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Sample records for age-dated sediment cores

  1. Collection, analysis, and age-dating of sediment cores from 56 U.S. lakes and reservoirs sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1992-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Callender, Edward; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Reconstructed Trends National Synthesis study collected sediment cores from 56 lakes and reservoirs between 1992 and 2001 across the United States. Most of the sampling was conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The primary objective of the study was to determine trends in particle-associated contaminants in response to urbanization; 47 of the 56 lakes are in or near one of 20 U.S. cities. Sampling was done with gravity, piston, and box corers from boats and push cores from boats or by wading, depending on the depth of water and thickness of sediment being sampled. Chemical analyses included major and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cesium-137, and lead-210. Age-dating of the cores was done on the basis of radionuclide analyses and the position of the pre-reservoir land surface in the reservoir and, in a few cases, other chemical or lithologic depth-date markers. Dates were assigned in many cores on the basis of assumed constant mass accumulation between known depth-date markers. Dates assigned were supported using a variety of other date markers including first occurrence and peak concentrations of DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls and peak concentration of lead. A qualitative rating was assigned to each core on the basis of professional judgment to indicate the reliability of age assignments. A total of 122 cores were collected from the 56 lakes and age dates were assigned to 113 of them, representing 54 of the 56 lakes. Seventy-four of the 122 cores (61 percent) received a good rating for the assigned age dates, 28 cores (23 percent) a fair rating, and 11 cores (9 percent) a poor rating; nine cores (7 percent) had no dates assigned. An analysis of the influence of environmental factors on the apparent quality of age-dating of the cores concluded that the most important factor was the mass accumulation rate (MAR) of sediment: the

  2. Geophysical Age Dating of Seamounts using Dense Core Flexure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gyuha; Kim, Seung-Sep

    2016-04-01

    Lithospheric flexure of oceanic plate is thermo-mechanical response of an elastic plate to the given volcanic construct (e.g., seamounts and ocean islands). If the shape and mass of such volcanic loads are known, the flexural response is governed by the thickness of elastic plate, Te. As the age of oceanic plate increases, the elastic thickness of oceanic lithosphere becomes thicker. Thus, we can relate Te with the age of plate at the time of loading. To estimate the amount of the driving force due to seamounts on elastic plate, one needs to approximate their density structure. The most common choice is uniform density model, which utilizes constant density value for a seamount. This approach simplifies computational processes for gravity prediction and error estimates. However, the uniform density model tends to overestimate the total mass of the seamount and hence produces more positive gravitational contributions from the load. Minimization of gravity misfits using uniform density, therefore, favors thinner Te in order to increase negative contributions from the lithospheric flexure, which can compensate for the excessive positives from the seamount. An alternative approach is dense core model, which approximate the heterogeneity nature of seamount density as three bodies of infill sediment, edifice, and dense core. In this study, we apply the dense core model to the Louisville Seamount Chain for constraining flexural deformation. We compare Te estimates with the loading time of the examined seamounts to redefine empirical geophysical age dating of seamounts.

  3. Age Dating Fluvial Sediment Storage Reservoirs to Construct Sediment Waiting Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Benthem, A.; Karwan, D. L.; Mahan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Suspended sediment transport is an important geomorphic process that can often control the transport of nutrients and contaminants. The time a particle spends in storage remains a critical knowledge gap in understanding particle trajectories through landscapes. We dated floodplain deposits in South River, VA, using fallout radionuclides (Pb-210, Cs-137), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and radiocarbon dating to determine sediment ages and construct sediment waiting time distributions. We have a total of 14 age dates in two eroding banks. We combine these age dates with a well-constrained history of mercury concentrations on suspended sediment in the river from an industrial release. Ages from fallout radionuclides document sedimentation from the early 1900s to the present, and agree with the history of mercury contamination. OSL dates span approximately 200 to 17,000 years old. We performed a standard Weibull analysis of nonexceedance to construct a waiting time distribution of floodplain sediment for the South River. The mean waiting time for floodplain sediment is 2930 years, while the median is approximately 710 years. When the floodplain waiting time distribution is combined with the waiting time distribution for in-channel sediment storage (available from previous studies), the mean waiting time shifts to approximately 680 years, suggesting that quantifying sediment waiting times for both channel and floodplain storage is critical in advancing knowledge of particle trajectories through watersheds.

  4. Advancing knowledge gained from sediment budgets through sediment age dating and fingerprinting in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Gellis, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Hupp, C. R.; Larsen, L.; Noe, G. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schenk, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics and long-term trajectories of fine sediment generally remain poorly quantified in rivers, which have implications for nutrient and contaminant transport and remediation strategies. Here we focus on two streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Difficult Run and Accotink Creek. These streams have varying degrees of urbanization and diverse best management practices, making possible a comparison of sediment sources, sinks, and residence times to illuminate how land management impacts fine sediment transport. Bank erosion and floodplain accumulation in Difficult Run has been previously determined and is ongoing in Accotink Creek. Current work advances sediment budgets by quantifying the role of in-channel fine sediment storage in the bed and margins. To understand the relative storage timescales for various geomorphic features (floodplain, in-channel, etc.) and develop age distributions, sediment is dated using radionuclides of varying half-lives such as Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, bomb radiocarbon, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). To determine the source of sediment that is transported in suspension, sediment fingerprinting has been completed in Difficult Run and initiated in Accotink Creek. Furthermore, the present study furthers our understanding of fine sediment dynamics by fingerprinting sources of stored sediment and evaluating how they evolve over storm events and stream size. For this, we sampled sediment in storage zones before and after storm events of a specified magnitude to determine their chemical signatures with respect to various source-tracking elements and isotopes. This study represents the first such work to integrate sediment dating, sediment fingerprinting and an analysis of storage zones to understand fine sediment dynamics and long-term trajectories.

  5. Detecting, sourcing, and age-dating dredged sediments on the open shelf, southern California, using dead mollusk shells.

    PubMed

    Bizjack, Matthew T; Kidwell, Susan M; Velarde, Ronald G; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Tomašových, Adam

    2017-01-15

    Molluscan shell debris is an under-exploited means of detecting, sourcing, and age-dating dredged sediments in open-shelf settings. Backscatter features on the Southern California shelf are suggestive of dredged sediment hauled from San Diego Bay but deposited significantly inshore of the EPA-designated ocean disposal site. We find that 36% of all identifiable bivalve shells >2mm (44% of shells >4mm) in sediment samples from this 'short dump' area are from species known to live exclusively in the Bay; such shells are absent at reference sites of comparable water depth, indicating that their presence in the short-dump area signals non-compliant disposal rather than natural offshore transport or sea level rise. These sediments lack the shells of species that invaded California bays in the 1970s, suggesting that disposal preceded federal regulations. This inexpensive, low-tech method, with its protocol for rejecting alternative hypotheses, will be easy to adapt in other settings.

  6. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  7. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  8. Water-quality trends in suburban Houston, Texas, 1954-97, as indicated by sediment cores from Lake Houston

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Sneck-Fahrer, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality trends were assessed in Lake Houston using age-dated sediment cores. Sediments deposited in the lake contain a partial chemical signature of human activities in the watershed. Over time, a water-quality history is recorded in the bottom sediments. Although the sediments in Lake Houston are clean compared to sediment-quality guidelines, increasing concentrations of mercury, zinc, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the past several decades are evidence of the increasing human effect on water quality. The positive effects of regulation are indicated by decreases in concentrations of lead and DDT.

  9. Sediments at the top of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Buffett, B A; Garnero, E J; Jeanloz, R

    2000-11-17

    Unusual physical properties at the core-mantle boundary have been inferred from seismic and geodetic observations in recent years. We show how both types of observations can be explained by a layer of silicate sediments, which accumulate at the top of the core as Earth cools. Compaction of the sediments expels most of the liquid iron but leaves behind a small amount of core material, which is entrained in mantle convection and may account for the isotopic signatures of core material in some hot spot plumes. Extraction of light elements from the liquid core also enhances the vigor of convection in the core and may increase the power available to the geodynamo.

  10. Computational Age Dating of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-06-30

    This slide-show presented an overview of the Constrained Progressive Reversal (CPR) method for computing decays, age dating, and spoof detecting. The CPR method is: Capable of temporal profiling a SNM sample; Precise (compared with known decay code, such a ORIGEN); Easy (for computer implementation and analysis). We have illustrated with real SNM data using CPR for age dating and spoof detection. If SNM is pure, may use CPR to derive its age. If SNM is mixed, CPR will indicate that it is mixed or spoofed.

  11. ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

  12. Infrared images of core sediments offshore southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H. T.; Chuang, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The core sediments may retain the negative thermal anomaly caused by the gas hydrate dissociation on the way uploading from sea floor. To identify the signal of negative thermal anomaly, fifteen infrared images of core sediments with tens of meter in length have been analyzed the temperature distribution off southwestern Taiwan. This study results show that most of the core sediments were found lots of gaps with spiking pattern recognition of high temperature on the lower portions. The geochemistry study suggested that the gas in gaps and the sediments were mainly composed of methane which may be the indicators of gas hydrate dissociation in the higher temperature and lower pressure environment. The thermal gradients 0.044-0.114 ℃/m of core sediments are close to the observations in situ by the measurements of temperature probes that thermal gradient are 0.06-0.09 ℃/m. The temperature of all core sediments are greater than 20 ℃. It is obvious that the temperature of core sediments were increased tremendously by the heating of sea water. We found eight out of fifteen core sediments with significant negative thermal anomaly 0.4-1.0 ℃ in different depth between 2 and 10 meters below sea floor. Compare to the experiment in lab that the temperature could be decreased 1.1-1.5 ℃ due to the gas hydrate dissociation, the quantity of the negative thermal anomaly of the core sediments are possible related to the gas hydrate dissociation.

  13. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Geochemistry of sediments in cores and sediment traps from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Cummins, Kathleen; Shamp, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study of Bear Lake began in 1998. Initially, the study utilized sediments from three long cores (up to 5 m) previously collected in 1996 and short cores (up to 40 cm) collected in 1998. The short cores were specifically acquired to preserve the uppermost layers of sediment that may have been lost in the long cores. In addition, three arrays of sediment traps were deployed during the summer of 1998, and sediment from these traps was collected during the summers of 1999 and 2000 (see Dean and others, 2005, for core and sediment trap locations). The cores and sediment traps were sampled, and splits were distributed to various investigators for analyses of a wide variety of sediment parameters. The chemical composition of the acid-soluble component of the sediments is presented in this report. HCl or HNO3 treatment of the sediment quantitatively dissolves the authigenic component of the sediment, a component that includes carbonates, sulfates, and iron-mono sulfides. In the case of Bear Lake, CaCO3 is the major component of the sediment today and for most of the Holocene (Dean and others 2005). The chemical composition of the acid-soluble fraction gives important information on this component and, therefore, insight into the chemical conditions of the lake at the time of carbonate deposition.

  15. Characteristics of and corrections for core shortening in unconsolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; White, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Thinning, bypassing, and compaction of shallow unconsolidated sediments during manual coring or vibracoring operations probably cause more sediment deformation and greater stratigraphic displacement than is commonly reported in the wetland literature. We measured core shortening in open-barrel cores from fluvial wetlands, lagoonal flats, and marshes to document the magnitude and characteristics of shortening where sediments may be stiff and require extra mechanical effort to recover a sufficient length of sample for analysis. Results of those measurements indicate that thinning or non- recovery of discrete sediment intervals can range from 0 to 67 percent and cumulative core shortening can be as much as 30 percent even for cores less than one meter long. Detailed open-barrel measurements also show that core shortening is not uniformly distributed throughout the depth of penetration as is often assumed. Analytical data derived from shortened cores can only be properly interpreted if patterns of shortening are established and incorporated into the analysis. Minor artificial displacement of sediment depths can alter plots of physico-chemical parameters and can significantly influence calculated rates of sedimentation and other depth-dependent statistical relationships. This study (1) demonstrates how plots of interval shortening and cumulative shortening can be used to characterize the distribution of shortening at depth and (2) presents a simple equation for stratigraphic restoration so that core observations and analyses are corrected to their original depths.

  16. Descriptions of WHOI Sediment Cores, Volume 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Siliceous Detrital grains Foraminifera Diatoms Micronodules Nannofossils Radiolaria Zeolites Discoasters Sponges Volcanic shards Pteropods...excess of 15%. 1 15% < % inorganic components < 30% detrital grains Mn micronodules (MAJOR SEDIMENT NAME) with zeolites volcanic ash -- etc. % inorganic...components > 30% detrital grains Mn micronodules (MAJOR SEDIMENT NAME) / zeolites volcanic ash -- etc. I 1 , u~ ;U L)I 0.1 CC - 12 P*- 4-)U UU 0 rm UU

  17. Natural thorium isotopes in marine sediment core off Labuan port

    SciTech Connect

    Hafidz, B. Y.; Asnor, A. S.; Terence, R. C.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2014-02-12

    Sediment core was collected from Labuan port and analyzed to determine the radioactivity of thorium (Th) isotopes. The objectives of this study are to determine the possible sources of Th isotopes at Labuan port and estimates the sedimentation rate based on {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th model. The results suggest the {sup 230}Th and {sup 232}Th might be originated from terrestrial sedimentary rock while {sup 228}Th originated by authigenic origin. High ratio value of {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th detected at the top surface sediment indicates the increasing of {sup 230}Th at the recent years which might be contributed from the anthropogenic sources. The sedimentation rate of core sediment from Labuan Port was successfully estimated by using {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th model. The result show high sedimentation rate with 4.67 cm/year indicates rapid deposition occurred at this study area due to the high physical activity at the Labuan port. By assume the constant sedimentation rate at this area; we estimated the age of 142 cm core sediment obtained from Labuan port is 32 years started from 1981 to 2012. This chronology will be used in forthcoming research to investigate the historical profile of anthropogenic activities affecting the Labuan port.

  18. Gas Hydrate-Sediment Morphologies Revealed by Pressure Core Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M.

    2006-12-01

    Analysis of HYACINTH pressure cores collected on IODP Expedition 311 and NGHP Expedition 1 showed gas hydrate layers, lenses, and veins contained in fine-grained sediments as well as gas hydrate contained in coarse-grained layers. Pressure cores were recovered from sediments on the Cascadia Margin off the North American West Coast and in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in the Western Bay of Bengal in water depths of 800- 1400 meters. Recovered cores were transferred to laboratory chambers without loss of pressure and nondestructive measurements were made at in situ pressures and controlled temperatures. Gamma density, P-wave velocity, and X-ray images showed evidence of grain-displacing and pore-filling gas hydrate in the cores. Data highlights include X-ray images of fine-grained sediment cores showing wispy subvertical veins of gas hydrate and P-wave velocity excursions corresponding to grain-displacing layers and pore-filling layers of gas hydrate. Most cores were subjected to controlled depressurization experiments, where expelled gas was collected, analyzed for composition, and used to calculate gas hydrate saturation within the core. Selected cores were stored under pressure for postcruise analysis and subsampling.

  19. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  20. Comparison of sediment profile image data with profiles of oxygen and Eh from sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Robert J.; Trefry, John H.

    2006-10-01

    A study of oil and gas development in the Gulf of Mexico provided a unique opportunity to compare data from sediment profile images (SPI) with that of sediment cores collected at locations in the central Gulf of Mexico from 1034 to 1175 m. Variables measured from SPI included sediment grain-size, sediment texture, apparent depth of oxygen penetration (aDOP) into the sediments, and parameters related to biogenic activity (tubes, burrows, feeding pits or mounds, and subsurface feeding voids). Variables measured from the sediment cores included sedimentation rate, dissolved oxygen profiles, and redox potential (Eh). There was a high degree of concordance between the two data sets based on correlation analysis. For example, the correlation between aDOP and maximum penetration of oxygen into the sediment was 0.69. For deep-sea sediment, SPI provides a means by which general geochemical conditions of near surface sediment can be remotely assessed providing a quick method for mapping surficial geochemistry over large areas.

  1. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, ART'S MANUFACTURING, SPLIT CORE SAMPLER FOR SUBMERGED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Split Core Sampler for Submerged Sediments (Split Core Sampler) designed and fabricated by Arts Manufacturing & Supply, Inc., was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at ...

