives frequent EBV reactivation, which contributes in a vicious circle to the perpetuation of immune activation in SLE patients. PMID:22028659

  5. Exhausted cytotoxic control of Epstein-Barr virus in human lupus.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin; Sauce, Delphine; Deback, Claire; Arnaud, Laurent; Mathian, Alexis; Miyara, Makoto; Boutolleau, David; Parizot, Christophe; Dorgham, Karim; Papagno, Laura; Appay, Victor; Amoura, Zahir; Gorochov, Guy

    2011-10-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathology has long been associated with an increased Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) seropositivity, viremia and cross-reactive serum antibodies specific for both virus and self. It has therefore been postulated that EBV triggers SLE immunopathology, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigate whether frequent peaks of EBV viral load in SLE patients are a consequence of dysfunctional anti-EBV CD8+ T cell responses. Both inactive and active SLE patients (n = 76 and 42, respectively), have significantly elevated EBV viral loads (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 29). Interestingly, less EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are able to secrete multiple cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β) in inactive and active SLE patients compared to controls (P = 0.0003 and 0.0084, respectively). Moreover, EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are also less cytotoxic in SLE patients than in controls (CD107a expression: P = 0.0009, Granzyme B release: P = 0.0001). Importantly, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific responses were not found significantly altered in SLE patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EBV-specific CD8+ T cell impairment is a consequence of their Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor up-regulation, as blocking this pathway reverses the dysfunctional phenotype. Finally, prospective monitoring of lupus patients revealed that disease flares precede EBV reactivation. In conclusion, EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SLE patients are functionally impaired, but EBV reactivation appears to be an aggravating consequence rather than a cause of SLE immunopathology. We therefore propose that autoimmune B cell activation during flares drives frequent EBV reactivation, which contributes in a vicious circle to the perpetuation of immune activation in SLE patients. PMID:22028659

  6. Assessment of risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chidambaram, Southern India: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Thangavelu, Annamalai; Mathavan, Bommayasamy; Ramachandran, Chinnamanoor R; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma, the fifth most common cancer worldwide, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. The effect of lifestyle factors, including tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking, diet and dental care, on the risk of oral cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalainagar, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India during the period 1991-2003. The study included 388 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases and an equal number (388) of age and sex-matched controls. All participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that contained data on demographic factors, family history of cancer, tobacco habits, use of alcohol, frequency, duration, cessation of these habits, dietary practices and oral hygiene. The data were analysed using multiple logistic regression model. Among people with chewing habits, those who chewed betel quid with tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 3.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-2.13] and tobacco alone (OR 2.89) showed a greater risk than controls. Bidi smoking (OR 4.63) and alcohol drinking (OR 1.65) emerged as significant risk factors for oral cancer. These three habits showed increasing risk with increasing frequency and increase in duration of habits. Addition of alcohol to other habits also enhanced the risk for oral cancer. The combination of chewing and smoking together with alcohol drinking showed very high relative risk (OR 11.34). A positive association was observed between non-vegetarian diet, poor oral hygiene and poor dentition with the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The fact that these risk factors are modifiable emphasizes the need for increasing awareness among the general public and policy makers as a first step in the prevention and control of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17415096

  7. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    ScienceCinema

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-05-29

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  8. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  9. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  10. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  11. Genetic Variants of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Are Linked to Autism: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Firouzabadi, Negar; Erfani, Nasrallah; Fathi, Farshid; Bazrafkan, Mozhdeh; Bahramali, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism is a disease of complex nature with a significant genetic component. The importance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) elements in cognition and behavior besides the interaction of angiotensin II (Ang II), the main product of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), with neurotransmitters in CNS, especially dopamine, proposes the involvement of RAS in autism. Since the genetic architecture of autism has remained elusive, here we postulated that genetic variations in RAS are associated with autism. Methods Considering the relation between the three polymorphisms of ACE (I/D, rs4343 and rs4291) with the level of ACE activity, we have investigated this association with autism, in a case-control study. Genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphisms were determined in DNAs extracted from venous blood of 120 autistic patients and their age and sex-matched healthy controls, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) methods. Results There were strong associations between both DD genotype of ACE I/D and the D allele, with autism (P = 0.006, OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.64–5.13 and P = 0.006, OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.37–3.48 respectively). Furthermore, a significant association between the G allele of rs4343 and autism was observed (P = 0.006, OR = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.26–2.67). Moreover, haplotype analysis revealed an association between DTG haplotype and autism (P = 0.008). Conclusion Our data suggests the involvement of RAS genetic diversity in increasing the risk of autism. PMID:27082637

  12. Undernutrition and anaemia among HAART-naïve HIV infected children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a case-controlled, hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Adeodu, Oluwagbemiga Oyewole

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Case control studies that assess the burden and factors associated with undernutrition and anaemia among HAART naïve HIV infected children in Nigeria is very sparse. This will help to formulate nutritional programs among these children. Methods Seventy HAART naive HIV infected children aged 18 months and above were as well as seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were recruited from August 2007 to January 2009 at Paediatric Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their bio data, WHO clinical stage, anthropometric measurements, haematocrit, serum albumin and CD4 counts were taken with other parameters according to a study proforma. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among the HIV infected subjects were 48. 6%,58. 6% and 31. 4% respectively which as significantly higher than 28. 1%, 7. 1% and 28. 1% among the HIV negative controls. 20. 1% of the HIV infected children were marasmic compared to 2. 3% of the controls. Triple anthropometric failure was found in 7. 1% of the subjects as compared to none among the controls. Anaemia is significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (70. 0% vs 31. 4%; p<0. 001). The prevalence of anaemia was higher in the HIV infected subjects with undernutrition. Low socioeconomic status, hypoalbuminemia and severe immunosuppression are significantly associated with higher undernutrition prevalence. Conclusion Several years after availability of HAART, undernutrition and anaemia remain widely prevalent among newly presenting HAART naïve HIV infected Nigerian children. Nutritional supplementation and evaluation for anaemia still need close attention in the management of these children. PMID:25400844

  13. A community-based case–control study to investigate the role of iron deficiency in the persistence of goiter

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rambha; Chaudhary, Chintu; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Shaikh, Zakirhusain; Goel, R.K.D.; Patvegar, Bilkish

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia in the age group of 6–12 years and investigate the role of iron deficiency as a possible contributor to endemic goiter in school children in Ambala. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a subset of a cross-sectional study among 2700 children from 6 to 12 years of age to find out the prevalence of goiter. All the subjects who were found to be suffering from goiter in the cross-sectional study were enrolled in the case–control study as cases and were compared with age- and sex-matched controls (children without goiter) from the same cohort. The study was conducted from February 2011 to January 2012. Results: Out of total, goiter was observed in 12.6% of the subjects. Urinary iodine excretion was found to be <100 μg/L in 57 (10.5%) children. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) level of the study population was 11.9 g/dL. It was noted that 71% of the goitrous children had anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) as compared to 63.7% of the control group. Serum ferritin (SF) was <15 ng/mL in 70% of the children. The mean ± standard deviation of SF in the goitrous and nongoitrous children was 19.65 ± 32.51 μg/L and 27.55 ± 21.07 μg/L, respectively (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The findings in the study suggest that iron deficiency anemia in children is contributing toward the persistence of goiter in the postiodization phase. PMID:27366719

  14. Assessment of Lung Function by Spirometry and Diffusion Study and Effect of Glycemic Control on Pulmonary Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients of the Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Uz-Zaman, Salim; Singhamahapatra, Anilbaran; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Anindya; Roy, Kaushik; Roy (Basu), Kakali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There are so many complications involving eyes, kidneys, lungs and nerves associated with diabetes. But, pulmonary complications are poorly characterized among eastern Indian diabetic populations. Aims and Objectives: To assess pulmonary function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To find out correlation of the pulmonary functions test variables with Glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Total of 60 type 2 diabetes patient of age between 35-55 y and same number of age and sex matched apparently healthy control individual were included in the present study. All subjects were evaluated for PFT by flow sensitive spirometer (RMS HELIOS-401), the spirometric parameters were measured as a percentage of predicted and DLCO (by single breath technique). HBA1c of all cases were measured and they were grouped according to HBA1c level (Group-a =>7%, Group-b =6%-7%, Group-c =<6%). Results: Significant differences in the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1/FVC) and diffusion capacity (DLCO% and DL/VA%) existed between cases and controls. There was a significant decrease in FVC, DLCO and DL/VA and significant increase in FEV1/FVC in that groups having HBA1c level >7% than the other groups. FEV1, FVC, DLCO, and DL/VA were negatively correlated with HbA1c where as FEV1/FVC has positive association with HbA1c. Conclusion: Significant deterioration of lung function and diffusing capacity was observed in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control. PMID:25584206

  15. Genotoxicity assessment in smokeless tobacco users: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chandirasekar, R; Suresh, K; Sasikala, K; Kumar, B Lakshman; Venkatesan, R; Ganesh, G Karthik; Jacob, Raichel

    2013-03-01

    India has a long history of tobacco, which includes chewing tobacco and smoking tobacco in various forms. Initially, the smokeless tobacco chewing habit was seen among the majority of the farmers who cultivated tobacco; but in recent years, smokeless tobacco is available in many forms and is cheaper as well and hence it is widely being used among literate and illiterate people. The subjects of our study are living in hilly regions of Yerkaud in Salem district, South India. Most of the inhabitants of our study area are illiterate and more particularly they are unaware of the health effects due to tobacco use. Recent epidemiological reports have strongly indicated the association of cancer risk with usage of smokeless tobacco. The prime aim of our study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of tobacco use by analysing the cytogenetic end points such as chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood and micronucleus in peripheral blood and buccal cells. About 85 smokeless tobacco users were enrolled for the study and same numbers of age- and sex-matched nontobacco users were also enrolled to serve as controls. The result of our study revealed that tobacco users displayed varied levels of elevated chromosomal damage and micronucleated cells than nontobacco users. The variation in the extent of genetic damage was dependent on the duration of the tobacco use. In conclusion, this study might be helpful in creating awareness on the hazards of the smokeless tobacco products among the global population as a whole for those who chose such products as a cheap alternative to tobacco smoke. PMID:22317826

  16. Cardiac Autonomic Function in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Kung, Woon-Man; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Chin; Tai, Hsu-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involing spine and enthesis. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and the association between ANS and the functional status or disease activity in AS.The study included 42 AS patients, all fulfilling the modified New York criteria. All the patients are totally symptom free for ANS involvement and had normal neurological findings. These AS patients and 230 healthy volunteers receive analysis of 5 minutes heart rate variability (HRV) in lying posture. In addition, disease activity and functional status of these AS patients are assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G).Both groups were age and sex-matched. Although the HRV analysis indicates that the peaks of total power (TP, 0-0.5 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) are similar in both groups, the activities of low-frequency power (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), LF in normalized units (LF%), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) in AS patients are obviously lower than healthy controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein revealed negative relationship with HF. The AS patients without peripheral joint disease have higher LF, TP, variance, LF%, and HF than the patients with peripheral joint disease. The AS patients without uvetis have higher HF than the patients with uvetis. The total scores of BASDI, BASFI, and BAS-G do not show any association to HRV parameters.AS patients have significantly abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation. This is closely related with some inflammatory activities. Reduced autonomic function may be one of the factors of high cardiovascular risk in AS patients. PMID:27227940

  17. Comparison of Regulatory T Cells in Hemodialysis Patients and Healthy Controls: Implications for Cell Therapy in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Behdad; Edozie, Francis C.; Fazekasova, Henrieta; Scottà, Cristiano; Mitchell, Peter J.; Canavan, James B.; Kordasti, Shahram Y.; Chana, Prabhjoat S.; Ellis, Richard; Lord, Graham M.; John, Susan; Hilton, Rachel; Lechler, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Cell-based therapy with natural (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo) regulatory T cells to induce transplant tolerance is now technically feasible. However, regulatory T cells from hemodialysis patients awaiting transplantation may be functionally/numerically defective. Human regulatory T cells are also heterogeneous, and some are able to convert to proinflammatory Th17 cells. This study addresses the suitability of regulatory T cells from hemodialysis patients for cell-based therapy in preparation for the first clinical trials in renal transplant recipients (the ONE Study). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Healthy controls and age- and sex-matched hemodialysis patients without recent illness/autoimmune disease on established, complication-free hemodialysis for a minimum of 6 months were recruited. Circulating regulatory T cells were studied by flow cytometry to compare the regulatory T cell subpopulations. Regulatory T cells from members of each group were compared for suppressive function and plasticity (IL-17–producing capacity) before and after in vitro expansion with and without Rapamycin, using standard assays. Results Both groups had similar total regulatory T cells and subpopulations I and III. In each subpopulation, regulatory T cells expressed similar levels of the function-associated markers CD27, CD39, HLA-DR, and FOXP3. Hemodialysis regulatory T cells were less suppressive, expanded poorly compared with healthy control regulatory T cells, and produced IL-17 in the absence of Rapamycin. However, Rapamycin efficiently expanded hemodialysis regulatory T cells to a functional and stable cell product. Conclusions Rapamycin-based expansion protocols should enable clinical trials of cell-based immunotherapy for the induction of tolerance to renal allografts using hemodialysis regulatory T cells. PMID:23580782

  18. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile toxin-positive diarrhea: a population-based prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vesteinsdottir, I; Gudlaugsdottir, S; Einarsdottir, R; Kalaitzakis, E; Sigurdardottir, O; Bjornsson, E S

    2012-10-01

    Increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) is of major concern. However, by minimizing known risk factors, the incidence can be decreased. The aim of this investigation was to calculate the incidence and assess risk factors for CDI in our population. A 1-year prospective population-based nationwide study in Iceland of CDIs was carried out. For risk factor evaluation, each case was matched with two age- and sex-matched controls that tested negative for C. difficile toxin. A total of 128 CDIs were identified. The crude incidence was 54 cases annually per 100,000 population >18 years of age. Incidence increased exponentially with older age (319 per 100,000 population >86 years of age). Community-acquired origin was 27 %. Independent risk factors included: dicloxacillin (odds ratio [OR]: 7.55, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-30.1), clindamycin (OR: 6.09, 95 % CI: 2.23-16.61), ceftriaxone (OR: 4.28, 95 % CI: 1.59-11.49), living in a retirement home (OR: 3.9, 95 % CI: 1.69-9.16), recent hospital stay (OR: 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.37-3.87). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were used by 60/111 (54 %) versus 91/222 (41 %) (p = 0.026) and ciprofloxacin 19/111 (17 %) versus 19/222 (9 %) (p = 0.027) for cases and controls, respectively. In all, 75 % of primary CDIs treated with metronidazole recovered from one course of treatment. CDI was mostly found among elderly patients. The most commonly identified risk factors were broad-spectrum antibiotics and recent contact with health care institutions. PPI use was significantly more prevalent among CDI patients. PMID:22441775

  19. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  20. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style diet in relation to glioma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz; Shayanfar, Mehdi; Mohammad-Shirazi, Minoo; Tabibi, Hadi; Sharifi, Giuve; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-03-28

    Data on the association of adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style and glioma are scarce. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the DASH-style diet and glioma in Iranian adults. In this study, 128 pathologically confirmed cases of glioma were recruited from hospitals and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from other wards of the hospital. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 126-item validated FFQ. Adherence to the DASH-style diet was followed considering the healthy and non-healthy foods emphasised in the DASH dietary pattern. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals with the greatest adherence to the DASH diet were 72 % less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest adherence (OR 0·28; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·57). Individuals with the highest consumption of fruits had lower odds for having glioma compared with those with the lowest intake (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·68). A protective association was also observed between consumption of legumes and nuts and risk of glioma (OR 0·23; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·53). We found a significant positive association between red and processed meat (OR 2·60; 95 % CI 1·16, 5·81) and salt intakes (OR 2·87; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·34) and risk of glioma, after taking all potential confounders into account. Adherence to the DASH-style dietary pattern was inversely associated with glioma. In addition, some components of the DASH diet, including red meats and salt intakes, were positively associated with glioma. Consumption of nuts and legumes as well as fruits was inversely associated with glioma. Prospective cohort studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:26856761

  1. Potential Role of Vegetarianism on Nutritional and Cardiovascular Status in Taiwanese Dialysis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Yin; Huang, Chien-Wei; Chen, Nai-Ching; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Lee, Po-Tsang; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death for patients on chronic dialysis. End stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis imposed to reduce phosphorus intake, which likely contributes to development of vegetarian diet behaviors. Vegetarian diets are often lower in protein content, in contradiction to the recommendation that a high protein diet is followed by patients undergoing dialysis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional and cardiovascular status of dialysis patients. Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements A study of 21 vegetarian dialysis patients and 42 age- and sex-matched non-vegetarian dialysis patients selected as controls was conducted in the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and biochemistry data including total homocysteine levels, serum lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, vitamin D levels, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate were measured. Results Compared with the non-vegetarian control group, vegetarian subjects had lower body weight, body mass index, serum phosphate, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, vitamin D, uric acid, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate (p < 0.05). The vegetarian group showed higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity than the non-vegetarian group (1926.95 ± 456.45 and 1684.82 ± 309.55 cm/sec, respectively, p < 0.05). After adjustment for age, albumin, pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure, and duration of dialysis, vegetarian diet remained an independent risk factor for brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Conclusions The present study revealed that patients on dialysis who follow vegetarian diets may experience subclinical protein malnutrition and vitamin D deficiency that could offset the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vegetarianism. PMID:27295214

  2. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  3. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kayamba, Violet; Monze, Mwaka; Asombang, Akwi Wasi; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related deaths, but data from sub-Saharan Africa are very scanty. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) initiative confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related cancer as a distinct subtype, and we set out to look for serological evidence of its role in a sub-Saharan African patient group. Methods We used stored serum samples obtained from a gastric cancer case-control study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Lusaka, Zambia. A total of 147 patients were included with 51 gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 96 age and sex matched controls. The presence of antibodies to EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and early antigen (EA) was determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Data were analysed in STATA Stata Corp, College Station TX. Results Over 90% of all the samples analysed were positive for antibodies to EBNA-1. The presence of antibodies to EBV EA was significantly higher in gastric cancer cases than in controls, (OR 4.38; 95% CI 1.53-13.06, P = 0.0027), with an attributable risk of 23%. HIV infection was also associated with EBV EA seroprevalence (OR 10.97; 95% CI 2.26 -13.06, P = 0.001) but not EBNA-1 (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.10 -38.75, P = 0.596). There was no association of EBV infection with age below 45 years, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy or inflammation. Conclusion We therefore conclude that EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions. PMID:27217871

  4. Association Study of Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels and Genetic Variants in Lectin Pathway Proteins with Susceptibility to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Osthoff, Michael; Dean, Melinda M.; Baird, Paul N.; Richardson, Andrea J.; Daniell, Mark; Guymer, Robyn H.; Eisen, Damon P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the complement system is thought to be activated by chronic oxidative damage with genetic variants identified in the alternative pathway as susceptibility factors. However, the involvement of the lectin pathway of complement, a key mediator of oxidative damage, is controversial. This study investigated whether mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels and genetic variants in lectin pathway proteins, are associated with the predisposition to and severity of AMD. Methods MBL levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MBL2 and the ficolin-2 (FCN2) gene were determined in 109 patients with AMD and 109 age- and sex-matched controls. Results MBL expression levels were equally distributed in both cases (early and late AMD) and controls (p>0.05). However, there was a trend towards higher median MBL levels in cases with late AMD compared to cases with early AMD (1.0 vs. 0.4 μg/ml, p = 0.09) and MBL deficiency (<0.5 μg/ml) was encountered less frequently in the late AMD group (35% vs 56%, p = 0.03). FCN2 and MBL2 allele frequencies were similarly distributed in early and late AMD cases compared with controls (p>0.05 for all analyses) as were MBL2 genotypes. Similarly, there was no significant difference in allele frequencies in any SNPs in either the MBL2 or FCN2 gene in cases with early vs. late AMD. Conclusions SNPs of lectin pathway proteins investigated in this study were not associated with AMD or AMD severity. However, MBL levels deserve further study in a larger cohort of early vs. late AMD patients to elucidate any real effect on AMD severity. PMID:26207622

  5. Altered Plasma Lysophosphatidylcholines and Amides in Non-Obese and Non-Diabetic Subjects with Borderline-To-Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Saem; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites associated with borderline-to-moderate HTG (triglycerides (TG) 150-500 mg/dL). Using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolomics profiles of 111 non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG were compared with those of 111 age- and sex-matched controls with normotriglyceridemia (NTG, TG <150 mg/dL). When compared to the NTG control group, the HTG group exhibited higher plasma levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs), including C14:0 (q = 0.001) and C16:0 (q = 1.8E-05), and several amides, including N-ethyldodecanamide (q = 2.9E-05), N-propyldodecanamide (q = 3.5E-05), palmitoleamide (q = 2.9E-06), and palmitic amide (q = 0.019). The metabolomic profiles of the HTG group also exhibited lower plasma levels of cis-4-octenedioic acid (q<1.0E-9) and docosanamide (q = 0.002) compared with those of the NTG controls. LysoPC 16:0 and palmitoleamide emerged as the primary metabolites able to discriminate the HTG group from the NTG group in a partial least-squares discriminant analysis and were positively associated with the fasting triglyceride levels. We identified alterations in lysoPCs, amides, and cis-4-octenedioic acid among non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG. These results provide novel insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in the early metabolic stages of HTG. This information may facilitate the design of early interventions to prevent disease progression. PMID:25856314

  6. Phenotype, Body Composition, and Prediction Equations (Indian Fatty Liver Index) for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Diabetic Asian Indians: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Misra, Anoop; Nigam, Priyanka; Guleria, Randeep; Pasha, M. A. Qadar

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we have attempted comparison of detailed body composition phenotype of Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) vs. those without, in a case controlled manner. We also aim to analyse prediction equations for NAFLD for non-diabetic Asian Indians, and compare performance of these with published prediction equations researched from other populations. Methods In this case-control study, 162 cases and 173 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited. Clinical, anthropometric, metabolic, and body composition profiles, and liver ultrasound were done. Fasting insulin levels, value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were evaluated. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to arrive at prediction equations for fatty liver [Indian fatty liver index (IFLI)]. Results As compared to those without fatty liver, those with fatty liver exhibited the following; Excess dorsocervical fat (‘Buffalo hump’), skin tags, xanthelasma, ‘double chin’, arcus; excess total, abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity, and high blood pressure, blood glucose, measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values), lipids and hs-CRP levels. Two prediction equations were developed; Clinical [Indian Fatty Liver Index-Clinical; IFLI-C]: 1(double chin) +15.5 (systolic blood pressure) +13.8 (buffalo hump); and IFLI-Clinical and Biochemical (CB): serum triglycerides+12 (insulin)+1(systolic blood pressure) +18 (buffalo hump). On ROC Curve analysis, IFLI performed better than all published prediction equations, except one. Conclusion Non-diabetic Asian Indians with NAFLD researched by us were overweight/obese, had excess abdominal and subcutaneous fat, multiple other phenotypic markers, had higher insulin resistance, glycemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation than those without. Prediction score developed by us for NAFLD; IFLI

  7. Case-control study on the association between a cluster of childhood haematopoietic malignancies and local environmental factors in Aalsmeer, The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Y M; Drijver, M; Kreis, I A

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN--In Aalsmeer, a horticultural community near the main international airport in The Netherlands, a more than fourfold increase in the incidence of haematopoietic malignancies in young people was observed between 1980 and 1985. In a population based case-control study, the association with local environmental factors was investigated. PARTICIPANTS--For each patient younger than 40 years of age (n = 14) diagnosed between 1975 and 1989, four age and sex matched controls were selected via local general practitioners. METHODS--All parents of patients and controls completed a questionnaire on their lifestyle, living conditions, and health, for several years preceding each individual diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, matched, and, if necessary, stratified for neighbourhood. MAIN RESULTS--Increased ORs were recorded for intensive use of petroleum products and pesticides by the patients themselves and their fathers: OR petroleum products: 8.0 (95% CI 2.2, 129.9) and 9.0 (1.0, 66.1) respectively; OR pesticides: 6.0 (0.6, 49.3) and 3.2 (1.0, 10.1) respectively. Swimming in a local pond was also significantly associated with the disease: OR = 5.3 (1.3, 17.4). In the 1970s this pond had been polluted by petroleum products and pesticides. CONCLUSIONS--The increased incidence of childhood haematopoietic malignancies in Aalsmeer may have been associated with several specific local environmental factors. Interpretation of the results, however, should take into account the fact that confidence intervals were wide because of the limited number of cases. PMID:8189171

  8. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: A retrospective, case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nobuaki; Aoki, Yasuko

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the past decade. The incidence, prevalence, and severity of community-acquired CDI (CA-CDI) have increased. However, the epidemiology of CA-CDI in Japan has not been investigated. To evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for CA-CDI in Japan, we conducted a retrospective, case-control study of CA-CDI at the National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2014. Two age- and sex-matched C. difficile toxin- and culture-negative controls were assigned for each case. A total of 26 patients were identified with CA-CDI were identified. The incidence rate for CA-CDI was 1.4 per 100,000 patient-years. Of the CA-CDI patients, 6 (23.1%) had no underlying comorbidity, 22 (84.6%) had prior exposure to antimicrobials, and 5 (19.2%) had prior exposure to antacids. Although 5 patients (19.2%) required hospitalization, none required intensive care or died. Recurrence was observed in 1 patient (3.8%). Patients with CA-CDI cases were more likely to have been recently exposed to antimicrobials compared to controls (odds ratio [OR]: 8.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.43-26.98). However, exposure to antacids was not associated with CA-CDI (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.19-1.85). Our findings indicate that the incidence rate for CA-CDI in Japan is relatively low compared to the US and Europe, and that CA-CDI is usually not severe. Previous antimicrobial exposure was the main risk factor for CA-CDI, suggesting that clinicians should consider CDI in patients presenting with diarrhea who have recently received antimicrobials. PMID:26482373

  9. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin: A case control study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Raheel; Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Qadir, Adnan; Iqbal, Zohaib; Usman, Hassan bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent. Metformin is well known to cause viamin B12 deficiency due to effect on calcium-dependent membrane action in the terminal ileum leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and associations of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin. Methods This case control study was carried out in department of medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 december 2012. We enrolled 114 outdoor patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently on metformin for atleast 12 months, by consecutive sampling, and 105 age and sex matched patients taken as control. Patients with vitamin B12 levels of less than 150 pg/ml were said to be B12 deficient. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results Serum B12 levels were low in 35 patients (31%) on metformin as compared to only 9 patients (8.6%) among controls,(p value 0.002). Mean B12 levels were significantly low in metformin group 311 pg/ml (±194.4), p value 0.03. Dose of metformin had inverse correlation with B12 levels and the difference was statistically significant with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin with significant effect of dose and duration of metformin use on B12 levels. Physicians must recognize this important fact and screen diabetics on metformin therapy for underlying B12 deficiency. PMID:24711867

  10. Quantifying lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.S.; Selvin, S. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Buffler, P.A. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences); Scotto, J. . Biostatistics Branch); Berwick, M. (Cancer Pre

    1992-10-01

    This pilot study uses a unique method to calculate cumulative lifetime exposure to, ultraviolet radiation-b to determine if this refined method would indicate differences in lifetime cumulative UVB exposure between age and sex matched controls. Forty-four age and sex matched cases and controls demonstrated no significant difference in mean cumulative lifetime UVB exposure based on the duration and location of residence. This pilot study suggests that further analysis of the dataset should be conducted to determine if the cumulative lifetime exposure hypothesis is of primary importance regarding the association between UVB exposure and development of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  11. Endoscopy and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalapathy, S. V.; Evans, G.; Muller, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Study Aims To assess whether there was an association between endoscopy and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Patients and Methods Retrospective case – control study of patients diagnosed with VTE over a 3-year period. Each was age- and sex-matched to one of three controls who attended an outpatient appointment on the same date as that of the diagnosis of VTE in the patients. Patients who had undergone endoscopy within 90 days of VTE were included. On a second analysis, patients who were hospitalized and those with inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy were excluded. The difference in occurrence of endoscopy between cases and controls was examined using the McNemar test. The risk of VTE occurring following endoscopy was quantified by means of odds ratios. Results Forty-five of 436 patients (10.3 %) had undergone an endoscopy in the VTE group compared with 14 /436 controls (3.2 %; P < 0.001). The odds ratio for developing a VTE after an endoscopic procedure was 3.58 (95 % CI 1.86 – 7.46) for patients relative to controls. When the 10 hospitalized patients and respective controls were excluded, the odds of VTE remained nearly 3 times as large for patients undergoing endoscopy as for controls (2.92 [95 % CI 1.51, 5.62]; P = 0.001). When patients with inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy were also excluded, no difference was found between patients undergoing endoscopy and controls (1.92 [0.95, 3.85]; P = 0.07). Ten percent of patients with VTE underwent endoscopy in the 3 months before the diagnosis compared with 3 % of controls (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the type of endoscopy performed and VTE risk. Conclusions When those with known risk factors for VTE were excluded, no significant increased risk of VTE was found. PMID:26134608

  12. High Sodium Intake Is Associated With Self-Reported Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross Sectional and Case Control Analysis Within the SUN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Eva; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; de Irala, Jokin; Carmona, Loreto; Gómez-Reino, Juan J

    2015-09-01

    Sodium intake is a potential environmental factor for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of sodium intake with rheumatoid arthritis. We performed a cross-sectional study nested in a highly educated cohort investigating dietary habits as determinants of disease. Daily sodium intake in grams per day was estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified prevalent self-reported cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio for rheumatoid arthritis by sodium intake adjusting for confounders. Linear trend tests and interactions between variables were explored. Sensitivity analyses included age- and sex-matched case-control study, logistic multivariate model adjusted by residuals, and analysis excluding individuals with prevalent diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The effective sample size was 18,555 individuals (mean age 38-years old, 60% women) including 392 self-reported rheumatoid arthritis. Median daily sodium intake (estimated from foods plus added salt) was 3.47 (P25-75: 2.63-4.55) grams. Total sodium intake in the fourth quartile showed a significant association with rheumatoid arthritis (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P for trend = 0.02). Never smokers with high sodium intake had higher association than ever smokers with high sodium intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Dose-dependent association was replicated in the case-control study. High sodium intake may be associated with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This confirms previous clinical and experimental research. PMID:26376372

  13. High Sodium Intake Is Associated With Self-Reported Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross Sectional and Case Control Analysis Within the SUN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Eva; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; de Irala, Jokin; Carmona, Loreto; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sodium intake is a potential environmental factor for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of sodium intake with rheumatoid arthritis. We performed a cross-sectional study nested in a highly educated cohort investigating dietary habits as determinants of disease. Daily sodium intake in grams per day was estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified prevalent self-reported cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio for rheumatoid arthritis by sodium intake adjusting for confounders. Linear trend tests and interactions between variables were explored. Sensitivity analyses included age- and sex-matched case–control study, logistic multivariate model adjusted by residuals, and analysis excluding individuals with prevalent diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The effective sample size was 18,555 individuals (mean age 38-years old, 60% women) including 392 self-reported rheumatoid arthritis. Median daily sodium intake (estimated from foods plus added salt) was 3.47 (P25–75: 2.63–4.55) grams. Total sodium intake in the fourth quartile showed a significant association with rheumatoid arthritis (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.1, P for trend = 0.02). Never smokers with high sodium intake had higher association than ever smokers with high sodium intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Dose-dependent association was replicated in the case–control study. High sodium intake may be associated with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This confirms previous clinical and experimental research. PMID:26376372

  14. Vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2005-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most devastating and rapidly fatal cancers, yet little is known about the primary cause and prevention of this disease. We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the association between vegetables and fruits and pancreatic cancer. Between 1995 and 1999, 532 cases and 1,701 age- and sex-matched controls completed direct interviews using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. No proxy interviews were conducted. We observed inverse associations between consumption of total and specific vegetables and fruits and the risk of pancreatic cancer. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the highest versus the lowest quartile of total vegetable intake was 0.45 (0.32-0.62), trend P < 0.0001; and for total fruits and fruit juice was 0.72 (0.54-0.98), trend P = 0.06. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus the lowest quartile of specific vegetables and fruits were: 0.63 (0.47-0.83) for dark leafy vegetables, 0.76 (0.56-1.0) for cruciferous vegetables, 0.59 (0.43-0.81) for yellow vegetables, 0.56 (0.41-0.76) for carrots, 0.51 (0.38-0.70) for beans, 0.46 (0.33-0.63) for onions and garlic, and 0.78 (0.58-1.0) for citrus fruits and juice. Compared with less than five servings per day of total vegetables and fruits combined, the risk of pancreatic cancer was 0.49 (0.36-0.68) for more than nine servings per day. These results suggest that increasing vegetable and fruit consumption, already recommended for the prevention of several other chronic diseases, may impart some protection against developing pancreatic cancer. PMID:16172215

  15. Measurement of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, cytokeratin-19 fragment and matrix metalloproteinase-7 for detecting cholangiocarcinoma: a preliminary case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Lo Re, Giovanni; Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Facomer, Flavio; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2014-11-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the liver arising from the bile duct epithelium, accounting for 10-25% of all primary hepatic cancers. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific and the diagnosis of early cholangiocarcinoma is difficult, especially in patients with other biliary diseases. Measurement of serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are commonly used to monitor response to therapy, but are also useful for confirming the presence of a cholangiocarcinoma. In this setting, other biomarkers have been previously tested, including cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical usefulness of the assay of serum CEA, CA 19-9, CYFRA 21-1 and MMP7, individually and together, as tumor markers for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-four patients (14 men, 10 women, 62.6±8.2 years of age) with histologically-confirmed cholangiocarcinoma (cases) and 25 age- and sex-matched patients with benign liver disease (controls) underwent measurement of these biomarkers. The mean values of all serum markers of patients with cholangiocarcinoma were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the controls. No correlation was found between serum tumor markers and total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were: CEA: 52%, 55%, and 58%; CA 19-9: 74%, 82% and 78%; CYFRA 21-1: 76%, 79% and 78%; MMP7: 78%, 77% and 80%, respectively. The combination of all serum markers afforded 92.0% sensitivity and 96% specificity in detecting cholangiocarcinoma, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (94%). In conclusion, our preliminary results suggest that the measurement of all four biomarkers together can help in the early detection of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25368272

  16. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  17. Musculoskeletal ageing and primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Anders; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A; Christiansen, Claus

    2013-10-01

    Loss of musculoskeletal mass and function is a natural ageing trait, reinforced by an unhealthy life style. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopaenia) are conditions whose prevalence are increasing because of the change in population distribution in the western world towards an older mean age. Improvements in lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and exercise, are the most powerful tools to combat this decline efficiently; however, public health interventions aimed at tackling these problems have shown abysmal success at the population level, mostly due to failure in compliance. With these issues in mind, we believe that the primary prevention modality in coming decades will be pharmacological. We review the basic biology of musculoskeletal ageing and what measures can be taken to prevent ageing-associated loss of musculoskeletal mass and function, with particular emphasis on pharmacological means. PMID:23891483

  18. Healthy cognitive aging and dementia prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glenn E

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral prevention strategies can help maintain high levels of cognition and functional integrity, and can reduce the social, medical, and economic burden associated with cognitive aging and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Interventions involving physical exercise and cognitive training have consistently shown positive effects on cognition in older adults. "Brain fitness" interventions have now been shown to have sustained effects lasting 10 years or more. A meta-analysis suggests these physical exercise and brain fitness exercises produce nearly identical impact on formal measures of cognitive function. Behavioral interventions developed and deployed by psychologists are key in supporting healthy cognitive aging. The National Institutes of Health should expand research on cognitive health and behavioral and social science to promote healthy aging and to develop and refine ways to prevent and treat dementia. Funding for adequately powered, large-scale trials is needed. Congress must maintain support for crucial dementia-related initiatives like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthy Brain Initiative and fund training programs to insure there is a work force with skills to provide high quality care for older adults. Insurers must provide better coverage for behavioral interventions. Better coverage is needed so there can be increased access to evidence-based disease prevention and health promotion services with the potential for reducing dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159433

  19. Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Paul D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)

  20. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  1. State of Aging and Health in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The State of Aging and Health in America (SAHA) Recommend on Facebook ... this data for action. Â The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 The 2013 report ...