  2. Short Sediment Cores as Archives of Urban Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, J. C.; McLennan, D. A.; Stone, J.; Memmer, E. D.; Foster, J. A.; Hardin, K. J.; Nickerson, Z.; Portwood, C. A.; Williams, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban areas are host to numerous sources of environmental pollution, including industry, traffic, and past land uses. To document this pollution within Vigo County, Indiana, we collected several short cores from ponds and wetlands throughout the county, including cores from the old industrial park in Terre Haute, nature parks, a lake impacted by acid mine drainage, and a newly restored wetland to investigate heavy metal burial in these aquatic ecosystems. One core was collected from a holding pond that was constructed in the 1950's on the former International Paper (IP) site where corrugated packing products were produced for nearly a century. One of the nature parks (Dobbs Nature Park) was established in 1976, while the other sits on a former Brownfield site and was only recently opened to the public (Maple Avenue Nature Park). Scott Lake is adjacent to an abandoned coal mine, and continues to receive acidic drainage. Wabashiki Fish and Wildlife Area is flooded seasonally by the Wabash River. Prior land uses for the Wabashiki include agriculture and illegal dumping. All of these sites, except IP are designated fishing areas. Based on water chemistry and diatom assemblages, these ponds have acceptable water quality; however, some are becoming increasingly more eutrophic. Preliminary results from the IP and Maple Avenue Nature Park sediment cores indicate elevated heavy metal concentrations above background levels and at concentrations high enough to impact benthic organisms based on NOAA Sediment Quality Guidelines. Diatoms from the IP core suggest a transition from low productivity at the base to nutrient-rich conditions in more recent sediments, and several diatom specimens have observable deformities (typically an indicator of heavy metals). The base of the IP core also has metal concentrations that are 5 times greater than the top of the core. In many cases, sediments from the Maple Avenue Nature Park pond have metal concentrations higher than the surrounding

  3. Bioavailability of sediment-associated PAHs by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A. |; VanHoof, P.L.; Landrum, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed four weeks to sediment core sections. Sediment was taken from Lake George in northern Michigan and known to be historically contaminated with PAHs. Bioaccumulation was maximal at the 12--16 cm depth where sediment PAH concentrations were greatest. Accumulation was minimal in surficial and 44--48 cm sections. Accumulation peaked at about 96 h, then declined over the remainder of the study for some of the lower molecular weight PAHs. For most higher molecular weight compounds, accumulation peaked at 2 weeks, then slightly declined at 4 weeks. Uptake rate coefficients stayed relatively constant for specific PAH congeners over the range of sediment depths, suggesting constant bioavailability with sediment aging. Accumulation factors (AFs) of selected congeners were also consistent among sediment depths and were comparable to those calculated for other species reported in previous studies.

  4. Technologies for retrieving sediment cores in Antarctic subglacial settings.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Dominic A; Bentley, Michael J; Smith, James A; Klepacki, Julian; Makinson, Keith; Smith, Andrew M; Saw, Kevin; Scherer, Reed; Powell, Ross; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Rose, Mike; Pearce, David; Mowlem, Matt; Keen, Peter; Siegert, Martin J

    2016-01-28

    Accumulations of sediment beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet contain a range of physical and chemical proxies with the potential to document changes in ice sheet history and to identify and characterize life in subglacial settings. Retrieving subglacial sediments and sediment cores presents several unique challenges to existing technologies. This paper briefly reviews the history of sediment sampling in subglacial environments. It then outlines some of the technological challenges and constraints in developing the corers being used in sub-ice shelf settings (e.g. George VI Ice Shelf and Larsen Ice Shelf), under ice streams (e.g. Rutford Ice Stream), at or close to the grounding line (e.g. Whillans Ice Stream) and in subglacial lakes deep under the ice sheet (e.g. Lake Ellsworth). The key features of the corers designed to operate in each of these subglacial settings are described and illustrated together with comments on their deployment procedures.

  5. There is no 1954 in that core! Interpreting sedimentation rates and contaminant trends in marine sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, S C; Macdonald, R W

    2012-04-01

    Marine sediment preserves a useful archive for contaminants and other properties that associate with particles. However, biomixing of sediments can smear the record on a scale of years to thousands of years, depending on sedimentation rate and on the depth and vigour of mixing within a particular sediment. Where such mixing occurs, dates can no longer be associated with discrete sediment depths. Nevertheless, much can still be learned from biomixed profiles, provided that mixing is accounted for. With no modelling at all, it is possible to calculate an inventory of a contaminant at a site and a maximum possible sedimentation rate, and to determine whether the contaminant has increased or decreased over time. Radiodating the core with (210)Pb permits the estimation of sedimentation and mixing rates, which can be combined with the surface contaminant concentration to estimate an approximate flux of the contaminant. Numerical models that incorporate sedimentation and mixing rates (determined using (210)Pb and other transient signals with known deposition histories) can provide the basis to propose plausible histories for contaminant fluxes.

  6. Mossbauer study of sediment cores from Victoria harbour, Hong Kong

    PubMed

    Tanner; Leong; Pan; Yu

    2000-12-01

    The concentrations of Fe and other abundant metals in 6 m-long sediment cores from four locations in the world's largest container port, Hong Kong, have been determined, in addition to physical characteristics and 210Pb activities. Fe is generally present at concentrations between 2% and 3% (depending on the particle size), similar to values found in granitic rocks. Its speciation was studied by room temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy. Two Fe(II) species and one Fe(III) species were found to be present in the cores. The relative proportions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) generally changed with the depth of sediment. Most noticeably, for the core taken from near the Star Ferry Pier at the Kowloon side of Victoria harbour, the proportion of Fe(II) was fairly constant down to 4.75 m, but then decreased with depth, so that near the core base (6 m depth), the iron was present almost exclusively as Fe(III). The colour of the core changed from olive grey to olive yellow between 5 and 6 m. According to the core chronology, this depth represents ca. 1900, before the ferry pier construction, when the harbour was unpolluted.

  7. Mercury accumulation in sediment cores from three Washington state lakes: evidence for local deposition from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Furl, Chad V; Meredith, Callie A

    2011-01-01

    Mercury accumulation rates measured in age-dated sediment cores were compared at three Washington state lakes. Offutt Lake and Lake St. Clair are located immediately downwind (18 and 28 km, respectively) of a coal-fired power plant and Lake Sammamish is located outside of the immediate area of the plant (110 km). The sites immediately downwind of the power plant were expected to receive increased mercury deposition from particulate and reactive mercury not deposited at Lake Sammamish. Mercury accumulation in cores was corrected for variable sedimentation, background, and sediment focusing to estimate the anthropogenic contribution (Hg(A,F)). Results indicated lakes immediately downwind of the power plant contained elevated Hg(A,F) levels with respect to the reference lake. Estimated fluxes to Lake Sammamish were compared to measured values from a nearby mercury wet deposition collector to gauge the efficacy of the core deconstruction techniques. Total deposition calculated through the sediment core (20.7 μg/m²/year) fell just outside of the upper estimate (18.9 μg/m²/year) of total deposition approximated from the wet deposition collector.

  8. A sampler for coring sediments in rivers and estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, Edmund A.; Hubbell, D.W.

    1966-01-01

    A portable sampler developed to core submerged unconsolidated sediments collects cores that are 180 cm long and 4.75cm in diameter. The sampler is used from a 12-m boat in water depths up to 20 m and in flow velocities up to 1.5m per second to sample river and estuarine deposits ranging from silty clay to medium sand. Even in sand that cannot be penetrated with conventional corers, the sampler achieves easy penetration through the combined application of vibration, suction, and axial force. A piston in the core barrel creates suction, and the suspension system is arranged so that tension on the support cable produces both a downward force on the core barrel and a lateral support against overturning. Samples are usually retained because of slight compaction in the driving head; as a precaution, however, the bottom of the core barrel is covered by a plate that closes after the barrel is withdrawn from the bed. Tests show that sample-retainers placed within the driving head restrict penetration and limit core lengths. Stratification within cores is disrupted little as a result of the sampling process.

  9. Diagenetic regimes in Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for sediment geochemistry and core correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, A.-K.; März, C.; Schuth, S.; Lettmann, K. A.; Schnetger, B.; Wolff, J.-O.; Brumsack, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    Dark brown sediment layers are a potential stratigraphic tool in Quaternary Arctic Ocean sediments. They are rich in Mn, Fe, and trace metals scavenged from the water column and were most likely deposited during interglacial intervals. In this study, we combine sediment and pore water data from sediment cores taken in different parts of the Arctic Ocean to investigate the influence of early diagenetic processes on sediment geochemistry. In most studied cores, Mn, Co, and Mo are released into the pore waters from Mn oxide dissolution in deeper (>1.5 m) sediment layers. The relationship between sedimentary Mn, Co, and Mo contents in excess of the lithogenic background (elementxs) shows that Coxs/Moxs values are a diagnostic tool to distinguish between layers with diagenetic metal addition from the pore waters (Coxs/Moxs < 1), layers affected by Mn oxide dissolution and metal release (Coxs/Moxs > 10), and unaffected layers (Coxs/Moxs from 1 to 10). Steady-state calculations based on current pore water profiles reveal that in the studied cores, the diagenetic addition of these metals from the pore water pool alone is not sufficient to produce the sedimentary metal enrichments. However, it seems evident that dissolution of Mn oxides in the Mn reduction zone can permanently alter the primary geochemical signature of the dark brown layers. Therefore, pore water data and Coxs/Moxs values should be considered before core correlation when this correlation is solely based on Mn contents and dark sediment color. In contrast to the mostly non-lithogenic origin of Mn in the dark brown layers, sedimentary Fe consists of a large lithogenic (80%) and a small non-lithogenic fraction (20%). Our pore water data show that diagenetic Fe remobilization is not currently occurring in the sediment. The dominant Fe sources are coastal erosion and river input. Budget calculations show that Fe seems to be trapped in the modern Arctic Ocean and accumulates in shelf and basin sediments. The Fe

  10. Ecosystem history of South Florida; Biscayne Bay sediment core descriptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishman, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the southeast Coast' project of the U.S. Geological Survey is part of a multi-disciplinary effort that includes Florida Bay and the Everglades to provide paleoecologic reconstructions for the south Florida region. Reconstructions of past salinity, nutrients, substrate, and water quality are needed to determine ecosystem variability due to both natural and human-induced causes. Our understanding of the relations between the south Florida ecosystem and introduced forces will allow managers to make informed decisions regarding the south Florida ecosystem restoration and monitoring. The record of past ecosystem conditions can be found in shallow sediment cores. This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes six shallow sediment cores collected from Biscayne Bay. The cores described herein are being processed for a variety of analytical procedures, and this provides the descriptive framework for future analyses of the included cores. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  11. The Late Pliocene Eltanin Impact: Documentation From Sediment Core Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, R.; Kyte, F.; Flores, J. A.; Becquey, S.

    2002-01-01

    The expeditions ANT-XII/4 (1995) and ANT-XVIII/5a (2001) of the RV POLARSTERN collected extensive bathymetric and seismic data sets as well as sediment cores from an area in the Bellingshausen Sea (eastern Pacific Southern Ocean) that allow the first comprehensive geoscientific documentation of an asteroid impact into a deep ocean (approx. 5 km) basin, named the Eltanin impact. Impact deposits have now been recovered from a total of more than 20 sediment cores collected in an area covering about 80,000 km2. Combined biomagnetostratigraphic dating places the impact event into the earliest Matuyama Chron, a period of enhanced climate variability. Sediment texture analyses and studies of sediment composition including grain size and microfossil distribution reveal the pattern of impact- related sediment disturbance and the sedimentary processes immediately following the impact event. The pattern is complicated by the San Martin Seamounts (approx. 57.5 S, 91 W), a large topographic elevation that rises up to 3000 m above the surrounding abyssal plain in the area affected by the Eltanin impact. The impact ripped up sediments as old as Eocene and probably Paleocene that have been redeposited in a chaotic assemblage. This is followed by a sequence sedimented from a turbulent flow at the sea floor, overprinted by fall-out of airborne meteoritic ejecta that settled trough the water column. Grain size distribution reveals the timing and interaction of the different sedimentary processes. The gathered estimate of ejecta mass deposited over the studied area, composed of shock-melted asteroidal material and unmelted meteorites including fragments up to 2.5 cm in diameter, point to an Eltanin asteroid larger than the 1 km in diameter size originally suggested as a minimum based on the ANT-XII/4 results. This places the energy released by the impact at the threshold of those considered to cause environmental disturbance at a global scale and it makes the impact a likely transport

  12. Sediment magnetic and geochemical data from Quaternary lacustine sediment in two cores from Tule Lake, Siskiyou County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, Patti J.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Dean, Walter E.; Honey, Jeannine; Drexler, John W.; Adam, David P.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment magnetic and geochemical results have been obtained from the top 60 meters of lacustrine sediments recovered in two cores from Tule Lake in northern California. The sediment magnetic and geochemical data, presented here in tabular form, complement studies of diatoms and pollen in the cores that are the bases for published paleoclimatic interpretations. This report also documents the methods used to obtain the magnetic properties and geochemical data.

  13. Sediment magnetic, paleomagnetic, and geochemical data from Quaternary lacustrine sediment in a core from Grass Lake, Siskiyou County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, Patti J.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Drexler, John W.; Adam, David P.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment magnetic and geochemical results have been obtained from the top 60 meters of lacustrine sediments recovered in two cores from Tule Lake in northern California. The sediment magnetic and geochemical data, presented here in tabular form, complement studies of diatoms and pollen in the cores that are the bases for published paleoclimatic interpretations. This report also documents the methods used to obtain the magnetic properties and geochemical data.

  14. Historical records of trace metals in core sediments from the Lianyungang coastal sea, Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Li, Hong-Guan

    2017-03-15

    We analyzed element concentrations in cores from the Lianyungang coastal sea to determine depositional trends and geochemical sources of metals. Enrichment factors (EFs) and pollution load index (PLI) were used to assess the enrichment and pollution of metals. Profiles of vertical distributions of the elements reflected different depositional environments in 3 cores. Cores A and C deposited sediments with rich terrestrial elements by rivers, corresponding to mixed-up patterns in the sediment. Meanwhile, core B was mainly deposited in a less undisturbed depositional environment. Correlations and principal component analysis indicated that sediments were influenced by natural and anthropogenic impacts. According to the EFs, most metals showed no significant enrichment and pollution in the core sediments. Lastly, PLI values (<1) of sediments indicated that the Lianyungang coastal sea was a lowly polluted area despite PLI value of metals in average sediment was lower than that in surface sediment.

  15. Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).

  16. Reliability of current CFC data for age dating of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Pablo; Kuells, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Age dating of water based on dissolved CFCs and Krypton-85 has been applied extensively for many years. CFCs were adopted as an approach for water dating due to the availability of global input functions and because of a straightforward methodology. In the last decade, due to international treaties, CFCs production and atmospheric concentrations of some trace gases (e.g. Krypton-85) are decreasing. The impact of reduced atmospheric trace gas concentrations on precision and uncertainty of age dating are investigated. Methods for the quantification of uncertainties and approaches for data analysis are presented. The uncertainty analysis is based on the application of different residence time distributions (piston-flow, exponential, advection-dispersion models and combined thereof) for trace gas concentrations and trace gas ratios. Different ways forward are presented to solve the problem of age ambiguity and increased uncertainty: the use of trace gas ratios is demonstrated and their potential of separating pre- and post-peak samples; the combined use of CFCs with additional tracers such as SF6 and 3H are discussed. While both SF6 and tritium have technical limitations themselves, such as multi-finality and observed deviations from the input function, benefit can be gained by combining them with other tracers or combined data analysis approaches. The quantification of uncertainties and of the adaptation of stringent data analysis provides a basis for the use and critical evaluation of CFCs as water age dating methods in the future.

  17. Historical deposition of mercury and selected trace elements to high-elevation National Parks in the Western U.S. inferred from lake-sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Manthorne, David J.; Roth, David A.

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric deposition of Hg and selected trace elements was reconstructed over the past 150 years using sediment cores collected from nine remote, high-elevation lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana. Cores were age dated by 210Pb, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply model. Hg concentrations in most of the cores began to increase around 1900, reaching a peak sometime after 1980. Other trace elements, particularly Pb and Cd, showed similar post-industrial increases in lake sediments, confirming that anthropogenic contaminants are reaching remote areas of the Rocky Mountains via atmospheric transport and deposition. Preindustrial (pre-1875) Hg fluxes in the sediment ranged from 5.7 to 42 μg m -2 yr -1 and modern (post-1985) fluxes ranged from 17.7 to 141 μg m -2 yr -1. The average ratio of modern to preindustrial fluxes was 3.2, which is similar to remote lakes elsewhere in North America. Estimates of net atmospheric deposition based on the cores were 3.1 μg m -2 yr -1 for preindustrial and 11.7 μg m -2 yr -1 for modern times. Current-day measurements of wet deposition range from 5.0 to 8.6 μg m -2 yr -1, which are lower than the modern sediment-based estimate of 11.7 μg m -2 yr -1, perhaps owing to inputs of dry-deposited Hg to the lakes.

  18. Historical deposition of mercury and selected trace elements to high-elevation National Parks in the Western U.S. inferred from lake-sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Manthorne, David J.; Roth, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of Hg and selected trace elements was reconstructed over the past 150 years using sediment cores collected from nine remote, high-elevation lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana. Cores were age dated by 210Pb, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply model. Hg concentrations in most of the cores began to increase around 1900, reaching a peak sometime after 1980. Other trace elements, particularly Pb and Cd, showed similar post-industrial increases in lake sediments, confirming that anthropogenic contaminants are reaching remote areas of the Rocky Mountains via atmospheric transport and deposition. Preindustrial (pre-1875) Hg fluxes in the sediment ranged from 5.7 to 42 μg m−2 yr−1 and modern (post-1985) fluxes ranged from 17.7 to 141 μg m−2 yr−1. The average ratio of modern to preindustrial fluxes was 3.2, which is similar to remote lakes elsewhere in North America. Estimates of net atmospheric deposition based on the cores were 3.1 μg m−2 yr−1 for preindustrial and 11.7 μg m−2 yr−1for modern times. Current-day measurements of wet deposition range from 5.0 to 8.6 μg m−2 yr−1, which are lower than the modern sediment-based estimate of 11.7 μg m−2 yr−1, perhaps owing to inputs of dry-deposited Hg to the lakes.

  19. A Handbook for Determining the Sources of PCB Contamination in Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    of sediment deposition. Sediment cores can also be collected and analyzed for age dating, using lead and cesium isotope (Pb-210 and Cs-137...Laboratory Control Sample (LCS) - An LCS is a contaminant-free matrix-specific sample (e.g., Ottawa sand or sodium sulfate). It is spiked with

  20. Wetland paleoecological study of southwest coastal Louisiana: sediment cores and diatom calibration dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathryn E. L.; Flocks, James G.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Piazza, Sarai C.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland sediment data were collected in 2009 and 2010 throughout the southwest Louisiana Chenier Plain as part of a pilot study to develop a diatom-based proxy for past wetland water chemistry and the identification of sediment deposits from tropical storms. The complete dataset includes forty-six surface sediment samples and nine sediment cores. The surface sediment samples were collected in fresh, intermediate, and brackish marsh and are located coincident with Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) sites. The nine sediment cores were collected at the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge (RWR) located in Grand Chenier, La.

  1. Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high

  2. Water column and bed-sediment core samples collected from Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Naymik, Jesse; Hopkins, Candice B.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Idaho Power Company, collected water-column and bed-sediment core samples from eight sites in Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, during May 5–7, 2012. Water-column and bed-sediment core samples were collected at each of the eight sites and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Additional bed-sediment core samples, collected from three of the eight sites, were analyzed for pesticides and other organic compounds, trace metals, and physical characteristics, such as particle size. Total mercury and methylmercury were detected in each of the water column and bed-sediment core samples. Only 17 of the 417 unique pesticide and organic compounds were detected in bed-sediment core samples. Concentrations of most organic wastewater compounds detected in bed sediment were less than the reporting level. Trace metals detected were greater than the reporting level in all the bed-sediment core samples submitted for analysis. The particle size distribution of bed-sediment core samples was predominantly clay mixed with silt.

  3. Pathway Ranking for In-place Sediment Management (CU1209). Executive Summary and Site 1 Report -- Paleta Creek

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    sediment traps and radioisotope dating of cores. These two approaches give insight into sedimentation at very different timescales, and the results, their...context of quantification of individual flux rates in comparison to blanks. Another important consideration for application of the flux results is in...Scintillat ion Cocktail 14CO2 Degradation Assays SPI Seep meter Microprofiler Age- dated cores Sediment TrapsMulticores In-situ flume Current Meters

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Leo W Y; De Silva, Amila O; Loi, Eva I H; Marvin, Chris H; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg(-1) d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased.

  5. Analysis of particulate matter collected by sediment traps and from sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bob; Dymond, Jack; Conard, Roberta; Robbins, Jim

    These contributions are primarily directed at elemental analyses for major and trace cations and silicon on particles collected by sediment traps and sediment cores; samples typically having at least several hundred milligrams available. The techniques outlined below and other wet chemical methods are reviewed in more detail in an OSU technical report by Robbins et al. [1984]. Typically, our group filters water samples for trace metal analyses immediately upon their arrival at the surface. The primary emphasis of these techniques focuses on the dissolved material. Since we have not had a full clean-lab available, we subsample the Niskins immediately using a semi-closed connection to large mouth bottles (LPE) which minimizes atmospheric exposure to contamination. The samples are then vacuum filtered within a portable laminar-flow hood (HEPA filtered) using plastic filtration "chimneys" (Millipore or Nuclepore) placed over a plastic vacuum chamber which contains the filtrate sample bottle. Filtration is carried out with 1 N HCl acid-leached Nuclepore or Poretics filters (0.4 μm) and the filtrate is collected directly into the final sample bottle. Both filtered and unfiltered subsamples are acidified to a pH<2 with 2 mL 6 N HCl L-1 sample using subboiling-distilled HCl, and the difference in concentration between the filtered and unfiltered sample is taken to represent an acid-labile particulate fraction.

  6. Implications of excess 210Pb and 137Cs in sediment cores from Mikawa Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Matsumoto, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected from Mikawa Bay, Japan, and excess 210Pb and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry. Sedimentation rates for the four cores were determined by 210Pb method. The sedimentation rate range is 0.10-0.70 g/(cm2 x year). The bio-mixing depth for each core is less than 7.0 cm, and was determined by the excess 210Pb profiles as well. Therefore, the bioturbation is slight. The 210Pb-derived dates coincided with the results from 137Cs geochronology. Acceleration in sedimentation rate due to environmental alteration has been found in cores A2.5 and 05AS8, representing two depocenters due to their topography. Evidence of the Tokai Flood in 2000 was found in core 05AS8 according to the profiles of both radioisotopes and trace metals.

  7. User Friendly Processing of Sediment CT Data: Software and Application in High Resolution Non-Destructive Sediment Core Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, B. T.; Stoner, J. S.; Wiest, J.; Abbott, M. B.; Francus, P.; Lapointe, F.

    2015-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) of sediment cores allow for high resolution images, three dimensional volumes, and down core profiles, generated through the attenuation of X-rays as a function of density and atomic number. When using a medical CT-Scanner, these quantitative data are stored in pixels using the Hounsfield scale, which are relative to the attenuation of X-rays in water and air at standard temperature and pressure. Here we present MATLAB based software specifically designed for sedimentary applications with a user friendly graphical interface to process DICOM files and stitch overlapping CT scans. For visualization, the software allows easy generation of core slice images with grayscale and false color relative to a user defined Hounsfield number range. For comparison to other high resolution non-destructive methods, down core Hounsfield number profiles are extracted using a method robust to coring imperfections, like deformation, bowing, gaps, and gas expansion. We demonstrate the usefulness of this technique with lacustrine sediment cores from the Western United States and Canadian High Arctic, including Fish Lake, Oregon, and Sawtooth Lake, Ellesmere Island. These sites represent two different depositional environments and provide examples for a variety of common coring defects and lithologies. The Hounsfield profiles and images can be used in combination with other high resolution data sets, including sediment magnetic parameters, XRF core scans and many other types of data, to provide unique insights into how lithology influences paleoenvironmental and paleomagnetic records and their interpretations.

  8. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p < 0.05) between the fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and those of iron (Fe) at both sites, (ii) positive correlations (r = 0.82–0.98, p < 0.01, n = 9) between the fluxes of elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the mass accumulation rates at the offshore site, (iii) the low enrichment factors (EF < 5) of those trace elements, and (iv) the temporal consistencies of the isotopic composition of Pb in the sediment. These measurements indicate that accelerated weathering, rather than industrialization, accounts for most of the increases in trace element fluxes to Lake Tanganyika in spite of the development of mining and smelting operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions

  9. Doppler Scanning of Sediment Cores: A Useful Method for Studying Sedimentary Structures and Defining the Cutting Angle for Half Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Biltekin, Demet; Eris, Kadir; Albut, Gulum; Ogretmen, Nazik; Arslan, Tugce; Sari, Erol

    2014-05-01

    We tested the doppler ultrasound scanning of sediment cores in PVC liners using 8 megahertz ultrasonic waves for detection of angular laminations. The method was tested with artificially prepared cores as well as marine and lake sediment cores, and proven to be a useful and fast technique for imaging and determining the vertical angularity of sedimentary structures, such as laminations and beddings. Random cutting axes provide two angularities on X and Y dimensions. In this study, the main scientific problem is 'sequential angular disconformity'. Importance of detection of these anomalies on whole cores before dividing into half cores based on determining the right cutting axes. Successful imaging was obtained from top three centimeter depth of the sediments below the PVC liner, using a linear Doppler probe. Other Doppler probes (e.g., convex probe) did not work for core scanning because of their wave-form and reflection characteristics. Longitudinal and rotational scanning with gap filler and ultrasonic wave conductive gel material for keeping energy range of wave is necessary for detecting the variation in the dip of the bedding and laminae in the cores before separation. Another angular reasoned problem is about horizontal surface and can be easily solved with adjustable position of sensor or ray source placement. Border of sampling points between two different lithology must be stay with regard to neighbour sediment angles. Vertical angularity correction is not easy and its effect on signal propagation, detection biases and effectible to mixed samples contamination during physical sampling (particle size analyzing). Determining the attitude of angled bedding before core splitting is important for further core analyses such as elemental analysis and digital X-ray radiography. After Doppler scanning, the splitting direction (i.e., vertical to bedding and lamination) can be determined. The method is cheap, quick and non- hazardous to health, unlike the x

  10. Halogenated compounds in a dated sediment core of the Teltow Canal, Berlin: time related sediment contamination.

    PubMed

    Heim, S; Ricking, M; Schwarzbauer, J; Littke, R

    2005-12-01

    To study the recent contamination history of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane) and its metabolites, as well as methoxychlor (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)ethane), chlorfenson (4-chlorophenyl-p-chlorobenzenesulfonate), and further halogenated aromatics, a sediment core was collected from the Teltow Canal in Berlin (Germany). The sampling site is located nearby a former industrial point source, where recently analyses on pre-samples have indicated high concentrations of halogenated organic compounds. The deposition time of the investigated sediments was determined by gamma-spectrometrical dating. Pollution trends of selected contaminants were attributed to a time period between 5 and 10 years. Concentration profiles reflect not only the recent pollution history of these compounds, but also the time-depending effects of the ban, restriction and termination of DDT-production in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). DDT and other chlorinated aromatic compounds were produced onsite until the late 1980s. Maximum values of 133 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) for p,p'-DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane) and approximately 100 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) for p,p'-DDMS (1-chloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane), main metabolites of the anaerobic degradation of DDT, were determined. The occurrence of all selected contaminants, most of which have been banned more than 10 years ago, demonstrate recent contamination pathways, and the necessity of a continuous long-term monitoring of the affected environment.

  11. Chemical analysis of sediment cores from the East Waterway (Everett, Washington). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bloom, N.S.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Chemical data for two sediment cores from the East Waterway of Everett, Washington, indicate that 20 to 30 cm of contaminated sediments are accumulating per year. The concentrations of several heavy metals (Pb, Hg and Cu), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons increase with depth in the sediments suggesting contamination of this waterway has varied by as much as a factor of 10 during the last 5 years. 7 references, 9 figures, 12 tables.

  12. Pathway Ranking for In-place Sediment Management (CU1209). Site 2 Report - Pearl Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    were determined by two methods: sediment traps and radioisotope dating of cores. These two approaches give insight into sedimentation at very...quantification of individual flux rates in comparison to blanks. Another important consideration for application of the flux results is in relation to...calculated using radioisotope age dating . This is could be a result of sediments settling into the traps due to resuspension events, higher accumulation

  13. [Contaminative features of heavy metals for tidal sediment cores in Tianjin Bohai Bay].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan-wen; Meng, Wei; Zheng, Bin-hui; Zhang, Lei; Su, Yi-bing

    2006-02-01

    Three sediment cores were collected in Nov. of 2003 from Dagu estuary to Qikou estuary. The grain size, TOC and heavy metal contents of core sediments were analyzed in order to study the geochemical characteristics, contamination features and the spatial and vertical distribution characters for heavy metals of tidal zones in Bohai Bay. The grain size of tidal sediments becomes finer from north to south. Ultrafine, fine and power sand are the main compositions in the sediment of Dagu and Duliujian estuary. The sediment of Qikou estuary is mainly composed by power and ultrafine sand. The vertical distribution trends of three sediment cores indicate that the grain-size becomes bigger from the bottom to the upper. The distribution of Fe, Al, Mn contents has distinct negative correlation with the grain-size of sediment, that is to say, the fine-grained sediments have higher contents of Fe, Al, Mn. Pb, Zn and Cd are the dominating contaminative elements in tidal sediments of Bohai Bay. Their contents are higher than the corresponding environmental background values, indicating of the anthropogenic enrichment.

  14. Contaminant trends in reservoir sediment cores as records of influent stream quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    When reconstructing water-quality histories from lake and reservoir cores, it is sometimes assumed that the chemical signatures in the cores reflect historical water quality in the influent streams. To investigate this assumption, concentrations of metals, PAHs, and organochlorine compounds in sediment cores were compared to those associated with an influent-stream suspended sediment for three reservoirs in Fort Worth, TX, and two reservoirs in Boston, MA, U.S.A., and interpreted in light of land-use and regulation histories. In evaluating relations between suspended sediments and cores, three levels of preservation were indicated: (1) influent concentrations and historical trends are preserved in cores (metals at all sites; some organic contaminants at some sites); (2) some loss occurs during transport and initial deposition but relative historical trends are preserved in cores (some organic contaminants at some sites); and (3) neither stream concentrations nor relative historical trends are preserved (dieldrin and p,p???-DDT). The degree of preservation of influent concentration histories varied between lakes, particularly for PAHs. The results support the use of sediment cores to infer streamwater-quality histories for many contaminants but indicate that reservoir-bottom sediment samples might underestimate concentrations of organic contaminants in some streams.

  15. Anthropogenic Eutrophication of Narragansett Bay: Evidence from Dated Sediment Cores

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic matter preserved in estuarine sediments provides a number of useful indicators, or "proxies" that can be used to infer paleoenvironmental changes One type of paleoenvironmental change is anthropogenic eutrophication. The human activity largely responsible for increasi...