  2. Successful aging and the epidemiology of HIV.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; McGuinness, Teena; Musgrove, Karen; Orel, Nancy Ann; Fazeli, Pariya L

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, it is estimated that nearly half of those living with HIV in the US will be 50 years of age and older. This dramatic change in the demographics of this clinical population represents unique challenges for patients, health care providers, and society-at-large. Fortunately, because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and healthy lifestyle choices, it is now possible for many infected with HIV to age successfully with this disease; however, this depends upon one's definition of successful aging. It is proposed that successful aging is composed of eight factors: length of life, biological health, cognitive efficiency, mental health, social competence, productivity, personal control, and life satisfaction. Unfortunately, HIV and medication side effects can compromise these factors, thus diminishing one's capacity to age successfully with this disease. This article explores how HIV, medication side effects from HAART, and lifestyle choices can compromise the factors necessary to age successfully. Implications for practice and research are posited. PMID:21822373

  3. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  4. Dark ages and cosmic reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy

    2012-03-01

    About 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the protons and the electrons combined for the first time in the Universe to form hydrogen (and helium) atoms, which is known as the recombination epoch. Following that, the Universe entered a phase called the "dark ages" where no significant radiation sources existed. The dark ages ended once the first structures collapsed and luminous sources like stars and accreting black holes started forming. The radiation from these sources then ionized hydrogen atoms in the surrounding medium, a process known as "reionization". Reionization is thus the second major change in the ionization state of hydrogen (and helium) in the Universe (the first being the recombination). The study of dark ages and cosmic reionization has acquired increasing significance over the last few years because of various reasons. On the observational front, we now have good quality data of different types at high redshifts (quasar absorption spectra, radiation backgrounds at different frequencies, number counts of galaxies, cosmic microwave background polarization, Lyα emitters and so on). Theoretically, the importance of the reionization lies in its close coupling with the formation of first cosmic structures, and there have been numerous progresses in modeling the process. In this article, we introduce the basic concepts involving the formation of first structures and evolution of the ionization history of the Universe. We also discuss the possibility of constraining the reionization history by matching theoretical models with observations.

  5. Leydig cell aging and hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Beattie, M C; Adekola, L; Papadopoulos, V; Chen, H; Zirkin, B R

    2015-08-01

    Leydig cell testosterone (T) production is reduced with age, resulting in reduced serum T levels (hypogonadism). A number of cellular changes have been identified in the steroidogenic pathway of aged Leydig cells that are associated with reduced T formation, including reductions in luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated cAMP production, the cholesterol transport proteins steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein and translocator protein (TSPO), and downstream steroidogenic enzymes of the mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Many of the changes in steroid formation that characterize aged Leydig cells can be elicited by the experimental alteration of the redox environment of young cells, suggesting that changes in the intracellular redox balance may cause reduced T production. Hypogonadism is estimated to affect about 5 million American men, including both aged and young. This condition has been linked to mood changes, worsening cognition, fatigue, depression, decreased lean body mass, reduced bone mineral density, increased visceral fat, metabolic syndrome, decreased libido, and sexual dysfunction. Exogenous T administration is now used widely to elevate serum T levels in hypogonadal men and thus to treat symptoms of hypogonadism. However, recent evidence suggests that men who take exogenous T may face increased risk of stroke, heart attack, and prostate tumorigenesis. Moreover, it is well established that administered T can have suppressive effects on LH, resulting in lower Leydig cell T production, reduced intratesticular T concentration, and reduced spermatogenesis. This makes exogenous T administration inappropriate for men who wish to father children. There are promising new approaches to increase serum T by directly stimulating Leydig cell T production rather than by exogenous T therapy, thus potentially avoiding some of its negative consequences. PMID:25700847

  6. Age and the explanation of crime, revisited.

    PubMed

    Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    Age is one of the most robust correlates of criminal behavior. Yet, explanations for this relationship are varied and conflicting. Developmental theories point to a multitude of sociological, psychological, and biological changes that occur during adolescence and adulthood. One prominent criminological perspective outlined by Gottfredson and Hirschi claims that age has a direct effect on crime, inexplicable from sociological and psychological variables. Despite the attention this claim has received, few direct empirical tests of it have been conducted. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of over 1,300 serious youthful offenders (85.8% male, 40.1% African-American, 34.3% Hispanic, 21.0% White), to test this claim. On average, youths were 16.5 years old at the initial interview and were followed for 7 years. We use multilevel longitudinal models to assess the extent to which the direct effects of age are reduced to statistical and substantive non-significance when constructs from a wide range of developmental and criminological theories are controlled. Unlike previous studies, we are able to control for changes across numerous realms emphasized within differing theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., employment and marriage), procedural justice (e.g., perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of the legal system), learning (e.g., gang membership and exposure to antisocial peers), strain (e.g., victimization and relationship breakup), psychosocial maturity (e.g., impulse control, self-regulation and moral disengagement), and rational choice (e.g., costs and rewards of crime). Assessed separately, these perspectives explain anywhere from 3% (procedural justice) to 49% (social learning) of the age-crime relationship. Together, changes in these constructs explain 69% of the drop in crime from ages 15 to 25. We conclude that the relationship between age and crime in adolescence and early adulthood is largely explainable, though

  7. Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism and Completed Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Kostrzewa, Grazyna; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Pawel; Blow, Frederic; Ploski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    The association between suicide and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1386483) was examined in the recently identified tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene. Blood samples of 143 suicide victims and 162 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The frequency of the TT genotype in the TPH2 polymorphism was higher in suicide victims than in…

  8. Voice Relative Fundamental Frequency via Neck-Skin Acceleration in Individuals with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Calabrese, Carolyn R.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Murray, Elizabeth Heller; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Noordzij, J. Pieter; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of neck-skin acceleration for relative fundamental frequency (RFF) analysis. Method: Forty individuals with voice disorders associated with vocal hyperfunction and 20 age- and sex-matched control participants were recorded with a subglottal neck-surface accelerometer and a microphone while producing speech…

  9. A Comparison of Autonomic, Behavioral, and Parent-Report Measures of Sensory Sensitivity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper R.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Aube, Daniella; Scrimgeour, Meghan; Ostholthoff, Tyler; Brickley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present research compared responses to sensory stimuli among eight young children with autism and an age- and sex-matched typically developing control group, using autonomic (heart rate/HR) and a behavioral rating scale. Parents of all participants also completed the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (SP). Results indicate that children with…

  10. The Combined Burden of Cognitive, Executive Function, and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoie, B.; Sommerfelt, K.; Waaler, P. E.; Alsaker, F. D.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Mykletun, A.

    2008-01-01

    The combined burden of psychosocial (Achenbach scales), cognitive (Raven matrices), and executive function (EF) problems was studied in a population-based sample of 6- to 12-year-old children with epilepsy (n = 162; 99 males, 63 females) and in an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 107; 62 males, 45 females). Approximately 35% of the children…

  11. Osteoporosis in Groups with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, J. R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-three adults with intellectual impairment referred to an endocrinology clinic in New South Wales (Australia) were measured for lumbar bone mineral density. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in this group than in an age and sex matched control group. Risk factors included male gender, physical inactivity, small body size,…

  12. Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, Abdullahi; Al-Saad, Samira

    2005-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of natural trace elements has been implicated in the etiology of autism. This study explores whether concentration levels of toxic metals in the hair of children with autism significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In-hair concentration levels of antimony, uranium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury,…

  13. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  14. Decreased Functional Brain Activation in Friedreich Ataxia Using the Simon Effect Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou-Karistianis, N.; Akhlaghi, H.; Corben, L. A.; Delatycki, M. B.; Storey, E.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Egan, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study applied the Simon effect task to examine the pattern of functional brain reorganization in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirteen individuals with FRDA and 14 age and sex matched controls participated, and were required to respond to either congruent or incongruent…

  15. The Intonation-Syntax Interface in the Speech of Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Huber, Jessica E.; Snow, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the intonational marking of final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries and investigated whether the effect of PD on intonation was sex specific. Method: Eight women and 8 men with PD and 16 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage at comfortable pitch, rate, and…

  16. Disease History and Medication Use as Risk Factors for the Clinical Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults: An Explorative Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a highly variable asymptomatic period of beta cell destruction prior to the clinical presentation of type1 diabetes. It is not well known what triggers type 1 diabetes to become a clinically overt disease. This explorative study aimed to identify the association between disease history/medication use and the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. Methodology/Principal Findings An explorative case control study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Cases (n  = 1,107) were younger than 25 years and had at least 2 insulin prescriptions between 1999 and 2009. For each case, up to 4 controls (without any prescription for the glucose lowering medications (n  = 4,424)) were matched by age and sex. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between disease history/medication use in the year prior to the diagnosis of type1 diabetes and clinical manifestation of this disease. Type1 diabetes was significantly associated with a history of mental disorder (odds ratio (OR) 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–43.7), anemia (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1–22.9), and disease of digestive system (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5). The following drug exposures were significantly associated with the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes: “systemic hormonal preparations” (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), medications for “blood and blood forming organs” (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), “alimentary tract and metabolism” (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6), and “anti-infectives for systemic use” (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.4). Conclusions Our explorative study demonstrated that in the year prior to the presentation of type1 diabetes in children and young adults, hospitalization for a diverse group of diseases and drug exposures were significantly more prevalent compared with age- and sex-matched diabetes-free controls. PMID:24498320

  17. Vascular dysregulation in normal-tension glaucoma is not affected by structure and function of the microcirculation or macrocirculation at rest: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Jelle; Vandekerckhove, Gwendolijn; De Backer, Tine L M; Van de Velde, Sandrien; Azermai, Majda; Stevens, Anna-Maria; Kestelyn, Philippe; Raemdonck, Tia; Segers, Patrick; Vanmolkot, Floris; Van Bortel, Luc M

    2015-01-01

    In normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), optic nerve damage occurs despite a normal intraocular pressure. Studies implicating systemic blood pressure or, more recently, arterial stiffness in the pathophysiology of NTG have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate whether NTG is associated with alterations in the macrocirculation or microcirculation, cardiac function, and peripheral and central hemodynamics. Thirty patients with NTG (mean age 65 years, range 46-79) and 33 healthy subjects (mean age 67 years, range 42-79) matched for age and sex were included in the study. Exclusion criteria (for both cases and controls) were history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, severe hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Aortic stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), central hemodynamics using carotid artery applanation tonometry, and diameter, stiffness, and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid and femoral artery using echo-tracking. Total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) was derived from mean arterial pressure and cardiac index, measured using ultrasound. There were no statistically significant differences in arterial structure nor function between NTG patients and age and sex-matched controls. NTG versus controls, respectively: brachial blood pressure 126 ± 15/77 ± 8 versus 127 ± 16/76 ± 7 mm Hg, P = 0.81; carotid-femoral PWV 9.8 ± 2.1 versus 10.1 ± 1.9 m/s, P = 0.60; TPRI 1833 ± 609 versus 1779 ± 602 dyne.s/cm5/m2, P = 0.79; and carotid IMT 0.65 ± 0.14 versus 0.68 ± 0.13 mm, P = 0.39. This study could not show an association of NTG with altered IMT, arterial stiffness, total peripheral resistance, cardiac output, and peripheral or central hemodynamics at rest. Although the majority of these NTG patients do exhibit symptoms of vascular dysregulation, in the present study this was not translated into alterations in the microcirculation or macrocirculation at rest. PMID:25590850

  18. Case-control study of dementia of the Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    French, L.R.; Schuman, L.M.; Mortimer, J.A.; Hutton, J.T.; Boatman, R.A.; Christians, B.

    1985-03-01

    A case-control study to assess factors of possible etiologic significance to dementia of the Alzheimer type was conducted with 78 male cases diagnosed in 1979-1982 at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota and age-race-sex-matched hospital and neighborhood controls (14 of 16 autopsied cases were histopathologically confirmed). Information was obtained on variables relevant to vital, genetic, and immunologic hypotheses, and on possible occupational and environmental exposures, drug use, psychologic stress, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The only major difference between patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and controls was a significantly greater occurrence of antecedent head trauma in the patients (odds ratio = 4.50). This finding is consistent with the literature on posttraumatic dementia but its importance is presently unclear.

  19. Age and Grip Strength Predict Hand Dexterity in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jason A.; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  20. Successful aging and the epidemiology of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E; McGuinness, Teena; Musgrove, Karen; Orel, Nancy Ann; Fazeli, Pariya L

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, it is estimated that nearly half of those living with HIV in the US will be 50 years of age and older. This dramatic change in the demographics of this clinical population represents unique challenges for patients, health care providers, and society-at-large. Fortunately, because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and healthy lifestyle choices, it is now possible for many infected with HIV to age successfully with this disease; however, this depends upon one’s definition of successful aging. It is proposed that successful aging is composed of eight factors: length of life, biological health, cognitive efficiency, mental health, social competence, productivity, personal control, and life satisfaction. Unfortunately, HIV and medication side effects can compromise these factors, thus diminishing one’s capacity to age successfully with this disease. This article explores how HIV, medication side effects from HAART, and lifestyle choices can compromise the factors necessary to age successfully. Implications for practice and research are posited. PMID:21822373

  1. Children with nephrotic syndrome have greater bone area but similar volumetric bone mineral density to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Moon, RJ; Gilbert, RD; Page, A; Murphy, L; Taylor, P; Cooper, C; Dennison, EM; Davies, JH

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid use has been associated with an increased fracture risk and reduced bone mineral density (BMD), particularly in the trabecular compartment. However the contribution of the underlying inflammatory disease process to these outcomes is poorly understood. Childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) typically follows a relapsing-remitting course often requiring recurrent courses of glucocorticoids, but with low systemic inflammation during remission. NS therefore represents a useful clinical model to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids on BMD and bone geometry in childhood. Methods Children with NS were compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Body composition and areal BMD (whole body, lumbar spine and hip) were assessed by DXA. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were obtained at metaphyseal (4%) and diaphyseal (66%) sites of the tibia to determine volumetric BMD and bone cross-sectional geometry. Lifetime cumulative glucocorticoid exposure was calculated from medical records. Results 29 children with NS (55% male, age 10.7±3.1years) were compared to 29 healthy controls (55% male, age 11.0±3.0years). The children with NS were of similar height SDS to controls (p=0.28), but were heavier (0.65±1.28SDS vs -0.04±0.89SDS, p=0.022) and had greater body fat percentage SDS (0.31±1.01 vs -0.52±1.10, p=0.008). Tibial trabecular and cortical vBMD were similar between the two groups but bone cross-sectional area (CSA) was significantly greater in children with NS at both the metaphysis (954±234 mm2 vs 817±197mm2, p=0.002) and diaphysis (534.9±162.7mm2 vs 463.2±155.5 mm2, p=0.014). Endosteal and periosteal circumferences were greater in children with NS than controls (both p<0.01), resulting in reduced cortical thickness (2.4±0.7mm vs 2.8±0.7mm, p=0.018), but similar cortical CSA (p=0.22). The differences in cortical geometry were not statistically significant when weight was included as a confounding factor. There

  2. Zinc, aging, and immunosenescence: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Ángel Julio Romero

    2015-01-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in many biochemical pathways and participates in several cell functions, including the immune response. This review describes the role of zinc in human health, aging, and immunosenescence. Zinc deficiency is frequent in the elderly and leads to changes similar to those that occur in oxidative inflammatory aging (oxi-inflamm-aging) and immunosenescence. The possible benefits of zinc supplementation to enhance immune function are discussed. PMID:25661703

  3. Colorectal adenomas and diet: a case-control study of subjects participating in the Nottingham faecal occult blood screening programme.

    PubMed Central

    Little, J.; Logan, R. F.; Hawtin, P. G.; Hardcastle, J. D.; Turner, I. D.

    1993-01-01

    Diets high in animal fat and protein and low in fibre and calcium are thought to be factors in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Intakes of these nutrients were determined in three groups participating in a randomised trial of faecal occult blood (FOB) screening. A diet history was obtained by interview from 147 patients with colorectal adenomas, 153 age and sex matched FOB-negative controls (a) and 176 FOB-positive controls without colorectal neoplasia (b). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence limits (increases) adjusted for age, sex and social class. After adjustment for total energy intake, no associations were found with total, saturated or mono-unsaturated fat, or calcium intake. For total fibre intake there were non-linear relationships with both control groups with the crude RR for highest quintiles of total fibre intake compared to the lowest being 0.6, although this pattern was no longer apparent after adjustment for energy intake with group (a). In comparison with group (b) cereal fibre intake showed a more consistent inverse relationship with adenoma prevalence with the RR for ascending quintiles of intake being 1.0, 0.7 (0.3-1.6), 0.5 (0.3-1.1), 0.7 (0.4-1.4) and 0.3 (0.1-0.6) (trend chi 2 = 8.80, p = 0.003). In comparison with group (a), the adjusted RR for the highest quintile of cereal fibre intake compared with the lowest was 0.6, but no clear trend was apparent. There was an unexpected positive relationship between adenomas and polyunsaturated fat intake with the RR for having an adenoma being 1.0, 2.8 (1.3-6.1), 1.6 (0.7-3.4), 3.5 (1.6-7.5) and 2.3 (1.1-5.0) for ascending quintiles of polyunsaturated fat intakes (trend chi 2 = 4.8, P = 0.03) in comparison with group (a) only. Our data, while providing no support for the role of dietary animal fat or protein, do support the protective role of dietary cereal fibre in the etiology of colorectal adenomas. PMID:8381298

  4. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shammri, Suhail N.; Hanna, Magdy G.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Akanji, Abayomi O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition. Subjects and methods In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment. Results On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049), positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9), p < 0.001), and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001). In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001). Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but

  5. The role of lipid profile in determining the risk of ischemic stroke in the elderly: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Denti, Licia; Cecchetti, Alessandra; Annoni, Valentina; Merli, Maria Francesca; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Valenti, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association of lipids with ischemic stroke and its different subtypes in elderly patients. In particular, lipid parameters not extensively investigated so far in previous case-control studies specifically focused in the old population, such as lipoprotein Lp (a) and Apoproteins AI (ApoAI) and B (ApoB), have been taken into account. Seventy nine patients (mean age 83 +/- 7.4, range 67-99), consecutively admitted to a Geriatric Ward between January 1998 and June 2000 with acute stroke (first event) were studied. A complete clinical and laboratory assessment, including neurological evaluation, head CT scan, carotid ultrasonography and ECG, was employed to define the clinical and etiologic stroke subtype, according to standardized criteria. Fasting blood samples were collected within 48 h from admission, for determination of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), Lp(a), ApoAI and ApoB; Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Friedwald formula. Eighty eight age and sex-matched outpatients, referred to the hospital for non-inflammatory disorders of joints and musculoskeletal system, served as controls. Patients showed HDL-C and HDL-C/ApoAI ratio significantly lower than controls, with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Analysis on quartiles of lipoprotein concentrations showed also a significant increase in odds of stroke for LDL-C concentrations over 100 mg/dl, in absence of a linear relationship between LDL-C levels and risk. Multiple logistic regression, adjusting for non-lipid risk factors for stroke, confirmed the independent association of low HDL-C and HDL-C/ApoAI with all strokes, as well as with each subtype. In conclusion, these data suggest that lipids give some contribution to stroke risk even in the elderly, with a more prevalent role for HDL than LDL, and that lipid profile assessment must be taken into account in estimating the individual risk of stroke. PMID

  6. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  7. Gastric cancer in Zambian adults: a prospective case-control study that assessed dietary intake and antioxidant status by using urinary isoprostane excretion123

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kayamba, Violet; Mwanza-Lisulo, Mpala; Colditz, Graham; Mudenda, Victor; Yarasheski, Kevin; Chott, Robert; Rubin, Deborah C; Gyawali, C Prakash; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Anderson-Spearie, Catherine; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is increasingly recognized in Zambia. Although nutritional factors contribute to gastric cancer risk, their effect in Zambia is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between intake of dietary antioxidants, urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α) as a marker of oxidative stress, and gastric cancer. Design: This was a case-control study at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Gastric cancer cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Urine 8-iso PGF2α was measured primarily by ELISA, and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a subset, expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Blood was collected for Helicobacter pylori, HIV serology, gastrin-17, and pepsinogen 1 and 2 concentrations. Clinical and dietary data were collected by using questionnaires. Food items were broadly classified into 7 major categories (fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, insects, cereals, and starches). Results: Fifty cases with gastric cancer (mean age: 61 y; n = 31 males) and 90 controls (mean age: 54 y; n = 41 males) were enrolled. Median urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was higher in cases (0.014; IQR: 0.008–0.021) than in controls (0.011; IQR: 0.006–0.018; P = 0.039). On univariate analysis, habitual fruit intake was lower in cases than in controls during the dry season (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR: 7.22; IQR: 1.38–37.9) and gastric atrophy (OR: 2.43; IQR: 1.12–5.13) were independently associated with cancer, and higher fruit intake was protective (OR: 0.44; IQR: 0.20–0.95). Isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with total fruit intake (ρ = −0.23; n = 140; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was associated with the risk of gastric cancer, as were smoking and gastric atrophy, but increased fruit intake conferred protection. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as ISRCTN52971746. PMID:23535107

  8. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Hairston, Ilana S.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of disorder. Although the mechanisms for their sleep disturbances are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD vs. healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. Methods Fifty-two AD participants (mean age 36.0 ± 11.0 years, 10 women) who were 3–12 weeks since their last drink (mean abstinence 57.9 ± 19.3 days) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (mean age 34.4 ± 10.6 years, 5 women) participated. Following a 23:00 – 06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 days, and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-hr extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 minutes beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. Results There was a slower rate of rise and a lower maximal amplitude in the AD group. DLMO varied by methodology used. Using 3 pg/ml as a threshold, no significant differences between the AD and HC groups were found. Using two standard deviations above the mean of the first 3 samples, AD DLMO occurred later 21:02 (SD=0:41) than HC 20:44 (SD=0:21) t=-2.4, (p=.02). Conclusions While melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in ADs. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats PMID:22217099

  9. Insomnia in somatoform pain disorder: sleep laboratory studies on differences to controls and acute effects of trazodone, evaluated by the Somnolyzer 24 x 7 and the Siesta database.

    PubMed

    Saletu, Bernd; Prause, Wolfgang; Anderer, Peter; Mandl, Magdalena; Aigner, Martin; Mikova, Olya; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda Maria

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often suffer from sleep disturbances, specifically decreased deep sleep, and thus may get into a vicious circle which maintains their pain condition. Utilizing polysomnography and psychometry, objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality was investigated in 11 patients with nonorganic insomnia (F51.0) related to somatoform pain disorder (SPD; F45.4) as compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls of the Siesta normative database. Patients demonstrated a markedly deteriorated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a decreased Quality of Life Index, slightly increased self-reported anxiety (Zung SAS) and depression scores (Zung SDS), as well as an increased Epworth Sleepiness Scale and International Restless Legs Syndrome Scale score. Subjective sleep and awakening quality was markedly reduced, while somatic complaints were increased. Polysomnographic evaluation by a recently developed automatic sleep classifier (Somnolyzer 24 x 7) based on the rules of Rechtschaffen and Kales demonstrated reduced slow-wave sleep (SWS), the target variable in the present study, a decreased stage shift index, increased SWS latency and stage 4 sleep (S4) latency and an increased frequency of shifts from S2 to wakefulness (W) in patients as compared with controls. Minimal oxygen saturation was found decreased, periodic leg movements (PLMs) were increased. In the morning, patients showed deteriorated well-being, drive, mood and wakefulness. There were no significant noopsychic or psychophysiological differences between patients and controls (except for a reduced numerical memory and a slightly increased morning diastolic blood pressure in patients). Subsequent evaluation of the acute effects of 100 mg of a controlled-release formulation of trazodone (Trittico retard) in the patients demonstrated an increase in the target variable SWS, accompanied by a reduction in the number of awakenings and stage shifts. It normalized the frequency of shifts from S2

  10. Risk Factors for DOTS Treatment Default Among New HIV-TB Coinfected Patients in Nalgonda (Dist.) Telangana (State): A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Satti, Siva Balaji; Kondagunta, Nagaraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. Aim and Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. Setting and Design: This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana. Materials and Methods: All new HIV-TB coinfected and DOTS-defaulted patients registered under RNTCP for the period from January 2010 to December 2012 were selected. Of the 154 patients, 23 had died and 11 could not be traced, and these were excluded. Thus the total number of available cases were 120 for those age- and sex-matched controls (HIV-TB coinfected patients and those who had completed the DOTS regimen successfully) were selected. Results: The mean age was 36.5 ± 9 years; the majority (23.3%) of patients defaulted during the second month of treatment. Significant risk factors associated with defaulting included unskilled occupation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-11.56], lower middle class socioeconomic status (AOR: 17.16; 95% CI: 3.93-74.82), small family size (AOR: 21.3; 95% CI: 6.4-70.91), marital disharmony (AOR: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.93-23.76), not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel (AOR: 7.38; 95% CI: 2.32-23.39), smoking (AOR: 8.5; 95% CI: 2.31-31.21), and side effects of drugs (AOR: 4.18; 95% CI: 1.35-12.9). Conclusion: Unskilled occupation, marital disharmony, small family size, lower middle class socioeconomic status, not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel, smoking, and drug side effects were significantly associated with defaulting. Information on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB), the outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT), and the factors associated with it will help in planning

  11. Gene expression in cell lines from propionic acidemia patients, carrier parents, and controls.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kimberly A; Bush, William S; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn of metabolism which usually presents with metabolic acidosis and accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionate among other toxins. Examining the gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from PA patients, their carrier parents and age/sex-matched controls at normal glucose and low glucose growth conditions demonstrated differences among and between these groups. Using three-way ANOVA analysis, four DAVID clusters of response were identified of which three of the four clusters showed that LCLs from carrier parents had an intermediate response between healthy controls and PA patients. These differences included changes in expression of cell cycle regulatory genes, mitochondrial related genes, and transcriptional regulation. In addition, differences also were observed in expression of genes involved in transendothelial migration and focal adhesion at normal growth conditions when comparing the LCLs from PA patients and controls. These studies demonstrate transcriptional differences between LCLs from PA patients, their parents and biochemically normal controls. PMID:25963861

  12. Mitochondrial proteostasis in the control of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process. Studies in model organisms have started to integrate mitochondrial effects on aging with the maintenance of protein homeostasis. These findings center on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which has been implicated in lifespan extension in worms, flies, and mice, suggesting a conserved role in the long-term maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current knowledge of the UPR(mt) and discuss its integration with cellular pathways known to regulate lifespan. We highlight how insight into the UPR(mt) is revolutionizing our understanding of mitochondrial lifespan extension and of the aging process. PMID:24930971

  13. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  14. Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

  15. DAMPs, ageing, and cancer: The 'DAMP Hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Xie, Yangchun; Sun, Xiaofang; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Tang, Daolin

    2015-11-01

    Ageing is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of many forms of damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level with advancing age. Ageing increases the risk of the onset of chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. In particular, ageing and cancer share some common origins and hallmarks such as genomic instability, epigenetic alteration, aberrant telomeres, inflammation and immune injury, reprogrammed metabolism, and degradation system impairment (including within the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagic machinery). Recent advances indicate that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) such as high mobility group box 1, histones, S100, and heat shock proteins play location-dependent roles inside and outside the cell. These provide interaction platforms at molecular levels linked to common hallmarks of ageing and cancer. They can act as inducers, sensors, and mediators of stress through individual plasma membrane receptors, intracellular recognition receptors (e.g., advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptors, AIM2-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and NOD1-like receptors, and toll-like receptors), or following endocytic uptake. Thus, the DAMP Hypothesis is novel and complements other theories that explain the features of ageing. DAMPs represent ideal biomarkers of ageing and provide an attractive target for interventions in ageing and age-associated diseases. PMID:25446804

  16. The impact of intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate injection on fructosamine levels in diabetic patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Habib, George; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Khazin, Fadi; Hakim, Geries; Jabbour, Adel; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2016-06-01

    Fructosamine is a glycated protein that reflects blood glucose control over the last 2-3 weeks. There are no studies that address the impact of intra-articular injection (IAI) of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) on fructosamine levels among patients with type-2 diabetes and osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology or orthopedic clinic with type-2 diabetes and painful OAK, who failed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and physical therapy, were asked to participate in our study. After consent blood tests were drown for fructosamine, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, complete blood count, lipid profile, serum albumin, serum protein, c-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Demographic and different clinical parameters were also documented. Immediately after that, patients had IAI of 80 mg of MPA at the knee joint (group 1). Two to three weeks later, the same blood tests were repeated (except for HbA1c). Age- and sex-matched group of patients with type-2 diabetes and painful OAK attending the same clinics, but who were managed by NSAIDS were asked to participate as a control group (group 2) and had the same evaluation at enrollment and 2-3 weeks later, after consent. Eighteen patients from either group completed the study. Mean fructosamine level in group 1 patients was 263.7 ± 31.8 mg% prior to the IAI vs. 274.6 ± 39.3 mg% (p = 0.035), 2-3 weeks later, while mean fructosamine level in the control group (group 2) at enrollments was 274.2 ± 31.2 mg% vs. 269 ± 30.2 mg%, p = 0.509, 2-3 weeks later. There was no significant change in any other parameter tested at enrollment in either group, compared to those obtained 2-3 weeks afterwards. Body mass index was on the edge of significance as a predictor for a significant change in fructosamine level in group 1 patients. IAI of 80 mg of MPA in patients with type-2 diabetes and OAK had resulted in a significant, though mild

  17. Tea drinking habits and oesophagial cancer in a high-risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2009-05-01