  16. Identification of water-quality trends using sediment cores from Dillon Reservoir, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greve, Adrienne I.; Spahr, Norman E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the construction of Dillon Reservoir, in Summit County, Colorado, in 1963, its drainage area has been the site of rapid urban development and the continued influence of historical mining. In an effort to assess changes in water quality within the drainage area, sediment cores were collected from Dillon Reservoir in 1997. The sediment cores were analyzed for pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements. Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs were used to determine the effects of urban development, and trace elements were used to identify mining contributions. Water-quality and streambed-sediment samples, collected at the mouth of three streams that drain into Dillon Reservoir, were analyzed for trace elements. Of the 14 pesticides and 3 PCBs for which the sediment samples were analyzed, only 2 pesticides were detected. Low amounts of dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyldichloroethane (DDD), metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were found at core depths of 5 centimeters and below 15 centimeters in a core collected near the dam. The longest core, which was collected near the dam, spanned the entire sedimentation history of the reservoir. Concentrations of total combustion PAH and the ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene in the core sample decreased with core depth and increased over time. This relation is likely due to growth in residential and tourist populations in the region. Comparisons between core samples gathered in each arm of the reservoir showed the highest PAH concentrations were found in the Tenmile Creek arm, the only arm that has an urban area on its shores, the town of Frisco. All PAH concentrations, except the pyrene concentration in one segment in the core near the dam and acenaphthylene concentrations in the tops of three cores taken in the reservoir arms, were below Canadian interim freshwater sediment-quality guidelines. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium

  17. Estimation of a Historic Mercury Load Function for Lake Michigan using Dated Sediment Cores

    EPA Science Inventory

    Box cores collected between 1994 and 1996 were used to estimate historic mercury loads to Lake Michigan. Based on a kriging spatial interpolation of 54 Pb-210 dated cores, 228 metric tons of mercury are stored in the lake’s sediments (excluding Green Bay). To estimate the time ...

  18. A method for estimation of historic contaminant loads using dated sediment cores

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dated sediment cores were used to assess the history of contaminant loads. The contaminant selected must be one that is not significantly remobilized by post depositional processes such as diagenesis. In addition, the core must be from an area with a high deposition rate and litt...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2015-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide 137Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of 137Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear 137Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the 137Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  1. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod

    PubMed Central

    Schwing, Patrick T.; Romero, Isabel C.; Larson, Rebekka A.; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Fridrik, Erika E.; Goddard, Ethan A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Hollander, David J.; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments. PMID:27585268

  2. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Larson, Rebekka A; O'Malley, Bryan J; Fridrik, Erika E; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Rosenheim, Brad E; Hollander, David J; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim

    2016-08-17

    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments.

  3. A record of hydrocarbon input to San Francisco Bay as traced by biomarker profiles in surface sediment and sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Pereira, W.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.; Fuller, C.C.; Anima, R.

    1999-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is one of the world's largest urbanized estuarine systems. Its water and sediment receive organic input from a wide variety of sources; much of this organic material is anthropogenically derived. To document the spatial and historical record of the organic contaminant input, surficial sediment from 17 sites throughout San Francisco Bay and sediment cores from two locations Richardson Bay and San Pablo Bay were analyzed for biomarker constituents. Biomarkers, that is, 'molecular fossils', primarily hopanes, steranes, and n-alkanes, provide information on anthropogenic contamination, especially that related to petrogenic sources, as well as on recent input of biogenic material. The biomarker parameters from the surficial sediment and the upper horizons of the cores show a dominance of anthropogenic input, whereas the biomarker profiles at the lower horizons of the cores indicate primarily biogenic input. In the Richardson Bay core the gradual upcore transition from lower maturity background organics to a dominance of anthropogenic contamination occurred about 70-100 years ago and corresponds to the industrial development of the San Francisco Bay area. In San Pablo Bay, the transition was very abrupt, reflecting the complex depositional history of the area. This sharp transition, perhaps indicating a depositional hiatus or erosional period, dated at pre-1952, is clearly visible. Below, the hiatus the biomarker parameters are immature; above, they are mature and show an anthropogenic overlay. Higher concentrations of terrigenous n-alkanes in the upper horizons in this core are indicative of an increase in terrigenous organic matter input in San Pablo Bay, possibly a result of water diversion projects and changes in the fresh water flow into the Bay from the Delta. Alternatively, it could reflect a dilution of organic material in the lower core sections with hydraulic mining debris.

  4. Paleoclimatic record of the late Quaternary from a gravity core sediment of Lake Hovsgol in northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, D.; Kim, B.

    2007-12-01

    Gravity core sediment (HS 7) from Lake Hovsgol(Mongolia) is divided into three sedimentary units on the basis of sediments texture, water contents, occurrence of fossils and sediment color. Unit 1(27¢¦128§¯) is generally massive and is crudely stratified. Ostracods are well preserved over the all interval of Unit1, but diatoms are not well preserved. At Unit2(9¢¦27§¯), mud content is slightly low and lamination is well developed. It is dark greenish gray in the upper part, and dark greenish gray is alternating with light brownish gray in the lower part. Diatom contents increase towards the top and ostracods fragments disappear at the top of Unit 2. Unit3(0¢¦9§¯) is laminated mud in olive gray color. Diatom contents are high but ostracods are not observed in this unit. According to 14C age dating results, we assumed that Unit1 is Pleistocene sediment, Unit2 is sediment of a transitional stage and Unit 3 is Holocene sediment. Chemical composition of trace elements from ostracods show variations through Unit1, especially showing a distinct change at 95¢¦100§¯ interval. It matches to the distribution of ostracod at this interval. Contents of ostracod decrease at the interval and contents of Cytherissa lacustris decrease, but Limnocythere inopinata increase. It was interpreted that warm air was supplied to Lake Hovsgol after LGM(Last Glacial Maximum), causing ice melting. Consequently the bottom environment of Lake Hovsgol experienced some changes as the lake level increased little bit. At the top of Unit 1 appear a lots of pyrite which are arranged in line, and diatoms occure but ostracods are not observed toward the top of Unit 2, and lamination is developed in Unit 2. It means the bottom environment of Lake Hovsgol changed to anoxic condition. At that time, plenty of water was supplied into the lake, resulting in water stratification and cutting off oxygen supply to the bottom of Lake Hovsgol. It made the lake level rise higher, so that the bottom

  5. Use of Vibratory Coring Samplers for Sediment Surveys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    sedimentological analysis is presented to aid others in con- ducting geologic and engineering studies using the vibracore. 2 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...such as lacustrine or estuarine sediments. Medium and coarse grain-sized sand and gravels also offer little resistance and recoveries are generally 75...Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 50, No. 2, June 1980, pp. 641-642. 12 MEDIUM SHELF FACIES SA FINE SHELF FACIES SAND (A) W FINE SHELF FACIES SAND (A) L COREDD 3EIU

  6. [Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in core sediments of the Bohai Straight].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-05-01

    Thirteen compounds of PAHs were identified by GC in the core sediments of Bohai Straight (S44 and T4 Stations). The distribution and source identification were studied with the two core sediments. The total concentrations changed from 60.3 ng/g to 2076.5 ng/g. Though the contamination of PAHs in the study area is quite modest, some carcinogenic compounds were detected in most samples. From the indicators such as Pen/Anth and Fluo/Pyr etc. the dominated origin of PAHs in S44 Station is pyrolytic origins. However, in T4 Station, a mixture of pyrolysis and petroleum origin is suggested in this area. The distribution of PAHs in the core sediments also could be a good indicative of the contribution of human activity.

  7. Mercury contamination history of an estuarine floodplain reconstructed from a 210Pb-dated sediment core (Berg River, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Kading, T J; Mason, R P; Leaner, J J

    2009-01-01

    Mercury deposition histories have been scarcely documented in the southern hemisphere. A sediment core was collected from the ecologically important estuarine floodplain of the Berg River (South Africa). We establish the concentration of Hg in this (210)Pb-dated sediment core at <50 ng g(-1) Hg(T) throughout the core, but with 1.3 ng g(-1) methylmercury in surface sediments. The (210)Pb dating of the core provides a first record of mercury deposition to the site and reveals the onset of enhanced mercury deposition in 1970. The ratio of methylmercury to total mercury is relatively high in these sediments when compared to other wetlands.

  8. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination using river sediment cores of Nankan River, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, An-Sheng; Lu, Wei-Li; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chang, Queenie; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Through the geology and climate characteristic in Taiwan, generally rivers carry a lot of suspended particles. After these particles settled, they become sediments which are good sorbent for heavy metals in river system. Consequently, sediments can be found recording contamination footprint at low flow energy region, such as estuary. Seven sediment cores were collected along Nankan River, northern Taiwan, which is seriously contaminated by factory, household and agriculture input. Physico-chemical properties of these cores were derived from Itrax-XRF Core Scanner and grain size analysis. In order to interpret these complex data matrices, the multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis) were introduced to this study. Through the statistical determination, the result indicates four types of sediment. One of them represents contamination event which shows high concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe, and low concentration of Si and Zr. Furthermore, three possible contamination sources of this type of sediment were revealed by Factor Analysis. The combination of sediment analysis and multivariate statistical techniques used provides new insights into the contamination depositional history of Nankan River and could be similarly applied to other river systems to determine the scale of anthropogenic contamination.

  9. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas.

  10. Identifying heavy metal levels in historical flood water deposits using sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Deletic, Ana; Mccarthy, David T

    2016-11-15

    When designing mitigation and restoration strategies for aquatic systems affected by heavy metal contamination, we must first understand the sources of these pollutants. In this study, we introduce a methodology that identifies the heavy metal levels in floodplain lake sediments deposited by one source; fluvial floods. This is done by comparing sediment core heavy metal profiles (i.e., historical pollution trends) to physical and chemical properties of sediments in these cores (i.e., historical flooding trends). This methodology is applied to Willsmere and Bolin Billabongs, two urban floodplain lakes (billabongs) of the Yarra River (South-East Australia). Both billabongs are periodically inundated by flooding of the Yarra River and one billabong (Willsmere Billabong) is connected to an urban stormwater drainage network. 1-2-m long sediment cores (containing sediment deposits up to 500 years old) were taken from the billabongs and analysed for heavy metal concentrations (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc). In cores from both billabongs, arsenic concentrations are high in the flood-borne sediments. In Bolin Billabong, absolute metal levels are similar in flood and non-flood deposits. In Willsmere Billabong, absolute copper, lead and zinc levels were generally lower in fluvial flood-borne sediments in the core compared to non-fluvial sediments. This suggests that heavy metal concentrations in Bolin Billabong sediments are relatively similar regardless of whether or not fluvial flooding is occurring. However for Willsmere Billabong, heavy metal concentrations are high when overland runoff, direct urban stormwater discharges or atmospheric deposition is occurring. As such, reducing the heavy metal concentrations in these transport pathways will be of great importance when trying to reduce heavy metal concentrations in Willsmere Billabong sediments. This study presents a proof-of-concept that can be applied to other polluted aquatic systems, to understand the

  11. Characterization of sediment cores containing methane hydrate recovered from the Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, J.; Jin, Y.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Kida, M.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    On the March 2013, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) has conducted the first gas production test from methane hydrate deposits in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan. In the Eastern Nankai Trough area off the Pacific coast of Japan, highly concentrated methane hydrate deposits were discovered in Pleistocene turbidite sediments.. Along with geological information, structure and physical properties of the sediments are essential information to understand the nature and origin of the deposits, and preserving those in-situ values in core samples for laboratory testing on surface is a quite important scientific challenge. To solve the problem, JOGMEC and JAMSTEC have developed a pressure coring device and utilized it on D/V Chikyu for our coring operation before the production test. In this operation, we obtained two types of cores; one is the dissociation preserved core by rapidly cooled by emerging into liquid nitrogen (LN2 core), the other is stored in special pressure vessels without depressurizing and kept under original pressure and temperature (pressure core). Here the summary of LN2 core sample analyses, such as X-ray CT, p-wave velocity, particle analysis, permeability, mechanical properties, and gas composition, is presented. Also future analysis plan for pressure core is explained. This work was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by METI.

  12. Non-destructive X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) Analysis of Sediment Variance in Marine Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oti, E.; Polyak, L. V.; Dipre, G.; Sawyer, D.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic activity within marine sediments can alter the physical properties of the sediment as well as indicate nutrient flux and ocean temperatures. We examine burrowing features in sediment cores from the western Arctic Ocean collected during the 2005 Healy-Oden TransArctic Expedition (HOTRAX) and from the Gulf of Mexico Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 308. While traditional methods for studying bioturbation require physical dissection of the cores, we assess burrowing using an X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanner. XCT noninvasively images the sediment cores in three dimensions and produces density sensitive images suitable for quantitative analysis. XCT units are recorded as Hounsfield Units (HU), where -999 is air, 0 is water, and 4000-5000 would be a higher density mineral, such as pyrite. We rely on the fundamental assumption that sediments are deposited horizontally, and we analyze the variance over each flat-lying slice. The variance describes the spread of pixel values over a slice. When sediments are reworked, drawing higher and lower density matrix into a layer, the variance increases. Examples of this can be seen in two slices in core 19H-3A from Site U1324 of IODP Expedition 308. The first slice, located 165.6 meters below sea floor consists of relatively undisturbed sediment. Because of this, the majority of the sediment values fall between 1406 and 1497 HU, thus giving the slice a comparatively small variance of 819.7. The second slice, located 166.1 meters below sea floor, features a lower density sediment matrix disturbed by burrow tubes and the inclusion of a high density mineral. As a result, the Hounsfield Units have a larger variance of 1,197.5, which is a result of sediment matrix values that range from 1220 to 1260 HU, the high-density mineral value of 1920 HU and the burrow tubes that range from 1300 to 1410 HU. Analyzing this variance allows us to observe changes in the sediment matrix and more specifically capture

  13. Impregnation method for detecting annual laminations in sediment cores: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boës, Xavier; Fagel, Nathalie

    2005-08-01

    Annually laminated sediments can provide an absolute time scale (by varve counting) and a high-resolution palaeoclimate information (from varve thickness). Both types of information may be directly measured from sediment core surfaces. In this paper, we stress that varve counting and varve thickness measurements derived from fresh core surfaces could not systematically reveal the internal sedimentary structure, even if assisted by high resolution image analysis. We present an example of a homogeneous sediment core for which the varves were only observable after core impregnation and polishing steps. Because the impregnation methods are not yet standardized, the aim of this paper is to give an updated review of the methodology. In this review, we present the major critical points during impregnation steps. In particular, we focus on all of the post-treatment sediment disturbances that can alter the laminated micro-structure and, consequently, varve measurements. Finally, we propose a modified impregnation protocol, especially adapted for tracking varved intervals in long cores.

  14. Historical record and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in core sediments from the Yangtze Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Baugh, P J; Hutchinson, S M; Yu, L; Xu, S

    2000-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment core taken from intertidal flat in the Yangtze Estuary were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the total concentration of PAHs ranged from 0.08 to 11.74 microg/g. The concentration levels of total and individual PAHs changed dramatically with depth. The concentrations of PAHs were relatively high above 35 cm depth and remained constantly low below this depth. The historical record of PAHs in the core shows subsurface maximum (one or more peak values), followed by decreased levels to the surface and with depth. And, PAH sediment record in the core profile is in agreement with historically sewage discharge events during the 1980s to 1990s. The distribution of target molecule acenephthene, the fluoranthene/pyrene ratio, the proportion of 2-3-ring and 4-5-ring PAHs, and alkylated naphthalene to parent naphthalene in the core profile show that the sources in this area are characterized by petroleum-derived PAH contamination (mainly sewage discharge and the river runoff) and the incorporation of atmospheric inputs. Studies indicate the PAH profile pattern in this site in comparison with other regions appear to reflect its particular local position (near the sewage outlet). Moreover, physico-chemical conditions and sedimentation rate as well as biodegradation also affect the PAH concentration levels in the core sediments.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in the sediment core of Gwangyang bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Eiki; Baba, Koji; Katase, Takao

    2008-04-01

    The nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment samples taken from Gwangyang Bay, which is a heavy chemical industrial region in South Korea, are analyzed to evaluate their contaminations during the past 50 years. The vertical distributions of SigmaOCPs concentration in the sediment core were in good agreement with the temporal amount of pesticides used in South Korea except for the top sediment layer. The DDTs were predominant, their concentrations ranging from 78.0 to 202 pg/g dry wt and attributed more than 60% to SigmaOCPs in all the sediment layers. Based on the ratio of DDT metabolite compositions, the DDT contamination in the top layer might be caused from recent input. This is due to the highest residual concentration of OCPs in the top layer. Although HCB and mirex have been unregistered as pesticides in South Korea, two compounds were detectable in all of the sediment samples in the range from 0.243 to 16.7 pg/g dry wt in the study area. The emission source of HCB in the sediment core could be estimated to be due to incomplete combustion in the industrial chemical processes rather than pesticide application. Regarding horizontal distribution of SigmaOCPs, the concentration was slightly higher than for the inner bay than the outer bay. The OCPs in the sediments of Gwangyang Bay were compared with those of other countries by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

  16. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  17. Historical contamination of Mississippi River Delta, Tampa Bay, and Galveston Bay sediments. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, B.J.; Wade, T.L.; Santschi, P.; Baskaran, M.