    In a recently published paper in the "British Medical Journal", a joint collaboration of well-known international scientists represented by Islami et al. has tackled this issue.1 In a well-designed, laborious case-control study in Golestan, Iran, they looked at 300 cases of esophageal SCC and 571 age and sex matched neighborhood controls, assessed the temperature of the commonly used drink "tea" among them and compared it between the two groups. After adjusting for several confounders including ethnicity, daily vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, tobacco or opium use, duration of residence in rural areas, education level and car ownership (the latter two as indices of socio-economic status), they found that consuming hot tea is associated with significantly increased chance of developing esophageal SCC. The adjusted odds ratio(OR) for developing esophageal SCC in those who reported drinking "very hot tea" was 8.16 (95% CI: 3.93 to 16.91) as compared to those taking warm or lukewarm tea (P<0.001) and for those drinking "hot" tea the adjusted OR was 2.07 (95% CI: 1.28 to 3.35). According to Islami et al., 21.1% and 36.2% of the cases drank their tea "very hot" or "hot", respectively. Self-claim of "hot", "very hot", and "warm or "lukewarm" tea drinking correlated with the claimed time from pouring tea to its drinking by the individual (weighted kappa statistics: 0.69). They did not find any correlation between amount of tea consumed and development of esophageal SCC. They have also reported limited data of tea temperature measurement in addition to the self claims of tea drinking habits (as mentioned for the case-control study) from a large on-going cohort study in the same region. The authors conclude that it is probably the "hotness" rather than the "tea" which is responsible for this increased chance of SCC of esophagus. In an accompanying editorial, Whiteman suggests that people drink their tea at least 5 minutes after pouring it in their cups. PMID:19400617

  18. An intrinsic mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Won Ho; Aziz, Peter V.; Heithoff, Douglas M.; Mahan, Michael J.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Marth, Jamey D.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and functions of the secreted proteome are controlled by the life spans of different proteins. However, unlike intracellular protein fate, intrinsic factors determining secreted protein aging and turnover have not been identified and characterized. Almost all secreted proteins are posttranslationally modified with the covalent attachment of N-glycans. We have discovered an intrinsic mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover linked to the stepwise elimination of saccharides attached to the termini of N-glycans. Endogenous glycosidases, including neuraminidase 1 (Neu1), neuraminidase 3 (Neu3), beta-galactosidase 1 (Glb1), and hexosaminidase B (HexB), possess hydrolytic activities that temporally remodel N-glycan structures, progressively exposing different saccharides with increased protein age. Subsequently, endocytic lectins with distinct binding specificities, including the Ashwell–Morell receptor, integrin αM, and macrophage mannose receptor, are engaged in N-glycan ligand recognition and the turnover of secreted proteins. Glycosidase inhibition and lectin deficiencies increased protein life spans and abundance, and the basal rate of N-glycan remodeling varied among distinct proteins, accounting for differences in their life spans. This intrinsic multifactorial mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover contributes to health and the outcomes of disease. PMID:26489654

  19. Paternal age and the occurrence of birth defects.

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Z H; Zack, M M; Erickson, J D

    1986-01-01

    The association between paternal age and the occurrence of birth defects was studied using data collected in Metropolitan Atlanta. Paternal-age information for babies born with defects was obtained from birth certificates, hospital records, and interviews with mothers; for babies born without defects, the information was obtained from birth certificates. Several statistical techniques were used to evaluate the paternal-age-birth-defects associations for 86 groups of defects. Logistic regression analysis that controlled for maternal age and race indicated that older fathers had a somewhat higher risk for having babies with defects, when all types of defects were combined; an equivalent association for older mothers was not found. Logistic regression analyses also indicated modestly higher risks for older fathers for having babies with ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects and substantially higher risks for having babies with defects classified in the category chondrodystrophy (largely sporadic achondroplasia) and babies with situs inversus. An association between elevated paternal age and situs inversus has not been reported before; the magnitude of the estimated increased risk for situs inversus was about the same as that found in this study for chondrodystrophy. PMID:3788977

  20. Ageing and the epidemiology of multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Divo, Miguel J.; Martinez, Carlos H.; Mannino, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The world's population is ageing and an important part of this demographic shift is the development of chronic illness. In short, a person who does not die of acute illnesses, such as infections, and survives with chronic illnesses is more likely to develop additional chronic illnesses. Chronic respiratory diseases are an important component of these diseases associated with ageing. This article reviews the relationship between ageing and chronic respiratory disease, and also how certain chronic diseases cluster with others, either on the basis of underlying risk factors, complication of the primary disease or other factors, such as an increased state of inflammation. While death is inevitable, disabling chronic illnesses are not. Better understanding of how individuals can age healthily without the development of multiple chronic illnesses should lead to an improved global quality of life. PMID:25142482

  1. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  2. Aging and the Muscle-Bone Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Gordon L.; Hamrick, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-induced declines in muscle size and quality are thought to contribute to catabolic alterations in bone, but changes in bone with age also profoundly alter its response to muscle-derived stimuli. This review provides an overview of some of the alterations that occur in muscle and bone with aging, and discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may impact these age-associated changes. PMID:25559151

  3. Aging and the Mammalian Regulatory Triumvirate

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, C. David

    2010-01-01

    A temporal framework linking circadian rhythms and clocks to aging rates identifies a specific window of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling associated with growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) (largely exclusive of insulin) in early sleep. IGF-1 signaling is released by growth hormone secretory peaks and downregulation of IGF-1 binding protein-1 resulting in activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal response kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-PKB/Akt) signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of Akt activates TOR which mediates the protein synthesis and growth functions of the GH axis. TOR activity is also associated with downregulated stress resistance, faster aging and reduced lifespan. IGF-1 signaling is terminated by falling GH and upregulation of IGF-1 binding proteins mediated by somatostatin and rising corticosteroids in later sleep. This suppresses PI3K-Akt signaling, thus activating the forkhead transcription factors (FOXOs) and stress-resistance pathways involved in promoting longevity. Thus, sleep appears to encompass both pathways currently identified as most relevant to aging and they toggle successively on the phosphorylation status of Akt. I propose a modified version of Pearl’s rate of living theory emphasizing the hard-wired antagonism of growth (TOR) and stress resistance (FOXO). The sleep association of TOR and FOXO in temporally separated windows and their sequential temporal deployment may change much of the way we think about aging and how to manipulate it. PMID:22396860

  4. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aging and healthspan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced accumulation of damage to cellular macromolecules is a primary driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan. Although this theory is one of the most popular explanations for the cause of aging, several experimental rodent models of antioxidant manipulation have failed to affect lifespan. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation clinical trials have been largely disappointing. The mitochondrial theory of aging specifies more particularly that mitochondria are both the primary sources of ROS and the primary targets of ROS damage. In addition to effects on lifespan and aging, mitochondrial ROS have been shown to play a central role in healthspan of many vital organ systems. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in aging and healthspan, including cardiac aging, age-dependent cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle aging, neurodegenerative diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes as well as age-related cancers. The crosstalk of mitochondrial ROS, redox, and other cellular signaling is briefly presented. Potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and healthspan are reviewed, with a focus on mitochondrial protective drugs, such as the mitochondrial antioxidants MitoQ, SkQ1, and the mitochondrial protective peptide SS-31. PMID:24860647

  5. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  6. Investigating the association between obesity and asthma in 6- to 8-year-old Saudi children: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Nahhas, Mahmoud; Bhopal, Raj; Anandan, Chantelle; Elton, Rob; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between obesity and asthma, but there remains considerable uncertainty about whether this reflects an underlying causal relationship. Aims: To investigate the association between obesity and asthma in pre-pubertal children and to investigate the roles of airway obstruction and atopy as possible causal mechanisms. Methods: We conducted an age- and sex-matched case–control study of 1,264 6- to 8-year-old schoolchildren with and without asthma recruited from 37 randomly selected schools in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skin fold thickness of the 632 children with asthma were compared with those of the 632 control children without asthma. Associations between obesity and asthma, adjusted for other potential risk factors, were assessed separately in boys and girls using conditional logistic regression analysis. The possible mediating roles of atopy and airway obstruction were studied by investigating the impact of incorporating data on sensitisation to common aeroallergens and measurements of lung function. Results: BMI was associated with asthma in boys (odds ratio (OR)=1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–1.20; adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI, 1.03–1.19) and girls (OR=1.37, 95% CI, 1.26–1.50; adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI, 1.23–1.56). Adjusting for forced expiratory volume in 1 s had a negligible impact on these associations, but these were attenuated following adjustment for allergic sensitisation, particularly in girls (girls: OR=1.25; 95% CI, 0.96–1.60; boys: OR=1.09, 95% CI, 0.99–1.19). Conclusions: BMI is associated with asthma in pre-pubertal Saudi boys and girls; this effect does not appear to be mediated through respiratory obstruction, but in girls this may at least partially be mediated through increased risk of allergic sensitisation. PMID:24899344

  7. Comparative Endocrinology of Aging and Longevity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Allard, John B.; Duan, Cunming

    2011-01-01

    Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, “regulate” the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies, and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon, and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms. PMID:22654825

  8. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, Fokke J; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Graf, Helmut; Lewis, Michael; Moehner, Sabine; Assmann, Anita; Kühl-Habich, Doerthe

    2007-01-01

    Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria) from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile) of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0) and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3) for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD). While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and 1365 controls) showed a

  9. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  10. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  11. Aging and Radiation Effects in Stockpile Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E.F.

    1999-03-25

    It is likely that aging is affecting the radiation hardness of stockpile electronics, and we have seen apparent examples of aging that affects the electronic radiation hardness. It is also possible that low-level intrinsic radiation that is inherent during stockpile life will damage or in a sense age electronic components. Both aging and low level radiation effects on radiation hardness and stockpile reliability need to be further investigated by using both test and modeling strategies that include appropriate testing of electronic components withdrawn from the stockpile.

  12. Joint aging and chondrocyte cell death

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Shawn P; D’Lima, Darryl D

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix and cell function change with age and are considered to be the most important factors in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The multifaceted nature of joint disease indicates that the contribution of cell death can be an important factor at early and late stages of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the pharmacologic inhibition of cell death is likely to be clinically valuable at any stage of the disease. In this article, we will discuss the close association between diverse changes in cartilage aging, how altered conditions influence chondrocyte death, and the implications of preventing cell loss to retard osteoarthritis progression and preserve tissue homeostasis. PMID:20671988

  13. Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Adhihetty, Peter J.; Miccheli, Alfredo; Bossola, Maurizio; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Muscle loss during aging and disuse is a highly prevalent and disabling condition, but knowledge about cellular pathways mediating muscle atrophy is still limited. Given the postmitotic nature of skeletal myocytes, the maintenance of cellular homeostasis relies on the efficiency of cellular quality control mechanisms. In this scenario, alterations in mitochondrial function are considered a major factor underlying sarcopenia and muscle atrophy. Damaged mitochondria are not only less bioenergetically efficient, but also generate increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, interfere with cellular quality control mechanisms, and display a greater propensity to trigger apoptosis. Thus, mitochondria stand at the crossroad of signaling pathways that regulate skeletal myocyte function and viability. Studies on these pathways have sometimes provided unexpected and counterintuitive results, which suggests that they are organized into a complex, heterarchical network that is currently insufficiently understood. Untangling the complexity of such a network will likely provide clinicians with novel and highly effective therapeutics to counter the muscle loss associated with aging and disuse. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms whereby mitochondrial dysfunction intervenes in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and disuse atrophy, and highlight the prospect of targeting specific processes to treat these conditions. PMID:23154422

  14. Distinct mechanisms of impairment in cognitive ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mapstone, Mark; Dickerson, Kathryn; Duffy, Charles J

    2008-06-01

    Similar manifestations of functional decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease obscure differences in the underlying cognitive mechanisms of impairment. We sought to examine the contributions of top-down attentional and bottom-up perceptual factors to visual self-movement processing in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We administered a novel heading discrimination task requiring subjects to determine direction of simulated self-movement from left or right offset optic flow fields of several sizes (25 degrees, 40 degrees or 60 degrees in diameter) to 18 Alzheimer's disease subjects (mean age = 75.3, 55% female), 21 older adult control subjects (mean age = 72.4, 67% female), and 26 younger control subjects (mean age = 26.5, 63% female). We also administered computerized measures of processing speed and divided and selective attention, and psychophysical measures of visual motion perception to all subjects. Both older groups showed significant difficulty in judging the direction of virtual self-movement [F(2,194) = 40.5, P < 0.001] and optic flow stimulus size had little effect on heading discrimination for any group. Both older groups showed impairments on measures of divided [F(2,62) = 22.2, P < 0.01] and selective [F(2,62) = 63.0, P < 0.001] attention relative to the younger adult control group, while the Alzheimer's disease group showed a selective impairment in outward optic flow perception [F(2,64) = 6.3, P = 0.003] relative to both control groups. Multiple linear regression revealed distinct attentional and perceptual contributions to heading discrimination performance for the two older groups. In older adult control subjects, poorer heading discrimination was attributable to attentional deficits (R(2) adj = 0.41, P = 0.001) whereas, in Alzheimer's disease patients, it was largely attributable to deficits of visual motion perception (R(2) adj = 0.57, P < 0.001). These findings suggest that successive attentional and perceptual deficits play independent roles in

  15. Picture priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia

    2007-05-01

    The present study investigated age invariance for naming pictures and whether implicit memory is spared in Alzheimer's disease (AD). During the study phase, young adults, AD patients, and older controls were shown outlines of familiar pictures. After a distracter task, implicit memory was assessed incidentally. The results showed similar visual priming for the three groups, although young adults responded faster than the two older groups. Moreover, the number of errors was smaller for studied than for non-studied pictures. This pattern of results was repeated across the three groups, although AD patients produced more errors than young adults and older controls, and there were no differences between these latter groups. These results confirmed previous visual and haptic findings showing unimpaired perceptual priming in normal aging and AD patients when implicit memory is assessed using identification tasks. These results are interpreted from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. PMID:17425893

  16. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity. PMID:25456619

  17. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  18. Muscle and bone-aging and space.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, J; Gunga, H C; Felsenberg, D; Kirsch, K A

    1999-07-01

    One of the major concerns of aging, but also during and after spaceflight, is loss of muscle and bone mass. In aging, this is associated with an increasing risk of fractures. Recently, the possibility of aged and aging astronauts has been arisen. Thus considering the perspectives of aging and space we want to discuss, in how far the adaptations during spaceflight and during aging interfere. In other words: does spaceflight push the astronauts along the irreversible axis of aging? And which of the spaceflight effects will be reversible? Bones adapt to their mechanical function. For convenience, a simple model has been proposed: Bone, as a 'mechanostat', keeps the strains within certain thresholds, namely one threshold for modeling, i.e. formation of new bone, and one for remodeling, i.e. repair and removal. These thresholds are usually expressed as strains. A crucial role in physiological strain detection is obviously played by the osteocytes. The largest forces in the musculo-skeletal systems arise from muscle contractions. The reason for this are the poor levers, against which the muscles pull. For example: during a one-leg vertical jump, a young subject (body weight 70 kg) exerts a vertical ground reaction force of 2500 N. Due to the lever ratio of os calcis and forefoot around the tibio-talar joint, the calf muscles must exert a force 3 times greater, so that together with the body weight the bones of the lower leg are loaded with 10000 N, i.e. 14 times the body weight. Accordingly, good correlations can be observed between muscle strength and bone strength, or muscle mass and bone mass. It is therefore reasonable to discuss the accumulated knowledge about loss of muscle and bone in a combined approach. In this respect, two points must be considered: (i) for structural adaptation of bone, the muscular variable of interest arc force and rate of force development, but not power, and (ii) women before menopause have a greater bone to muscle ratio than men. PMID

  19. Age and metallicity gradients in fossil ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenthaler, P.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Fossil galaxy groups are speculated to be old and highly evolved systems of galaxies that formed early in the universe and had enough time to deplete their L∗ galaxies through successive mergers of member galaxies, building up one massive central elliptical, but retaining the group X-ray halo. Aims: Considering that fossils are the remnants of mergers in ordinary groups, the merger history of the progenitor group is expected to be imprinted in the fossil central galaxy (FCG). We present for the first time radial gradients of single-stellar population (SSP) ages and metallicites in a sample of FCGs to constrain their formation scenario. We also measure line-strength gradients for the strongest absorption features in these galaxies. Methods: We took deep spectra with the long-slit spectrograph ISIS at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) for six FCGs. The obtained spectra are fit with Pegase HR SSP models within the full-spectrum fitting package ULySS yielding SSP ages and metallicities of the stellar populations. We measure radial gradients of SSP ages and metallicities along the major axes. Lick indices are measured for the strongest absorption features to determine line-strength gradients and compare with the full-spectrum fitting results. Results: Our sample comprises some of the most massive galaxies in the universe exhibiting an average central velocity dispersion of σ0 = 271 ± 28 km s-1. Metallicity gradients are throughout negative with comparatively flat slopes of ∇[Fe/H] = -0.19 ± 0.08 while age gradients are found to be insignificant (∇age = 0.00 ± 0.05). All FCGs lie on the fundamental plane, suggesting that they are virialised systems. We find that gradient strengths and central metallicities are similar to those found in cluster ellipticals of similar mass. Conclusions: The comparatively flat metallicity gradients with respect to those predicted by monolithic collapse (∇Z = -0.5) suggest that fossils are indeed the result of

  20. Reliability of inferred age, and coincidence between inferred age and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, J; Ohara, S; Shibata, S; Maie, K

    1996-06-01

    Outdoor research is restricted by many factors. The age inference was one of the biggest problems for the outdoor researchers. We have investigated the reliability of inferred age for the Japanese people, and took out the estimation formula for the age, even if it was based on the inferred age. The age classification was the most popular method for this purpose, and there were many classifications. We took the classification of young, middle aged, and elderly groups, in which classification of the SDs were rather small, that is, 4, 5, and 7 years for the young, middle aged, and elderly age groups, respectively. PMID:9551138

  1. Aging and Emotion Recognition: Not Just a Losing Matter

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Jocelyn A.; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Gyurak, Anett; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Past studies on emotion recognition and aging have found evidence of age-related decline when emotion recognition was assessed by having participants detect single emotions depicted in static images of full or partial (e.g., eye region) faces. These tests afford good experimental control but do not capture the dynamic nature of real-world emotion recognition, which is often characterized by continuous emotional judgments and dynamic multi-modal stimuli. Research suggests that older adults often perform better under conditions that better mimic real-world social contexts. We assessed emotion recognition in young, middle-aged, and older adults using two traditional methods (single emotion judgments of static images of faces and eyes) and an additional method in which participants made continuous emotion judgments of dynamic, multi-modal stimuli (videotaped interactions between young, middle-aged, and older couples). Results revealed an age by test interaction. Largely consistent with prior research, we found some evidence that older adults performed worse than young adults when judging single emotions from images of faces (for sad and disgust faces only) and eyes (for older eyes only), with middle-aged adults falling in between. In contrast, older adults did better than young adults on the test involving continuous emotion judgments of dyadic interactions, with middle-aged adults falling in between. In tests in which target stimuli differed in age, emotion recognition was not facilitated by an age match between participant and target. These findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and methodological implications for the study of aging and emotional processing. PMID:22823183

  2. Changes in Chondrogenic Progenitor Populations Associated with Aging and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Kyla; Dickinson, Sally C.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrogenic progenitor populations, including mesenchymal stem cells, represent promising cell-based transplantation or tissue engineering therapies for the regeneration of damaged cartilage. Osteoarthritis (OA) predominantly affects the elderly and is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Advancing age is a prominent risk factor that is closely associated with the onset and progression of the disease. Understanding the influence that aging and OA have on chondrogenic progenitor cells is important to determine how these processes affect the cellular mechanisms of the cells and their capacity to differentiate into functional chondrocytes for use in therapeutic applications. Here, we review the effect of age- and OA-related changes on the growth kinetics and differentiation potential of chondrogenic progenitor cell populations. Aging differentially influences the proliferative potential of progenitor cells showing reduced growth rates with increased senescence and apoptotic activity over time, while chondrogenesis appears to be independent of donor age. Cartilage tissue affected by OA shows evidence of progenitor populations with some potential for repair, however reports on the proliferative propensity of mesenchymal stem cells and their chondrogenic potential are contradictory. This is likely attributed to the narrow age ranges of samples assessed and deficits in definitively identifying donors with OA versus healthy patients across a wide scope of advancing ages. Further studies that investigate the mechanistic effects of chondrogenic progenitor populations associated with aging and the progression of OA using clearly defined criteria and age-matched control subject groups are crucial to our understanding of the clinical relevance of these cells for use in cartilage repair therapies. PMID:27340514

  3. Calibration age and quartet divergence date estimation.

    PubMed

    Brochu, Christopher A

    2004-06-01

    The date of a single divergence point--between living alligators and crocodiles--was estimated with quartet dating using calibrations of widely divergent ages. For five mitochondrial sequence datasets, there is a clear relationship between calibration age and quartet estimate--quartets based on two relatively recent calibrations support younger divergence estimates than do quartets based on two older calibrations. Some of the estimates supported by young quartets are impossibly young and exclude the first appearance of the group in the fossil record as too old. The older estimates--those based on two relatively old calibrations--may be overestimates, and those based on one old and one recent calibration support divergence estimates very close to fossil data. This suggests that quartet dating methods may be most effective when calibrations are applied from different parts of a clade's history. PMID:15266985

  4. T cells, precocious aging, and familial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, H H; Schuman, S H; Goust, J M; Jorgenson, R

    1978-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with precocious aging and was found to have low levels of active and total T cells. Family history revealed a high familial incidence of cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, and activ T cell levels were found to be low in several living family members. The patient developed osteogenic sarcoma 13 months after initial study. Since our previous studies have reported low active and total T cells in patients with cancer, the present results suggest that subjects with low active T cells should be monitored frequently to detect possible neoplasia in it early stages. They also suggest that impaired cellular immunity in humans is associated with, if not the cause of, accelerated aging. PMID:304823

  5. Elastin peptides in aging and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Baud, Stéphanie; Duca, Laurent; Bochicchio, Brigida; Brassart, Bertrand; Belloy, Nicolas; Pepe, Antonietta; Dauchez, Manuel; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Elastin is the protein responsible for the resilience of vertebrate tissue. It is an extremely stable protein deposited during the early stages of life and experiencing almost no renewal. As a consequence, it can be considered that each individual has an elastin capital for life. Despite its extreme stability, elastin can be degraded by several enzymes termed elastases. Elastases are among the most aggressive proteases, and their presence is increased with age. As a consequence, elastin fragmentation resulting in the generation of elastin peptides is one of the hallmarks of aging. This review will examine their nature and further expose our current understanding of the role played by these peptides in aging and their contribution to tissue homeostasis and several pathologies. PMID:25436566

  6. Age and sex identification of Akohekohe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    1998-01-01

    We present methods to determine the age and sex of Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, developed on the basis of 45 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured on the island of Maui. Akohekohe retained all Juvenal primaries, some Juvenal secondaries, and some body feathers after the first prebasic molt; they attained full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Retention of brown Juvenal body feathers, especially on the head, distinguished most birds in the first basic plumage from adults, which have a full complement of distinctive, black lanceolate body feathers with white, gray, or orange tips. Male Akohekohe were heavier than females and had longer wing, tail, and tarsometatarsus lengths. We present a linear discriminant function to sex both adults and juveniles using lengths of their wing and tarsometatarsus.

  7. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of ageing and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Human and other multicellular life species age, and ageing processes become dominant during the late phase of life. Recent studies challenge this dogma, suggesting that ageing does not occur in some animal species. In mammals, cell replicative senescence occurs as early as before birth (i.e. in embryos) under physiological conditions. How the molecular machinery operates and why ageing cells dominate under some circumstances are intriguing questions. Recent studies show that cell ageing involves extensive cellular remodelling, including telomere attrition, heterochromatin formation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial disorders and lysosome processing organelles and chromatins. This article provides an update on the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing of various cell types, the newly described developmental and programmed replicative senescence and the critical roles of cellular organelles and effectors in Parkinson's disease, diabetes, hypertension and dyskeratosis congenita. PMID:24798238

  9. Astroglia dynamics in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Zorec, Robert; Rodríguez, Jose J; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Ageing of the brain is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders that result in cognitive decline and senile dementia. Ageing astrocytes undergo complex and region specific remodelling which can reflect life-long adaptive plasticity. In neurodegeneration, astroglial cells are similarly a subject for morpho-functional changes hampering the homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Region-specific astroglial atrophy with the loss of function and astroglial reactivity have been reported in virtually all forms of neurodegenerative pathologies. Modulating these astroglia changes may represent a fertile ground for novel therapeutic intervention strategies to prevent, delay progression and/or ameliorate pathology. While at present this bodacious goal represents a wishful thinking, further understanding of astroglial role in ageing and neurodegeneration could bring us closer to laying the foundations for such cell-specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:26515274

  10. THIS OLD HEART: CARDIAC AGING AND AUTOPHAGY

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Phyllis-Jean; Gurney, Michael; Sengstock, David; Mentzer, Robert M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a cellular housekeeping process, is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Autophagic activity declines with age and may explain many features of age-related cardiac dysfunction. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding age-related changes in autophagy in the heart. Recent findings from studies in human hearts are presented, including evidence that the autophagic response is intact in the aged human heart. Impaired autophagic clearance of protein aggregates or deteriorating mitochondria will have multiple consequences including increased arrhythmia risk, decreased contractile function, reduced tolerance to ischemic stress, and increased inflammation; thus autophagy represents a potentially important therapeutic target to mitigate the cardiac consequences of aging. PMID:25543002

  11. Regional aging and longevity characteristics in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Holdaway, Jennifer; Hao, Zhe; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The factors that influence the length of human life are complex and longevity remains a controversial topic, particularly in China. This paper demonstrates the spatial patterns and changes of the elderly group (65 years old and over), the oldest old (80 years old and over) and the centenarians in China in the last decade, analyzes the influence of economic development on aging, and in the end, using a case study, explores the characteristics of the centenarians' behavior. The results indicate that high elderly and the oldest old proportions are more common in regions with higher socio-economic development and that have a favorable climate. Centenarian distribution pattern is less influenced by economic but only for few regions. Lifestyle factors, such as sufficient sleep, positive mental state and a light diet are also largely found among the centenarian group. PMID:27544461

  12. Biology of Healthy Aging and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Juan José; Michan, Shaday

    2016-01-01

    As human life expectancy is prolonged, age-related diseases are thriving. Aging is a complex multifactorial process of molecular and cellular decline that affects tissue function over time, rendering organisms frail and susceptible to disease and death. Over the last decades, a growing body of scientific literature across different biological models, ranging from yeast, worms, flies, and mice to primates, humans and other long-lived animals, has contributed greatly towards identifying conserved biological mechanisms that ward off structural and functional deterioration within living systems. Collectively, these data offer powerful insights into healthy aging and longevity. For example, molecular integrity of the genome, telomere length, epigenetic landscape stability, and protein homeostasis are all features linked to "youthful" states. These molecular hallmarks underlie cellular functions associated with aging like mitochondrial fitness, nutrient sensing, efficient intercellular communication, stem cell renewal, and regenerative capacity in tissues. At present, calorie restriction remains the most robust strategy for extending health and lifespan in most biological models tested. Thus, pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction by integrating metabolic signals to aging processes have received major attention, such as insulin/insulin growth factor-1, sirtuins, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Consequently, small-molecule targets of these pathways have emerged in the impetuous search for calorie restriction mimetics, of which resveratrol, metformin, and rapamycin are the most extensively studied. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie age-related deterioration and repair, and how these pathways interconnect, remains a major challenge for uncovering interventions to slow human aging while extending molecular and physiological youthfulness

  13. The relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Krishnan, Ramesh; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Materials and Methods: 100 underweight children between the age group of 18-14 years were selected. Chronological age was assessed by recording date of birth. Dental age assessment was done using orthopantamogram following the method described by Demirjian. Bone age assessment was carried out using hand wrist radiograph following Bjork, Grave and Brown′s method. Results: Dental age and Bone age was delayed compared to chronological age in both sexes. The correlation between chronological age, dental age and bone age were all positive in males. Interpretation and Conclusion: The data supports the concept that dental age and bone age delay is a significant feature in underweight children. It is important to consider dental age and bone age as variables for diagnosing underweight children. To support our findings further a well-designed, controlled as well as longitudinal studies with a larger sample size is required. PMID:23946582

  14. Change in fracture risk and fracture pattern after bariatric surgery: nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Catherine; Jean, Sonia; Gamache, Philippe; Lebel, Stéfane; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Biertho, Laurent; Michou, Laëtitia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether bariatric surgery increases the risk of fracture. Design Retrospective nested case-control study. Setting Patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the province of Quebec, Canada, between 2001 and 2014, selected using healthcare administrative databases. Participants 12 676 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, age and sex matched with 38 028 obese and 126 760 non-obese controls. Main outcome measures Incidence and sites of fracture in patients who had undergone bariatric surgery compared with obese and non-obese controls. Fracture risk was also compared before and after surgery (index date) within each group and by type of surgery from 2006 to 2014. Multivariate conditional Poisson regression models were adjusted for fracture history, number of comorbidities, sociomaterial deprivation, and area of residence. Results Before surgery, patients undergoing bariatric surgery (9169 (72.3%) women; mean age 42 (SD 11) years) were more likely to fracture (1326; 10.5%) than were obese (3065; 8.1%) or non-obese (8329; 6.6%) controls. A mean of 4.4 years after surgery, bariatric patients were more susceptible to fracture (514; 4.1%) than were obese (1013; 2.7%) and non-obese (3008; 2.4%) controls. Postoperative adjusted fracture risk was higher in the bariatric group than in the obese (relative risk 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.55) and non-obese (1.44, 1.29 to 1.59) groups. Before surgery, the risk of distal lower limb fracture was higher, upper limb fracture risk was lower, and risk of clinical spine, hip, femur, or pelvic fractures was similar in the bariatric and obese groups compared with the non-obese group. After surgery, risk of distal lower limb fracture decreased (relative risk 0.66, 0.56 to 0.78), whereas risk of upper limb (1.64, 1.40 to 1.93), clinical spine (1.78, 1.08 to 2.93), pelvic, hip, or femur (2.52, 1.78 to 3.59) fractures increased. The increase in risk of fracture reached significance only for

  15. Evaluating RNAlater® as a preservative for using near-infrared spectroscopy to predict Anopheles gambiae age and species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito age and species identification is a crucial determinant of the efficacy of vector control programs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has previously been applied successfully to rapidly, non-destructively, and simultaneously determine the age and species of freshly anesthetized African mala...

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (− 308G/A, + 488G/A, − 857C/T and -1031 T/C) gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke in north Indian population: A hospital based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Amit; Misra, Shubham; Sagar, Ram; Faruq, Mohammad; Suroliya, Varun; Vivekanandhan, Subiah; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic factors may play a role in the susceptibility of Ischemic stroke (IS). Previous studies have shown that Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of IS in multiple ethnicities. The present case–control study tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene may affect the risk of IS in North Indian population. We investigated the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (− 308G/A, + 488G/A, − 857C/T and -1031 T/C) within TNF-α gene promoter and their haplotypes with the risk of IS. Methods IS was classified using the Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Genotyping was performed for 250 IS patients and 250 age- and sex-matched IS free controls by using SNaPshot technique. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control the confounding effects of demographic and risk factor variables. Haplotype analyses were done by using PHASE software and Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses were done by using Haploview version 4.2 software. Results An independent association between TNF-α + 488G/A (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 1.46 to 4.60; p = 0.001) and -857C/T (OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.01 to 3.11; p < 0.04) and risk of IS was observed under dominant model. However, no significant association between -308G/A and -1031 T/C gene polymorphisms and risk of IS was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that A308-G488-C857-T1031 haplotypes were significantly associated with the increased risk of IS [OR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.02 to 2.71; p = 0.003]. Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for + 488G/A and -857C/T (D’ = 0.41, r2 = 0.004). Conclusions Two SNPs (+ 488G/A and -857C/T) of TNF-α gene and their haplotypes are significantly associated with the risk of IS in the population enrolled from North India. Our findings indicate that polymorphisms and haplotypes of TNF-α gene may be used as a genetic marker for identifying individuals at

  17. Handwriting changes due to aging and Parkinson's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walton, J

    1997-08-22

    Wills signed by elderly people are often contested on the grounds the the signature is different from their earlier specimen signatures. Neurological disease, which can affect handwriting, is very common and progressive amongst elderly people. Handwriting change due to old age and neurological disease is poorly understood. To better understand this subject, we carried out a large methodical study based on almost 200 handwriting specimens of Parkinson patients and age-matched controls. Interestingly, our findings indicate that some of the handwriting changes which occur in these populations tend to resemble forgery indicia although upon close inspection they are distinguishable from them. Thus, document examiners are urged to exercise caution in assessing purported forgeries on wills and other documents signed of written during older age or a writer suffering from neurological disease. PMID:9291592

  18. Age and Gender Differences in Teen Relationship Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hokoda, Audrey; Martin del Campo, Miguel A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that abuse in adolescence can start early and current literature regarding gender differences in Teen Relationship Violence (TRV) is inconsistent. Age and Gender differences in TRV were examined. Measures assessing TRV and its correlates were completed by 231 teens from 7th, 9th, and 11th grade classes. A 2 (gender) by 3 (grade) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects for grade and gender indicating that 7th graders have lower perpetration and victimization of TRV, less anger control, and fewer positive conflict resolution behaviors than 9th and 11th graders. Furthermore, girls perpetrate more physical and emotional abuse while boys perpetrate more sexual abuse. Results have implications for timing and content of prevention programs addressing dating violence in adolescence. PMID:26989341

  19. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on...

  20. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on...

  1. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on...

  2. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on...

  3. Base Excision Repair, Aging and Health Span

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guogang; Herzig, Maryanne; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Walter, Christi A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage and mutagenesis are suggested to contribute to aging through their ability to mediate cellular dysfunction. The base excision repair (BER) pathway ameliorates a large number of DNA lesions that arise spontaneously. Many of these lesions are reported to increase with age. Oxidized guanine, repaired largely via base excision repair, is particularly well studied and shown to increase with age. Spontaneous mutant frequencies also increase with age which suggests that mutagenesis may contribute to aging. It is widely accepted that genetic instability contributes to age-related occurrences of cancer and potentially other age-related pathologies. BER activity decreases with age in multiple tissues. The specific BER protein that appears to limit activity varies among tissues. DNA polymerase-β is reduced in brain from aged mice and rats while AP endonuclease is reduced in spermatogenic cells obtained from old mice. The differences in proteins that appear to limit BER activity among tissues may represent true tissue-specific differences in activity or may be due to differences in techniques, environmental conditions or other unidentified differences among the experimental approaches. Much remains to be addressed concerning the potential role of BER in aging and age-related health span. PMID:18423806

  4. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds. PMID:26638678

  5. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  6. Anorexia of Aging and Gut Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Astbury, Nerys M.

    2013-01-01

    We are expected to live longer than if we had been born 100 years ago however, the additional years are not necessarily spent in good health or free from disability. Body composition changes dramatically over the course of life. There is a gradual increase in body weight throughout adult life until the age of about 60–65 years. In contrast, body weight appears to decrease with age after the age of 65–75 years, even in those demonstrating a previous healthy body weight. This age related decrease in body weight, often called unintentional weight loss or involuntary weight loss can be a significant problem for the elderly. This has been shown to be related to decline in appetite and food intake is common amongst the elderly and is often referred to the anorexia of aging. Underlying mechanisms regulate energy homeostasis and appetite may change as people age. In this review, peripheral factors regulating appetite have been summarized in regards to their age-dependent changes and role in the etiology of anorexia of aging. Understanding the alterations in the mechanisms regulating appetite and food intake in conjunction with aging may help inform strategies that promote healthy aging and promote health and wellbeing in the elderly years, with the end goal to add life to the years and not just years to our lives. PMID:24124632

  7. Vascular ageing and interventions: lessons and learnings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    This review discusses the relationship between elevated blood pressure, hypertension, arterial stiffness and hence vascular ageing. This is a complex process and the majority of treatments target the consequences of this, rather than the pathophysiology of ageing itself. This is because preventing vascular ageing from occurring is complex and would require very early intervention and lifelong treatment. The process of arteriosclerosis is known to result from reversible and irreversible functional components, and, together, these are responsible for the increased systolic and decreased diastolic blood pressure seen with advancing age. Indeed, hypertension develops as it becomes more difficult for the heart to drive blood flow around the body, as a result of poor ventricular coupling and increased arterial stiffness. Elevated blood pressure is therefore a clinical manifestation of ageing that continues to increase with advancing years, and is also linked with an increased risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular and chronic kidney disease. These manifestations arise due to changing haemodynamics associated with ageing, and therefore treatments that reduce the development of these conditions or delay their progression have the potential to improve patient outcomes. This may be possible with existing therapies as well as new treatments currently under investigation. PMID:27102114

  8. Anorexia of aging and gut hormones.

    PubMed

    Atalayer, Deniz; Astbury, Nerys M

    2013-01-01

    We are expected to live longer than if we had been born 100 years ago however, the additional years are not necessarily spent in good health or free from disability. Body composition changes dramatically over the course of life. There is a gradual increase in body weight throughout adult life until the age of about 60-65 years. In contrast, body weight appears to decrease with age after the age of 65-75 years, even in those demonstrating a previous healthy body weight. This age related decrease in body weight, often called unintentional weight loss or involuntary weight loss can be a significant problem for the elderly. This has been shown to be related to decline in appetite and food intake is common amongst the elderly and is often referred to the anorexia of aging. Underlying mechanisms regulate energy homeostasis and appetite may change as people age. In this review, peripheral factors regulating appetite have been summarized in regards to their age-dependent changes and role in the etiology of anorexia of aging. Understanding the alterations in the mechanisms regulating appetite and food intake in conjunction with aging may help inform strategies that promote healthy aging and promote health and wellbeing in the elderly years, with the end goal to add life to the years and not just years to our lives. PMID:24124632

  9. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system’s homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte’s function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart’s metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. PMID:25880509

  10. Articulation rate across dialect, age, and gender

    PubMed Central

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A.; O’Neill, Caitlin; Salmons, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of sociolinguistic variation is growing rapidly, but basic gaps still remain. Whether some languages or dialects are spoken faster or slower than others constitutes such a gap. Speech tempo is interconnected with social, physical and psychological markings of speech. This study examines regional variation in articulation rate and its manifestations across speaker age, gender and speaking situations (reading vs. free conversation). The results of an experimental investigation show that articulation rate differs significantly between two regional varieties of American English examined here. A group of Northern speakers (from Wisconsin) spoke significantly faster than a group of Southern speakers (from North Carolina). With regard to age and gender, young adults read faster than older adults in both regions; in free speech, only Northern young adults spoke faster than older adults. Effects of gender were smaller and less consistent; men generally spoke slightly faster than women. As the body of work on the sociophonetics of American English continues to grow in scope and depth, we argue that it is important to include fundamental phonetic information as part of our catalog of regional differences and patterns of change in American English. PMID:20161445

  11. Old age and the hepatic sinusoid.

    PubMed

    Le Couteur, David G; Warren, Alessandra; Cogger, Victoria C; Smedsrød, Bård; Sørensen, Karen K; De Cabo, Rafael; Fraser, Robin; McCuskey, Robert S

    2008-06-01

    Morphological changes in the hepatic sinusoid with old age are increasingly recognized. These include thickening and defenestration of the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell, sporadic deposition of collagen and basal lamina in the extracellular space of Disse, and increased numbers of fat engorged, nonactivated stellate cells. In addition, there is endothelial up-regulation of von Willebrand factor and ICAM-1 with reduced expression of caveolin-1. These changes have been termed age-related pseudocapillarization. The effects of old age on Kupffer cells are inconsistent, but impaired responsiveness is likely. There are functional implications of these aging changes in the hepatic sinusoid. There is reduced sinusoidal perfusion, which will impair the hepatic clearance of highly extracted substrates. Blood clearance of a variety of waste macromolecules takes place in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Previous studies indicated either that aging had no effect, or reduced the endocytic capacity of LSECs. However, a recent study in mice showed reduced endocytosis in pericentral regions of the liver lobules. Reduced endocytosis may increase systemic exposure to potential harmful waste macromolecules such as advanced glycation end products Loss of fenestrations leads to impaired transfer of lipoproteins from blood to hepatocytes. This provides a mechanism for impaired chylomicron remnant clearance and postprandial hyperlipidemia associated with old age. Given the extensive range of substrates metabolized by the liver, age-related changes in the hepatic sinusoid and microcirculation have important systemic implications for aging and age-related diseases. PMID:18484614

  12. Interleukin-6, Age, and Corpus Callosum Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bettcher, Brianne M.; Watson, Christa L.; Walsh, Christine M.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

  13. Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Levinson, Ronnen; Graveline,Stanley; Foley, Kevin; Delgado, Ana H.; Paroli, Ralph M.

    2005-08-23

    Aging and weathering can reduce the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. This paper summarizes laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectance of unweathered, weathered, and cleaned samples collected from single-ply roofing membranes at various sites across the United States. Fifteen samples were examined in each of the following six conditions: unweathered; weathered; weathered and brushed; weathered, brushed and then rinsed with water; weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, and then washed with soap and water; and weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, washed with soap and water, and then washed with an algaecide. Another 25 samples from 25 roofs across the United States and Canada were measured in their unweathered state, weathered, and weathered and wiped. We document reduction in reflectivity resulted from various soiling mechanisms and provide data on the effectiveness of various cleaning approaches. Results indicate that although the majority of samples after being washed with detergent could be brought to within 90% of their unweathered reflectivity, in some instances an algaecide was required to restore this level of reflectivity.

  14. Astrocytes in physiological aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arellano, J J; Parpura, V; Zorec, R; Verkhratsky, A

    2016-05-26

    Astrocytes are fundamental for homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Loss of astroglial function and astroglial reactivity contributes to the aging of the brain and to neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in astroglia in aging and neurodegeneration are highly heterogeneous and region-specific. In animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) astrocytes undergo degeneration and atrophy at the early stages of pathological progression, which possibly may alter the homeostatic reserve of the brain and contribute to early cognitive deficits. At later stages of AD reactive astrocytes are associated with neurite plaques, the feature commonly found in animal models and in human diseased tissue. In animal models of the AD reactive astrogliosis develops in some (e.g. in the hippocampus) but not in all regions of the brain. For instance, in entorhinal and prefrontal cortices astrocytes do not mount gliotic response to emerging β-amyloid deposits. These deficits in reactivity coincide with higher vulnerability of these regions to AD-type pathology. Astroglial morphology and function can be regulated through environmental stimulation and/or medication suggesting that astrocytes can be regarded as a target for therapies aimed at the prevention and cure of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25595973

  15. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  16. Aging and brain rejuvenation as systemic events

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Jill; Villeda, Saul A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging were traditionally thought to be immutable, particularly evident in the loss of plasticity and cognitive abilities occurring in the aged central nervous system (CNS). However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that extrinsic systemic manipulations such as exercise, caloric restriction, and changing blood composition by heterochronic parabiosis or young plasma administration can partially counteract this age-related loss of plasticity in the aged brain. In this review, we discuss the process of aging and rejuvenation as systemic events. We summarize genetic studies that demonstrate a surprising level of malleability in organismal lifespan, and highlight the potential for systemic manipulations to functionally reverse the effects of aging in the CNS. Based on mounting evidence, we propose that rejuvenating effects of systemic manipulations are mediated, in part, by blood-borne ‘pro-youthful’ factors. Thus, systemic manipulations promoting a younger blood composition provide effective strategies to rejuvenate the aged brain. As a consequence, we can now consider reactivating latent plasticity dormant in the aged CNS as a means to rejuvenate regenerative, synaptic, and cognitive functions late in life, with potential implications even for extending lifespan. PMID:25327899

  17. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Smits, Fenne Margreeth; Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20-89 years) and 67 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients (age: 50-88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called "free" copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  18. Age and race effects on pain sensitivity and modulation among middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Goodin, Burel R.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Bartley, Emily J.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Staud, Roland; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of aging and race on responses to noxious stimuli using a wide range of stimulus modalities. The participants were 53 non-Hispanic Blacks and 138 non-Hispanic White adults, ages 45 to 76. The participants completed a single 3-hour sensory testing session where responses to thermal, mechanical, and cold stimuli were assessed. The results suggest that there are selected age differences, with the older group less sensitive to warm and painful heat stimuli than middle-aged participants, particularly at the knee. This site effect supports the hypothesis that the greatest decrement in pain sensitivity associated with aging occurs in the lower extremities. In addition, there were several instances where age and race effects were compounded, resulting in greater race differences in pain sensitivity among the older participants. Overall, the data suggest that previously reported race differences in pain sensitivity emerged in our older samples, and this study contributes new findings in that these differences may increase with age in non-Hispanic Blacks for temporal summation and both heat and cold immersion tolerance. We have added to the aging and pain literature by reporting several small to moderate differences in responses to heat stimuli between middle and older age adults. PMID:24239561

  19. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  20. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ann E; Smyth, Frederick L; Beadel, Jessica R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility. PMID:23776442

  1. The Characteristics of AD/HD Symptoms, Self-Esteem, and Aggression among Serious Juvenile Offenders in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuura, Naomi; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-three inmates of a correctional facility, who committed serious offences, participated in this study. They were all male and aged 14-17 years, with a mean age of 15.5 (SD=1.21) years. Eighty-six age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Some psychological questionnaires such as on self-esteem and aggression were conducted in both groups.…

  2. FKBP5 interacts with maltreatment in children with extreme, pervasive, and persistent aggression.

    PubMed

    Bryushkova, Lyubov; Zai, Clement; Chen, Sheng; Pappa, Irene; Mileva, Viara; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian; Kennedy, James L; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-08-30

    Genetic variation in stress response protein FKBP5 is associated with adult psychopathology, but little is known about its role in children's mental health. 5 polymorphisms were genotyped in 170 high aggression cases and 170 age- and sex-matched controls. The rs9470080 polymorphism was associated with physiological anxiety, while rs4713916 polymorphism interacted with maltreatment to influence externalizing traits. These results suggest that genetic variation in FKBP5 has a role in children's vulnerability to stress-related behaviours. PMID:27315459

  3. Characterizing Nearby Stars: Age and Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David

    2001-01-01

    The funds in this grant were used to support costs for observing and data analysis over the past two years. During this time I have been obtaining low-resolution (R-2,000) spectra for about 5,000 solar-type stars (late-F and G dwarfs) that are within 60 parsecs of the Sun. The sample was defined with results from the Hipparcos mission, and the spectra were obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, using the Coude Feed telescope, and at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, using their 1.5 m telescopes for stars below -40 declination. Nearly all the observed spectra have been reduced and analyzed. What is determined is R-prime, an index of the chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines relative to the nearby continuum, and normalized for the color of the star. Chromospheric emission arises from magnetic activity on the star, and that is turn is driven by rotation. Solar-type stars spin down as they age, and so they get weaker in their chromospheric emission as well. Thus this R-prime index can be used to estimate the ages of stars. A few stars remain to be observed at Kitt Peak, and follow-up high-resolution spectra are being obtained of the most active stars seen, but the majority of the starting sample have been completed. The spectra obtained are also being analyzed to yield an index of overall metallicity for each star, and this will be used to study Galactic evolution questions. These metallicities will form the first large dataset of high and consistent quality. Initial results from this work have been used to define targets for a SIRTF Legacy program, for stars to study for planetary transits, and for SETI efforts. Because of the large number of stars involved, most of the data will be made available on the web, although some specific papers about the results are in preparation. The web database is being constructed.

  4. Corpus callosum in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen

    2013-10-01

    The overarching objective of the thesis was to investigate the morphological changes in the corpus callosum (CC) in aging and dementia in relation to its role in cognitive and motor decline. The CC is the largest white matter tract in the brain, containing upwards of 200 million axons, and is believed important for communication and interaction between the two cerebral hemispheres. Historically, the role of white matter, including the CC, in relation to cognitive function has often been eclipsed by the predominance of the cortex, and led to a "corticocentric" view of the brain and cognitive function. However, from the 1960s and onwards, the role of lesions in the white matter in the appearence of cognitive deficits and diseases such as dementia has become increasingly evident. Many studies have indicated that AD is associated with CC atrophy, but the precise pattern of subregional CC atrophy in different disease stages remains undetermined. In study I, we establish that atrophy is present primarily in the posterior CC early in AD, and that atrophy of the CC is associated with faster disease progression. This finding supports a model where posterior atrophy is the earliest changes in the CC in AD patients, with atrophy of anterior CC being a later pathological event. To further elucidate the role of CC atrophy in dementia, we examined a population of 329 elderly subjects, and found that a higher rate of tissue loss in posterior CC is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study represents the first to examine CC in elderly subjects longitudinally. In the same cohort, we investigated whether impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with CC tissue loss. Previous studies had shown that processing speed and executive functions may be particularly reliant on the CC. Our findings indicated that CC tissue loss leads to selective impairment of processing speed but not memory or executive function deficits. Finally, CC tissue loss was also

  5. Effects of age and diabetes on scleral stiffness.

    PubMed

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Pijanka, Jacek; Jefferys, Joan; Sorensen, Thomas; Quigley, Harry A; Boote, Craig; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-07-01

    The effects of diabetes on the collagen structure and material properties of the sclera are unknown but may be important to elucidate whether diabetes is a risk factor for major ocular diseases such as glaucoma. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the changes in scleral stiffness and collagen fiber alignment associated with diabetes. Posterior scleral shells from five diabetic donors and seven non-diabetic donors were pressurized to 30 mm Hg. Three-dimensional surface displacements were calculated during inflation testing using digital image correlation (DIC). After testing, each specimen was subjected to wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements of its collagen organization. Specimen-specific finite element models of the posterior scleras were generated from the experimentally measured geometry. An inverse finite element analysis was developed to determine the material properties of the specimens, i.e., matrix and fiber stiffness, by matching DIC-measured and finite element predicted displacement fields. Effects of age and diabetes on the degree of fiber alignment, matrix and collagen fiber stiffness, and mechanical anisotropy were estimated using mixed effects models accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Older age was associated with a lower degree of fiber alignment and larger matrix stiffness for both diabetic and non-diabetic scleras. However, the age-related increase in matrix stiffness was 87% larger in diabetic specimens compared to non-diabetic controls and diabetic scleras had a significantly larger matrix stiffness (p = 0.01). Older age was associated with a nearly significant increase in collagen fiber stiffness for diabetic specimens only (p = 0.06), as well as a decrease in mechanical anisotropy for non-diabetic scleras only (p = 0.04). The interaction between age and diabetes was not significant for all outcomes. This study suggests that the age-related increase in scleral stiffness is accelerated in eyes with

  6. NIH Conference. Brain imaging: aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, N.R.; Duara, R.; Creasey, H.; Grady, C.L.; Haxby, J.V.; Schapiro, M.B.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1984-09-01

    The brain imaging techniques of positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and computed tomography, together with neuropsychological tests, were used to examine overall brain function and anatomy in three study populations: healthy men at different ages, patients with presumptive Alzheimer's disease, and adults with Down's syndrome. Brain glucose use did not differ with age, whereas an age-related decrement in gray matter volume was found on computed tomographic assessment in healthy subjects. Memory deficits were found to precede significant reductions in brain glucose utilization in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, differences between language and visuoconstructive impairments in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were related to hemispheric asymmetry of brain metabolism. Brain glucose utilization was found to be significantly elevated in young adults with Down's syndrome, compared with controls. The importance of establishing strict criteria for selecting control subjects and patients is explained in relation to the findings.

  7. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  8. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  9. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    predicted by a history of concussion (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, p = 0.016), preinjury mood disorders (OR 17.9, 95% CI 2.9-113.0, p = 0.002), family history of mood disorders (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.5, p = 0.026), and delayed symptom onset (OR 20.7, 95% CI 3.2-132.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this age- and sex-matched case-control study of risk factors for PCS among youth with SRC, risk for development of PCS was higher in those with a personal and/or family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. These findings highlight the unique nature of SRC in youth. For this population, providers must recognize the value of establishing the baseline health and psychiatric status of children and their primary caregivers with regard to symptom reporting and recovery expectations. In addition, delayed symptom onset was an unexpected but strong risk factor for PCS in this cohort. Delayed symptoms could potentially result in late removal from play, rest, and care by qualified health care professionals. Taken together, these results may help practitioners identify young athletes with concussion who are at a greater danger for PCS and inform larger prospective studies for validation of risk factors from this cohort. PMID:25745949

  10. [Cardiovascular drugs in aged and multimorbid patients].

    PubMed

    Follath, Ferenc

    2015-09-16

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral circulatory problems and atrial fibrillation are increasingly present in aged patients. Comorbidities, mainly diabetes, renal dysfunction, chronic bronchitis and degenerative joint diseases, are also frequent and need additional drug treatment. The usual polypharmacy often causes side effects due to overdosage and/or drug interactions. The main difficulty in choosing the proper therapeutic regimen consists in the lack of suitable dosing guidelines with adapted therapeutic targets for the older multimorbid population, usually not represented in the large controlled trials forming the basis of general recommendations. European guidelines for hypertension and heart failure are discussed as examples. PMID:26373905

  11. Effects of aging and mild cognitive impairment on electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Thurm, Franka; Antonenko, Daria; Schlee, Winfried; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Performance monitoring tasks are suitable for investigating aging-related decline in executive functions. However, little is known about performance monitoring in premature pathological aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study recorded the error-related negativity (ERN) and the correct-related negativity (CRN) as indices of performance monitoring and compared these responses in older adults with MCI to the ones of younger and older adult controls. No differences in either ERN or CRN were found between younger and older adult controls. Compared to both control groups, we observed a more negatively pronounced CRN in MCI subjects. Only in this group did the amplitude of the CRN not differ from the one of the ERN. In general, larger differences between both components (i.e., ERN > CRN) were associated with better performances in cognitive tests requiring inhibition and executive control. These results indicate that electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring (ERN and CRN) are differentially affected by aging and MCI. PMID:23455987

  12. Mother's age and risk for physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Connelly, C D; Straus, M A

    1992-01-01

    It is widely believed that young mothers are at greater risk of engaging in physical abuse. However, this relationship is not clearly supported by previous empirical research. This study reexamines the issue using a nationally representative sample of 1,997 mothers. All analyses controlled for family income, race, number of minor children in the home, age of abused child, mother's education, and whether mother was a single parent. Physical abuse was measured with the Conflict Tactics Scales. Using mother's age at time of birth of the abused child, the younger the mother, the greater the rate of child abuse; however, there was not a significant relationship when mother's age was measured at age at time of abuse. Large families and minority group children were also found to be at greater risk of abuse. The paper discusses implications for further research and for prevention of child abuse. PMID:1393729

  13. Hematopoiesis during development, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Johannes; Buisman, Sonja; de Haan, Gerald

    2016-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells were once considered identical. However, in the mid-1990s, it became apparent that stem cells from a person's early developmental phases are superior to those from adults, and aged stem cells are defective compared with young stem cells. It has since become clear that polycomb group proteins are important regulators of stem cell functioning. Polycomb group proteins are chromatin-associated proteins involved in writing or reading epigenetic histone modifications. Polycomb group proteins are involved in normal blood cell formation, in cancer, and possibly in aging. In this review, we describe how the different phases of hematopoietic stem cells-birth, maintenance, functional decline, derailment, and death-are continuous processes that may be controlled by polycomb group proteins. PMID:27235755

  14. Relative fundamental frequency during vocal onset and offset in older speakers with and without Parkinson's diseasea

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    The relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding production of a voiceless consonant has previously been shown to be lower in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria and Parkinson's disease (PD) relative to age/sex matched controls. Here RFF was calculated in 32 speakers with PD without overt hypokinetic dysarthria and 32 age and sex matched controls to better understand the relationships between RFF and PD progression, medication status, and sex. Results showed that RFF was statistically significantly lower in individuals with PD compared with healthy age-matched controls and was statistically significantly lower in individuals diagnosed at least 5 yrs prior to experimentation relative to individuals recorded less than 5 yrs past diagnosis. Contrary to previous trends, no effect of medication was found. However, a statistically significant effect of sex on offset RFF was shown, with lower values in males relative to females. Future work examining the physiological bases of RFF is warranted. PMID:23464033

  15. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; White, Desiree A

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU. PMID:27114916

  16. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K.; White, Desiree A.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU. PMID:27114916

  17. Aging and Autophagy in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Shirakabe, Akihiro; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Zablocki, Daniela K; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2016-05-13

    The aging population is increasing in developed countries. Because the incidence of cardiac disease increases dramatically with age, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms through which the heart becomes either more or less susceptible to stress. Cardiac aging is characterized by the presence of hypertrophy, fibrosis, and accumulation of misfolded proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria. Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a lysosome-dependent bulk degradation mechanism that is essential for intracellular protein and organelle quality control. Autophagy and autophagic flux are generally decreased in aging hearts, and murine autophagy loss-of-function models develop exacerbated cardiac dysfunction that is accompanied by the accumulation of misfolded proteins and dysfunctional organelles. On the contrary, stimulation of autophagy generally improves cardiac function in mouse models of protein aggregation by removing accumulated misfolded proteins, dysfunctional mitochondria, and damaged DNA, thereby improving the overall cellular environment and alleviating aging-associated pathology in the heart. Increasing lines of evidence suggest that autophagy is required for many mechanisms that mediate lifespan extension, such as caloric restriction, in various organisms. These results raise the exciting possibility that autophagy may play an important role in combating the adverse effects of aging in the heart. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy in the heart during aging, how autophagy alleviates age-dependent changes in the heart, and how the level of autophagy in the aging heart can be restored. PMID:27174950

  18. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  19. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  20. Ageing and Learning: What Do They Mean to Elders Themselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen; Chui, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about a quantitative study which has examined and elucidated the conceptualizations of ageing and learning by a group of elders in Hong Kong. In more specific terms, the study has investigated how this group of older people understood the meaning of successful ageing and elder learning in the context of their later lives. Based on…

  1. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  2. Distinct Mechanisms of Impairment in Cognitive Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapstone, Mark; Dickerson, Kathryn; Duffy, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Similar manifestations of functional decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease obscure differences in the underlying cognitive mechanisms of impairment. We sought to examine the contributions of top-down attentional and bottom-up perceptual factors to visual self-movement processing in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We administered a novel…

  3. 27 CFR 5.40 - Statements of age and percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Distilled Spirits § 5.40 Statements of age and percentage. (a) Statements of age and percentage for whisky. In the case of straight whisky bottled in conformity with the bottled in bond labeling requirements and of domestic or foreign whisky, whether or not mixed or blended, all of which is 4 years old...

  4. 27 CFR 5.40 - Statements of age and percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Distilled Spirits § 5.40 Statements of age and percentage. (a) Statements of age and percentage for whisky. In the case of straight whisky bottled in conformity with the bottled in bond labeling requirements and of domestic or foreign whisky, whether or not mixed or blended, all of which is 4 years old...

  5. 27 CFR 5.40 - Statements of age and percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Distilled Spirits § 5.40 Statements of age and percentage. (a) Statements of age and percentage for whisky. In the case of straight whisky bottled in conformity with the bottled in bond labeling requirements and of domestic or foreign whisky, whether or not mixed or blended, all of which is 4 years old...

  6. 27 CFR 5.40 - Statements of age and percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Distilled Spirits § 5.40 Statements of age and percentage. (a) Statements of age and percentage for whisky. In the case of straight whisky bottled in conformity with the bottled in bond labeling requirements and of domestic or foreign whisky, whether or not mixed or blended, all of which is 4 years old...

  7. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  8. Age and Schooling Effects on Early Literacy and Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna; Carroll, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on age and schooling effects is largely restricted to studies of children who begin formal schooling at 6 years of age, and the measures of phoneme awareness used have typically lacked sensitivity for beginning readers. Our study addresses these issues by testing 4 to 6 year-olds (first 2 years of formal schooling in the United…

  9. Sympathetic regulation during thermal stress in human aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-04-01

    Humans control their core temperature within a narrow range via precise adjustments of the autonomic nervous system. In response to changing core and/or skin temperature, several critical thermoregulatory reflex effector responses are initiated and include shivering, sweating, and changes in cutaneous blood flow. Cutaneous vasomotor adjustments, mediated by modulations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), aid in the maintenance of thermal homeostasis during cold and heat stress since (1) they serve as the first line of defense of body temperature and are initiated before other thermoregulatory effectors, and (2) they are on the efferent arm of non-thermoregulatory reflex systems, aiding in the maintenance of blood pressure and organ perfusion. This review article highlights the sympathetic responses of humans to thermal stress, with a specific focus on primary aging as well as impairments that occur in both heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Age- and pathology-related changes in efferent muscle and skin SNA during cold and heat stress, measured directly in humans using microneurography, are discussed. PMID:26627337

  10. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process. PMID:26655093

  11. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A.; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Jean Bierut, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. Study design We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. Results In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11–18 years of age, compared to 25–29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15–19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Conclusions Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications. PMID:25366100

  12. Aging and stress: past hypotheses, present approaches and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Pedro

    2011-02-01

    Brain aging has been suggested to be conditioned by an excessive glucocortioid secretion leading to damages on brain areas involved not only in cognitive and emotional processes but also in the control of the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. This review describes some of the hypothesis that try to explain the relation between the dysregulation of the stress response and brain aging, focusing on corticosterone but also on neurotransmission in the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Moreover, different molecular factors can account for an enhanced vulnerability of the aged brain to stress exposure, specially for resilience. Among them, good candidates could be those mechanisms determining the levels of corticosterone in the brain, several molecules downstream glucocorticoid receptor activation (ie: heat shock proteins, BAG-1) or even the epigenetic programming of the HPA axis in early stages. In conclusion, genetic and environmental factors (early life stress, chronic stress during adulthood) can produce an enhanced vulnerability and a reduced resilience of the brain to subsequent stress exposures or to metabolic challenges leading, in turn, to an unsuccessful aging of the brain. However, results obtained with the use of the environmental enrichment model in animals, added to several results in humans also described in this review suggest that positive environmental factors (cognitive-demanding tasks or physical exercise) can help to maintain neuronal plasticity during aging and to protect the brain against the damaging effects of stress exposure. PMID:22396868

  13. Mitochondrial-Nuclear Epistasis: Implications for Human Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondria are involved in the aging process. Mitochondrial function requires the coordinated expression of hundreds of nuclear genes and a few dozen mitochondrial genes, many of which have been associated with either extended or shortened life span. Impaired mitochondrial function resulting from mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation is likely to contribute to an imbalance in cellular energy homeostasis, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, and an increased rate of cellular senescence and aging. The complex genetic architecture of mitochondria suggests that there may be an equally complex set of gene interactions (epistases) involving genetic variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Results from Drosophila suggest that the effects of mtDNA haplotypes on longevity vary among different nuclear allelic backgrounds, which could account for the inconsistent associations that have been observed between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and survival in humans. A diversity of pathways may influence the way mitochondria and nuclear – mitochondrial interactions modulate longevity, including: oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondrial uncoupling; antioxidant defenses; mitochondrial fission and fusion; and sirtuin regulation of mitochondrial genes. We hypothesize that aging and longevity, as complex traits having a significant genetic component, are likely to be controlled by nuclear gene variants interacting with both inherited and somatic mtDNA variability. PMID:20601194

  14. Insulin, Aging, and the Brain: Mechanisms and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    There is now an impressive body of literature implicating insulin and insulin signaling in successful aging and longevity. New information from in vivo and in vitro studies concerning insulin and insulin receptors has extended our understanding of the physiological role of insulin in the brain. However, the relevance of these to aging and longevity remains to be elucidated. Here, we review advances in our understanding of the physiological role of insulin in the brain, how insulin gets into the brain, and its relevance to aging and longevity. Furthermore, we examine possible future therapeutic applications and implications of insulin in the context of available models of delayed and accelerated aging. PMID:25705204

  15. Purpose-in-Life Test: Age and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Augustine; Edwards, Henry

    1974-01-01

    This study examined age and sex differences, and the interaction of age x sex, with respect to "meaning in life" as defined by Frankl and measured by the Purpose-in-Life Test (PIL) developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick. (Author)

  16. Compressive Seal Development: Combined Ageing and Thermal Cycling Compressive

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.Y-S.; Stevenson, J.W.; Singh, P.

    2005-01-27

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the combined aging and cycling effect on hybrid Phlogopite mica seals with respect to materials and interfacial degradations in a simulated SOFC environment.

  17. Age and Parenting Skill Among Black Women in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Duffield, Barbara N.