    1998-03-01

    In order to obtain sediment which has accumulated over the past 100 years or so, 50--80 cm long sediment cores were collected from the submarine Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay, Texas and Tampa Bay, Florida. The cores were extruded and sliced into 1 cm thick sections which were then radiometrically age dated and analyzed for those organic compounds and trace metals suspected of being contaminants in the sampling areas.

  18. Ground-Water Age Dating in Community Wells in Oswego County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Officials in Oswego County, in north-central New York, have been concerned about potential contamination of community wells. Many of these wells are completed in unconfined glacial sand-and-gravel aquifers, although some are finished in till or in the underlying fractured and jointed bedrock of Late Ordovician and Early Silurian ages. Local shallow ground-water flow is affected by the orientation and hydraulic characteristics of the local topography and surficial sediments, whereas deeper regional flow is toward Lake Ontario. Concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and tritium in water samples from 28 wells in the county were measured in 1999 for ground-water-age dating; results yield recharge dates ranging from about 1955 to 1994. The presence of water older than about 15 years in the sand-and-gravel aquifers differs from previous concepts of recharge sources and ground-water movement that were based on numerical modeling of ground-water flow. Young ground water (1 to 5 years old) probably represents recharge from recent precipitation and seepage from streams, whereas the oldest ground water (more than 40 years old) probably is derived from the fractured bedrock that underlies the glacial sediments or has moved along long flow paths in unconsolidated deposits, or through poorly permeable material. Some sand-and-gravel aquifers in Oswego County contain mixtures of old and young water. Wellhead-protection efforts need to focus on protection of the quality of young water in the sand-and-gravel aquifers because young water is more likely to be contaminated than old water.

  19. Hexabromocyclododecanes in surface sediments and a sediment core from Rivers and Harbor in the northern Chinese city of Tianjin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Ruan, Yuefei; Sun, Hongwen; Zhao, Lijie; Gan, Zhiwei

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were investigated in the sediment from Haihe River (HR), Dagu Dainage Canal (DDC) and Tianjin Harbor (TH) at Bohai Bay using a total of 51 samples of surface sediments and a sediment core collected from May to September in 2010, and its diastereomer- and enantiomer-specific profiles were analyzed. The concentration of total HBCDs were generally high, with mean value and ranges of 31.0 and 1.35-634 ng g(-1)dw, respectively. The contamination followed the order of TH>DDC>HR. Higher levels (up to 634 ng g(-1)dw) occurred in the lower reach of HR and DDC located in an industrial area of Tianjin. This is the first time to report so high concentration of HBCDs in sediment in Southeast Asia. The γ-diastereomer dominated in most samples (44 out of 51), and this is in agreement with the diastereomer distribution pattern in industrial products, while α-HBCD was the dominant diastereomer in the other seven samples. However, only few samples exhibited γ-diastereomer ratio similar to that (75-89%) in technical products, indicating the inter-transformation and variable degradation of the different isomers. The high ratio of γ-diastereomer could be used as an indicator for fresh contamination input. Enantiomeric factors (EFs) of HBCD isomers in most of the samples were statistically different from technical products (p<0.05), showing a trend of more easily enrichment of the (-)-HBCD-enantiomer compared to the (+)-HBCD-enantiomer. The δ- and ε-diastereomers were frequently detected but at low level. The HBCDs in the sediment core showed several peaks, and the greatest value occurred in 2005, when a plastic manufacture plant using HBCD was set up nearby.

  20. DDTs and HCHs in sediment cores from the coastal East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Nizzetto, Luca; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected along the Yangtze-derived sediment transport pathway in the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) for OCP analysis. The sediment records of HCHs and DDTs in estuarine environment reflected remobilization of chemicals from enhanced soil erosion associated to extreme flood events or large scale land use transformation. The sediment records in the open sea, instead, reflected long-term historical trends of OCP application in the source region. Unlike the so-called mud wedge distribution of sediment, inventories of HCHs and DDTs slightly increased from the mouth of Yangtze River alongshore toward south, suggesting the sediment deposition rate was one of factors on the exposure of chemicals within the inner shelf of the ECS. Re-suspension and transport of the Yangtze-derived sediment and consequent fractionation in grain size and TOC were also responsible for the spatial variation of inventories of catchment derived OCPs in a major repository area of the Yangtze suspended sediment. The total burdens of HCHs and DDTs in the inner shelf of the ECS were 35tons and 110tons, respectively. After 1983 (year of the official ban in China), those values were 13tons and 50tons, respectively. It appears that the Yangtze still delivers relatively high inputs of DDTs more than 30years after the official ban. High proportions of DDD+DDE and β-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly originated from historical usage in the catchment recent years.

  1. Chromium geochemistry of serpentinous sediment in the Willow core, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oze, Christopher J.; LaForce, Matthew J.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hanson, Randall T.; Bird, Dennis K.; Coleman, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of Cr geochemistry in serpentinous sediment completed for a multiple-aquifer ground-water monitoring well (Willow core of Santa Clara County, CA) determined sediment at depths >225 meters contains Cr concentrations ranging from 195 to 1155 mg/kg. Serpentinous sediment from this site is a potential source of non-anthropogenic Cr contamination. Chromium-bearing minerals such as Cr-spinel appear to be the main source of Cr in the sediment; however, Cr-bearing silicates and clay minerals are additional Cr sources. Aqueous Cr concentrations in the sediment are <4.6 mg/L; however, the valence of Cr was not identified in the solutions or in the sediment. Although there is no indication of Cr(VI) contamination derived from the serpentinous sediment, elevated Cr concentrations in the sediment, the observed ‘dissolution’ textures of the Cr-bearing minerals, the estimated redox environment, and water chemistry indicate the formation of Cr(VI) is potentially favorable.

  2. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, G I; Friedmann, E I; Gilichinsky, D A

    1995-10-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

  4. [Vertical distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment core from Lake Nansihu].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-li; Li, Guo-gang; Yang, Fan; Gao, Hong; Gong, Zheng-yu; Zhu, Chen; Lian, Jun

    2007-07-01

    The organochlorinne pesticides (OCPs) and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment core collected from Lake Nansihu were quantificationally analyzed by GC-ECD. The pollution history of OCPs and PCBs in this area was reconstructed by analysis of the concentrations of OCPs and PCBs connected with the deposition time by 210Pb isotope dating method. The results indicated that the concentration ranges of OCPs, HCHs, DDTs and PCBs were 1.64 - 17.9, 0.66 - 12.5, 0.24 - 2.99 and 7.84 - 42.8 ng g(-1) respectively. The sediment rate and the average mass sedimentation were calculated to be 0.330 cm a(-1) and 0.237 g (cm2 a)(-1), and the sediment time of this core sample ranged from 1899 to 2000. OCPs and PCBs had the peak value at 1960s and 1970s. The source analysis showed HCH came from HCH products and lindane, and HCH and DDT came from historic using. The source of PCBs had been deduced to be the blench process of paper making and incinerator emission. Except the concentration of beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and aldrin at 14 - 16 cm depth, the other concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were all less than the low ecologic risk value. The whole sediment core of Lake Nansihu belonged to the low ecologic risk level.

  5. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a historically contaminated sediment core

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Van Hoof, P.L.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-09-01

    To determine changes in bioavailability of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with sediment aging, Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed for 4 weeks to sediment core sections taken from a contaminated lake. Core depths included surficial (0 to 4 cm), 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, 28- to 32-, and 44- to 48-cm sections deposited for approximately 1899 to 1993, and were known to be historically contaminated with PAHs. Bioaccumulation was maximal at the 12- to 16-cm depth (circa 1967) where sediment PAH concentrations were greatest. Accumulation was generally below detection limits in the 0- to 4-cm depths, even though sediment concentrations of some compounds were comparable to those at the 12- to 16-cm depth where accumulation was great enough to generate accurate kinetics curves. Accumulation peaked at about 96 h, then declined over the remainder of the study for the lower-molecular-weight PAHs. For most higher-molecular-weight PAHs, accumulation peaked at about 2 weeks, then declined only slightly after 4 weeks. The differential bioavailability observed between surficial and at-depth core sections raises questions concerning the adequacy of results generated from toxicity and bioaccumulation tests routinely conducted surficial sediments.

  6. Experimental Simulations of Methane Gas Migration through Water-Saturated Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Seol, Y.; Rosenbaum, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Previous numerical simulations (Jaines and Juanes, 2009) showed that modes of gas migration would mainly be determined by grain size; capillary invasion preferably occurring in coarse-grained sediments vs. fracturing dominantly in fine-grained sediments. This study was intended to experimentally simulate preferential modes of gas migration in various water-saturated sediment cores. The cores compacted in the laboratory include a silica sand core (mean size of 180 μm), a silica silt core (1.7 μm), and a kaolin clay core (1.0 μm). Methane gas was injected into the core placed within an x-ray-transparent pressure vessel, which was under continuous x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning with controlled radial (σr), axial (σa), and pore pressures (P). The CT image analysis reveals that, under the radial effective stress (σr') of 0.69 MPa and the axial effective stress (σa') of 1.31 MPa, fracturings by methane gas injection occur in both silt and clay cores. Fracturing initiates at the capillary pressure (Pc) of ~ 0.41 MPa and ~ 2.41 MPa for silt and clay cores, respectively. Fracturing appears as irregular fracture-networks consisting of nearly invisibly-fine multiple fractures, longitudinally-oriented round tube-shape conduits, or fine fractures branching off from the large conduits. However, for the sand core, only capillary invasion was observed at or above 0.034 MPa of capillary pressure under the confining pressure condition of σr' = 1.38 MPa and σa' = 2.62 MPa. Compared to the numerical predictions under similar confining pressure conditions, fracturing occurs with relatively larger grain sizes, which may result from lower grain-contact compression and friction caused by loose compaction and flexible lateral boundary employed in the experiment.

  7. Thermal Properties of Bazhen fm. Sediments from Thermal Core Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasennykh, Mikhail; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Romushkevich, Raisa; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya; Belenkaya, Irina; Zhukov, Vladislav; Karpov, Igor; Saveliev, Egor; Gabova, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    The Bazhen formation (B. fm.) is the hugest self-contained source-and-reservoir continuous petroleum system covering by more than 1 mln. km2 (West Siberia, Russia). High lithological differentiation in Bazhen deposits dominated by silicic shales and carbonates accompanied by extremely high total organic carbon values (of up to 35%), pyrite content and brittle mineralogical composition deteriorate standard thermal properties assessment for low permeable rocks. Reliable information of unconventional system thermal characteristics is the necessary part of works such as modelling of different processes in reservoir under thermal EOR for accessing their efficiency, developing and optimizing design of the oil recovery methods, interpretation of the well temperature logging data and for the basin petroleum modelling. A unique set of data including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, thermal anisotropy for the B.fm. rocks was obtained from thermal core logging (high resolution continuous thermal profiling) on more than 4680 core samples (2000 of B.fm. samples are among) along seven wells for four oil fields. Some systematic peculiarities of the relation between thermal properties of the B.fm. rocks and their mineralogical composition, structural and texture properties were obtained. The high-resolution data are processed jointly with the standard petrophysical logging that allowed us to provide better separation of the formation. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  8. Correlations Between Physical and Hydraulic Properties and Uranium Desorption in Contaminated, Intact Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockhold, M. L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T. W.; Zachara, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    An unlined disposal pond in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site received uranium-bearing liquid effluents associated with nuclear reactor fuel rod processing from 1943 to 1975. Contaminated sediments from the base and sides of the former pond were excavated and removed from the site in the early 1990s, but a uranium plume has persisted in the groundwater at concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard. The former process pond is located adjacent to the Columbia River and seasonal fluctuations in the river stage and water table provide a mechanism for resupplying residual uranium from the vadose zone to the groundwater when the lower vadose zone is periodically rewetted. Intact cores were collected from the site for measurements of physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties. Multistep outflow experiments were also performed on the intact cores to determine permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations. Pore water displaced during these experiments for two of the vadose zone cores was also analyzed for uranium. For a core containing finer-textured sediment classified as muddy sandy gravel, and a core containing coarser-textured sediment classified as gravel, the relative aqueous uranium concentrations increased by factors of 8.3 and 1.5, respectively, as the cores were desaturated and progressively smaller pore-size classes were drained. Aqueous concentrations of uranium in the extracted pore waters were up to 115 times higher than the current drinking water standard of 30 ppb. These results confirm that there is a continuing source of uranium in the vadose zone at the site, and are consistent with a hypothesis that the persistence of the groundwater uranium plume is also associated, in part, with rate-limited mass transfer from finer-textured sediments. The data from these and several other intact cores from the site are evaluated to explore relationships between physical and hydraulic properties and uranium desorption characteristics.

  9. Assessing remobilization characteristics of arsenic (As) in tributary sediment cores in the largest reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Gao, Bo; Xu, Dongyu; Peng, Wenqi; Lu, Jin; Gao, Jijun

    2017-06-01

    The environmental impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has raised widespread concern especially in relation to metal pollution. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technology was applied to investigate arsenic (As) remobilization in sediment cores collected from the main stream and a tributary in the TGR during July 2015. The results showed that the horizontal and vertical distributions of CDGT-As varied among the four sampling sites. For the same DGT probe, the horizontal distributions of CDGT-As (0-6mm, 6-12mm, 12-18mm) exhibited similarity in the overlying water and different tendencies in the sediment profiles; the vertical variations of CDGT-As showed different mobilization tendencies. Moreover, the mobility patterns of As in the sediment profile showed the diffusion potential of As from the deep sediment to the surface sediment and overlying water were in the order of MX-2< MX-1< CJ < MX-3. In addition, similar distribution characteristics and correlation analysis showed that the mechanisms of As mobility were associated with Fe and Mn. The results also showed that sulphide and As were simultaneous remobilization in the tributary sediment core in the TGR.

  10. Shallow stratigraphy of the Skagit River Delta, Washington, derived from sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; George, Douglas A.; Lam, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentologic analyses of 21 sediment cores, ranging from 0.4 to 9.6 m in length, reveal that the shallow geologic framework of the Skagit River Delta, western Washington, United States, has changed significantly since 1850. The cores collected from elevations of 3.94 to -2.41 m (relative to mean lower low water) along four cross-shore transects between the emergent marsh and delta front show relatively similar environmental changes across an area spanning ~75 km2. Offshore of the present North Fork Skagit River and South Fork Skagit River mouths where river discharge is focused by diked channels through the delta, the entire 5–7-km-wide tidal flats are covered with 1–2 m of cross-bedded medium-to-coarse sands. The bottoms of cores, collected in these areas are composed of mud. A sharp transition from mud to a cross-bedded sand unit indicates that the tidal flats changed abruptly from a calm environment to an energetic one. This is in stark contrast to the Martha's Bay tidal flats north of the Skagit Bay jetty that was completed in the 1940s to protect the newly constructed Swinomish Channel from flooding and sedimentation. North of the jetty, mud ranging from 1 to 2 m thick drapes a previously silt- and sand-rich tidal flat. The silty sand is a sediment facies that would be expected there where North Fork Skagit River sedimentation occurred prior to jetty emplacement. This report describes the compositional and textural properties of the sediment cores by using geophysical, photographic, x-radiography, and standard sediment grain-size and carbon-analytical methods. The findings help to characterize benthic habitat structure and sediment transport processes and the environmental changes that have occurred across the nearshore of the Skagit River Delta. The findings will be useful for quantifying changes to nearshore marine resources, including impacts resulting from diking, river-delta channelization, shoreline development, and natural variations in fluvial-sediment

  11. Sediment Coring of the Proglacial Lake Donguz-Orun (northern Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrin, Mikhail; Solomina, Olga; Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Nesje, Atle

    2014-05-01

    So far, no high-resolution reconstructions of climate and glacier variations based on lake sediment properties are available in Caucasus Mountains. In other presently glaciated regions this approach is proved to be very useful for this purpose (e.g. Nesje et al., 2001, 2011; Bakke, 2005, Nesje, 2009) In this paper we report the first results of the sediment coring of Donguz-Orun Lake (N 43°13'26", E 42°29'35") situated in the upper reaches of Donguz-Orun-Kyol, a tributary of Baksan river in the Elbrus region of Northern Caucasus, a typical proglacial lake dammed by a lateral moraine deposited by the Donguz-Orun Glacier. It is a drainage lake with several inflowing glacial streams and effluent river Donguz-Orun. The surface area is around 105 000 m2 with a water volume of 465 000m3. The average water depth is around 4.5 m, with a maximum water depth of 14 m. The deepest part is found close to the moraine dam in the narrow northern part of the lake. This is normally consistent with this type of glacial lake systems. An intensive gravitational drift of the moraine material towards the lake is observed. These non-rounded moraine boulders constitute a significant part of the lakebed. Lacustrine sediments are present though. The coring campaign from Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences (August 2012) used a modified piston corer with a 110 mm-diameter plastic tube (Nesje, 1992) mounted on the inflatable catamaran to obtain lake sediments from Lake Donguz-Orun. A 28-cm long core was retrieved from a water depth of around 7 m. The sediments consist of regularly laminated, fine beige clay, with several interlayers of sand. The coring process appeared to be challenging due to the stiffness of clay, which led to extreme bending of the sediment layers in the basal part of the core. The original thickness of the sediments was obviously higher than observed in the core. In order to clarify the recent history of the Donguz-Orun glacier, we used lichenometry and

  12. Chronology from sediment cores collected in southwestern Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Wingard, G.L.; Willard, D.A.; Marot, M.E.; Landacre, B.; Holmes, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Age model data are presented for 10 cores from the southwestern coastal mangrove zone of Everglades National Park, Florida, collected in Common Era (CE) 2004 and 2005 and used for paleoecological analysis. Carbon-14 (14C), lead-210 (210Pb), cesium-137 (137Cs), radium-226 (226Ra), and pollen biostratigraphic information is included, and age models were generated for 6 of the 10 cores. Age reversals and sediment disturbance prevented construction of age models on the remaining four cores. Four cores present a continuous record of the last 50 to 100 years, making them useful for analyzing the impacts caused by changes in water management in south Florida. These cores are Harney River 2A and Harney River 1A, Shark River 2A, and Roberts River.