    1986-01-01

    Using a sample of 158 low-income black women and their infants, this study examined the relation between mother's age and measures of maternal behavior reflecting verbal responsivity, punitiveness, and instrumental support for intellectual development. (Author/NH)

  18. Nociceptor Sensitization Depends on Age and Pain Chronicity123

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral inflammation causes mechanical pain behavior and increased action potential firing. However, most studies examine inflammatory pain at acute, rather than chronic time points, despite the greater burden of chronic pain on patient populations, especially aged individuals. Furthermore, there is disagreement in the field about whether primary afferents contribute to chronic pain. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the contribution of nociceptor activity to the generation of pain behaviors during the acute and chronic phases of inflammation in both young and aged mice. We found that both young (2 months old) and aged (>18 months old) mice exhibited prominent pain behaviors during both acute (2 day) and chronic (8 week) inflammation. However, young mice exhibited greater behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli than their aged counterparts. Teased fiber recordings in young animals revealed a twofold mechanical sensitization in C fibers during acute inflammation, but an unexpected twofold reduction in firing during chronic inflammation. Responsiveness to capsaicin and mechanical responsiveness of A-mechanonociceptor (AM) fibers were also reduced chronically. Importantly, this lack of sensitization in afferent firing during chronic inflammation occurred even as these inflamed mice exhibited continued behavioral sensitization. Interestingly, C fibers from inflamed aged animals showed no change in mechanical firing compared with controls during either the acute or chronic inflammatory phases, despite strong behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli at these time points. These results reveal the following two important findings: (1) nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation depends on age and the chronicity of injury; and (2) maintenance of chronic inflammatory pain does not rely on enhanced peripheral drive. PMID:26866058

  19. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  20. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  1. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  2. The role of vitamin B12 in fasting hyperhomocysteinemia and its interaction with the homozygous C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. A case-control study of patients with early-onset thrombotic events.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, A; Coppola, A; Madonna, P; Fermo, I; Pagano, A; Mazzola, G; Galli, L; Cerbone, A M

    2000-04-01

    Total fasting plasma homocysteine (tHcy), homozygosity for the C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and for the A2756G mutation of the methionine synthase (MS) gene, vitamin B12 and folate plasma levels were evaluated in 170 consecutive patients (89 M, 81 F; mean age 41 +/- 12 yrs) with documented early-onset thrombosis (89 venous, 69 arterial, 12 both; mean age at first episode 36 +/- 11 yrs), and in 182 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, tHcy >19.5 microM in men and >15 microM in women) was detected in 45 patients (26.5%) and in 18 controls (9.9%, Mantel-Haenszel OR and 95% C.I. after stratification for arterial or venous thrombosis: 3.25, 1.78-5.91). The 677TT MTHFR genotype was not significantly more prevalent in patients (27.6%) than in controls (21.4%, RR = 1.42: 0.84-2.41), and markedly contributed to HHcy (Mantel-Haenszel RR after stratification for case/control status: 8.29, 4.61-14.9). The 2756GG MS genotype, observed in 4 patients (2.4%) and 8 controls (4.4%), was not associated to HHcy. tHcy was negatively correlated to folate and vitamin B12 levels, with better correlation found in subjects with the 677TT mutation (r = -0.42 and -0.25) than with the 677CC or CT MTHFR genotype (r = 0).37 and -0.11). However, folate was similar in patients and controls and vitamin B12 was higher in patients (460 +/- 206 vs. 408 +/-185 pg/ml, p = 0.011). In a generalized linear model, 44% of the variation in tHcy levels was explained by folate and vitamin B12 levels, the MTHFR genotype, gender, and by the interaction of the MTHFR genotype with folate (p < or =0.028); the interactions of vitamin B12 with the MTHFR genotype, gender and patient/control status also significantly contributed to the variation in tHcy levels (p < or =0.028). A 4-week administration of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (15 mg/day) markedly lowered plasma tHcy in 24 patients with MTHFR 677TT genotype, but the response to

  3. Ageing and Parkinson's disease: substantia nigra regional selectivity.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, J M; Lees, A J

    1991-10-01

    The micro-architecture of the substantia nigra was studied in control cases of varying age and patients with parkinsonism. A single 7 mu section stained with haematoxylin and eosin was examined at a specific level within the caudal nigra using strict criteria. The pars compacta was divided into a ventral and a dorsal tier, and each tier was further subdivided into 3 regions. In 36 control cases there was a linear fallout of pigmented neurons with advancing age in the pars compacta of the caudal substantia nigra at a rate of 4.7% per decade. Regionally, the lateral ventral tier was relatively spared (2.1% loss per decade) compared with the medial ventral tier (5.4%) and the dorsal tier (6.9%). In 20 Parkinson's disease (PD) cases of varying disease duration there was an exponential loss of pigmented neurons with a 45% loss in the first decade. Regionally, the pattern was opposite to ageing. Loss was greatest in the lateral ventral tier (average loss 91%) followed by the medial ventral tier (71%) and the dorsal tier (56%). The presymptomatic phase of PD from the onset of neuronal loss was estimated to be about 5 yrs. This phase is represented by incidental Lewy body cases: individuals who die without clinical signs of PD or dementia, but who are found to have Lewy bodies at post-mortem. In 7 cases cell loss was confined to the lateral ventral tier (average loss 52%) congruent with the lateral ventral selectivity of symptomatic PD. It was calculated that at the onset of symptoms there was a 68% cell loss in the lateral ventral tier and a 48% loss in the caudal nigra as a whole. The regional selectivity of PD is relatively specific. In 15 cases of striatonigral degeneration the distribution of cell loss was similar, but the loss in the dorsal tier was greater than PD by 21%. In 14 cases of Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (SRO) there was no predilection for the lateral ventral tier, but a tendency to involve the medial nigra and spare the lateral. These findings

  4. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  5. Global-Local Precedence in the Perception of Facial Age and Emotional Expression by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2005-01-01

    Global information processing and perception of facial age and emotional expression was studied in children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and a clinical control group. Children were given a global-local task and asked to recognize age and emotion in human and canine faces. Children with autism made fewer global responses and…

  6. Functional neuroanatomy of sustained memory encoding performance in healthy aging and in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Weis, Susanne; Leube, Dirk; Erb, Michael; Heun, Reinhard; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo

    2011-07-01

    The aim of our study was to examine brain networks involved with sustaining memory encoding performance in healthy aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since different brain regions are affected by degradation in these two conditions, it might be conceivable that different compensation mechanisms occur to keep up memory performance in aging and in AD. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) design and a correlation analysis, 8 patients suffering from AD and 29 elderly control subjects were scanned while they studied a list of words for a subsequent memory test. Individual performance was assessed on the basis of a subsequent recognition test, and brain regions were identified where functional activations during study correlated with memory performance. In both groups, successful memory encoding performance was significantly correlated with the activation of the right frontal cortex. Furthermore, in healthy controls, there was a significant correlation of memory performance and the activation of the left medial and lateral temporal lobe. In contrast, in AD patients, increasing memory performance goes along with increasing activation of the hippocampus and a bilateral brain network including the frontal and temporal cortices. Our data show that in healthy aging and in AD, common and distinct compensatory mechanisms are employed to keep up a certain level of memory performance. Both in healthy aging and in patients with AD, an increased level of monitoring and control processes mediated by the (right) frontal lobe seems to be necessary to maintain a certain level of memory performance. In addition, memory performance in healthy older subjects seems to rely on an increased effort in encoding item-specific semantic and contextual information in lateral areas of the (left) temporal lobe. In AD patients, on the other hand, the maintenance of memory performance is related to an increase of activation of the (left) hippocampus in conjunction

  7. Effect of Age and Glaucoma on the Detection of Darks and Lights

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linxi; Sendek, Caroline; Davoodnia, Vandad; Lashgari, Reza; Dul, Mitchell W.; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have shown previously that normal observers detect dark targets faster and more accurately than light targets, when presented in noisy backgrounds. We investigated how these differences in detection time and accuracy are affected by age and ganglion cell pathology associated with glaucoma. Methods We asked 21 glaucoma patients, 21 age-similar controls, and 5 young control observers to report as fast as possible the number of 1 to 3 light or dark targets. The targets were positioned at random in a binary noise background, within the central 30° of the visual field. Results We replicate previous findings that darks are detected faster and more accurately than lights. We extend these findings by demonstrating that differences in detection of darks and lights are found reliably across different ages and in observers with glaucoma. We show that differences in detection time increase at a rate of approximately 55 msec/dB at early stages of glaucoma and then remain constant at later stages at approximately 800 msec. In normal subjects, differences in detection time increase with age at a rate of approximately 8 msec/y. We also demonstrate that the accuracy to detect lights and darks is significantly correlated with the severity of glaucoma and that the mean detection time is significantly longer for subjects with glaucoma than age-similar controls. Conclusions We conclude that differences in detection of darks and lights can be demonstrated over a wide range of ages, and asymmetries in dark/light detection increase with age and early stages of glaucoma. PMID:26513506

  8. The Intricate Interplay between Mechanisms Underlying Aging and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Amanda; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Age is the major risk factor in the incidence of cancer, a hyperplastic disease associated with aging. Here, we discuss the complex interplay between mechanisms underlying aging and cancer as a reciprocal relationship. This relationship progresses with organismal age, follows the history of cell proliferation and senescence, is driven by common or antagonistic causes underlying aging and cancer in an age-dependent fashion, and is maintained via age-related convergent and divergent mechanisms. We summarize our knowledge of these mechanisms, outline the most important unanswered questions and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25657853

  9. Optimizing treatments for anxiety by age and genetics

    PubMed Central

    Casey, BJ; Lee, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights recent human neuroimaging and cross-species developmental and genetic studies that examine how fear regulation varies by age and the individual, especially during the period of adolescence, when there is a peak in the prevalence of anxiety disorders. The findings have significant implications for understanding whom may be at risk for anxiety disorders and for whom, and when, an exposure-based therapy may be most effective. We provide proof of concept for targeting treatment to the individual as a function of age and genetics, inferred from mouse and human studies, and suggest optimization of treatment for non-responders. PMID:25801102

  10. Microvolt T wave alternans in adults with congenital heart diseases characterized by right ventricle pathology or single ventricle physiology: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among adults with congenital heart diseases (CHD) evaluation of sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk remains a great challenge. Although microvolt T-wave alternans has been incorporated into SCD risk stratification algorithm, its role in adults with CHD still requires investigation. We sought to determine the incidence of MTWA in this specific group and its coincidence with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and other clinical findings presumably associated with SCD. Methods A case–control study was performed in which 102 patients with CHD characterized by right ventricle pathology or single ventricle physiology (TGA, UVH, Ebstein’s anomaly, ccTGA, Eisenmenger syndrome, DORV, CAT, unoperated ToF) were compared to 45 age- and sex-matched controls. All subjects underwent spectral MTWA test, ambulatory ecg monitoring, cardiopulmonary test, BNP assessment. After excluding technically inadequate traces, the remaining MTWA results were classified as positive(+), negative(−) and indeterminate(ind). Due to similar prognostic significance MTWA(+) and (ind) were combined into a common group labeled ‘abnormal’. Results Abnormal MTWA was present more often in the study group, compared to controls (39.2% vs 2.3%, p = 0.00001). Sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT) was observed more often among subjects with abnormal MTWA compared to MTWA(−): 19.4% vs 3.6%, p = 0.026. The patients with abnormal MTWA had a lower blood saturation (p = 0.047), more often were males (p = 0.031), had higher NYHA class (p = 0.04), worse cardiopulmonary parameters: %PeakVO2 (p = 0.034), %HRmax (p = 0.003). Factors proven to increase probability of abnormal MTWA on multivariate linear regression analysis were: sVT (OR = 20.7, p = 0.037) and male gender (OR = 15.9, p = 0.001); on univariate analysis: male gender (OR = 2.7, p = 0.021), presence of VA (OR = 2.6, p = 0.049), NYHA > I (OR = 2.06, p = 0.033), %HRmax (OR

  11. Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Redox Signaling in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Boveris, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity is essential for the maintenance of neuronal function, and the impairment of energy metabolism and redox homeostasis is a hallmark of brain aging, which is particularly accentuated in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: The communications between mitochondria and the rest of the cell by energy- and redox-sensitive signaling establish a master regulatory device that controls cellular energy levels and the redox environment. Impairment of this regulatory devise is critical for aging and the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Critical Issues: This review focuses on a coordinated metabolic network—cytosolic signaling, transcriptional regulation, and mitochondrial function—that controls the cellular energy levels and redox status as well as factors which impair this metabolic network during brain aging and neurodegeneration. Future Directions: Characterization of mitochondrial function and mitochondria-cytosol communications will provide pivotal opportunities for identifying targets and developing new strategies aimed at restoring the mitochondrial energy-redox axis that is compromised in brain aging and neurodegeneration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 353–371. PMID:22793257

  12. Interleukin-1 Gene Cluster Polymorphisms and Their Association with Coronary Artery Disease: Separate Evidences from the Largest Case-Control Study amongst North Indians and an Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nakul; Kumar, Sudeep; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-01-01

    Several researchers have reported significant association of numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) residing in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their association status amongst North Indian ancestry (NIA) have never been systematically assessed. Despite a published meta-analysis on this subject, their association status worldwide as well as amongst different major ancestral subgroups still remains unclear. We therefore decided to prospectively test the association of 11 IL-1 gene cluster SNPs with CAD, vide a case-control study amongst a cohort of NIA and attempted to validate our results with the help of an updated meta-analysis of all relevant published association studies. Included studies were segregated into ancestral subgroups and association statuses for each subgroup were determined. A total of 323 cases and 400 healthy, age and sex matched controls belonging to NIA were prospectively enrolled and subsequently genotyped for 11 selected IL-1 gene cluster SNPs. Although results for none of the evaluated IL-1 gene cluster SNPs reached the adjusted level of significance (p<0.0045), clear trends of association were seen for IL1B -511 C>T and IL1RN 86bp VNTR in several of the constructed genetic models (p range = 0.01–0.044 and 0.005–0.034 respectively). The presence of >1, ‘T’ (minor) allele of IL1B -511 C>T in a genotype seemed to provide protection against CAD (OR = 0.62, p = 0.044), while the presence of >1, ‘C’ (major) allele seemed to increase the risk of CAD (OR = 1.36, p = 0.041). The minor allele (allele 2) of IL1RN 86bp VNTR and its homozygous genotype (2/2 genotype) also seemed to carry an increased risk for CAD (OR = 1.62, p = 0.005 and OR = 2.25, p = 0.031 respectively). On the other hand, several haplotype combinations constructed out of IL1B and IL1RN gene variants clearly showed statistically significant associations with CAD (p<0.0045). Our meta-analysis was conducted for 8

  13. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients

    PubMed Central

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  14. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients.

    PubMed

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  15. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  16. Haptic Exploration in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Joel M.; Brodzinsky, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Matching accuracy and strategy utilization in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults was examined in a series of intramodal, haptic match-to-standard problems. Results indicated that elderly adults were less successful in solving the haptic problems. They also displayed less systematic and logical haptic search strategies. (Author)

  17. Children's Choice Strategies: The Effects of Age and Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…

  18. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  19. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  20. Population Aging and Its Impact on Elderly Welfare in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkwa, O. K.; Mazibuko, F. N. M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the demographic transition and its impact on the welfare of the elderly in Africa. It provides a brief socio-demographic profile on elderly Africans. Also, it addresses challenges brought about by population aging and how it affects the provision of services to address the care giving needs of the elderly. Additionally, it…

  1. Influences of Age and Gender on Workers' Goals for Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.; Neukam, Kirstan A.

    2002-01-01

    Having clear goals for retirement is a critical determinant of life satisfaction and adjustment during the post-employment transition period. The purpose of the present study was to explore individuals' goals for retirement and determine whether age and gender differences exist among those goals. A sample of 55 working adults (aged 20-67) were…

  2. Age and Gender Correlates of Pulling in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goals were to examine clinical characteristics and age and gender correlates in pediatric trichotillomania. Method: A total of 62 children (8-17 years of age) were recruited for a pediatric trichotillomania treatment trial and characterized using structured rating scales of symptoms of hairpulling and common comorbid conditions. We…

  3. Age and comorbidity considerations related to radiotherapy and chemotherapy administration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, George; Sanatani, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Oncological treatment decision-making is a highly complex enterprise integrating multiple patient, tumor, treatment, and professional factors with the available medical evidence. This management complexity can be exacerbated by the interplay of patient age and comorbid non-cancer conditions that can affect patient quality of life, treatment tolerance, and survival outcomes. Given the expected increase in median age (and associated comorbidity burden) of Western populations over the next few decades, the use of evidence-based therapies that appropriately balance treatment intensity and tolerability to achieve the desired goal of treatment (radical, adjuvant, salvage, or palliative) will be increasingly important to health care systems, providers, and patients. In this review, we highlight the evidence related to age and comorbidity, as it relates to radiotherapy and chemotherapy decision making. We will address evidence as it relates to age and comorbidity considerations separately and also the interplay between the factors. Clinical considerations to adapt radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment to deal with comorbidity challenges will be discussed. Knowledge gaps, future research, and clinical recommendation in this increasingly important field are highlighted as well. PMID:22985810

  4. Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary turnover: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary turnover (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…

  5. Senior Surfing: Computer Use, Aging, and Formal Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Peace, Paula; Parrish, Elaine; Peace, C. Brian; Xu, Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe data from two case studies of seniors (one younger senior and one older senior) in learning to use computers. The study combined interviews, observations, and documents to take a close look at their experiences with computers, as well as the influences of aging and computer training on their experiences. The study…

  6. Food Patterns in an Urban Population: Age and Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined age and sociodemographic differentials in food intake and eating patterns in households in a midwestern metropolitan county. Meat was the only food consumed with recommended frequency by all ages. Food intake and eating pattern differences by age remained when effects of income, education, household composition, and gender were…

  7. AGING AND TOXIC RESPONSE: ISSUES RELEVANT TO RISK ASSESSMENT (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, Aging and Toxic Response: Issues Relevant to Risk Assessment. This document contributes to the Agency's efforts to better understand the physiology of aging in order to protect the health of older persons, and identifies several d...

  8. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  9. Age and Workers' Perceptions of Workplace Safety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between age and I) safety perception; ii) job satisfaction; iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19-29 years; 30-39 years; 40-50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety…

  10. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  11. Aging and Text Comprehension: Interpretation and Domain Knowledge Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heisawn; Kim, Hyo Sik

    2009-01-01

    In this study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adults read two different history texts. In the "knowledge advantage" condition, readers read a history text about an event that was well-known to readers of all ages but most familiar to elderly adults. In the "no advantage" condition, readers read a history text about a political situation of a…

  12. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  13. 27 CFR 5.52 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... origin. 5.52 Section 5.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... From Customs Custody of Bottled Imported Distilled Spirits § 5.52 Certificates of age and origin. (a... certificate of origin issued by a duly authorized official of the British, Irish, or Canadian...

  14. [Relationships among self concept, perception of aging and physical aging].

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M S; Choi, Y H

    1988-12-01

    Although everyone grows old, perception about the aging process and aging as measured physiologically vary widely. Perceptions of aging have psychologically influence on physical aging. This study was to examine the relationships between, self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging in the elderly and to contribute to the theory development which may direct nursing intervention to promote well-being of the aged. Subjects were 70 women residents of a nursing home for the elderly in Seoul. Data collection was done from May 15 to June 15, 1988 using interview schedules and mechanical instruments. The instruments were selected items from the Health Self Concept Scale developed by Jacox and Stewart for self concept, and Secord and Jourad's Body Cathexis Scale and Osgood's Semantic Differential Scale for perception of aging. Physical aging was measured by mechanical instruments, inspection, questions, and palpation. The data were analysed for mean, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient using an S.P.S.S computerized program. The results of the analysis were as follows. 1. The mean level of self concept for the subject group was 16.97 (SD = +/- 6.17) in a range from 6-30. The mean level of perception of aging was 39.6. (SD = +/- 6.51) in a range from 13-65. The mean level of physical aging was 14.09 (SD = +/- 2.05) in a range from 8-40. 2. Relationships among self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging. 1) There was a positive relationship between self-concept and perception of aging (r = 0.4461, p = 0.000). 2) There was a negative relationship between physical aging and perception of aging (r = -0.2975, p = 0.006). 3) There was a tendency toward a negative relationship between physical aging and self-concept, but not a significant relationship (r = -0.1033, p = 0.197). 3. 1) No general characteristic variables were related to self concept. 2) The general characteristic variable related to the level of perception of aging was religion (t = 4

  15. The frailty index in Europeans: association with age and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: the frailty index (FI) is an approach to the operationalisation of frailty based on accumulation of deficits. It has been less studied in Europeans. Objective: to construct sex-specific FIs from a large sample of Europeans and study their associations with age and mortality. Design: longitudinal population-based survey. Setting: the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http://share-dev.mpisoc.mpg.de/). Subjects: a total of 16,217 females and 13,688 males aged ≥50 from wave 1 (2004–05). Mortality data were collected between 2005 and 2006 (mean follow-up: 2.4 years). Methods: regression curve estimations between age and an FI constructed as per the standard procedure. Logistic regressions were used to assess the relative effects of age and the FI towards mortality. Results: in both sexes, there was a significant non-linear association between age and the FI (females: quadratic R2 = 0.20, P < 0.001; males: quadratic R2 = 0.14, P < 0.001). Overall, the FI was a much stronger predictor of mortality than age, even after adjusting for the latter (females: age-adjusted OR 100.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 46.3–218.2, P < 0.001; males: age-adjusted OR 221.1, 95% CI: 106.7–458.4, P < 0.001). Conclusion: the FI had the expected properties in this large sample of Europeans. PMID:22522775

  16. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. PMID:24631800

  17. Detection of HER2 polymorphism and expression using circulating DNA and RNA as a tool in lung adenocarcinoma patients: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Masroor; Javid, Jamsheed; Yadav, Prasant; Mohan, Anant; Ray, Prakash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating DNA and RNA is an important prognostic tool for noninvasive malignant disease detection and in disease prognosis. Study aimed to evaluate the possible prognostic role of HER2 (-3444C/T) promoter polymorphism and its mRNA expression in Lung adenocarcinoma patients using circulating DNA and RNA. Methods One hundred newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma patients and 100 age and sex matched healthy controls were included and allele specific (AS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for genotyping and expression was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Overall survival of patients was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results We observed a statistically significant difference in the frequency of HER2 CC, CT, and CT genotype among lung adenocarcinoma cases vs. healthy controls (P=0.001). Compared to the CC genotype, OR 2.51 (1.4–4.51), 5.97 (1.17–30.41) and RR 1.56 (1.17–2.07), 2.83 (0.82–9.73) for heterozygous CT and homozygous TT genotypes suggesting possible dominant effect on risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Cases with CC genotype showed 9.29 fold increased mRNA expression while cases with heterozygous CT and homozygous TT genotype showed 16.26, 16.72 fold increased mRNA expression (P<0.0001). We observed 13.92 fold increased HER2mRNA expression Lung adenocarcinoma patients. Patients in different TNM stages showed significant difference in HER2 mRNA expression which was found to be significantly associated (P<0.0001). Patients with distant metastases and without distant metastases had 17.44 and 11.16 fold increased HER2 mRNA expression was also found to be significantly associated (P<0.0001). It was also observed that patients with pleural effusion and without pleural effusion showed significant difference in HER2 mRNA expression (P=0.03). We also analysed patients with CC, TT, CT (P=0.02) and CT + TT (P=0.008) genotype showed 15.8, 7.9, 9.5 and 7.9 months of overall median survival time and found to be significantly associated

  18. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  19. Motor system alterations in retired former athletes: the role of aging and concussion history

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retired athletes with a history of sports concussions experience cognitive and motor declines with aging, and the risk of severe neurodegenerative conditions is magnified in this population. The present study investigated the effects of aging on motor system metabolism and function in former university-level athletes who sustained their last concussion several decades prior to testing. Methods To test the hypothesis that age and remote concussions induce functional as well as metabolic alterations of the motor system, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect metabolic abnormalities in the primary motor cortex and the serial reaction time task (SRTT) to evaluate motor learning. Results Our results indicate that motor learning is significantly reduced in former concussed athletes relative to controls. In addition, glutamate/H2O ratio in M1 was disproportionately reduced in concussed athletes with advancing age and was found to strongly correlate with motor learning impairments. Conclusion Findings from this study provide evidence that the acquisition of a repeated motor sequence is compromised in the aging concussed brain and that its physiological underpinnings could implicate disproportionate reductions of M1 glutamate concentrations with advancing age. PMID:23972282

  20. Nonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older people.

    PubMed

    Brédart, Serge; Bouffier, Marion

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that young participants typically date events that they remember, but no longer believe they experienced, to the period of childhood. The present study investigated whether participants aged between 40 and 79years dated events related to relinquished memories to the period of childhood, as do younger people, or whether they dated such events to a period later in life. The study also compared believed and nonbelieved memories with respect to memory perspective (1st vs 3rd person perspective). Results indicated that the majority of middle-aged and older people dated nonbelieved memories to the period of childhood (median age=8years). No correlation was found between the participants' current age and their age at the time the nonbelieved event occurred. In addition, results showed that believed memories were more likely to be retrieved from a 1st person perspective than were nonbelieved memories. PMID:27136268

  1. Proud to be a woman: Womanhood, old age, and emotions.

    PubMed

    Wilińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This article takes its starting point in the discussions regarding intersecting discourses of gender and age and the lived experience of older women. The main objective is to discuss the experience of womanhood among older women and to demonstrate their active role in creating spaces for themselves and their friends and affecting each other. The study is based on narrative interviews with female members of the University of the Third Age (U3A). The main findings describe older women who actively engage with discourses of gender to embark on positive constructions of womanhood. They create their own spaces for women's activism that are filled with positive emotions mobilized to support each other. This article discusses such findings and their relevance to the study of old age and gender. As a result, it serves as an invitation to think and feel differently about older women and their experience of womanhood. PMID:27045298

  2. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one. PMID:10483505

  3. Wnt Signaling in Neurogenesis during Aging and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael; Do, Huong

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, much progress has been made regarding our understanding of neurogenesis in both young and old animals and where it occurs throughout the lifespan, although the growth of new neurons declines with increasing age. In addition, physical activity can reverse this age-dependent decline in neurogenesis. Highly correlated with this decline is the degree of inter and intracellular Wnt signaling, the molecular mechanisms of which have only recently started to be elucidated. So far, most of what we know about intracellular signaling during/following exercise centers around the CREB/CRE initiated transcriptional events. Relatively little is known, however, about how aging and physical activity affect the Wnt signaling pathway. Herein, we briefly review the salient features of neurogenesis in young and then in old adult animals. Then, we discuss Wnt signaling and review the very few in vitro and in vivo studies that have examined the Wnt signaling pathways in aging and physical activity. PMID:24961268

  4. Modeling Aging and Mechanical Rejuvenation of Amorphous Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkiv, Mykhailo; Hütter, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The elasto-viscoplasticity of amorphous solids is modeled, with a focus on the effects of physical aging and mechanical rejuvenation. Using nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the concept of kinetic and configurational subsystems has been employed. The Hamiltonian structure of reversible dynamics is exploited to derive a constitutive relation for the stress tensor. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that accounting for mechanical rejuvenation results in a modification of the driving force for viscoplastic flow.

  5. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. ); Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  6. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, {mu}, and {sigma}) are

  7. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  8. Age and diabetes related changes of the retinal capillaries: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Enrica; Ripandelli, Guido; Taurone, Samanta; Feher, Janos; Plateroti, Rocco; Kovacs, Illes; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Micera, Alessandra; Battaglione, Ezio; Artico, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Normal human aging and diabetes are associated with a gradual decrease of cerebral flow in the brain with changes in vascular architecture. Thickening of the capillary basement membrane and microvascular fibrosis are evident in the central nervous system of elderly and diabetic patients. Current findings assign a primary role to endothelial dysfunction as a cause of basement membrane (BM) thickening, while retinal alterations are considered to be a secondary cause of either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal any initial retinal alterations and variations in the BM of retinal capillaries during diabetes and aging as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we investigated the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retina.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on 46 enucleated human eyes with particular attention to alterations of the retinal capillary wall and Müller glial cells. Inflammatory cytokines expression in the retina was investigated by immunohistochemistry.Our electron microscopy findings demonstrated that thickening of the BM begins primarily at the level of the glial side of the retina during aging and diabetes. The Müller cells showed numerous cytoplasmic endosomes and highly electron-dense lysosomes which surrounded the retinal capillaries. Our study is the first to present morphological evidence that Müller cells start to deposit excessive BM material in retinal capillaries during aging and diabetes. Our results confirm the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β within the retina as a result of diabetes.These observations strongly suggest that inflammatory cytokines and changes in the metabolism of Müller glial cells rather than changes in of endothelial cells may play a primary role in the alteration of retinal capillaries BM during aging and diabetes. PMID:26604209

  9. Declines in peak oxygen consumption due to both aging and chronic ethanol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, R.P.; Walters, T.J.; Cartee, G.D.; Sweeney, H.L.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that chronic ethanol consumption will depress peak oxygen consumption. This study was designed to determine whether the decline in peak oxygen consumption induced by chronic ethanol consumption was equivalent to that of aging and whether the interaction of aging and chronic ethanol consumption would further depress peak oxygen consumption. Male F344 rats 10 and 22 months of age were divided into 4 groups young pair-fed controls (YC), young ethanol (YE) old pair-fed control (OC) and old ethanol (OE). The YE and OE received 35% of their calories as ethanol in a liquid diet, while the pair-fed controls had dextrin isocalorically substituted for ethanol. All rats were kept on the diet for 10 weeks. The YE and OE rats averaged 10.1 +/- 0.15 g of ethanol/Kg over the 10 week protocol. The peak VO/sub 2/ declined 12% in the OC compared to YC. Chronic ethanol consumption depressed peak VO/sub 2/ 16% in YC compared to YE. In the OE the peak VO/sub 2/ was depressed 13% below that of OC.