  13. Climatic fluctuations during the Holocene based on eastern Mediterranean continental shelf sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor-Federman, Tsofit; Bookman, Revital; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak

    2013-04-01

    Sediments deposited on the south eastern Mediterranean continental shelf are sensitive recorders of climatic and oceanographic variability affected by the north Atlantic and indirectly by monsoonal systems. In order to reconstruct the influence of these climatic systems two cores were taken off shore the southern and central Israeli coast at water depths of ~35 m. The sediments were characterized by majors and traces elements, and the sediment provenance was determined using 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Detrital input from the Nile and local environment was studied using grain size distribution and sedimentation rates. Water column productivity was inferred by TOC and δ13Corg. The cores, dated to 7,630 and 8,440 14C years BP, show two distinct sedimentation regimes. The early Holocene is characterized by high sedimentation rates (190-140 cm/ka) that decrease in the last 5,500 years (50-60 cm/ka) in both north and central cores. Coarse grain size is dominant in the early Holocene, with a decreasing trend in the northern core. This distribution is probably connected to eustatic sea level rise and recycling of coarse sediments from the flooded shallow Nile cone. In the late Holocene, as sea level stabilized, grain size is finer in the south; while to the north, cycles of ~1,500 years in coarse grain size characterize the period. Carbonate and organic carbon further present the change along the period. Decrease in carbonate content and increase in δ13Corg during the late Holocene indicate decrease in water column productivity. In contradiction, organic carbon is relatively high in the late Holocene. This is explained by the coarse sediment texture in the early Holocene leading to better oxidation of buried organic matter. Strontium isotopes show changes in sediment provenance. In the early Holocene high 87Sr/86Sr values of ~0.71 reflect a dominant signature of the White Nile and the Yellow Nile and in part the local streams. During the last 5,500 years lower values of ~0

  14. Inorganic nitrogen transformations in the bed of the Shingobee River, Minnesota: Integrating hydrologic and biological processes using sediment perfusion cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, R.W.; Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic N transformations were examined in streambed sediments from the Shingobee River using sediment perfusion cores. The experimental design simulated groundwater-stream water mixing within sediment cores, which provided a well-defined one-dimensional representation of in situ hydrologic conditions. Two distinct hydrologic and chemical settings were preserved in the sediment cores: the lowermost sediments, perfused with groundwater, remained anaerobic during the incubations, whereas the uppermost sediments, perfused with oxic water pumped from the overlying water column, simulated stream water penetration into the bed. The maintenance of oxic and anoxic zones formed a biologically active aerobic-anaerobic interface. Ammonium (NH4+) dissolved in groundwater was transported conservatively through the lower core zone but was removed as it mixed with aerated recycle water. Concurrently, a small quantity of nitrate (NO3-) equaling ???25% of the NH4+ loss was produced in the upper sediments. The NH4+ and NO3- profiles in the uppermost sediments resulted from coupled nitrification-denitrification, because assimilation and sorption were negligible. We hypothesize that anaerobic microsites within the aerated upper sediments supported denitrification. Rates of nitrification and denitrification in the perfusion cores ranged 42-209 and 53-160 mg N m-2 day-1, respectively. The use of modified perfusion cores permitted the identification and quantification of N transformations and verified process control by surface water exchange into the shallow hyporheic zone of the Shingobee River.

  15. A Direct-Push Sample-Freezing Drive Shoe for Collecting Sediment Cores with Intact Pore Fluid, Microbial, and Sediment Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekins, B. A.; Trost, J.; Christy, T. M.; Mason, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic and biological reactions in shallow groundwater and bottom sediments are central to understanding groundwater contaminant attenuation and biogeochemical cycles. The laminar flow regime in unconsolidated surficial aquifers creates narrow reaction zones. Studying these reaction zones requires fine-scale sampling of water together with adjacent sediment in a manner that preserves in situ redox conditions. Collecting representative samples of these narrow zones with traditional subsurface sampling equipment is challenging. For example, use of a basket type core catcher for saturated, non-cohesive sediments results in loss of fluid and sediments during retrieval. A sample-freezing drive shoe designed for a wire line piston core sampler allowed collection of cores with intact sediment, microbial, and pore fluid distributions and has been the basis for studies documenting centimeter-scale variations in aquifer microbial populations (Murphy and Herkelrath, 1996). However, this freezing drive shoe design is not compatible with modern-day direct push sampling rigs. A re-designed sample-freezing drive shoe compatible with a direct-push dual-tube coring system was developed and field-tested. The freezing drive shoe retained sediment and fluid distributions in saturated sediment core samples by freezing a 10 centimeter plug below the core sample with liquid CO­2. Core samples collected across the smear zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, were successfully extracted without loss of fluid or sediment. Multiple core sections from different depths in the aquifer were retrieved from a single hole. This new design makes a highly effective sampling technology available on modern-day direct push sampling equipment to inform myriad questions about subsurface biogeochemistry processes. The re-design of the freezing drive shoe was supported by the USGS Innovation Center for Earth Sciences. References: Murphy, Fred, and W. N. Herkelrath. "A sample

  16. Thermal and spectral characterization of anaerobic thermal behavior patterns in a lacustrine sediment core.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Mu, Yunsong; Chen, Cheng; Liao, Haiqing; Bai, Yingchen

    2016-10-01

    The thermal evolution of sedimentary organic matter is a significant mechanism in continental oil and gas formation. This study presents a new method to estimate vertical thermal evolution trends in a lake sediment core. Twenty sediment samples from a 60-cm core recovered from Lake Bosten were heated to 600 °C at a rate of 10 °C min(-1) under a N2 atmosphere. The sediments were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and then, the samples were analyzed with total organic carbon (TOC) analyses, X-ray diffraction, and (137)Cs isotopic dating techniques. Two main anaerobic thermal degradation processes were observed in the thermograms. The pyrolysis results showed variations with sediment age, with labile carbon (237.2 ± 42.98 °C) manifesting different thermogram patterns than recalcitrant carbon (498.35 ± 30.09 °C). There was a significant linear correlation between sample weight loss and TOC (r = 0.972, p < 0.001), as well as between the DSC and TGA peaks (r = 0.963, p < 0.001). As a conclusion, the thermal stability of both labile organic carbon and recalcitrant organic carbon in lacustrine sediment core increased gradually with age. These results confirm that advanced thermal techniques (DSC and TGA) operated in inert gas are potential quantitative methods to characterize the anaerobic thermal behavior of sediment organic carbon.

  17. Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Badr, Nadia B E; El-Fiky, Anwar A; Mostafa, Alaa R; Al-Mur, Bandr A

    2009-08-01

    In the last three decades, the industrial and human activities in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia have increased dramatically and resulted in the continuous invasion of different types of pollutants including heavy metals. Seven sediment cores were collected from three major industrialized areas; Jeddah, Rabigh and Yanbu, along the coast of Saudi Arabia to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of metals and to assess the magnitude of pollution and their potential biological effects. Sediments were analyzed for texture, calcium carbonate contents, organic matter and metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Some metals like, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn, were enriched in the upper 15 cm of core samples (recent deposition of sediments). Cadmium concentrations showed high fluctuations with depth and reverse pattern to that for Al, Fe and Mn which indicated land based sources of this element to the studied areas. Elevated concentrations of lead were recorded in the bottom layers of cores in Jeddah that indicated the most dramatic increase in usage of gasoline in early 1970s. The calculated contamination factors (CF's) were found in the following sequences: Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn for all studied areas. Results of Pollution Load Index (PLI) revealed that Jeddah is the most polluted area, followed by Rabigh while Yanbu is the least contaminated area. Except for Ni, the concentrations of most metals in the majority of sediment samples were believed to be safe for living organisms. As no data were available on the concentration of metals in core sediments in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia, the results of this study would serve as a baseline against which future anthropogenic effects can be assessed.

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  19. Occurrence of arsenic in core sediments and groundwater in the Chapai-Nawabganj District, northwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Selim Reza, A H M; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Yang, Huai-Jen; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Woodall, Brian; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Luo, Shang-De

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater and core sediments of two boreholes (to a depth of 50m) from the Chapai-Nawabganj area in northwestern Bangladesh were collected for arsenic concentration and geochemical analysis. Groundwater arsenic concentrations in the uppermost aquifer (10-40m of depth) range from 2.8microgL(-1) to 462.3microgL(-1). Groundwater geochemical conditions change from oxidized to successively more reduced, higher As concentration with depth. Higher sediment arsenic levels (55mgkg(-1)) were found within the upper 40m of the drilled core samples. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the arsenic speciation of sediments collected from two boreholes. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy were used to investigate the characteristics of FeOOH in sediments which adsorb arsenic. In addition, a pH-Eh diagram was drawn using the Geochemist's Workbench (GWB) software to elucidate the arsenic speciation in groundwater. The dominant groundwater type is Ca-HCO(3) with high concentrations of As, Fe and Mn but low levels of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-). Sequential extraction analysis reveals that Mn and Fe hydroxides and organic matter are the major leachable solids carrying As. High levels of arsenic concentration in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments. Fluorescent intensities of humic substances indicate that both groundwater and sediments in this arsenic hotspot area contain less organic matter compared to other parts of Bengal basin. Statistical analysis clearly shows that As is closely associated with Fe and Mn in sediments while As is better correlated with Mn in groundwater. These correlations along with results of sequential leaching experiments suggest that reductive dissolution of MnOOH and FeOOH mediated by anaerobic bacteria represents an important mechanism for releasing arsenic into the groundwater.

  20. Geochemical studies of backfill aggregates, lake sediment cores and the Hueco Bolson Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapalia, Anita

    This dissertation comprises of three different researches that focuses on the application of geochemistry from aggregates, lake sediment cores and Hueco Bolson Aquifer. Each study is independent and presented in the publication format. The first chapter is already published and the second chapter is in revision phase. Overall, three studies measure the large scale (field) as well as bench scale (lab) water-rock interactions influenced by the climatic and anthropogenic factors spans from the field of environmental geology to civil engineering. The first chapter of this dissertation addresses the chemical evaluation of coarse aggregates from six different quarries in Texas. The goal of this work is to find out the best geochemical methods for assessing the corrosion potential of coarse aggregates prior to their use in mechanically stabilized earth walls. Electrochemical parameters help to define the corrosion potential of aggregates following two different leaching protocols. Testing the coarse and fine aggregates demonstrate the chemical difference due to size-related kinetic leaching effects. Field fines also show different chemistry than the bulk rock indicating the weathering impact on carbonate rocks. The second chapter investigates zinc (Zn) isotopic signatures from eight lake sediment cores collected both from pristine lakes and those impacted by urban anthropogenic contamination. Zinc from the natural weathering of rocks and anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants are transported to these lakes and the signatures are recorded in the sediments. Isotopic analysis of core samples provides the signature of anthropogenic contamination sources. Dated sediment core and isotopic analysis can identify Zn inputs that are correlated to the landuse and population change of the watersheds. Comparison of isotopic data from both pristine and urban lake sediment core also serves as an analog in other lake sediment cores in the world. The third chapter studies on Hueco Bolson

  1. The Record of Geomagnetic Excursions from a ~150 m Sediment Core: Clear Lake, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.; Byrne, R.; Looy, C. V.; Wahl, D.; Noren, A. J.; Verosub, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    We are studying the paleomagnetic properties of a new ~150 meter drill core from Clear Lake, CA. Step-wise demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetism (NRM) yields stable directions after 20 mT, implying that the sediments are reliable recorders of geomagnetic field behavior. Several intervals of low relative paleointensity (RPI) from the core appear to be correlated with known geomagnetic excursions. At about 46 m depth, and ~33 ka according to an age model based on radiocarbon dates obtained from pollen and the Olema ash bed, a low RPI zone seems to agree with the age and duration of the Mono Lake Excursion, previously identified between 32 and 35 ka. Slightly lower in the core, at about 50 m depth and ~40 ka, noticeably low RPI values seem to be coeval with the Laschamp excursion, which has been dated at ~41 ka. A volcanic ash near the bottom of the core (141 mblf) is near the same depth as an ash identified in 1988 by Andrei Sarna-Wojcicki and others as the Loleta ash bed in a previous Clear Lake core. If the basal ash in the new core is indeed the, Loleta ash bed, then the core may date back to about 270-300 ka. Depending on the age of the lowest ash, a sequence of low RPI intervals could correlate with the Blake (120 ka), Iceland Basin (188 ka), Jamaica/Pringle Falls (211 ka), and CR0 (260 ka) excursions. Correlation of the low RPI intervals to these geomagnetic excursions will help in the development of a higher resolution chronostratigraphy for the core, resolve a long-standing controversy about a possible hiatus in the Clear Lake record, and provide information about climatically-driven changes in sedimentation.