  10. Multiscale entropy analysis of pulse wave velocity for assessing atherosclerosis in the aged and diabetic.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Wang, Hou-Jun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Chieh-Ju

    2011-10-01

    This study proposed a dynamic pulse wave velocity (PWV)-based biomedical parameter in assessing the degree of atherosclerosis for the aged and diabetic populations. Totally, 91 subjects were recruited from a single medical institution between July 2009 and October 2010. The subjects were divided into four groups: young healthy adults (Group 1, n = 22), healthy upper middle-aged adults (Group 2, n = 28), type 2 diabetics with satisfactory blood sugar control (Group 3, n = 21), and unsatisfactory blood sugar control (Group 4, n = 20). A self-developed six-channel electrocardiography (ECG)-PWV-based equipment was used to acquire 1000 successive recordings of PWV(foot) values within 30 min. The data, thus, obtained were analyzed with multiscale entropy (MSE). Large-scale MSE index (MEI(LS)) was chosen as the assessment parameter. Not only did MEI(LS) successfully differentiate between subjects in Groups 1 and 2, but it also showed a significant difference between Groups 3 and 4. Compared with the conventional parameter of PWV(foot) and MEI on R-R interval [i.e., MEI(RRI)] in evaluating the degree of atherosclerotic change, the dynamic parameter, MEI(LS) (PWV), could better reflect the impact of age and blood sugar control on the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:21693413

  11. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  12. Chondrocyte Senescence and Telomere Regulation: Implications in Cartilage Aging and Cancer (A Brief Review)

    PubMed Central

    Mollano, Anthony V; Martin, James A; Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on osteoarthritis and the cartilage aging in our laboratory demonstrate that chronologic age correlates with molecular changes in human chondrocytes that affect cell cycle control and replicative life span. These findings indicate that age-related changes in chondrocytes may explain the heightened risk for development of primary osteoarthritis (OA) with increasing age. Concomitant studies of human chondrosarcoma suggest that these aging mechanisms may also play a role in preventing the malignant transformation of chondrocytes. The convergence at the molecular level of these seemingly dissimilar biologic processes provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying cartilage neoplasia, cartilage aging, and osteoarthritis. PMID:12180600

  13. The older people, omega-3, and cognitive health (EPOCH) trial design and methodology: A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial investigating the effect of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive ageing and wellbeing in cognitively healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Some studies have suggested an association between omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and better cognitive outcomes in older adults. To date, only two randomised, controlled trials have assessed the effect of n-3 LC PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in older cognitively healthy populations. Of these trials only one found a benefit, in the subgroup carrying the ApoE-ε4 allele. The benefits of n-3 LC PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in older normal populations thus still remain unclear. The main objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential of n-3 LC PUFAs to slow cognitive decline in normal elderly people, and included ApoE-ε4 allele carriage as a potential moderating factor. The detailed methodology of the trial is reported herein. Methods The study was a parallel, 18-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with assessment at baseline and repeated 6-monthly. Participants (N = 391, 53.7% female) aged 65-90 years, English-speaking and with normal cognitive function, were recruited from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Participants in the intervention arm received capsules containing fish-oil at a daily dosage of 1720 mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 600 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm received the equivalent amount of olive oil in their capsules. The primary outcome is rate of change in cognitive performance, as measured by latent variables for the cognitive constructs (encompassing Reasoning, Working Memory, Short-term Memory, Retrieval Fluency, Inhibition, Simple and Choice-Reaction Time, Perceptual Speed, Odd-man-out Reaction Time, Speed of Memory Scanning, and Psychomotor Speed) and assessed by latent growth curve modeling. Secondary outcomes are change in the Mini-mental State Examination, functional capacity and well-being (including health status, depression, mood, and self-report cognitive functioning), blood

  14. Comparative study of control selection in a national population-based case-control study: Estimating risk of smoking on cancer deaths in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Nasca, Philip C.; Han, Wei; Zou, Xiaonong; Zeng, Xianjia; Tian, Xiaobing; Wu, Yanping; Zhao, Ping; Li, Junyao

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the validation of a novel control selection design by comparing the consistency between the new design and a routine design in a large case-control study that was incorporated into a nationwide mortality survey in China. Methods: A nationwide mortality study was conducted during 1989-1991. Surviving spouses or other relatives of all adults who died during 1986-1988 provided detailed information about their own as well as the deceased person's smoking history. In this study, 130,079 males who died of various smoking-related cancers at age 35 or over were taken as cases, while 103,248 male surviving spouses (same age range with cases) of women who died during the same period and 49,331 males who died from causes other than those related to smoking were used as control group 1 and control group 2, respectively. Consistency in the results when comparing cases with each of the control groups was assessed. Results: Consistency in the results was observed in the analyses using different control groups although cancer deaths varied with region and age. Equivalence could be ascertained using a 15% criterion in most cancer deaths which had high death rates in urban areas, but they were uncertain for most cancers in rural areas irrespective of whether the hypothesis testing showed significant differences or not. Conclusions: Sex-matched living spouse control design as an alternative control selection for a case-control study is valid and feasible, and the basic principles of the equivalence study are also supported by epidemiological survey data. PMID:19918375

  15. The association of host age and gender with inflammation around neurocysticercosis cysts.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, E A; Carpio, A; Bagiella, E; Leslie, D; Leon, P; Andrews, H; Hauser, W A

    2009-09-01

    The results of previous investigations indicate that age and gender may influence the strength of the human host's immune response to infection of the central nervous system with the larvae of Taenia solium. Most of the relevant research on such neurocysticercosis (NCC) has, however, been conducted on hospital-based samples in developing countries, where differential access to healthcare may bias the study results. Using data from 171 NCC patients participating in a treatment trial, the associations of patient age and gender with the presence of inflammation around NCC cysts (i.e. cysts in the transitional phase) have recently been explored, after controlling for measures of economic and geographical access to healthcare. Data on cysts were collected from computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance images taken at four time-points, from baseline to 12-months post-treatment. The odds of having transitional cysts were evaluated by logistic regression whereas Poisson regression was used to explore the numbers of transitional cysts, with generalised estimating equations (GEE) used to account for the multiple observations over time. After controlling for healthcare access, the odds of having transitional cysts were found to be 1.5-fold higher for the female patients than for the male, although this association was not statistically significant (P = 0.136). In the Poisson model, however, the number of transitional cysts was found to be 1.8-fold higher in the female patients than in the male, and this gender effect was not only statistically significant (P = 0.002) but also constant over time. The association of host age with transitional cysts was more complicated, with significant interaction between age and time. It therefore appears that there are significant gender and age differences in the local immune response to NCC, even after adjusting for differences in healthcare access. PMID:19695154

  16. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  17. Heart Rates in Hospitalized Children by Age and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bonafide, Christopher P.; Brady, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient’s severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. METHODS: Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients <18 years of age at 2 large freestanding children’s hospitals from July 2011 to June 2012. We selected up to 10 HR-temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. RESULTS: We used 60 863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. PMID:25917984

  18. Aging and long-term memory for emotionally valenced events.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Carolyn W; Safer, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    In 2008, 1103 ardent Boston Red Sox fans answered questions about their team's 2003 loss and 2004 win in baseball championship games with archrival New York Yankees. Contrary to predictions based on socioemotional selectivity theory, there were no significant interactions of age and event valence for accuracy in remembering event details, or for self-reported subjective vividness and rehearsal of the memories. Fans 65 years and older tended to remember feeling only sad about the 2003 loss, whereas fans 25 years and under tended to remember feeling both sad and angry. Individuals may remember emotional feelings based on remembered goals about an event. PMID:22888956

  19. Rapamycin, anti-aging, and avoiding the fate of Tithonus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Arlan

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that rapamycin increased the lifespan of mice was recognized by Science as one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs of 2009. In addition to increasing lifespan, Neff and colleagues show that while rapamycin improves several functions/pathologies that change with age, it has little effect on the majority of the physiological and structural parameters they evaluated. What do these data tell us about the ability of rapamycin to delay aging and improve quality of life, i.e., prevent the fate of Tithonus? PMID:24063054

  20. Glycoconjugate changes in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Ando, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The significance of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins is discussed in their relation to normal aging and pathological aging, aging with diseases. Healthy myelin that looks stable is found to be gradually degraded and reconstructed throughout life for remodeling. An exciting finding is that myelin P0 protein is located in neurons and glycosylated in aging brains. In pathological aging, the roles of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins as risk factors or protective agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are discussed. Intensive studies have been performed aiming to remove the risks from and to restore the functional deficits of the brain. Some of them are expected to be translated to therapeutic means. PMID:25151390

  1. Chinguetti - terrestrial age and pre-atmospheric size

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K C; Masarik, J; Bland, P A; Caffee, M W; Russell, S S; Grady, M M; Denyer, I; Lloyd, J

    2000-01-14

    Chinguetti is a 4.5 kg mesosiderite find recovered from the Adra region of Mauretania. In this paper the authors analyse a portion of the recovered sample for cosmogenic radionuclides to determine its terrestrial age, and to determine its pre-atmospheric radius. They determined the terrestrial age of Chinguetti to be < 30 ky. They constrain the pre-atmospheric radius to 50--80 cm and the shielding depths of 15--25 cm. These data indicate that Chinguetti is a comparatively recent fall.

  2. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts.

    PubMed

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-04-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  3. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-01-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  4. Ageing and ART: a waste of time and money?

    PubMed

    Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Ho, Pak Chung

    2007-02-01

    In many societies, more and more young women are delaying childbearing until the fourth decade of life. It is well known that fertility is remarkably reduced with increasing age of women in both natural conceptions and assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this chapter, the effect of ageing on the pregnancy rate in ART, and the options available to improve the reproductive outcomes in women of advanced age will be presented after understanding the mechanism of reproductive ageing and the effects of ageing on the reproductive outcomes in normal women. It is important to identify the predictive factors associated with a better treatment outcome. PMID:17049459

  5. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  6. Differential Expression of Social Dominance as a Function of Age and Maltreatment Experience

    PubMed Central

    Teisl, Michael; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    Recent perspectives on social dominance in normative populations suggest a developmental progression from using primarily coercive strategies to incorporation of more socially competent strategies to attain material and social resources. Parental influences on the resource control strategies children use have been proposed, but not investigated empirically. The present study examined age- and gender-related differences in dominance strategies in 470 children from high-risk neighborhoods who were between 6 and 13 years of age, and approximately half of whom had experienced maltreatment. A Q-sort measure of social dominance was developed and received preliminary support. Consistent with predictions from resource control theory, age-related differences in dominance-related behavior were demonstrated in both non-maltreated and maltreated children. Maltreated children were more likely than non-maltreated children to be identified as dominant bullies at any age. Dominance and bullying were not more likely to be associated for children who had experienced physical and sexual abuse relative to those who were neglected or emotionally maltreated. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of maltreatment on the social development of children and intervention approaches for limiting these deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:21823792

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  8. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  9. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  10. What happens in the leucotomised brain? A postmortem morphological study of brains from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pakkenberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Volume measurements were carried out on 19 brains from leucotomised schizophrenic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls using a stereological method. The volume of the total fixed brain, hemispheres, cortex, white matter, and central grey matter were all significantly reduced compared with controls. White matter and central grey structures were significantly reduced compared with a group of non-leucotomised schizophrenic brains. No difference was found in the size of the lesions in patients who improved compared with the patients who remained unchanged and the outcome was unrelated to lesional asymmetry. Morphometric measurements were correlated to a number of clinical parameters. PMID:2703834

  11. Does aspirin use make it harder to collect seizures during elective video-EEG telemetry?

    PubMed

    Godfred, Rachel M; Parikh, Mihir S; Haltiner, Alan M; Caylor, Lisa M; Sepkuty, Jehuda P; Doherty, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Aspirin has shown promise as an anticonvulsant drug in animal models. Whether aspirin alters seizure frequency in humans remains unstudied. We retrospectively looked at adults with focal onset epilepsy who took aspirin daily while undergoing elective video-EEG monitoring and compared them with similar age- and sex-matched controls to see if seizure frequencies were different between those two populations. Significantly fewer seizures were seen on day two of monitoring for patients on aspirin therapies. Higher aspirin doses were correlated with fewer seizures collected during the monitoring stay. Further prospective study is needed to determine whether aspirin affects more robust seizure control. PMID:23399946

  12. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in distance runners and weight lifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Kelly, A. R.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of athletes including long-distance runners, competitive and amateur weight lifters, and age- and sex-matched control subjects have been studied by hemodynamic and echocardiographic methods in order to determine the effect of the training programs on the cardiovascular response to static exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and double product data at rest and at fatigue suggest that competitive endurance (dynamic exercise) training alters the cardiovascular response to static exercise. In contrast to endurance exercise, weight lifting (static exercise) training does not alter the cardiovascular response to static exercise: weight lifters responded to static exercise in a manner very similar to that of the control subjects.

  13. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR).

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Pearson, Candice A; Anderson, Alexandra M; Zele, Andrew J; Feigl, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent models. PMID:26620343

  14. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Pearson, Candice A.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Zele, Andrew J.; Feigl, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent models. PMID:26620343

  15. Caloric restriction: beneficial effects on brain aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Vandendriessche, Charysse; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2016-08-01

    Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of CR on aging and Alzheimer's disease. A potential alternative to CR as a lifestyle modification is the use of CR mimetics. These compounds mimic the biochemical and functional effects of CR without the need to reduce energy intake. We discuss the effect of two of the most investigated mimetics, resveratrol and rapamycin, on aging and their potential as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. However, additional research will be needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and usability of CR and its mimetics before a general recommendation can be proposed to implement them. PMID:27240590

  16. Age and cancer risk: a potentially modifiable relationship.

    PubMed

    White, Mary C; Holman, Dawn M; Boehm, Jennifer E; Peipins, Lucy A; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S Jane

    2014-03-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  17. Aging and Sensory Substitution in a Virtual Navigation Task

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Tzedek, S.; Maidenbaum, S.; Amedi, A.; Lackner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments are becoming ubiquitous, and used in a variety of contexts–from entertainment to training and rehabilitation. Recently, technology for making them more accessible to blind or visually impaired users has been developed, by using sound to represent visual information. The ability of older individuals to interpret these cues has not yet been studied. In this experiment, we studied the effects of age and sensory modality (visual or auditory) on navigation through a virtual maze. We added a layer of complexity by conducting the experiment in a rotating room, in order to test the effect of the spatial bias induced by the rotation on performance. Results from 29 participants showed that with the auditory cues, it took participants a longer time to complete the mazes, they took a longer path length through the maze, they paused more, and had more collisions with the walls, compared to navigation with the visual cues. The older group took a longer time to complete the mazes, they paused more, and had more collisions with the walls, compared to the younger group. There was no effect of room rotation on the performance, nor were there any significant interactions among age, feedback modality and room rotation. We conclude that there is a decline in performance with age, and that while navigation with auditory cues is possible even at an old age, it presents more challenges than visual navigation. PMID:27007812

  18. A chaperome subnetwork safeguards proteostasis in aging and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Brehme, Marc; Voisine, Cindy; Rolland, Thomas; Wachi, Shinichiro; Soper, James H; Zhu, Yitan; Orton, Kai; Villella, Adriana; Garza, Dan; Vidal, Marc; Ge, Hui; Morimoto, Richard I

    2014-11-01

    Chaperones are central to the proteostasis network (PN) and safeguard the proteome from misfolding, aggregation, and proteotoxicity. We categorized the human chaperome of 332 genes into network communities using function, localization, interactome, and expression data sets. During human brain aging, expression of 32% of the chaperome, corresponding to ATP-dependent chaperone machines, is repressed, whereas 19.5%, corresponding to ATP-independent chaperones and co-chaperones, are induced. These repression and induction clusters are enhanced in the brains of those with Alzheimer's, Huntington's, or Parkinson's disease. Functional properties of the chaperome were assessed by perturbation in C. elegans and human cell models expressing Aβ, polyglutamine, and Huntingtin. Of 219 C. elegans orthologs, knockdown of 16 enhanced both Aβ and polyQ-associated toxicity. These correspond to 28 human orthologs, of which 52% and 41% are repressed, respectively, in brain aging and disease and 37.5% affected Huntingtin aggregation in human cells. These results identify a critical chaperome subnetwork that functions in aging and disease. PMID:25437566

  19. Telomeres in aging and disease: lessons from zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Madalena C.; de Castro, Inês Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Age is the highest risk factor for some of the most prevalent human diseases, including cancer. Telomere shortening is thought to play a central role in the aging process in humans. The link between telomeres and aging is highlighted by the fact that genetic diseases causing telomerase deficiency are associated with premature aging and increased risk of cancer. For the last two decades, this link has been mostly investigated using mice that have long telomeres. However, zebrafish has recently emerged as a powerful and complementary model system to study telomere biology. Zebrafish possess human-like short telomeres that progressively decline with age, reaching lengths in old age that are observed when telomerase is mutated. The extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes this vertebrate an excellent model to unravel the underlying relationship between telomere shortening, tissue regeneration, aging and disease. In this Review, we explore the advantages of using zebrafish in telomere research and discuss the primary discoveries made in this model that have contributed to expanding our knowledge of how telomere attrition contributes to cellular senescence, organ dysfunction and disease. PMID:27482813

  20. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  1. Aging and Alexithymia Association with Reduced Right Rostral Cingulate Volume

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Sergio; Vaidya, Jatin G.; McCormick, Laurie M.; Jones, Andria; Robinson, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have linked alexithymia to an inability to process emotions appropriately. Older persons show changes in emotion processing and have higher alexithymia scores. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is one of the regions showing earlier decline in late-life and alexithymia appears to be related to a dysfunction in right hemisphere regions including the ACC subserving affective processes, the present study sought to test the hypothesis that reduced ACC volume accounts for the association between older age and alexithymia. Design Correlation analyses between functionally distinct ACC subregions, age and alexithymia features. Setting University of Iowa Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged twenty-four to seventy-nine years. Measurements Psychiatric and neuropsychological assessment and assessment of alexithymia using the twenty items Toronto Alexithymia Scale. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and in-house developed methods for ACC parcellation. Results Older age directly correlated with higher overall alexithymia, and reduced bilateral rostral and right dorsal ACC grey matter volume. Furthermore, higher alexithymia scores correlated with reduced right rostral ACC volume. This correlation appeared to be influenced primarily by factor 3 of the alexithymia scale measuring diversion of attention to external details in place of internal feelings. Conclusions These results suggest that alexithymia in older age may be a result of structural changes in the right rostral ACC. PMID:18697882

  2. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Low, Kathy A.; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A.; Tan, Chin H.; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain’s atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55–87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  3. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age. PMID:23356412

  4. Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Bryan; Wang, Pauline W; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T; Brahma, Vijaya; Donaldson, Sylva; Zhang, Yu; Surendra, Anu; Gong, Yunchen; Elizabeth Tullis, D; Yau, Yvonne C W; Waters, Valerie J; Hwang, David M; Guttman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4-17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function. PMID:25974282

  5. Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Bryan; Wang, Pauline W.; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T.; Brahma, Vijaya; Donaldson, Sylva; Zhang, Yu; Surendra, Anu; Gong, Yunchen; Elizabeth Tullis, D.; Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Waters, Valerie J.; Hwang, David M.; Guttman, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4–17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function. PMID:25974282

  6. NF-κB in Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Clauson, Cheryl L.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Robbins, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic damage to cellular macromolecules and organelles is thought to be a driving force behind aging and associated degenerative changes. However, stress response pathways activated by this damage may also contribute to aging. The IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway has been proposed to be one of the key mediators of aging. It is activated by genotoxic, oxidative, and inflammatory stresses and regulates expression of cytokines, growth factors, and genes that regulate apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell senescence, and inflammation. Transcriptional activity of NF-κB is increased in a variety of tissues with aging and is associated with numerous age-related degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s, diabetes and osteoporosis. In mouse models, inhibition of NF-κB leads to delayed onset of age-related symptoms and pathologies. In addition, NF-κB activation is linked with many of the known lifespan regulators including insulin/IGF-1, FOXO, SIRT, mTOR, and DNA damage. Thus NF-κB represents a possible therapeutic target for extending mammalian healthspan. PMID:22396894

  7. Teaching age and discrimination: a life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Foster, Celeste

    2014-08-01

    Age discrimination in health and social care is a universal issue with significant potential ramifications for practice, and one which should be explicitly addressed in health and social care pre-registration education. However, developing teaching and learning strategies to effectively address this subject is complex given that implicit/indirect discrimination based upon tacit beliefs and assumptions, is problematic and difficult to tackle. This paper discusses the importance of teaching age and discrimination to student nurses in the context of the development of a novel approach to this aspect of education from a life course perspective. This discussion is based personal and professional reflections of the authors on the delivery of the teaching session over a number of years with approximately 500 student mental health nurses to date. The emerging themes of this are reported here and their implications for education and practice discussed. Exploring age and discrimination in relation to children and young people and older people in particular has enabled student nurses to explore the concept as one which requires critical reflection. This promotes awareness of usually unexamined personal attitudes in relation to age in order to enhance the potential for good experiences of health services for all people in need of them. PMID:24378077

  8. Age and gender differences in various topographical orientation strategies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Irene; Levy, Richard M; Barton, Jason J S; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Orientation in the environment can draw on a variety of cognitive strategies. We asked 634 healthy volunteers to perform a comprehensive battery administered through an internet website (www.gettinglost.ca), testing different orientation strategies in virtual environments to determine the effect of age and gender upon these skills. Older participants (46-67years of age) performed worse than younger participants (18-30 or 31-45years of age) in all orientation skills assessed, including landmark recognition, integration of body-centered information, forming association between landmarks and body turns, and the formation and use of a cognitive map. Among all tests, however, the ability to form cognitive maps resulted to be the significant factor best at predicting the individuals' age group. Gender effects were stable across age and dissociated for task, with males better than females for cognitive map formation and use as well as for path reversal, an orientation task that does not require the processing of visual landmarks during navigation. We conclude that age-related declines in navigation are common across all orientation strategies and confirm gender-specific effects in different spatial domains. PMID:21803342

  9. Aging and Sensory Substitution in a Virtual Navigation Task.

    PubMed

    Levy-Tzedek, S; Maidenbaum, S; Amedi, A; Lackner, J

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments are becoming ubiquitous, and used in a variety of contexts-from entertainment to training and rehabilitation. Recently, technology for making them more accessible to blind or visually impaired users has been developed, by using sound to represent visual information. The ability of older individuals to interpret these cues has not yet been studied. In this experiment, we studied the effects of age and sensory modality (visual or auditory) on navigation through a virtual maze. We added a layer of complexity by conducting the experiment in a rotating room, in order to test the effect of the spatial bias induced by the rotation on performance. Results from 29 participants showed that with the auditory cues, it took participants a longer time to complete the mazes, they took a longer path length through the maze, they paused more, and had more collisions with the walls, compared to navigation with the visual cues. The older group took a longer time to complete the mazes, they paused more, and had more collisions with the walls, compared to the younger group. There was no effect of room rotation on the performance, nor were there any significant interactions among age, feedback modality and room rotation. We conclude that there is a decline in performance with age, and that while navigation with auditory cues is possible even at an old age, it presents more challenges than visual navigation. PMID:27007812

  10. Stand age and climate drive forest carbon balance recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Simon; Carvalhais, Nuno; Clevers, Jan; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an essential role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the C exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Ecological disturbances and forest management are drivers of forest dynamics and strongly impact the forest C budget. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the exogenous and endogenous factors driving forest C recovery. Our analysis includes 68 forest sites in different climate zones to determine the relative influence of stand age and climate conditions on the forest carbon balance recovery. In this study, we only included forest regrowth after clear-cut stand replacement (e.g. harvest, fire), and afforestation/reforestation processes. We synthesized net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), the photosynthetic respiratory ratio (GPP to Re ratio), the ecosystem carbon use efficiency (CUE), that is NEP to GPP ratio, and CUEclimax, where GPP is derived from the climate conditions. We implemented a non-linear regression analysis in order to identify the best model representing the C flux patterns with stand age. Furthermore, we showed that each C flux have a non-linear relationship with stand age, annual precipitation (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT), therefore, we proposed to use non-linear transformations of the covariates for C fluxes'estimates. Non-linear stand age and climate models were, therefore, used to establish multiple linear regressions for C flux predictions and for determining the contribution of stand age and climate in forest carbon recovery. Our findings depicted that a coupled stand age-climate model explained 33% (44%, average site), 62% (76%, average site), 56% (71%, average site), 41% (59%, average site), 50% (65%, average site) and 36% (50%, average site) of the variance of annual NEP, GPP, Re, photosynthetic respiratory ratio, CUE and CUEclimax across sites, respectively. In addition, we showed that gross fluxes (e.g. GPP and Re) are

  11. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor κ B signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NFκB) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days × 2500–4500 mg) treatment with the NFκB inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = −0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NFκB signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of

  12. Altered fractal dynamics of gait: reduced stride-interval correlations with aging and Huntington's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P < 0.003). The scaling exponent alpha was also smaller in the subjects with Huntington's disease compared with disease-free controls (Huntington's disease: 0.60 +/- 0.24; controls: 0.88 +/-0.17; P < 0.005). Moreover, alpha was linearly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r = 0.78, P < 0.0005). These findings demonstrate that strike-interval fluctuations are more random (i.e., less correlated) in elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.

  13. Analysis of Lower Body Kinematic and Kinetic: Differences Between Age and Handicap in Golfers of Various Ages and Skill Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilensky, Alexander

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a preliminary analysis of lower body golf swing biomechanics. Fourteen golfers of various ages and handicaps performed 10 swings off a tee with their driver. This study focused on a number of dependent variables including lead knee joint flexion angles, internal/external rotations, valgus/varus angles, as well as ground reaction forces normalized to body weight (%BW), X-Factor angle and club head velocity. Dependent variables were analyzed at four specifically defined events (start, initiation of downswing, contact and swing termination). Simple linear regressions were performed using age and handicap as independent variables to see if patterns could be determined at any of the events. No significant trends or results were reported within our sample. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then used to examine the effect of event on specific dependent variables. A number of differences were reported within each of the variables across the four events. This study hoped to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the movement patterns occurring at the lower body with special focus on the lead knee.

  14. Colorectal adenomas and energy intake, body size and physical activity: a case-control study of subjects participating in the Nottingham faecal occult blood screening programme.

    PubMed Central

    Little, J.; Logan, R. F.; Hawtin, P. G.; Hardcastle, J. D.; Turner, I. D.

    1993-01-01

    Most case-control studies of colorectal cancer have shown a positive association with energy intake. In contrast studies which have considered physical activity have found the most active to have a lower risk of colonic cancer and obesity appears to be no more than weakly related to colorectal cancer. We therefore compared energy intake determined by a diet history interview, self-reported height and weight, together with measures of lifetime job activity levels and leisure activity in the year prior to interview in 147 cases with colorectal adenomas and two control groups (a) 153 age-sex matched FOB-negative subjects (b) 176 FOB-positive subjects in whom no adenoma or carcinoma was found. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals () adjusted for age, sex and social class. No association with weight or body mass index was found. The only association with physical activity found with both control groups was an inverse association with running or cycling for half an hour continuously at least once a week RR 0.46 (0.2-1.3) compared with control group (a), and RR = 0.32 (0.1-0.8) compared with (b), but few subjects engaged in such activity. There was an inverse association with energy intake (trend chi 2 = 5.3, P < 0.025) in the comparison with control group (a) only, a finding which is consistent with those of two previous studies of asymptomatic adenoma. PMID:8427777

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction: the missing link between aging and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Amandine; Friedland, Kristina; Eckert, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that represents the most common form of dementia among the elderly. Despite the fact that AD was studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms that trigger this neuropathology remain unresolved. Since the onset of cognitive deficits occurs generally within the 6th decade of life, except in rare familial case, advancing age is the greatest known risk factor for AD. To unravel the pathogenesis of the disease, numerous studies use cellular and animal models based on genetic mutations found in rare early onset familial AD (FAD) cases that represent less than 1 % of AD patients. However, the underlying process that leads to FAD appears to be distinct from that which results in late-onset AD. As a genetic disorder, FAD clearly is a consequence of malfunctioning/mutated genes, while late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related malfunction. Normal aging and AD are both marked by defects in brain metabolism and increased oxidative stress, albeit to varying degrees. Mitochondria are involved in these two phenomena by controlling cellular bioenergetics and redox homeostasis. In the present review, we compare the common features observed in both brain aging and AD, placing mitochondrial in the center of pathological events that separate normal and pathological aging. We emphasize a bioenergetic model for AD including the inverse Warburg hypothesis which postulates that AD is a consequence of mitochondrial deregulation leading to metabolic reprogramming as an initial attempt to maintain neuronal integrity. After the failure of this compensatory mechanism, bioenergetic deficits may lead to neuronal death and dementia. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may represent the missing link between aging and sporadic AD, and represent attractive targets against neurodegeneration. PMID:26468143

  16. Roles of Insulin, Age, and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine on Nitric Oxide Synthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Paolo; Cecchet, Diego; Artusi, Carlo; Vettore, Monica; Millioni, Renato; Plebani, Mario; Puricelli, Lucia; Vedovato, Monica

    2013-01-01

    We tested the effects of insulin on production of nitrous oxide (NO)-related substances (nitrites and nitrates [NOx]) after 15N-arginine intravenous infusion and on asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations in conditions reportedly associated with altered NO availability, i.e., aging, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 26 male subjects (age 23–71 years, BMI 23–33 kg/m2), some of whom were affected by mixed pathologic features, were enrolled. NOx fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was lower in elderly (P < 0.015) and T2DM subjects (P < 0.03) than in matched control subjects. Hyperinsulinemia generally increased both NOx FSR and absolute synthesis rate (ASR) and reduced NOx, ADMA, and SDMA concentrations. Insulin sensitivity was impaired only in T2DM. With use of simple linear regression analysis across all subjects, age was inversely correlated with both NOx FSR (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.015) and ASR (R2 = 0.21, P < 0.02). NOx FSR inversely correlated with both ADMA and SDMA. With use of multiple regression analysis and various models, NOx FSR remained inversely associated with age and ADMA, whereas ASR was inversely associated with age and diabetes. No association with insulin sensitivity was found. We conclude that whole-body NOx production is decreased in aging and T2DM. Age, ADMA concentration, and T2DM, but not insulin resistance, appear as negative regulators of whole-body NOx production. PMID:23474488

  17. Full spectral fitting of Milky Way and M 31 globular clusters: ages and metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezario, E.; Coelho, P. R. T.; Alves-Brito, A.; Forbes, D. A.; Brodie, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of disk galaxies are long standing questions in astronomy. Understanding the properties of globular cluster systems can lead to important insights on the evolution of its host galaxy. Aims: We aim to obtain the stellar population parameters - age and metallicity - of a sample of M 31 and Galactic globular clusters. Studying their globular cluster systems is an important step towards understanding their formation and evolution in a complete way. Methods: Our analysis employs a modern pixel-to-pixel spectral fitting technique to fit observed integrated spectra to updated stellar population models. By comparing observations to models we obtain the ages and metallicities of their stellar populations. We apply this technique to a sample of 38 globular clusters in M 31 and to 41 Galactic globular clusters, used as a control sample. Results: Our sample of M 31 globular clusters spans ages from 150 Myr to the age of the Universe. Metallicities [Fe/H] range from -2.2 dex to the solar value. The age-metallicity relation obtained can be described as having two components: an old population with a flat age-[Fe/H] relation, possibly associated with the halo and/or bulge, and a second one with a roughly linear relation between age and metallicity, higher metallicities corresponding to younger ages, possibly associated with the M 31 disk. While we recover the very well known Galactic GC metallicity bimodality, our own analysis of M 31's metallicity distribution function (MDF) suggests that both GC systems cover basically the same [Fe/H] range yet M 31's MDF is not clearly bimodal. These results suggest that both galaxies experienced different star formation and accretion histories. Table 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Ageing and gonadectomy have similar effects on hypoglossal long-term facilitation in male Fischer rats

    PubMed Central

    Zabka, AG; Mitchell, GS; Behan, M

    2005-01-01

    Long-term facilitation (LTF), a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia, decreases with increasing age or following gonadectomy in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Ageing is accompanied by decreasing levels of testosterone, which in turn influences serotonergic function. In addition, LTF in young male rats differs among strains. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that LTF is similar in middle-aged and gonadectomized young male rats of an inbred rat strain commonly used in studies on ageing (F344) by comparison with SD rats. We further tested whether the magnitude of LTF correlates with circulating serum levels of testosterone and/or progesterone. Young and middle-aged intact and young gonadectomized (GDX) male Fischer 344 rats were anaesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked and ventilated. Integrated phrenic and hypoglossal (XII) nerve activities were measured before, during and 60 min following three 5-min episodes of isocapnic hypoxia. LTF was observed in phrenic motor output in young and middle-aged intact and young GDX rats. In contrast, XII LTF was observed only in young intact rats. In middle-aged and young GDX rats, XII LTF was significantly lower than in young intact rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, XII LTF was positively correlated with the testosterone/progesterone ratio. These data show that serotonin-dependent plasticity in upper airway respiratory output is similar in F344 and SD rat strains. Furthermore, LTF is similarly impaired in middle-aged and gonadectomized male rats, suggesting that gonadal hormones play an important role in modulating the capacity for neuroplasticity in upper airway motor control. PMID:15613371

  19. The Biology of Proteostasis in Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Labbadia, Johnathan; Morimoto, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a common feature of aging and disease that is characterized by the appearance of nonnative protein aggregates in various tissues. Protein aggregation is routinely suppressed by the proteostasis network (PN), a collection of macromolecular machines that operate in diverse ways to maintain proteome integrity across subcellular compartments and between tissues to ensure a healthy life span. Here, we review the composition, function, and organizational properties of the PN in the context of individual cells and entire organisms and discuss the mechanisms by which disruption of the PN, and related stress response pathways, contributes to the initiation and progression of disease. We explore emerging evidence that disease susceptibility arises from early changes in the composition and activity of the PN and propose that a more complete understanding of the temporal and spatial properties of the PN will enhance our ability to develop effective treatments for protein conformational diseases. PMID:25784053

  20. The changing age and seasonal profile of pertussis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Danuta M; De Serres, Gaston; MacDonald, Diane; Wu, Wrency; Shaw, Carol; Macnabb, Jane; Champagne, Sylvie; Patrick, David M; Halperin, Scott A

    2002-05-15

    During the postvaccine era in Canada, most cases of pertussis have been reported in children <5 years of age, with the highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality in infants <1 year old. Population-based data, with very high laboratory confirmation rates and hospital separation and mortality statistics, chronicle the changing age and seasonal profile associated with pertussis over recent successive outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada. A large outbreak during 2000 highlights 2 important changes to the postvaccine profile. For the first time in Canada, the incidence of pertussis among preteens and teens surpassed that of all other age groups. At the same time, a decreasing incidence of pertussis among infants and preschool children highlights reduced susceptibility in the very young. Recent changes in the childhood immunization program (including introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine), waning immunity, and changes in laboratory methods are considered in explaining these 2 simultaneous but divergent trends in the pertussis profile. PMID:11992280

  1. The biology of proteostasis in aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Labbadia, Johnathan; Morimoto, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    Loss of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a common feature of aging and disease that is characterized by the appearance of nonnative protein aggregates in various tissues. Protein aggregation is routinely suppressed by the proteostasis network (PN), a collection of macromolecular machines that operate in diverse ways to maintain proteome integrity across subcellular compartments and between tissues to ensure a healthy life span. Here, we review the composition, function, and organizational properties of the PN in the context of individual cells and entire organisms and discuss the mechanisms by which disruption of the PN, and related stress response pathways, contributes to the initiation and progression of disease. We explore emerging evidence that disease susceptibility arises from early changes in the composition and activity of the PN and propose that a more complete understanding of the temporal and spatial properties of the PN will enhance our ability to develop effective treatments for protein conformational diseases. PMID:25784053

  2. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and diabetic vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Among various metabolic derangements implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complication, advanced glycation end product (AGE) hypothesis is most compatible with the theory of 'hyperglycemic memory'. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complication, specially focusing on AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in this devastating disorder are also discussed here. PMID:18220586

  3. Reconstruction of skull defects in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Currà, Antonio; Paris, Harry S; Peschillo, Simone; Fattapposta, Francesco; Paolini, Sergio; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    In Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and Arabic medicine, the closure of a skull defect was not provided at the end of a therapeutic trepanation or in cases of bone removal. The literature from the Middle Ages and Renaissance disclosed some striking and forgotten practices. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1180 to c. 1250) cites the use of a piece of a cup made from wooden bowl (ciphum or mazer) or a gold sheet to cover the gap and protect the brain in these patients; this citation probably reflected a widely known folk practice. Pietro d'Argellata introduced the use of a fixed piece of dried gourd for brain protection to reconstruct a skull defect. In the late Renaissance, the negative folklore describing this outlandish practice likely led to the use of silver and lead sheets. Nevertheless, for centuries, large numbers of surgeons preferred to leave the dura mater uncovered after bone removal, and failed to apply any brain protection. PMID:25403799

  4. The biology of aging and lymphoma: a complex interplay.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Salles, Gilles; Falandry, Claire

    2015-07-01

    The probability to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma grows with age. The biological links between aging and lymphoma are not well described in the literature, and different hypothesis may be raised to explain this complex relationship. First, the impact of chronological age favoring the accumulation of genetic alterations can contribute to the multisteps proces of lymphomagenesis. Then, the age-related defects in cancer protection and the age-related clonal restriction in hematopoietic stem cell may also promote lymphoma development. Finally, the senescent and immunosenescence phenotype might represent a key process explaining this link. In this review, we will explore the current available clinical data and their ability to apply to age-related regulation pathways. PMID:26003736

  5. New Horizons: Dietary protein, ageing and the Okinawan ratio.

    PubMed

    Le Couteur, David G; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Wahl, Devin; Cogger, Victoria C; Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, D Craig; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    Nutrition has profound effects on ageing and lifespan. Caloric restriction is the major nutritional intervention that historically has been shown to influence lifespan and/or healthspan in many animal models. Studies have suggested that a reduction in protein intake can also increase lifespan, albeit not as dramatically as caloric restriction. More recent research based on nutritional geometry has attempted to define the effects of nutrition on ageing over a broad landscape of dietary macronutrients and energy content. Such studies in insects and mice indicate that animals with ad libitum access to low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets have longest lifespans. Remarkably, the optimum content and ratio of dietary protein to carbohydrates for ageing in experimental animals are almost identical to those in the traditional diets of the long-lived people on the island of Okinawa. PMID:27130207

  6. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  7. Aging and the misinformation effect: a neuropsychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; Geraci, Lisa

    2007-03-01

    Older adults' susceptibility to misinformation in an eyewitness memory paradigm was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that older adults are more susceptible to interfering misinformation than are younger adults on two different tests (old-new recognition and source monitoring). Experiment 2 examined the extent to which processes associated with frontal lobe functioning underlie older adults' source-monitoring difficulties. Older adults with lower frontal-lobe-functioning scores on neuropsychological tests were particularly susceptible to false memories in the misinformation paradigm. The authors' results agree with data from other false memory paradigms that show greater false recollections in older adults, especially in those who scored poorly on frontal tests. The results support a source-monitoring account of aging and illusory recollection. PMID:17352614

  8. Neuronal Inputs and Outputs of Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Alcedo, Joy; Flatt, Thomas; Pasyukova, Elena G.

    2013-01-01

    An animal’s survival strongly depends on its ability to maintain homeostasis in response to the changing quality of its external and internal environment. This is achieved through intracellular and intercellular communication within and among different tissues. One of the organ systems that plays a major role in this communication and the maintenance of homeostasis is the nervous system. Here we highlight different aspects of the neuronal inputs and outputs of pathways that affect aging and longevity. Accordingly, we discuss how sensory inputs influence homeostasis and lifespan through the modulation of different types of neuronal signals, which reflects the complexity of the environmental cues that affect physiology. We also describe feedback, compensatory, and feed-forward mechanisms in these longevity-modulating pathways that are necessary for homeostasis. Finally, we consider the temporal requirements for these neuronal processes and the potential role of natural genetic variation in shaping the neurobiology of aging. PMID:23653632

  9. Calculation of 230Th U isochrons, ages, and errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Titterington, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    If analytical errors are responsible for the scatter of points on a 230Th-234U-238U isochron diagram, the isochron should be fitted by a technique that 1. (1) weights the points according to their analytical errors and error correlations, and 2. (2) either takes into account the presence of some of the same data in two coupled XY isochrons or (equivalently) uses a single, three-dimensional XYZ isochron. A method based on maximum-likelihood estimation is presented that fulfills these requirements, and the relevant equations for errors in age and initial 234U 238U are given. Equations for estimating the necessary isotope-ratio errors and error-correlations for both alpha-spectrometric and mass-spectrometric data are also developed. ?? 1994.

  10. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    PubMed Central

    Amanvermez, Ramazan; Tosun, Migraci

    2016-01-01

    Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) provide an indirect estimate of a female’s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs. PMID:26985328

  11. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  12. Hearing impairment in Parkinson's disease: expanding the nonmotor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Carmine; Marcelli, Vincenzo; Allocca, Roberto; Santangelo, Gabriella; Riccardi, Pasquale; Erro, Roberto; Amboni, Marianna; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Cozzolino, Autilia; Longo, Katia; Picillo, Marina; Moccia, Marcello; Agosti, Valeria; Sorrentino, G; Cavaliere, Michele; Marciano, Elio; Barone, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing impairment in patients affected by Parkinson's disease compared with hearing scores observed in normal age- and sex-matched controls. One hundred eighteen consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were screened. Severity of motor symptoms and staging were measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (section III) and the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Audiometric evaluation consisted of a comprehensive audiologic case history and questionnaire, visual otoscopic examination, acoustic immittance measures (tympanogram and acoustic reflexes), pure tone audiometry, and measurement of brain stem auditory-evoked potentials. Healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were selected as the control group. One hundred six of 118 patients were enrolled. Pure tone audiometry revealed age-dependent high-frequency hearing loss in patients with Parkinson's disease compared with both normative values and values for healthy age- and sex-matched controls (75/106 [71%], χ(2) = 5.959, P = .02; 92/106 [86.8%] vs 60/106 [56.6%], χ(2) = 23.804, P < .001, respectively). Pure tone audiometry scores correlated with Hoehn and Yahr scale scores (P < .05). Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials were normal in all patients. Our patients with Parkinson's disease showed age-dependent peripheral, unilateral, or bilateral hearing impairment. Whether these auditory deficits are intrinsic to Parkinson's disease or secondary to a more complex impaired processing of sensorial inputs occurring over the course of illness remains to be determined. Because α-synuclein is located predominately in the efferent neuronal system within the inner ear, it could affect susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss or presbycusis. It is feasible that the natural aging process combined with neurodegenerative changes intrinsic to Parkinson's disease might interfere with cochlear transduction mechanisms, thus anticipating presbycusis. PMID

  13. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  14. Constraining age and rate of deformation in the northern Bolivian Andes from cross sections, cooling ages, and thermokinematic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Ehlers, T. A.; Rak, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A critical component in assessing the viability of proposed plate tectonic or geodynamic processes in regions of convergence is the expected or predicted age and rate of deformation in the overriding plate. Commonly, age of deformation is inferred through geochronology of foreland basin and wedge-top sedimentary rocks and bedrock thermochronometer cooling signals. In Bolivia the original pulse of deformation of the fold-thrust belt is argue to be as young as 38-25 Ma based on the age of synorogenic strata or as old as 65-45 Ma due to proposed foreland basin rocks deposited in the Bolivian Altiplano. The large discrepancies in proposed age, rate and magnitude of deformation through the Bolivian Andes limit our ability to relate age and rate of shortening to internal geodynamic or external plate tectonic processes. We evaluate permissible ranges in age of initiation and rate of deformation through a forward kinematic model of the northern Bolivian fold-thrust belt. Each step of deformation accounts for isostatic loading from thrust faults and subsequent erosional of structural highs. The kinematic model predicts an evolution of flexural basins into which synorogenic sediments are deposited allowing us to fully integrate age of exhumation and deposition to age and magnitude of deformation. By assigning an age to each deformation step, we create a range of velocity vectors that are input into the thermokinematic model Pecube, which predicts thermochronometer cooling histories based on kinematics, topography, thermal parameters and shortening rates. We match the pattern of predicted ages with the across strike pattern of measured zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/ He cooling ages. The sensitivity of modeled thermochronologic data to the age at which deformation initiates indicate that northern Bolivian EC started deforming at 50 Ma and may have begun as early as 55 Ma. The acceptable velocity envelope for the modeled section permits either a

  15. Physiological Antioxidative Network of the Bilirubin System in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Young; Park, Sang Chul

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is detrimental to life process and is particularly responsible for aging and age-related diseases. Thus, most organisms are well equipped with a spectrum of biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The major efficient antioxidative mechanism is the glutathione system, operating a redox cycling mechanism for glutathione utilization, which consists of glutathione and its peroxidase and reductase. However, this system is mainly effective for hydrophilic oxidants, while lipophilic oxidants require another scavenging system. Since many age-related pathological conditions are related to lipid peroxidation, especially in association with the aging process, the physiological role of the scavenging system for lipophilic oxidants should be considered. In this regard, the biliverdin to bilirubin conversion pathway, via biliverdin reductase (BVR), is suggested to be another major protective mechanism that scavenges lipophilic oxidants because of the lipophilic nature of bilirubin. The efficiency of this bilirubin system might be potentiated by operation of the intertwined bicyclic systems of the suggested redox metabolic cycle of biliverdin and bilirubin and the interactive control cycle of BVR and heme oxygenase. In order to combat oxidative stress, both antioxidative systems against hydrophilic and lipophilic oxidants are required to work cooperatively. In this regard, the roles of the bilirubin system in aging and age-related diseases are reassessed in this review, and their interacting networks are evaluated. PMID:22457648

  16. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25387669

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31 ± 1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25387669

  18. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25250588

  19. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness, including insulin sensitivity, osteoporosis, neuromuscular coordination and several molecular biomarkers of aging. Importantly, telomerase-treated mice did not develop more cancer than their control littermates, suggesting that the known tumorigenic activity of telomerase is severely decreased when expressed in adult or old organisms using AAV vectors. Finally, telomerase-treated mice, both at 1-year and at 2-year of age, had an increase in median lifespan of 24 and 13%, respectively. These beneficial effects were not observed with a catalytically inactive TERT, demonstrating that they require telomerase activity. Together, these results constitute a proof-of-principle of a role of TERT in delaying physiological aging and extending longevity in normal mice through a telomerase-based treatment, and demonstrate the feasibility of anti-aging gene therapy. PMID:22585399

  20. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age. PMID:26080062

  1. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  2. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  3. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis. PMID:7927941

  4. Regular Chinese Green Tea Consumption Is Protective for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Clinic-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qinghua; Chen, Dandan; Sun, Hong-Peng; Yan, Ning; Xu, Yong; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between regular Chinese green tea consumption and the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients in China. Methods. 100 DR patients and 100 age-sex-matched diabetic controls without retinopathy were recruited in a clinic-based, case-control study. DR was defined from retinal photographs and detailed information on Chinese green tea consumption of the participants was collected through a face-to-face interview. Results. The crude odds ratio [OR] of Chinese green tea consumption for DR was 0.49 (95% confidence interval: 0.26–0.90). When stratified by sex, the protective effect of Chinese green tea consumption on DR was statistically significant in women (P = 0.01) but not in men (P = 0.63). After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounders, DR was significantly associated with Chinese green tea consumption (OR = 0.48; P = 0.04), higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.02; P = 0.05), longer duration of diabetes (OR = 1.07; P = 0.02), and the presence of family history of diabetes (OR = 2.35; P = 0.04). Conclusions. Diabetic patients who had regularly drunk Chinese green tea every week for at least one year in their lives had a DR risk reduction of about 50% compared with those who had not. Regular Chinese green tea consumption may be a novel approach for the prevention of DR. PMID:26539551

  5. Nutritional and household risk factors for xerophthalmia in Aceh, Indonesia: a case-control study. The Aceh Study Group.

    PubMed

    Mele, L; West, K P; Kusdiono; Pandji, A; Nendrawati, H; Tilden, R L; Tarwotjo, I

    1991-06-01

    Risk factors for xerophthalmia were assessed in 466 subjects [38% with night blindness (XN), 60% with Bitot's spots (X1B), 2% with corneal xerophthalmia (X2 or X3)] under age 6 y and their village-age-sex-matched control subjects during a community trial. Socioeconomic status and hygiene standards were lowest for households of xerophthalmic children and highest for nonstudy households in the trial population, with values for control households lying in between (P less than 0.001 by linear trend). Risk of xerophthalmia increased with less frequent consumption of dark green leaves, yellow fruits, or egg during weaning, adjusted for current intake and present age [odds ratio (OR) = approximately 3.5]. Exclusion of these same foods from the current diet (except for mango and papaya in older children) was associated with a two- to ninefold excess risk of xerophthalmia, adjusted for weaning influences. Xerophthalmic children aged less than 3 y were generally at higher risk of dietary imbalance than were older children. Xerophthalmia is associated with a chronic, infrequent consumption of key vitamin A foods from weaning through early childhood. PMID:2035474

  6. Age and growth of the whitefish in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.

    1963-01-01

    The average annual commercial production of whitefish in the U.S. waters of Lake Superior dropped from 2,194,000 pounds in 1879-1908 to 504,000 pounds in 1911-59. The modern production, though far below the earlier, has accounted for more than 10 percent of the total value of the fishery in all but one of the last 20 years. Data are given on growth rate, age and year-class composition, size distribution, and length-weight relation of 1,800 fish collected in 1957-59 at Bayfield, Wis., and Marquette, Whitefish Point, and Dollar Settlement, Mich. Studies of the body-scale relation, sex ratio, and age and size at maturity were limited to fish collected at Bayfield. The age composition and mean age varied widely by port and year of capture. Oldest fish were those of the 1957 Bayfield samples which were dominated by age group VII and averaged 5.5 years old. The youngest were from Whitefish Point in 1959; age-group III was dominant, and the mean age was 3.2 years. The evidence on the strength of year classes was not clear-cut, but it was obvious that fluctuations in stocks of different areas were largely independent. The percentage of legal-size fish (17 inches or longer) in age groups ranged widely; only 8.6 percent of the V group were legal in the 1957 Bayfield collections, whereas 100 percent of fish of the same age were legal in the 1957-59 collections from Whitefish Point. The weight of whitefish in the combined samples increased as the 3.2408 power of the length. The growth rate from the fastest to the slowest growing stocks ranked as follows: Whitefish Point; Dollar Settlement and Marquette (fish from the two ports reversed ranks after 3 years); Bayfield. The major differences in growth in length among the various stocks occurred during the first years of life. Beyond the fifth year the annual increments were nearly the same in all stocks. The whitefish from Whitefish Point, Dollar Settlement, and Marquette are among the fastest growing in the Great Lakes. The

  7. Impairment of complex upper limb motor function in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ponsen, Mirthe M; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Wolters, Erik Ch; Beek, Peter J; Berendse, Henk W

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate complex upper limb motor function in newly diagnosed, untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Four different unimanual upper limb motor tasks were applied to 13 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. In a handwriting task, PD patients had significantly reduced sentence length and writing velocity, and decreasing letter height in the course of writing. Furthermore, PD patients performed an aiming task slower with than without target, and showed increased transposition in a pointing task. The results of this study extend previous observations of impaired complex upper limb movements to newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients. PMID:17913560

  8. Pattern visual evoked potentials in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K W; Wood, C M; Howe, J W

    1988-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have been elicited in 16 female hyperthyroid patients before and after treatment and compared with those from a similar group of age and sex matched control subjects. No effect on latency was seen, and although larger amplitude values were noted in the thyrotoxic group these too were not significant. We would conclude that hyperthyroidism per se has little effect on the pattern reversal VEP, and any observed effect on these potentials is probably due to other factors. PMID:3415945

  9. Cellular and circulating immunity to diabetic basement membrane, a negative finding.

    PubMed Central

    De Bats, A; Park, J R; Rhodes, E L

    1975-01-01

    A linear deposition of IgG was seen by immunofluorescence on the glomerular basement membrane of a diabetic kidney. However, when the remaining kidney was subjected to elution with acidic buffer the eluate had no affinity for glomerular basement membrane. The leucocytes from normal and diabetic subjects were also tested for an in vitro cell-mediated response to diabetic and normal basement membrane. No difference was found between the reaction of leucocytes from diabetics and those from normal age- and sex-matched controls. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:765023

  10. AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE STROKE HOSPITAL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kes, Vanja Bašić; Jurašić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Lisak, Marijana; Jelec, Vjekoslav; Matovina, Lucija Zadro

    2016-03-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the most important cause of adult disability worldwide and in Croatia. In the past, stroke was almost exclusively considered to be a disease of the elderly; however, today the age limit has considerably lowered towards younger age. The aim of this study was to determine age and gender impact on stroke patients in a Croatian urban area during one-year survey. The study included all acute stroke patients admitted to our Department in 2004. A compiled stroke questionnaire was fulfilled during hospitalization by medical personnel on the following items: stroke risk factors including lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol), pre-stroke physical ability evaluation, stroke evolution data, laboratory and computed tomography findings, outcome data and post-stroke disability assessment. Appropriate statistical analysis of numerical and categorical data was performed at the level of p < 0.05. Analysis was performed on 396 patients, 24 of them from the younger adult stroke group. Older stroke patients had worse disability at hospital discharge and women had worse disabilities at both stroke onset and hospital discharge, probably due to older age at stroke onset. Younger patients recovered better, while older patients had to seek secondary medical facilities more often, as expected. The most important in-hospital laboratory findings in young stroke patients were elevated lipid levels, while older patients had elevated serum glucose and C-reactive protein. Stroke onset in younger patients most often presented with sudden onset headache; additionally, onset seizure was observed more frequently than expected. Stroke risk factor analysis showed that women were more prone to hypertension, chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation, whereas men had carotid disease more frequently, were more often smokers and had higher alcohol intake. Additionally, age analysis showed that heart conditions and smoking were more prevalent among older

  11. Arterial–Ventricular Coupling with Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Paul D.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    explain, in part, the reduced cardiovascular functional capacity with age and disease. Thus, although increased stiffness of the arteries itself has important physiological and clinical relevance, such changes also have major implications on the heart, and vice versa, and the manner in the way they interact has important ramifications on cardiovascular function both at rest and during exercise. Examination of the alterations in arterial–ventricular coupling with aging and disease can yield mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions and increase the effectiveness of current therapeutic interventions. PMID:22586401

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening Based on Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C.S.; Ching, Jessica Y.L.; Chan, Victor C.W.; Lam, Thomas Y.T.; Luk, Arthur K.C.; Wong, Sunny H.; Ng, Siew C.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Wu, Justin C.Y.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Sung, Joseph J.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated whether age- and gender-based colorectal cancer screening is cost-effective. Recent studies in the United States identified age and gender as 2 important variables predicting advanced proximal neoplasia, and that women aged <60 to 70 years were more suited for sigmoidoscopy screening due to their low risk of proximal neoplasia. Yet, quantitative assessment of the incremental benefits, risks, and cost remains to be performed. Primary care screening practice (2008–2015). A Markov modeling was constructed using data from a screening cohort. The following strategies were compared according to the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for 1 life-year saved: flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) 5 yearly; colonoscopy 10 yearly; FS for each woman at 50- and 55-year old followed by colonoscopy at 60- and 70-year old; FS for each woman at 50-, 55-, 60-, and 65-year old followed by colonoscopy at 70-year old; FS for each woman at 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70-year old. All male subjects received colonoscopy at 50-, 60-, and 70-year old under strategies 3 to 5. From a hypothetical population of 100,000 asymptomatic subjects, strategy 2 could save the largest number of life-years (4226 vs 2268 to 3841 by other strategies). When compared with no screening, strategy 5 had the lowest ICER (US$42,515), followed by strategy 3 (US$43,517), strategy 2 (US$43,739), strategy 4 (US$47,710), and strategy 1 (US$56,510). Strategy 2 leads to the highest number of bleeding and perforations, and required a prohibitive number of colonoscopy procedures. Strategy 5 remains the most cost-effective when assessed with a wide range of deterministic sensitivity analyses around the base case. From the cost effectiveness analysis, FS for women and colonoscopy for men represent an economically favorable screening strategy. These findings could inform physicians and policy-makers in triaging eligible subjects for risk-based screening, especially in countries with limited colonoscopic

  13. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  14. The evolution and role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas Bl

    2011-09-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genetic material and evolved from prokaryotic ancestors some two billion years ago. They are the main source of the cell's energy supply and are involved in such important processes as apoptosis, mitochondrial diseases and aging. Mitochondria display a complex dynamical behavior involving cycles of fusion and fission, the function of which is as yet unknown. We recently proposed a concise theory that explains: (1) why fusion and fission have evolved, (2) how these processes relate to the accumulation of mitochondrial mutants during aging and (3) why mtDNA is located close to the respiration complexes where most radicals are generated. We also believe that this 'organelle control' theory may explain why mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes are the most prevalent kind of defect associated with inherited human mitochondrial diseases, despite the fact that mt-tRNA genes account for only 5% of the mtDNA coding sequence. PMID:22046482

  15. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance. PMID:25880874

  16. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Middle-aged and Older Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Christina R.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cancer rates in the United States have declined sharply in recent decades, certain groups of women remain at elevated risk, including middle-aged and older women in central Appalachia. Cross-sectional baseline data from a community-based randomized controlled trial were examined to identify barriers to cervical cancer screening. Questionnaires assessing barriers were administered to 345 Appalachian women aged 40-64, years when Pap testing declines and cervical cancer rates increase. Consistent with the PRECEDE/PROCEED framework, participants identified barriers included predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Descriptive and bivariate analyses are reported, identifying (a) the most frequently endorsed barriers to screening, and (b) significant associations of barriers with sociodemographic characteristics in the sample. Recommendations are provided to decrease these barriers and, ultimately, improve rates of Pap tests among this traditionally underserved and disproportionately affected group. PMID:23179390

  17. Age and fertility: can women wait until their early thirties to try for a first birth?

    PubMed

    McDonald, John W; Rosina, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ester; Colombo, Bernardo

    2011-11-01

    Postponing the start of childbearing raises the question of fertility postponed versus fertility foregone. One of the limitations of previous studies of 'How late can you wait?' is that any observed decline in the probability of conception with age could be due to a decline in fecundability with age or due to a decline in coital frequency with age or due to both factors. Using data from a multinational longitudinal study conducted to determine the daily probability of conception among healthy subjects, a discrete-time event history model with long-term survivors (sterile population) is used to study the relationship between age and fecundability for childless women, while controlling for the pattern of intercourse within a menstrual cycle. The findings suggest that women can wait until their early thirties to try for a first birth, providing that they are not already sterile, as the magnitude of the decline in fecundability is very modest and of little practical importance. PMID:21944061

  18. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations thereunder for rules with respect to coverage of employees under qualified plans. (e) Age and... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions. 1.410(a)-3... age and service conditions. (a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) or (c) of...

  19. Paternal Age and Numerical Chromosome Abnormalities in Human Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Donate, Anna; Estop, Anna M; Giraldo, Jesús; Templado, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between numerical chromosome abnormalities in sperm and age in healthy men. We performed FISH in the spermatozoa of 10 donors from the general population: 5 men younger than 40 years of age and 5 fertile men older than 60 years of age. For each chromosome, 1,000 sperm nuclei were analyzed, with a total of 15,000 sperm nuclei for each donor. We used a single sperm sample per donor, thus minimizing intra-donor variability and optimizing consistent analysis. FISH with a TelVysion assay, which provides data on aneuploidy of 19 chromosomes, was used in order to gain a more genome-wide perspective of the level of aneuploidy. Aneuploidy and diploidy rates observed in the younger and older groups were compared. There were no significant differences in the incidence of autosomal disomy, sex chromosome disomy, total chromosome disomy, diploidy, nor total numerical abnormalities between younger and older men. This work confirms that aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes is more common than that of autosomes and that this does not change with age. Our results suggest that some probe combinations have a tendency to indicate higher levels of diploidy, thus potentially affecting FISH results and highlighting the limitations of FISH. PMID:27322585

  20. Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-08-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 85 to 140) and age (college age, 60-74 years old, and 75-90 years old). IQ had large effects on drift rate in recognition and recall performance, except for the oldest participants with some measures near floor. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in recall, and IQ all correlated strongly. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and cued recall accuracy (70%). In contrast, there were large effects of age on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks) but small effects of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual-process models of item recognition are discussed, and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than are models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for modeling. PMID:21707207

  1. Aging and Gene Expression in the Primate Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Khaitovich, Philipp; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Paabo, Svante; Eisen, Michael B.

    2005-02-18

    It is well established that gene expression levels in many organisms change during the aging process, and the advent of DNA microarrays has allowed genome-wide patterns of transcriptional changes associated with aging to be studied in both model organisms and various human tissues. Understanding the effects of aging on gene expression in the human brain is of particular interest, because of its relation to both normal and pathological neurodegeneration. Here we show that human cerebral cortex, human cerebellum, and chimpanzee cortex each undergo different patterns of age-related gene expression alterations. In humans, many more genes undergo consistent expression changes in the cortex than in the cerebellum; in chimpanzees, many genes change expression with age in cortex, but the pattern of changes in expression bears almost no resemblance to that of human cortex. These results demonstrate the diversity of aging patterns present within the human brain, as well as how rapidly genome-wide patterns of aging can evolve between species; they may also have implications for the oxidative free radical theory of aging, and help to improve our understanding of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Hardison, Amber K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  3. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-05-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio (w/c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  4. Oxidation of K(+) Channels in Aging and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Sesti, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Reversible regulation of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important mechanism of neuronal plasticity. In particular, ROS have been shown to act as modulatory molecules of ion channels-which are key to neuronal excitability-in several physiological processes. However ROS are also fundamental contributors to aging vulnerability. When the level of excess ROS increases in the cell during aging, DNA is damaged, proteins are oxidized, lipids are degraded and more ROS are produced, all culminating in significant cell injury. From this arose the idea that oxidation of ion channels by ROS is one of the culprits for neuronal aging. Aging-dependent oxidative modification of voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels was initially demonstrated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and more recently in the mammalian brain. Specifically, oxidation of the delayed rectifier KCNB1 (Kv2.1) and of Ca(2+)- and voltage sensitive K(+) channels have been established suggesting that their redox sensitivity contributes to altered excitability, progression of healthy aging and of neurodegenerative disease. Here I discuss the implications that oxidation of K(+) channels by ROS may have for normal aging, as well as for neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27114846

  5. Aging and Neurodegeneration: A Tangle of Models and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2016-03-01

    The research on aging and age-related diseases, especially the neurodegenerative diseases, is on the fast track. However, the results have so far not been translated to actual benefit for the patients in terms of treatment or diagnosis of age-related degenerative diseases including those of the CNS. As far as the prevention of the cognitive decline during non-pathological aging is concerned, there is nothing much to offer other than calorie restriction and physical exercise. Needless to say, the benefits are not up to our expectations. However, over the years at the experimental level it has been possible to identify several cellular and molecular mechanisms that are intricately associated with aging in general and neurodegenerative diseases in particular. These include oxidative stress and altered redox-signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, proteotoxicity and altered gene expressions. These inter-dependent pathways mediate cellular senescence and often culminate in programmed cell death like apoptosis and autophagy, and in the context of brain these changes are manifested clinically as cognitive decline and pathologically as neurodegeneration. This special issue provides the readers with glimpses of this complex scenario from different angles primarily in the context of brain and also attempts to identify the potential drug targets against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27114843

  6. Specificity of inhibitory deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Collette, Fabienne; Schmidt, Christina; Scherrer, Christine; Adam, Stéphane; Salmon, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Deficits of suppression abilities are frequently observed in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. However, few studies have explored these deficits in the two populations simultaneously using a large battery of tasks. The aim of the present study was to explore if the pattern of performance presented by elderly subjects and AD patients is in agreement with theoretical frameworks [Wilson, S.P., Harnishfeger, K.K., 1998. The development of efficient inhibition: Evidence from directed forgetting tasks. Dev. Rev. 18, 86-123; see also Nigg J.T., 2000. On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychol. Bull. 126, 220-246], distinguishing between the concepts of inhibition (a voluntary suppression of irrelevant information) and interference (an automatic suppression process occurring prior to conscious awareness). The results obtained demonstrated that (1) there is an alteration of the inhibitory process in normal elderly subjects; (2) inhibitory and interference resolution processes are quantitately less efficient in AD, since these patients present a correct performance only for information which leaves weak traces in memory. PMID:18029058

  7. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  8. Cerebrovascular contributions to aging and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Donna M; Schmitt, Frederick A; Head, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common cause of intellectual disability and is also associated with early age of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to an extra copy of chromosome 21, most adults over 40years old with DS have beta-amyloid plaques as a result of overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein. Cerebrovascular pathology may also be a significant contributor to neuropathology observed in the brains of adults with DS. This review describes the features of cardiovascular dysfunction and cerebrovascular pathology in DS that may be modifiable risk factors and thus targets for interventions. We will describe cerebrovascular pathology, the role of co-morbidities, imaging studies indicating vascular pathology and the possible consequences. It is clear that our understanding of aging and AD in people with DS will benefit from further studies to determine the role that cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to cognitive health. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26593849

  9. Aging and male reproductive function: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Amaral, Alexandra; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Researching the effects of aging in the male reproductive system is not trivial. Not only are multiple changes at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels involved, but any findings must be discussed with variable individual characteristics, as well as with lifestyle and environmental factors. Age-related changes in the reproductive system include any aspect of reproductive function, from deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, to effects on testicular stem cells, defects in testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, or sperm with decreased functionality. Several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely regarding the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. However, oxidative stress is not the only process involved in mitochondrial-related aging; mitochondrial energy metabolism, changes in mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial-dependent testosterone production are also important. Crucially, all these issues are likely interdependent. We will review evidence that suggests that mitochondria constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:23277044

  10. Modulating Human Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is progressing rapidly in many industrialized countries. The United States population aged 65 and over is expected to double in size within the next 25 years. In sedentary people eating Western diets aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. About 80 percent of adults over 65 years of age have at least one chronic disease, and 50 percent have at least two chronic diseases. These chronic diseases are the most important cause of illness and mortality burden, and they have become the leading driver of healthcare costs, constituting an important burden for our society. Data from epidemiological studies and clinical trials indicate that many age-associated chronic diseases can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. Several recent studies suggest that more drastic interventions (i.e. calorie restriction without malnutrition and moderate protein restriction with adequate nutrition) may have additional beneficial effects on several metabolic and hormonal factors that are implicated in the biology of aging itself. Additional studies are needed to understand the complex interactions of factors that regulate aging and age-associated chronic disease. PMID:19364477

  11. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes. PMID:25574605

  12. Blue Journal Conference. Aging and Susceptibility to Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thannickal, Victor J.; Murthy, Mahadev; Balch, William E.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie; White, Eric S.; Levy, Bruce D.; Busse, Paula J.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Antony, Veena B.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the population in the United States and throughout the developed world has increased morbidity and mortality attributable to lung disease, while the morbidity and mortality from other prevalent diseases has declined or remained stable. Recognizing the importance of aging in the development of lung disease, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) highlighted this topic as a core theme for the 2014 annual meeting. The relationship between aging and lung disease was discussed in several oral symposiums and poster sessions at the annual ATS meeting. In this article, we used the input gathered at the conference to develop a broad framework and perspective to stimulate basic, clinical, and translational research to understand how the aging process contributes to the onset and/or progression of lung diseases. A consistent theme that emerged from the conference was the need to apply novel, systems-based approaches to integrate a growing body of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data and elucidate the relationship between biologic hallmarks of aging, altered lung function, and increased susceptibility to lung diseases in the older population. The challenge remains to causally link the molecular and cellular changes of aging with age-related changes in lung physiology and disease susceptibility. The purpose of this review is to stimulate further research to identify new strategies to prevent or treat age-related lung disease. PMID:25590812

  13. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276

  14. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters. PMID:26407145

  15. Matrix ageing and vascular impacts: focus on elastin fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Laffargue, Muriel; Gayral, Stéphanie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Kawecki, Charlotte; Guillot, Alexandre; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Maurice, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide and represent a major problem of public health. Over the years, life expectancy has considerably increased throughout the world, and the prevalence of CVD is inevitably rising with the growing ageing of the population. The normal process of ageing is associated with progressive deterioration in structure and function of the vasculature, commonly called vascular ageing. At the vascular level, extracellular matrix (ECM) ageing leads to molecular alterations in long half-life proteins, such as elastin and collagen, and have critical effects on vascular diseases. This review highlights ECM alterations occurring during vascular ageing with a specific focus on elastin fragmentation and also the contribution of elastin-derived peptides (EDP) in age-related vascular complications. Moreover, current and new pharmacological strategies aiming at minimizing elastin degradation, EDP generation, and associated biological effects are discussed. These strategies may be of major relevance for preventing and/or delaying vascular ageing and its complications. PMID:27009176

  16. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

  17. The ins and outs of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Rando, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    As a nod to the oft-quoted evolutionary theorist George Williams, "It is remarkable that after a seemingly miraculous feat of morphogenesis, a complex metazoan should be unable to perform the much simpler task of merely maintaining what is already formed". How and why we age are mysteries of the ages. The "how" of this mystery is the purview of experimental biologists who try to understand the basic processes that lead to system maintenance failure-from the level of molecules to that of entire organisms-that we term "aging". The "why" of this mystery is the purview of evolutionary theorists whose ideas shape the questions that biogerontologists pose, on the basis of the premise put forth by another preeminent geneticist and evolutionary biologist, Theodosius Dobzhansky, that "[n]othing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution". These experimental and evolutionary perspectives converge in the modern science of aging, and its curious cousin "longevity", in an attempt to unify extensive findings from diverse areas of biology. PMID:23398156

  18. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  19. Ethosuximide plasma concentrations: influence of age and associated concomitant therapy.