  2. Toxicity of sediment cores collected from the ashtabula river in northeastern Ohio, USA, to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; MacDonald, D.D.; Smorong, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to support a Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration project associated with the Ashtabula River in Ohio. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemistry and toxicity of 50 sediment samples obtained from five cores collected from the Ashtabula River (10 samples/core, with each 10-cm-diameter core collected to a total depth of about 150 cm). Effects of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) measured in the sediment samples were evaluated by measuring whole-sediment chemistry and whole-sediment toxicity in the sediment samples (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], organochlorine pesticides, and metals). Effects on the amphipod Hyalella azteca at the end of a 28-day sediment toxicity test were determined by comparing survival or length of amphipods in individual sediment samples in the cores to the range of responses of amphipods exposed to selected reference sediments that were also collected from the cores. Mean survival or length of amphipods was below the lower limit of the reference envelope in 56% of the sediment samples. Concentrations of total PCBs alone in some samples or concentrations of total PAHs alone in other samples were likely high enough to have caused the reduced survival or length of amphipods (i.e., concentrations of PAHs or PCBs exceeded mechanistically based and empirically based sediment quality guidelines). While elevated concentrations of ammonia in pore water may have contributed to the reduced length of amphipods, it is unlikely that the reduced length was caused solely by elevated ammonia (i.e., concentrations of ammonia were not significantly correlated with the concentrations of PCBs or PAHs and concentrations of ammonia were elevated both in the reference sediments and in the test sediments). Results of this study show that PAHs, PCBs, and ammonia are the primary COPCs that are likely causing or substantially contributing to the toxicity to

  3. Nondestructive X-Ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Sediment Cores: A Case Study from the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oti, E.; Polyak, L. V.; Cook, A.; Dipre, G.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of marine sediment records can help elucidate recent changes in the Arctic Ocean circulation and sea ice conditions. We examine sediment cores from the western Arctic Ocean, representing Late to Early Quaternary age (potentially up to 1 Ma). Previous studies of Arctic sediment cores indicate that interglacial/interstadial periods with relatively high sea levels and reduced ice cover are characterized by vigorous bioturbation, while glacial intervals have little to no bioturbation. Traditional methods for studying bioturbation require physical dissection of the cores, effectively destroying them. To treat this limitation, we evaluate archival sections of the cores using an X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) scanner, which noninvasively images the sediment cores in three dimensions. The scanner produces density sensitive images suitable for quantitative analysis and for identification of bioturbation based on size, shape, and orientation. We use image processing software to isolate burrows from surrounding sediment, reconstruct them three-dimensionally, and then calculate their surface areas, volumes, and densities. Preliminary analysis of a core extending to the early Quaternary shows that bioturbation ranges from 0 to approximately 20% of the core's volume. In future research, we will quantitatively define the relationship between bioturbation activity and glacial regimes. XCT examination of bioturbation and other sedimentary features has the potential to shed light on paleoceanographic conditions such as sedimentation patterns and food flux. XCT is an alternative, underexplored investigation method that bears implications not only for illustrating paleoclimate variations but also for preserving cores for future, more advanced technologies.

  4. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK).

    PubMed

    Michel, H; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Appleby, P G; Haworth, E; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m(-2) for 239 + 240Pu; 4.5 Bq m(-2) for 238Pu and 37 Bq m(-2) for 241Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  5. Increasing polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination in sediment cores from the inner Clyde Estuary, UK.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H; Ma, Yun-Juan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-02-01

    The concentrations of 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in six short sediment cores from the Clyde Estuary were determined by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,645 mug/kg and the average concentration was 287 mug/kg. BDE-209 was the main congener and varied from 1 to 2,337 mug/kg. Elevated total PBDE concentrations were observed close to the sediment surface in the uppermost 10 cm of four of the six sediment cores. Comparison of the down core PBDE profiles revealed that the increase was driven by the accumulation of deca-BDE. Although the deca-BDE mix was dominant, the presence of lower molecular weight congeners BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-183 and BDE-153 at most sediment intervals suggested additional sources of penta-BDE and octa-BDE pollution. Changing PBDE source input was the major factor in influencing the proportion of nona-brominated congeners, although other explanations such as post burial photo-debromination of BDE-209 cannot be entirely discounted. A clear cascading to lower hepta-, hexa-, and penta-homologues was not found. The increase in total PBDE concentrations and particularly the deca-BDE may possibly be ascribed to the use and subsequent disposal of electrical appliances such as televisions and computers. In the Clyde sediments, the proportion of nona-brominated congeners was higher than that reported for commercial mixtures. This might be due to changing sources of PBDEs or post burial photo-debromination of BDE-209.

  6. Ecotoxicological impact assessment of heavy metals in core sediments of a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Harikumar, P S; Nasir, U P

    2010-10-01

    Down core variation of heavy metals in three sediment cores from Cochin estuary was studied. The average concentration of iron, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury in each slices of sediment was determined. Quality of the sediments were evaluated based on sediment quality guidelines, pollution load index, and sum of toxic units and with effect range low/effect range median and threshold effect level/probable effect level values of environmental protection agency guidelines. The degree of contamination for each station was determined. The results of the study revealed higher concentration of heavy metals in surface layers than in deeper ones. The concentration of heavy metals in some stations exceeded the effect range median levels, which represents a probable effect range with in which adverse biological effects frequently occur. The spatial variation of heavy metals showed more contamination in the downstream at Pathalam industrial site. Statistical analysis showed that the correlation among different parameters differs with respect to stations. The present study highlighted severe heavy metal contamination of Cochin estuary with increased rate of deposition.

  7. Deformed sediments in the Dead Sea drill core: a long-term palaeoseismic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Shmuel; Kagan, Elisa J.

    2014-05-01

    The lacustrine 70 ka sediments outcropping around the Dead Sea contain superb examples of seismites that were formed at the margins of the lakes in water depths of <100 m. In previous studies we explored the temporal distribution and the physics of seismite formation. Now we examine the drill cores from the depocentre in order to understand how the deep basin sediments reacted to the earthquake vibrations and compare the record with that from the margins. Our interpretation is largely based on our acquaintance with the outcrops, on mechanical analyses, and on modern analogs. We realize that several types of disturbed layers that appear in the cores are seismites that do not appear in the lake margin facies but only at the depocentre, mostly transported material in the form of turbiditic slumps. We recognize numerous slumps of various thicknesses ranging from mm to several decimeters. The allochtonous contribution to the depocentre sediment load results with three times the thickness at the margins. Analyses of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) show mostly sedimentary fabric (vertical K3) or unstable scatter. Standard AMS analysis procedure requires multiple sampling for each level, but we can only recover one specimen. Therefore, we regard the results inconclusive. The main product of this stage is an inventory of all the features in the cores that we suspect to be seismites.

  8. Characteristics of hydrocarbons in sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua

    2017-02-15

    Sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) were analyzed to determine abundances and distributions of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the n-alkanes in this sediment core conform to a bimodal distribution, and exhibit an odd-to-even predominance of high molecular weights compared to an even-to-odd predominance in low molecular weight n-alkanes with maxima at C16 and C18. The concentrations of bitumen, alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in samples S10-07 than all others. Three maturity parameters as well as the ratios between parent phenanthrenes (Ps) and methylphenanthrenes (MPs) in samples S10-07 and S10-17 were higher. The distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in sample S10-07 suggest that one, or several, undetected hydrothermal fields may be present in the region of this sediment core. Results also suggest that volcanism may be the main reason for the observed distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in S10-17 sample.

  9. Magnetostratigraphy of a long Quaternary sediment core in the South Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Liu, Qingsong; Zhang, Xunhua; Liu, Jian; Wu, Zhiqiang; Mei, Xi; Shi, Xuefa; Zhao, Quanhong

    2016-07-01

    Continental shelves serve as a bridge between the continent and ocean and sediments in this region are sensitive to land-sea interaction, sea-level variation and local subsidence. In this study, we present a comprehensive magnetic study of the longest sediment core (CSDP-1, 300.1 m) recovered from the South Yellow Sea. The major magnetic minerals in the studied sediments are magnetite, hematite and greigite. Greigite records a chemical remanent magnetization, which can be removed effectively by thermal demagnetization. The magnetostratigraphy defined in this study contains the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (M/B, 781 ka) at ∼73.68 m, which is consistent with results from adjacent cores. The base of the Quaternary (∼2.6 Ma) in the Yellow Sea is recovered for the first time at a depth of 227.16 m. The basal age of the core is estimated to be ∼3.50 Ma. It indicates that the first transgression of the Yellow Sea occurred no later than ∼1.7 Ma. Succeeding large amplitude regressions occurred in some cold periods such as during MIS 20, MIS 18, and MIS 10. Our results provide the first chronology that brackets the entire Quaternary and we reconstruct the sedimentary evolution of the Yellow Sea with robust age constraints, which provides an important framework for further paleoenvironmental and tectonic studies.

  10. Historical Profiles of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Marine Sediment Cores from Northwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Begoña; Viñas, Lucía; Bargiela, Jesica

    2016-11-01

    The northwest coast of Spain is characterized by an irregular coastline rich in marine life and with the highest mussel production in Europe. Taking this into account, the characterization of the pollution levels and the sources involved appear necessary. Not only were parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed but also their alkylated homologues. In total, 35 compounds were analyzed in 5 sediment cores. Sediments were collected using a box core dredge and extracted by (Pressurized Liquid Extraction) whilst the quantification of PAHs was performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration detected varied from 49.6 to 2489 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) of which parent PAHs ranged from 44.5 to 2254 ng g(-1) d.w. and alkylated PAHs varied from 5.04 to 317 ng g(-1) d.w. Temporal and spatial evolution were outlined and pollution sources were identified along with a possible correlation between this pollution and local history and industry. Most of the PAHs from the superficial samples have a biomass and coal combustion profile, and some specific, localized events are reflected in the total PAH concentration evolution. Moreover, the study of the deepest layers of the sampled cores provides a baseline to develop background concentration values that will help in future sediment quality assessment.

  11. Sediment cores as archives of historical changes in floodplain lake hydrology.

    PubMed

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Connor, Simon; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David T

    2016-02-15

    Anthropogenic activities are contributing to the changing hydrology of rivers, often resulting in their degradation. Understanding the drivers and nature of these changes is critical for the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies for these systems. However, this can be hindered by gaps in historical measured flow data. This study therefore aims to use sediment cores to identify historical hydrological changes within a river catchment. Sediment cores from two floodplain lakes (billabongs) in the urbanised Yarra River catchment (Melbourne, South-East Australia) were collected and high resolution images, trends in magnetic susceptibility and trends in elemental composition through the sedimentary records were obtained. These were used to infer historical changes in river hydrology to determine both average trends in hydrology (i.e., coarse temporal resolution) as well as discrete flood layers in the sediment cores (i.e., fine temporal resolution). Through the 20th century, both billabongs became increasingly disconnected from the river, as demonstrated by the decreasing trends in magnetic susceptibility, particle size and inorganic matter in the cores. Additionally the number of discrete flood layers decreased up the cores. These reconstructed trends correlate with measured flow records of the river through the 20th century, which validates the methodology that has been used in this study. Not only does this study provide evidence on how natural catchments can be affected by land-use intensification and urbanisation, but it also introduces a general analytical framework that could be applied to other river systems to assist in the design of hydrological management strategies.

  12. Detection of Tephra Layers in Antarctic Sediment Cores with Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Aymerich, Ismael F.; Oliva, Marc; Giralt, Santiago; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Tephrochronology uses recognizable volcanic ash layers (from airborne pyroclastic deposits, or tephras) in geological strata to set unique time references for paleoenvironmental events across wide geographic areas. This involves the detection of tephra layers which sometimes are not evident to the naked eye, including the so-called cryptotephras. Tests that are expensive, time-consuming, and/or destructive are often required. Destructive testing for tephra layers of cores from difficult regions, such as Antarctica, which are useful sources of other kinds of information beyond tephras, is always undesirable. Here we propose hyperspectral imaging of cores, Self-Organizing Map (SOM) clustering of the preprocessed spectral signatures, and spatial analysis of the classified images as a convenient, fast, non-destructive method for tephra detection. We test the method in five sediment cores from three Antarctic lakes, and show its potential for detection of tephras and cryptotephras. PMID:26815202

  13. Nd isotope calibration of core top sediments along the South African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Hall, I.; Zahn, R.

    2006-12-01

    Nd isotope ratios in the authigenic ferromanganese fraction of deep-sea sediments show great promise as tracers of ocean circulation. Its designation as a focus tracer for the new GEOTRACES program requires a better understanding of the processes that affect seawater Nd isotope ratios and their transfer to sediments. In this context, the southern tip of Africa is an important location for inter-ocean exchange. There, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) leaves the Atlantic system and flows northeastward, sandwiched by Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) above and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) below. It is an ideal place to calibrate coretop samples against these water masses in the hopes of using the successful cores to constrain changes in paleocirculation. Water column samples and cores at various depths were collected during Cruise 154 of the RRS Charles Darwin during Dec.-Jan. 2003-2004 along the eastern margin of South Africa. We report the first results of Holocene coretop ferromanganese leachates from sediment cores at water depths ranging between 1010 and 3706 m, where ambient water masses range from AAIW through NADW-AABW mixtures. Thus, we expected the Nd isotope ratios to be high at AAIW and AABW depths and low at NADW depths, at values that compare favorably with published water column data from the south Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. A few samples showed Nd isotope ratios clearly different from seawater; these are from the submarine fan of the Tugela River and a region with documented slump deposits near East London. Filtering these out, the remaining samples display a distinct U-shape in a plot of ɛNd vs depth, with those samples from the NADW cores yielding the lowest Nd isotope ratios (ɛNd ~ -11.5 to -12.5) and those reflecting mixtures showing appropriately higher values. This was true despite slightly elevated Sr isotope ratios in all but one core. We calculated a synthetic seawater Nd depth profile from 1500m to 4000m depth with three end

  14. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  15. Identifying water-quality trends in the Trinity River, Texas, USA, 1969 1992, using sediment cores from Lake Livingston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metre, P. C. Van; Callender, E.

    1996-12-01

    Chemical analyses were done on cores of bottom sediment from three locations in Lake Livingston, a reservoir on the Trinity River in east Texas to identify trends in water quality in the Trinity River using the chemical record preserved in bottom sediments trapped by the reservoir. Sediment cores spanned the period from 1969, when the reservoir was impounded, to 1992, when the cores were collected. Chemical concentrations in reservoir sediment samples were compared to concentrations for 14 streambed sediment samples from the Trinity River Basin and to reported concentrations for soils in the eastern United States and shale. These comparisons indicate that sediments deposited in Lake Livingston are representative of the environmental setting of Lake Livingston within the Trinity River Basin. Vertical changes in concentrations within sediment cores indicate temporal trends of decreasing concentrations of lead, sodium, barium, and total DDT (DDT plus its metabolites DDD and DDE) in the Trinity River. Possible increasing temporal trends are indicated for chlordane and dieldrin. Each sediment-derived trend is related to trends in water quality in the Trinity River or known changes in environmental factors in its drainage basin or both.

  16. Geochemical proxies for weathering and provenance of Late Quaternary alluvial core-sediments from NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Amir, Mohd; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv

    2014-05-01

    The Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains are formed by sediment deposition in the foreland basin as a result of upliftment and subsequent erosion of the Himalaya. Earlier study (Sinha et al., 2013) has shown the subsurface existence of buried channel bodies beneath the Ghaggar plains in NW Indo-Gangetic plains. The mapped sand bodies follow trace of a paleochannel that begins at the mountain front near the exit of river Sutlej and extends to the northern margin of the Thar desert, suggesting existence of a large Himalayan-sourced river (Singh et al., 2011) in the past. The buried sand bodies hold potential records of erosion history over the Himalaya that could be used to assess climate-controlled erosion over the Himalaya. Geochemical variations in the sediments from two (~45m long) cores drilled below the trace of the paleochannel (upstream) near Sirhind, Punjab and two cores (GS-10 & 11) from downstream near Kalibangan, Rajasthan, are used in this study to understand the erosional pattern over the Himalaya during Late Quaternary. Down-core variations in chemical index of alteration (CIA=51-79) along with K2O/Na2O and Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O) ratios are consistent with the trends of SW summer monsoonal fluctuations during the Glacial-Interglacial periods indicating climate controlled weathering at the source; higher values during Interglacial and lower during Glacial periods with maximum value during the Holocene. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of drill-cores sediments, 87Sr/86Sr (0.7314-0.7946), ɛNd (-23.2 to -14) are within the range of silicate rocks from the Higher and Lesser Himalaya. Significant down-core variations in 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd are observed that reflect the mixing of varying proportions of the Higher and Lesser Himalayan sediments, the two dominant sources to the core sites. Sediments deposited during MIS-2 and MIS-4, cold and dry Glacial periods, show high 87Sr/86Sr and low ɛNd suggesting an enhanced contribution from the Lesser Himalayan rocks that are

  17. Mono Lake Excursion in Cored Sediment from the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Iorio, Marina; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    A search for the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in cored marine and lacustrine sediment younger than 50,000 years resulted in the discovery of both excursions in the Greenland Sea (73.3˚ N, 351.0˚ E, Nowaczyk and Antanow, 1997), in the North Atlantic Ocean (62.7˚ N, 222.5˚ E, Channell, 2006), in Pyramid Lake in the Lahontan Basin, NV, USA (40.1˚ N, 240.2˚ E, Benson et al., 2008), and in the Black Sea (43.2˚ N, 36.5˚ E, Nowaczyk et al., 2012). The inclination, declination, and relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in the Black Sea sediment matches well the behaviour of the excursion in the Mono Basin, CA, in that a reduction in inclination during westerly declination is soon followed by steep positive inclination when declination is easterly, and relative field intensity increases after a low at the commencement of the excursion (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). A large clockwise loop of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at the Black Sea when followed from old to young patterns very well the VGP loop formed by the older portion of the MLE in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We also searched for the MLE in cored sediment from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (40.1˚ N, 14.7˚ E) where the age of the sediment is believed to be about 32,000 years when comparing the susceptibility in the core with the susceptibility in a nearby one that is dated by palaeomagnetic secular variation records, Carbon-14, and numerous tephra layers in the Tyrrhenian Sea sediment (Iorio et al., 2011). In the Tyrrhenian Sea core, called C1067, closely spaced samples demagnetized in an alternating field to100 mT record a shallowing of positive inclination to 48˚ that is followed by steep positive inclination of 82˚ when declination moves rapidly to the southeast. The old to young path of the VGPs in C1067 forms a narrow counter-clockwise loop that reaches 30.3˚ N, 30.8˚ E and that is centered at about 55˚ N, 15˚ E. Although descending to a latitude that is

  18. Atmospheric Mercury Depositional Chronology Reconstructed from Lake Sediments and Ice Core in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Zhang, Qianggong; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Chaoliu; Wang, Long; Chen, Pengfei; Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Li, Qing; Sillanpää, Mika; Hou, Juzhi; Xu, Baiqing; Guo, Junming

    2016-03-15

    Alpine lake sediments and glacier ice cores retrieved from high mountain regions can provide long-term records of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). In this study, eight lake sediment cores and one glacier ice core were collected from high elevations across the Himalaya-Tibet region to investigate the chronology of atmospheric Hg deposition. Consistent with modeling results, the sediment core records showed higher Hg accumulation rates in the southern slopes of the Himalayas than those in the northern slopes in the recent decades (post-World War II). Despite much lower Hg accumulation rates obtained from the glacier ice core, the temporal trend in the Hg accumulation rates matched very well with that observed from the sediment cores. The combination of the lake sediments and glacier ice core allowed us to reconstruct the longest, high-resolution atmospheric Hg deposition chronology in High Asia. The chronology showed that the Hg deposition rate was low between the 1500s and early 1800, rising at the onset of the Industrial Revolution, followed by a dramatic increase after World War II. The increasing trend continues to the present-day in most of the records, reflecting the continuous increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions from South Asia.