    PubMed

    Battino, D; Cusi, C; Franceschetti, S; Moise, A; Spina, S; Avanzini, G

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between oral dose and plasma concentration of ethosuximide was evaluated retrospectively in 198 epileptic patients aged 2.5 to 34 years. Age appears to be a major factor in determining the ethosuximide plasma level/dose (L/D) ratio. Children younger than 10 years had men L/D ratios significantly lower (p less than 0.0003) than adolescents (10 to 15 years of age) and adults (16 to 34 years of age). Associated antiepileptic therapy reduced the ethosuximide L/D ratio: mean ethosuximide L/D ratios were significantly lower in patients also taking primidone (p less than 0.0005) or valproic acid (p less than 0.02). The correlation between the dose of ethosuximide administered and the plasma concentration was significant in the 3 age groups considered (p less than 0.0004), but the wide scattering of individual plasma concentrations makes it impossible to predict what plasma concentration of ethosuximide will be obtained after a given dose. For this reason, routine monitoring of ethosuximide plasma concentrations still appears to be necessary, especially in children and patients on polytherapy. PMID:6802548

  20. Implementing the Ages and Stages questionnaire in health visiting practice.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Sara

    2014-11-01

    NHS South of Tyne and Wear introduced the Ages and Stages developmental screening tool as part of the health visiting core offer in June 2012. The tool comprises two sets of questionnaires, which cover the development of communication, gross and fine motor skills, problem-solving ability and personal-social skills (ASQ-3], self- regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect and interactions (ASQ-SE). ASQ was chosen over other screening tools for its reliability and validity. The introduction of the ASQ was to assist health visitors in the early detection of developmental problems and to support early interventions. By involving parents more, it was envisaged that they would be afforded a specific opportunity to think about how their child is developing, and should any developmental concerns become apparent, they would be more willing to accept referrals for early intervention. Initial feedback from parents and paediatricians has been positive. Most parents using the questionnaires felt that they were easy to complete and many found that they gained insight into their child's abilities. Further work should be undertaken to achieve a more representative sample of the target population. PMID:25612412

  1. Degeneration of neuromuscular junction in age and dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Labeit, Siegfried; Deschenes, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and post-synaptic origin. Consequently, NMJs are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, NMJs morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the NMJ in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported. PMID:24904412

  2. Genome maintenance and transcription integrity in aging and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Stefanie; Schumacher, Björn

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to cancer development and aging. Congenital syndromes that affect DNA repair processes are characterized by cancer susceptibility, developmental defects, and accelerated aging (Schumacher et al., 2008). DNA damage interferes with DNA metabolism by blocking replication and transcription. DNA polymerase blockage leads to replication arrest and can gives rise to genome instability. Transcription, on the other hand, is an essential process for utilizing the information encoded in the genome. DNA damage that interferes with transcription can lead to apoptosis and cellular senescence. Both processes are powerful tumor suppressors (Bartek and Lukas, 2007). Cellular response mechanisms to stalled RNA polymerase II complexes have only recently started to be uncovered. Transcription-coupled DNA damage responses might thus play important roles for the adjustments to DNA damage accumulation in the aging organism (Garinis et al., 2009). Here we review human disorders that are caused by defects in genome stability to explore the role of DNA damage in aging and disease. We discuss how the nucleotide excision repair system functions at the interface of transcription and repair and conclude with concepts how therapeutic targeting of transcription might be utilized in the treatment of cancer. PMID:23443494

  3. Aging and Neurodegeneration: A Tangle of Models and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P.

    2016-01-01

    The research on aging and age-related diseases, especially the neurodegenerative diseases, is on the fast track. However, the results have so far not been translated to actual benefit for the patients in terms of treatment or diagnosis of age-related degenerative diseases including those of the CNS. As far as the prevention of the cognitive decline during non-pathological aging is concerned, there is nothing much to offer other than calorie restriction and physical exercise. Needless to say, the benefits are not up to our expectations. However, over the years at the experimental level it has been possible to identify several cellular and molecular mechanisms that are intricately associated with aging in general and neurodegenerative diseases in particular. These include oxidative stress and altered redox-signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, proteotoxicity and altered gene expressions. These inter-dependent pathways mediate cellular senescence and often culminate in programmed cell death like apoptosis and autophagy, and in the context of brain these changes are manifested clinically as cognitive decline and pathologically as neurodegeneration. This special issue provides the readers with glimpses of this complex scenario from different angles primarily in the context of brain and also attempts to identify the potential drug targets against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27114843

  4. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Labeit, Siegfried; Deschenes, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and post-synaptic origin. Consequently, NMJs are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, NMJs morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the NMJ in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported. PMID:24904412

  5. Aging and the Dendritic Cell System: Implications for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shurin, Michael R.; Shurin, Galina V.; Chatta, Gurkamal S.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system shows a decline in responsiveness to antigens both with aging, as well as in the presence of tumors. The malfunction of the immune system with age can be attributed to developmental and functional alterations in several cell populations. Previous studies have shown defects in humoral responses and abnormalities in T cell function in aged individuals, but have not distinguished between abnormalities in antigen presentation and intrinsic T cell or B cell defects in aged individuals. Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses by presenting antigens to naïve T lymphocytes, modulating Th1/Th2/Treg balance, producing numerous regulatory cytokines and chemokines, and modifying survival of immune effectors. DC are receiving increased attention due to their involvement in the immunobiology of tolerance and autoimmunity, as well as their potential role as biological adjuvants in tumor vaccines. Recent advances in the molecular and cell biology of different DC populations allow for addressing the issue of DC and aging both in rodents and humans. Since DC play a crucial role in initiating and regulating immune responses, it is reasonable to hypothesize that they are directly involved in altered antitumor immunity in aging. However, the results of studies focusing on DC in the elderly are conflicting. The present review summarizes the available human and experimental animal data on quantitative and qualitative alterations of DC in aging and discusses the potential role of the DC system in the increased incidence of cancer in the elderly. PMID:17446082

  6. Interpreting the Dependence of Mutation Rates on Age and Time

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ziyue; Wyman, Minyoung J.; Sella, Guy; Przeworski, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Mutations can originate from the chance misincorporation of nucleotides during DNA replication or from DNA lesions that arise between replication cycles and are not repaired correctly. We introduce a model that relates the source of mutations to their accumulation with cell divisions, providing a framework for understanding how mutation rates depend on sex, age, and cell division rate. We show that the accrual of mutations should track cell divisions not only when mutations are replicative in origin but also when they are non-replicative and repaired efficiently. One implication is that observations from diverse fields that to date have been interpreted as pointing to a replicative origin of most mutations could instead reflect the accumulation of mutations arising from endogenous reactions or exogenous mutagens. We further find that only mutations that arise from inefficiently repaired lesions will accrue according to absolute time; thus, unless life history traits co-vary, the phylogenetic “molecular clock” should not be expected to run steadily across species. PMID:26761240

  7. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  8. Contributions of Organic Vapors to Aerosol Aging and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, L.; Khalizov, A.

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impair visibility and human health, interfere with radiative transfer, and alter cloud formation. The major contributors include sulfate and organic aerosols from anthropogenic and biogenic activities, which are produced through a multitude of complex multiphase atmospheric processes by photochemical oxidation of emitted sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into less volatile forms and gas-to-particle conversion. Condensation of organic vapors onto the pre-existing atmospheric aerosols, followed by chemical reactions within the particles medium, is believed to be one of the major pathways that contribute to particle growth. Recent research has focused on the total mass increase on pre- existing seed particles, but the chemistry that determines the efficiency of organic uptake remains to be elucidated. This talk will focus on the growth of nano- to sub-micron sulfuric acid droplets exposed organic vapors. Experiments performed at different relative humidity and using different organic vapors (i.e., small alpha-dicarbonyls and large aldehydes) will be presented. The chemical mechanisms and size dependence of the particle growth will be demonstrated. Implications of the present results to aging and growth of aerosols under ambient conditions will be discussed.

  9. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  10. Ageing and the telomere connection: An intimate relationship with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwen; Rane, Grishma; Dai, Xiaoyun; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Arfuso, Frank; Samy, Ramar Perumal; Lai, Mitchell Kim Peng; Kappei, Dennis; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered to be a determinant of biological ageing. Normal ageing itself is associated with telomere shortening. Here, critically short telomeres trigger senescence and eventually cell death. This shortening rate may be further increased by inflammation and oxidative stress and thus affect the ageing process. Apart from shortened or dysfunctional telomeres, cells undergoing senescence are also associated with hyperactivity of the transcription factor NF-κB and overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ in circulating macrophages. Interestingly, telomerase, a reverse transcriptase that elongates telomeres, is involved in modulating NF-κB activity. Furthermore, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated as pre-disease mechanisms for chronic diseases of ageing such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To date, inflammation and telomere shortening have mostly been studied individually in terms of ageing and the associated disease phenotype. However, the interdependent nature of the two demands a more synergistic approach in understanding the ageing process itself and for developing new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we aim to summarize the intricate association between the various inflammatory molecules and telomeres that together contribute to the ageing process and related diseases. PMID:26616852

  11. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  12. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  13. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  14. Oxidation of K+ Channels in Aging and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sesti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Reversible regulation of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important mechanism of neuronal plasticity. In particular, ROS have been shown to act as modulatory molecules of ion channels—which are key to neuronal excitability—in several physiological processes. However ROS are also fundamental contributors to aging vulnerability. When the level of excess ROS increases in the cell during aging, DNA is damaged, proteins are oxidized, lipids are degraded and more ROS are produced, all culminating in significant cell injury. From this arose the idea that oxidation of ion channels by ROS is one of the culprits for neuronal aging. Aging-dependent oxidative modification of voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels was initially demonstrated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and more recently in the mammalian brain. Specifically, oxidation of the delayed rectifier KCNB1 (Kv2.1) and of Ca2+- and voltage sensitive K+ channels have been established suggesting that their redox sensitivity contributes to altered excitability, progression of healthy aging and of neurodegenerative disease. Here I discuss the implications that oxidation of K+ channels by ROS may have for normal aging, as well as for neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27114846

  15. Gender, ageing, and injustice: social and political contexts of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dodds, S

    2005-05-01

    There has been considerable work in bioethics addressing injustice and gender oppression in the provision of healthcare services, in the interaction between client and healthcare professional, and in allocation of healthcare services within a particular hospital or health service. There remain several sites of continued injustice that can only be addressed adequately from a broader analytical perspective, one that attends to the social and political contexts framing healthcare policy and practice. Feminist bioethicists have a strong track record in providing this kind of analysis. Using current Australian aged care and welfare policy this paper demonstrates some of the ways in which issues of gender, age, and social inequity shape bioethical debate, policy, and practice in the areas of aged care and welfare provision. The author develops an argument that demonstrates the gender injustice underlying health care and welfare policy. This argument recognises the inevitability of human dependency relations, and questions the adequacy of current political theories to address the requirements for full and equal citizenship. The author shows that an adequate analysis of the ethics of aged healthcare depends on sufficient consideration of the social and political context within which healthcare policy is framed and an adequate understanding of human dependency. PMID:15863691

  16. DNA double strand break repair, aging and the chromatin connection.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Are DNA damage and mutations possible causes or consequences of aging? This question has been hotly debated by biogerontologists for decades. The importance of DNA damage as a possible driver of the aging process went from being widely recognized to then forgotten, and is now slowly making a comeback. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are particularly relevant to aging because of their toxicity, increased frequency with age and the association of defects in their repair with premature aging. Recent studies expand the potential impact of DNA damage and mutations on aging by linking DNA DSB repair and age-related chromatin changes. There is overwhelming evidence that increased DNA damage and mutations accelerate aging. However, an ultimate proof of causality would be to show that enhanced genome and epigenome stability delays aging. This is not an easy task, as improving such complex biological processes is infinitely more difficult than disabling it. We will discuss the possibility that animal models with enhanced DNA repair and epigenome maintenance will be generated in the near future. PMID:26923716

  17. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model. PMID:24804252

  18. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20–89 years) and 67 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients (age: 50–88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called “free” copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  19. Repeated survey on changes in musculoskeletal complaints relative to age and work demands.

    PubMed Central

    de Zwart, B C; Broersen, J P; Frings-Dresen, M H; van Dijk, F J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in musculoskeletal complaints over four years in groups of employees relative to age and work demands. METHODS: Repeated questionnaire data of male employees in heavy physical work (exposed group, n = 7324) and mental work (control group, n = 4686), stratified for age (20-9, 30-9, 40-9, 50-9), were analysed. For each employee, data on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints from two surveys with a mean interval of around four years were available. Changes in prevalences over the follow up interval were analysed. Proportions of new, recovered, and chronic cases as well as those free of complaints at both surveys were studied. RESULTS: For most complaints, there were significantly greater increases in prevalences in the exposed group compared with the control group over the follow up interval particularly within the group aged 40-9 for back, neck, and several sites of the upper and lower limbs. The 20-9 year age group also had significantly greater changes for several musculoskeletal complaints. Within the oldest age group (50-9) exposure to heavy physical work demands only affected changes in prevalences of neck and upper arm complaints. After four years in the cohort free of complaints at the start of the follow up the group aged 40-9 had the highest prevalence of complaints of the back, neck, and the upper and lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Middle aged and younger employees develop musculoskeletal complaints as a result of exposure to heavy physical work. In the oldest age group health related selection seems to mask the occupational health risks under study. To prevent the expected increase in musculoskeletal disorders and related work disability in our aging workforce, preventive measures should be taken at all stages of a working life. PMID:9538351

  20. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; van Erp, Theo G M; Bearden, Carrie E; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-01-30

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  1. Intervertebral disc cell response to dynamic compression is age and frequency dependent.

    PubMed

    Korecki, Casey L; Kuo, Catherine K; Tuan, Rocky S; Iatridis, James C

    2009-06-01

    The maintenance of the intervertebral disc extracellular matrix is regulated by mechanical loading, nutrition, and the accumulation of matrix proteins and cytokines that are affected by both aging and degeneration. Evidence suggests that cellular aging may lead to alterations in the quantity and quality of extracellular matrix produced. The aims of this study were to examine the role of loading and maturation (a subset of aging), and the interaction between these two factors in intervertebral disc cell gene expression and biosynthesis in a controlled 3D culture environment. Cells were isolated from young (4-6 months) and mature (18-24 months) bovine caudal annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus tissue. Isolated cells were seeded into alginate and dynamically compressed for 7 days at either 0.1, 1, or 3 Hz or maintained as a free-swelling control. After 7 days, DNA and sulfated glycosaminoglycan contents were analyzed along with real time, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis for collagen types I and II, aggrecan, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene expression. Results suggest that maturation plays an important role in intervertebral disc homeostasis and influences the cell response to mechanical loading. While isolated intervertebral disc cells responded to mechanical compression in 3D culture, the effect of loading frequency was minimal. Altered cellular phenotype and biosynthesis rates appear to be an attribute of the cell maturation process, potentially independent of changes in cellular microenvironment associated with lost nutrition and disc degeneration. Mature cells may have a decreased capacity to create or retain extracellular matrix components in response to mechanical loading compared to young cells. PMID:19058142

  2. Effects of age and symptomatology on cortical thickness in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A.R.; Duerden, Emma G.; Taylor, Margot J.; Lerch, Jason P.; Soorya, Latha V.; Wang, A. Ting; Fan, Jin; Hollander, Eric; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Several brain regions show structural and functional abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the developmental trajectory of abnormalities in these structures and how they may relate to social and communicative impairments are still unclear. We assessed the effects of age on cortical thickness in individuals with ASD, between the ages of 7 and 39 years in comparison to typically developing controls. Additionally, we examined differences in cortical thickness in relation to symptomatology in the ASD group, and their association with age. Analyses were conducted using a general linear model, controlling for sex. Social and communication scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) were correlated with the thickness of regions implicated in those functions. Controls showed widespread cortical thinning relative to the ASD group. Within regions-of-interest, increased thickness in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex was associated with poorer social scores. Additionally, a significant interaction between age and social impairment was found in the orbitofrontal cortex, with more impaired younger children having decreased thickness in this region. These results suggest that differential neurodevelopmental trajectories are present in individuals with ASD and some differences are associated with diagnostic behaviours. PMID:23678367

  3. The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2015-03-30

    Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD. PMID:25533028

  4. Aging and the disposition and toxicity of mercury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Christy C; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K

    2014-05-01

    Progressive loss of functioning nephrons, secondary to age-related glomerular disease, can impair the ability of the kidneys to effectively clear metabolic wastes and toxicants from blood. Additionally, as renal mass is diminished, cellular hypertrophy occurs in functional nephrons that remain. We hypothesize that these nephrons are exposed to greater levels of nephrotoxicants, such as inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), and thus are at an increased risk of becoming intoxicated by these compounds. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of aging on the disposition and renal toxicity of Hg(2+) in young adult and aged Wistar rats. Paired groups of animals were injected (i.v.) with either a 0.5μmol·kg(-1) non-nephrotoxic or a 2.5μmol·kg(-1) nephrotoxic dose of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Plasma creatinine and renal biomarkers of proximal tubular injury were greater in both groups of aged rats than in the corresponding groups of young adult rats. Histologically, evidence of glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis were significant features of kidneys from aged animals. In addition, proximal tubular necrosis, especially along the straight segments in the inner cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla was a prominent feature in the renal sections from both aged and young rats treated with the nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2. Our findings indicate 1) that overall renal function is significantly impaired in aged rats, resulting in chronic renal insufficiency and 2) the disposition of HgCl2 in aging rats is significantly altered compared to that of young rats. PMID:24548775

  5. Age and mass of solar twins constrained by lithium abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; Castro, M.; Meléndez, J.; Bazot, M.; Théado, S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2009-07-01

    Aims: We analyze the non-standard mixing history of the solar twins HIP 55 459, HIP 79 672, HIP 56 948, HIP 73 815, and HIP 100 963, to determine as precisely as possible their mass and age. Methods: We computed a grid of evolutionary models with non-standard mixing at several metallicities with the Toulouse-Geneva code for a range of stellar masses assuming an error bar of ±50 K in T_eff. We choose the evolutionary model that reproduces accurately the observed low lithium abundances observed in the solar twins. Results: Our best-fit model for each solar twin provides a mass and age solution constrained by their Li content and T_eff determination. HIP 56 948 is the most likely solar-twin candidate at the present time and our analysis infers a mass of 0.994 ± 0.004 {M⊙} and an age of 4.71 ± 1.39 Gyr. Conclusions: Non-standard mixing is required to explain the low Li abundances observed in solar twins. Li depletion due to additional mixing in solar twins is strongly mass dependent. An accurate lithium abundance measurement and non-standard models provide more precise information about the age and mass more robustly than determined by classical methods alone. The models are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/501/687 or via http://andromeda.dfte.ufrn.br

  6. Glomerular Aging and Focal Global Glomerulosclerosis: A Podometric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Bitzer, Markus; Wickman, Larysa; Afshinnia, Farsad; Wang, Su Q; O'Connor, Christopher; Yang, Yan; Meadowbrooke, Chrysta; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Kikuchi, Masao; Wiggins, Jocelyn E; Wiggins, Roger C

    2015-12-01

    Kidney aging is associated with an increasing proportion of globally scarred glomeruli, decreasing renal function, and exponentially increasing ESRD prevalence. In model systems, podocyte depletion causes glomerulosclerosis, suggesting age-associated glomerulosclerosis could be caused by a similar mechanism. We measured podocyte number, size, density, and glomerular volume in 89 normal kidney samples from living and deceased kidney donors and normal poles of nephrectomies. Podocyte nuclear density decreased with age due to a combination of decreased podocyte number per glomerulus and increased glomerular volume. Compensatory podocyte cell hypertrophy prevented a change in the proportion of tuft volume occupied by podocytes. Young kidneys had high podocyte reserve (podocyte density >300 per 10(6) µm(3)), but by 70-80 years of age, average podocyte nuclear density decreased to, <100 per 10(6) µm(3), with corresponding podocyte hypertrophy. In older age podocyte detachment rate (urine podocin mRNA-to-creatinine ratio) was higher than at younger ages and podocytes were stressed (increased urine podocin-to-nephrin mRNA ratio). Moreover, in older kidneys, proteinaceous material accumulated in the Bowman space of glomeruli with low podocyte density. In a subset of these glomeruli, mass podocyte detachment events occurred in association with podocytes becoming binucleate (mitotic podocyte catastrophe) and subsequent wrinkling of glomerular capillaries, tuft collapse, and periglomerular fibrosis. In kidneys of young patients with underlying glomerular diseases similar pathologic events were identified in association with focal global glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte density reduction with age may therefore directly lead to focal global glomerulosclerosis, and all progressive glomerular diseases can be considered superimposed accelerators of this underlying process. PMID:26038526

  7. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  8. Spatial distribution of intracortical porosity varies across age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Nirody, Jasmine A.; Cheng, Karen P.; Parrish, Robin M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone porosity is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue. The goal of this work was to investigate changes in spatial distribution and microstructure of cortical porosity associated with aging in men and women. The specific aims were to: 1) develop an automated technique for spatial analysis of cortical microstructure based on HR-pQCT data, and; 2) apply this technique to explore sex- and age-specific spatial distribution and microstructure of porosity within the cortex. We evaluated HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia from a cross-sectional cohort of 145 individuals, characterizing detectable pores as being in the endosteal, midcortical, or periosteal layers of the cortex. Metrics describing porosity, pore number, and pore size were quantifiedwithin each layer and compared across sexes, age groups, and cortical layers. The elderly cohort (65–78 years, n=22) displayed higher values than the young cohort (20–29 years, n=29) for all parameters both globally and within each layer. While all three layers displayed significant age-related porosity increases, the greatest difference in porosity between the young and elderly cohort was in the midcortical layer (+344%, p < 0.001). Similarly, the midcortical layer reflected the greatest differences between young and elderly cohorts in both pore number (+243%, p < 0.001) and size (+28%, p < 0.001). Females displayed greater age-related changes in porosity and pore number than males. Females and males displayed comparable small to non-significant changes with age in pore size. In summary, considerable variability exists in the spatial distribution of detectable cortical porosity at the distal tibia, and this variability is dependent on age and sex. Intracortical pore distribution analysis may ultimately provide insight into both mechanisms of pore network expansion and biomechanical consequences of pore distribution. PMID:25701139

  9. Effects of age and expertise on tactile learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive tactile stimulation is a well-established tool for inducing somatosensory cortical plasticity and changes in tactile perception. Previous studies have suggested that baseline performance determines the amount of stimulation-induced learning differently in specific populations. Older adults with lower baseline performance than young adults, but also experts, with higher baseline performance than non-experts of the same age, have been found to profit most from such interventions. This begs the question of how age-related and expertise-related differences in tactile learning are reflected in neurophysiological correlates. In two experiments, we investigated how tactile learning depends on age (experiment 1) and expertise (experiment 2). We assessed tactile spatial and temporal discrimination accuracy and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 57 persons of different age and expertise groups before and after a 30-min tactile stimulation intervention. The intervention increased accuracy in temporal (found in experiment 1) and spatial (found in experiment 2) discrimination. Experts improved more than non-experts in spatial discrimination. Lower baseline performance was associated with higher learning gain in experts and non-experts. After the intervention, P300 latencies were reduced in young adults and amplitudes were increased in late middle-aged adults in the temporal discrimination task. Experts showed a steeper P300 parietal-to-frontal gradient after the stimulation. We demonstrated that tactile stimulation partially reverses the age-related decline in late middle-aged adults and increases processing speed in young adults. We further showed that learning gain depends on baseline performance in both non-experts and experts. In experts, however, the upper limit for learning seems to be shifted to a higher level. PMID:24863287

  10. Aging and Exercise Affect Hippocampal Neurogenesis via Different Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting-Ting; Lo, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Tzu-Feng; Chen, Yun-Wen; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The rate of neurogenesis is determined by 1) the number of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), 2) proliferation of NSCs, 3) neuron lineage specification, and 4) survival rate of the newborn neurons. Aging lowers the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis, while exercise (Ex) increases this rate. However, it remains unclear which of the determinants are affected by aging and Ex. We characterized the four determinants in different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 21 months) of mice that either received one month of Ex training or remained sedentary. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected two hours before sacrificing the mice to label the proliferating cells. The results showed that the number of newborn neurons massively decreased (>95%) by the time the mice reached nine months of age. The number of NSC was mildly reduced during aging, while Ex delayed such decline. The proliferation rates were greatly decreased by the time the mice were 9-month-old and Ex could not improve the rates. The rates of neuron specification were decreased during aging, while Ex increased the rates. The survival rate was not affected by age or Ex. Aging greatly reduced newborn neuron maturation, while Ex potently enhanced it. In conclusion, age-associated decline of hippocampal neurogenesis is mainly caused by reduction of NSC proliferation. Although Ex increases the NSC number and neuron specification rates, it doesn't restore the massive decline of NSC proliferation rate. Hence, the effect of Ex on the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis during aging is limited, but Ex does enhance the maturation of newborn neurons. PMID:26147302

  11. Maternal Age and Contractility of Human Myometrium in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crankshaw, Denis J; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Crosby, David A; Morrison, John J

    2015-10-01

    There is controversy as to whether maternal age exerts an influence on the contractility of human myometrium in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine a series of functional contractile parameters of human myometrium in vitro, over a broad range of maternal ages. Myometrial tissue specimens were obtained at cesarean delivery from 32 women with maternal ages ranging from 28 to 52 years. Using in vitro recordings, a number of contractile parameters including maximal amplitude, mean contractile force, time to maximal amplitude, maximum rate of rise, and occurrence of simple and complex (biphasic and multiphasic) contractions were examined for spontaneous and induced contractile activity. The relationship between maternal age and individual parameters was evaluated using linear regression analysis. For all contractile parameters examined, for both spontaneous and induced contractions, no significant correlation was observed with maternal age between 28 and 52 years. The mean maximum amplitude values for spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions were 23 ± 3 and 43 ± 5 mN, respectively. The mean contractile forces for spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions were 1.5 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.9 mN, respectively. There was no variation in the proportion of biphasic or multiphasic contractions with maternal age. These results indicate there is no significant functional impairment of uterine contractility and no lack in responsiveness of myometrium in vitro, in the older mother. These findings do not support the concept that there may be a biological basis for dysfunctional labor or increased cesarean delivery rates in older parturients. PMID:25759369

  12. TDP-43 in aging and Alzheimer's disease - a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrea C; Dugger, Brittany N; Dickson, Dennis W; Wang, Deng-Shun

    2011-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), an RNA and DNA binding protein involved in transcriptional repression, RNA splicing and RNA metabolism during the stress response, is the major component of neuronal inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions, now referred to as FTLD-TDP. While initially thought to be relatively specific to ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 pathology has now been detected in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, many associated with tau pathology, including Guam Parkinson dementia complex and Alzheimer's disease (AD). TDP-43 pathology is detected in 25% to 50% of AD cases, especially those with more severe clinical phenotype and greater Alzheimer type pathology, as well as AD cases with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). HS is characterized by selective neuronal loss affecting CA1 sector of the hippocampus, and most cases of HS, with or without AD, have TDP-43 pathology. Whether TDP-43 pathology is merely an incidental finding in AD or actually contributing to the more severe clinical phenotype remains unresolved. Presence of TDP-43 in normal elderly, who are at increased risk for AD, would strengthen the argument that it is not merely a secondary or incidental finding in end stage AD. Limited studies suggest that TDP-43 pathology is infrequent in neurologically normal elderly (3% or less). We provide an overview of what is known about TDP-43 in AD, normal aging and in other disorders and suggest that TDP-43 proteinopathies be considered in two classes - primary and secondary. PMID:21326809

  13. Telomeres, Age and Reproduction in a Long-Lived Reptile

    PubMed Central

    Plot, Virginie; Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction) and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs). This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate individual reproductive

  14. Aging and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Immunosenescence and Beyond.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogen, Lucas Laurens; Sims, Gary Patrick; van Roon, Joel Adrianus Gijsbert; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth Dorothea Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The lifespan of humans has increased drastically over the last decades; considerable effort has been applied to delineate the mechanisms behind aging in order to find strategies for longevity. As the benefits of the gained knowledge might extend to diseases, where accelerated aging is suspected, the role of aging in the systemic autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is of particular interest. In this review the immunological similarities of SLE and aging are analyzed on three levels: the clinical, the cellular and the molecular, in order to find possible common pathological mechanisms. Common clinical features (e.g. increased infection rates, incidence of tumors and cardiovascular diseases) of SLE-patients and elderly individuals and shared characteristics of immuno-senescence and SLE are identified. These similarities are strongest in the adaptive immune system, where terminally differentiated T-cells and an immunological risk profile are found in both conditions. Also the aging innate immune system has overlapping features with SLE, exemplified by a generally lowered phagocytic capacity. However, great disparities between the aging immune system and SLE become apparent on a closer look, affecting numbers, phenotype and function of most immune cells, ranging from NETosis by granulocytes to the mechanisms underlying abnormal IL-2 production by T-cells. On the molecular level, also the increased presence of aging mechanisms like telomere attrition, DNA damage, autophagy and the characteristics of the mTOR pathway in SLE, possibly contributing to the shared changes on the cellular and clinical level are elaborated. The possible implications thereof concern existing (hydroxychloroquine, rapamycine, Glucocorticoids) as well as novel therapeutic strategies targeting more specific pathways which might rapidly reach the clinical arena. Overall a differential view on the similarities of aging and SLE and possible consequences is presented. PMID:26212055

  15. Effects of Age and Dysfunction on Human Meibomian Glands

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Chyong Jy; Massei, Salina; Lin, Gloria; Nabavi, Cameron; Tao, Jeremiah; Brown, Donald J.; Paugh, Jerry R.; Jester, James V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify age-related changes in human meibomian glands that may be associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods Excess eyelid tissue from 36 patients (age range, 18–95 years, 19 female, 17 male) who underwent canthoplasty procedures were used. Dermatologic history, age, and presence of MGD were recorded. Samples were frozen, sectioned, and stained with specific antibodies against peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ(PPARγ) to identify meibocyte differentiation, Ki67 nuclear antigen to identify cycling cells, and CD45 to identify inflammatory cell infiltration. Results Staining for PPARγ showed cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in the 2 youngest subjects (ages, 18 and 44 years). Older individuals (>60 years) showed predominantly nuclear staining, with cytoplasmic staining limited to the basal acinar cells in 17 of 31 subjects. The number of Ki67 positively stained basal cells were significantly elevated in the younger compared with older subjects based on linear regression analysis (r2= 0.35; P <.001). There was also a significant correlation between MG expression grade and CD45 cell infiltration (r =0.414; P =.05). Conclusions These results indicate that aging human meibomian glands show decreased meibocyte differentiation and cell cycling that is associated with the development of MGD. Findings also suggest that altered PPARγ signaling may lead to acinar atrophy and development of an age-related hyposecretory MGD. Clinical Relevance Meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye are common age-related eyelid disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanism of MGD may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat this disease. PMID:21482872

  16. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  17. Aging and Exercise Affect Hippocampal Neurogenesis via Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting-Ting; Lo, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Tzu-Feng; Chen, Yun-Wen; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The rate of neurogenesis is determined by 1) the number of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), 2) proliferation of NSCs, 3) neuron lineage specification, and 4) survival rate of the newborn neurons. Aging lowers the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis, while exercise (Ex) increases this rate. However, it remains unclear which of the determinants are affected by aging and Ex. We characterized the four determinants in different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 21 months) of mice that either received one month of Ex training or remained sedentary. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected two hours before sacrificing the mice to label the proliferating cells. The results showed that the number of newborn neurons massively decreased (>95%) by the time the mice reached nine months of age. The number of NSC was mildly reduced during aging, while Ex delayed such decline. The proliferation rates were greatly decreased by the time the mice were 9-month-old and Ex could not improve the rates. The rates of neuron specification were decreased during aging, while Ex increased the rates. The survival rate was not affected by age or Ex. Aging greatly reduced newborn neuron maturation, while Ex potently enhanced it. In conclusion, age-associated decline of hippocampal neurogenesis is mainly caused by reduction of NSC proliferation. Although Ex increases the NSC number and neuron specification rates, it doesn't restore the massive decline of NSC proliferation rate. Hence, the effect of Ex on the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis during aging is limited, but Ex doe