  19. Geochemical data for core and bottom-sediment samples collected in 2007 from Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, northeast Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Becker, Mark F.; and Smith, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Grand Lake O' the Cherokees is a large reservoir in northeast Oklahoma, below the confluence of the Neosho and Spring Rivers, both of which drain the Tri-State Mining District to the north. The Tri-State district covers an area of 1,200 mi2 (3,100 km2) and comprises Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits. A result of 120 years of mining activity is an estimated 75 million tons of processed mine tailings (chat) remaining in the district. Concerns of sediment quality and the possibility of human exposure to cadmium and lead through eating fish have led to several studies of the sediments in the Tri-State district. In order to record the transport and deposition of metals from the Tri-State district by the Spring and Neosho Rivers into Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 11 sediment cores and 15 bottom-sediment samples in September 2007. Subsamples from five selected cores and the bottom-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and forms of carbon. The sediment samples collected from the sediment-water interface had larger average concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and lead than local background. The core collected from the Spring River had the largest concentrations of mining-related elements. A core collected just south of Twin Bridges State Park, at the confluence of the Spring and Neosho Rivers, showed a mixing zone with more mining-related elements coming from the Spring River side. The element zinc showed the most definitive patterns in graphs depicting concentration-versus-depth profiles. A core collected from the main body of the reservoir showed affected sediment down to a depth of 85 cm (33 in). This core and two others appear to have penetrated to below mining-affected sediment.

  20. Distribution, provenance and early diagenesis of major and trace metals in sediment cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V. Purnachandra; Chakraborty, P.

    2016-03-01

    Major elements and trace metals were analyzed in four sediment cores recovered along a transect in the Mandovi estuary for their distribution, provenance and early diagenesis. The sediments were clayey silts in cores from the upper/lower estuary and sand-dominated in cores from the middle estuary/bay. Organic carbon (OC) content varied from 0.5 to 4%, with higher values in fine-grained sediments. The mean Fe and Mn contents of sediments from the upper/middle estuary were 3-5 times and 8-13 times, respectively higher than the reference sediment (RS) from the same estuary. The mean Fe and Mn contents of sediments from the lower estuary/bay were close to the RS. Strong inter-metal correlation among Ti, V, Cr and Zr in all the cores indicated their contribution from a common source, probably the laterites from hinterland. Trace metals were more enriched in fine-grained sediments than in sand-dominated sediments. Early diagenetic control on the redistribution of metal is evident in core sediments from the middle estuary to Bay. The distribution of Mo, U and Pb followed that of Fe and Mn in the upper estuary and OC in the lower estuary/bay. Our results indicated strong anthropogenic contribution of metals from ore deposits in the upper/middle estuary. The Mn and Cr contents of sediment in the upper/middle estuary and Fe in the middle estuary were highly enriched suggestive of 'significant pollution signal'. More trace metals from the middle estuary were moderately enriched. Speciation studies showed Mn and Pb occurred abundantly in non-residual phases. High Mn content and its high percentage in exchangeable and reductive phases indicate that it was susceptible to be mobilized. However, Fe, Cu and Ni occurred abundantly in residual phases and less percentage of them were expected to be bio-available.

  1. Physical processes in Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica: Inferences from sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, T. O.; Powell, R. D.; Brachfeld, S. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Scherer, R. P.

    2016-06-01

    The hydrologic system beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet is thought to influence both the dynamics and distribution of fast flowing ice streams, which discharge most of the ice lost by the ice sheet. Despite considerable interest in understanding this subglacial network and its affect on ice flow, in situ observations from the ice sheet bed are exceedingly rare. Here we describe the first sediment cores recovered from an active subglacial lake. The lake, known as Subglacial Lake Whillans, is part of a broader, dynamic hydrologic network beneath the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica. Even though "floods" pass through the lake, the lake floor shows no evidence of erosion or deposition by flowing water. By inference, these floods must have insufficient energy to erode or transport significant volumes of sediment coarser than silt. Consequently, water flow beneath the region is probably incapable of incising continuous channels into the bed and instead follows preexisting subglacial topography and surface slope. Sediment on the lake floor consists of till deposited during intermittent grounding of the ice stream following flood events. The fabrics within the till are weaker than those thought to develop in thick deforming beds suggesting subglacial sediment fluxes across the ice plain are currently low and unlikely to have a large stabilizing effect on the ice stream's grounding zone.

  2. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  3. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004).

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi; Kanai, Yutaka; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend.

  4. Biogenic silica in Lake Baikal sediments: results from 1990-1992 American cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Susan J.; Colman, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    The Lake Baikal Paleoclimate Project is a joint Russian-American program established to study the paleoclimate of Central Asia. During three summer field seasons, duplicate Russian and American cores were taken at a number of sites in different sedimentary environments in the lake. Eight cores returned to the U.S. were quantitatively analyzed for biogenic silica using a single-step 5-hour alkaline leach, followed by dissolved silicon analysis by inductively-coupled-plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. Sediments of Holocene age in these cores have biogenic silica maxima that range from about 15 to 80 percent. An underlying zone in each core with low biogenic-silica concentrations (0 to 5 percent) dates from the last glacial maximum. The transition from the last glaciation to the present interglaciation, recorded by biogenic silica, began about 13,000 years ago. Biogenic silica profiles from these cores appear to be a good measure of past diatom productivity and a useful basis for paleoclimatic interpretations.

  5. Historical reconstruction of contamination using sediment cores: A review. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, N.

    1992-03-01

    Historical reconstructions of contamination using cored sediments have been performed in the United States and abroad, in marine as well as freshwater environments. Most studies have dealt with trace metals, while a few reported results for organic contaminants. With some exceptions, these studies show an increase in sediment contamination during the late 1800s, followed by an acceleration in the rate of contamination in the 1940s, and a plateau or a maximum in the 1960-1970s. Little is known about the trends of coastal pollution over the last decade, as only a few studies have been carried out since 1980. From these studies, however, it appears that Pb concentrations have decreased in most areas of the world following the implementation of laws regulating the use of leaded gasoline in automobiles.

  6. The results of pressure coring in Nankai gas-production test site, and plan for pressure core analysis of natural gas-hydrate bearing deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Konno, Y.; Kida, M.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Jin, Y.; Ito, T.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the Methane hydrate research and development (R&D) program in Japan, the first gas-production test from marine methane hydrate deposits is planned to be conducted during first quarter of 2013. The Daini Atsumi Knoll, that is located in the Nankai Trough region along the southeastern margin of Japan has been selected as the production test site by the Methane Hydrate Research Consortium in Japan (MH21). We had already carried out pressure core sampling using Pressure Temperature Core Sampler (PTCS) at 2004 near the test site, however we could not maintain their pressure after core recovery although the samples were stored as frozen material using liquid nitrogen at that time. To grasp better condition of gas hydrate bearing sediments around test-well, we decided to conduct pressure coring and analyses on them again to before starting gas production test. In June-July 2012, the pressure coring operation with Hybrid Pressure Core Sampler (Hybrid PCS) and Pressure Core Analysis/Transfer System (PCATS) was conducted. As the result of coring, more than 20m long pressure cores were taken by Hybrid PCS, successfully (pressure-maintained). They were analyzed and cut, and a part of them were transferred into Pressure Storage Cambers under gas hydrate stability P/T condition using PCATS. Also, the PCATS could take Gamma-ray density, P-wave velocity and high-resolution X-ray CT images of each core, thus, we could choose appropriate samples from each core for each specific experiment. The cores were stored under gas hydrate stability condition within Pressure Storage Cambers, and stored in refrigerator cabinet in Methane Hydrate Research Center (MHRC) of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Many analyses; such as grain size distribution, gas volume measurement, mineral composition, micro-structure observation, permeability and strength/stiffness of sediments, are proposed by researcher of MHRC/AIST to understand relationships

  7. Surface (sea floor) and near-surface (box cores) sediment mineralogy in Baffin Bay as a key to sediment provenance and ice sheet variations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the glacial history of the ice sheets surrounding Baffin Bay and to provide information on sediment pathways, samples from 82 seafloor grabs and core tops, and from seven box cores were subjected to quantitative X-ray diffraction weight percent (wt.%) analysis of the 2000 m) all show an abrupt drop in calcite wt.% (post-5 cal ka BP?) following a major peak in detrital carbonate (mainly dolomite). This dolomite-rich detrital carbonate (DC) event in JR175BC06 is possibly coeval with the Younger Dryas cold event. Four possible glacial-sourced end members were employed in a compositional unmixing algorithm to gain insight into down core changes in sediment provenance at the deep central basin. Estimates of the rates of sediment accumulation in the central basin are only in the range of 2 to 4 cm/cal ka, surprisingly low given the glaciated nature of the surrounding land.

  8. ENHANCED RECOVERY METHODS FOR 85KR AGE-DATING GROUNDWATER: ROYAL WATERSHED, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential widespread use of 85Kr, having a constant input function in the northern hemisphere, for groundwater age-dating would advance watershed investigations. The current input function of tritium is not sufficient to estimate young modern recharge waters. While tri...

  9. Environmental magnetic and petroleum hydrocarbons records in sediment cores from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Basavaiah, N; Ramkumar, T; Deenadayalan, K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, mineral magnetic properties and petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analysed in four sediment cores (C1, A1, T1 and K1) from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India to examine the feasibility of PHC concentrations assessment using magnetic susceptibility. The C1 and A1 cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 35 and 50 cm respectively suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurred in the recent past. Magnetic properties which were enhanced in the upper part of the sediment cores were the result of ferrimagnetic minerals from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis confirmed that the input of magnetic minerals and petroleum hydrocarbons in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same sources. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments.

  10. Source determination of benzotriazoles in sediment cores from two urban estuaries on the Atlantic Coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Mark G; Sullivan, Julia C; Katz, David R; Burgess, Robert M; Bradford Hubeny, J; King, John

    2015-12-15

    Benzotriazoles (BZTs) are used in a broad range of commercial and industrial products, particularly as metal corrosion inhibitors and as ultraviolet (UV) light stabilizer additives in plastics and polymers. In this study, dated sediment cores from two east coast estuaries were analyzed for commonly used BZTs. In Narragansett Bay, UV stabilizing BZTs (UV-BZTs) were present at high levels from 1961 on, reflecting their patent date, local production and long-term preservation in sediment. In Salem Sound, UV-BZTs were present at concentrations consistent with other coastal marine locations not influenced by BZT production. Anticorrosive BZTs (AC-BZTs) were found in both cores, with the highest levels reported to date present in Narragansett Bay, indicating sorption to, and preservation in, sediments. This study revealed that both classes of BZTs have remained structurally intact over time in coastal sediment cores, demonstrating their resistance to degradation and persistence in environmental compartments.

  11. [Hydrolytic enzyme activities in the bottom sediment cores from Norwegian Sea and statistical analysis of their distribution].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, G A; Gordeeva, E L

    2004-01-01

    Proteinase and amylase enzyme activities were evaluated in bottom sediment cores from the Norwegian Sea collected along a transect from the summit plane of the Voring Plateau on the east to fault uplifts of the Yan-Mayen transform zone perpendicular to the present-day Norwegian Current. Spotted vertical distribution of hydrolytic enzyme activities by the location and depth of the cores and specific distribution of proteinase and amylase activities have been revealed in four bottom sediment cores (up to 300 cm; 5 cm resolution). Specific activity distribution has been revealed for different types of enzyme-sorbing bottom sediments. Current methods of statistical analysis and mathematical modeling were applied to reveal the relationship between enzymatic degradation of protein and polysaccharide organic compounds and the content of carbonates and organic matter in bottom sediments.

  12. Historical changes in the Columbia River estuary based on sediment cores: feasibility studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Reisenbichler, R.; Gelfenbaum, G.R.; Peterson, C.; Baker, D.; Leavitt, P.R.; Simenstad, C.A.; Prahl, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the Columbia River estuary to salmon, other fishes, migratory birds, and other species is fairly well established. Relatively little is known, however, about long-term, historic variations in biological processes and conditions within the estuary. For example, have conditions varied greatly with climatic regime shifts and how has dam construction on the Columbia River influenced biological communities over time? We conducted a feasibility study to see if sediment cores from the estuary could be aged and whether biological or contaminant indicators could be identified. Such information could be useful in understanding long-term environmental variation and in restoration studies.

  13. Sediment cores from kettle holes in NE Germany reveal recent impacts of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kleeberg, Andreas; Neyen, Marielle; Schkade, Uwe-Karsten; Kalettka, Thomas; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Glacial kettle holes in young moraine regions receive abundant terrigenous material from their closed catchments. Core chronology and sediment accumulation were determined for two semi-permanent kettle holes, designated RG and KR, on arable land close to the villages of Rittgarten and Kraatz, respectively, in Uckermark, NE Germany. Core dating ((210)Pb, (137)Cs) revealed variable sediment accretion rates through time (RG 0.4-23.1 mm a(-1); KR 0.2-35.5 mm a(-1)), with periods of high accumulation corresponding to periods of intensive agricultural activity and consequent erosional inputs from catchments. Sediment composition (C, N, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Pb, Cd, Zr) was used to determine sediment source and input processes. At RG, annual P input increased from 0.65 kg ha(-1) in the early nineteenth century to 1.67 kg ha(-1) by 2013. At KR, P input increased from 0.6 to 4.1 kg ha(-1) over the last century. There was a concurrent increase in Fe input in both water bodies. Thus, Fe/P ratios showed no temporal trend and did not differ between RG (18.5) and KR (18.4), indicating similar P mobility. At RG, the S/Fe ratio increased from 0.4 to 2.3, indicating more iron sulphides and thus higher P availability, coinciding with high coverage of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza (L.)) and soft hornwort (Ceratophyllum submersum L.). At KR, however, this ratio remained low and relatively unchanged (0.3 ± 0.4), indicating more efficient Fe-P binding and lower hydrophyte productivity. Trends in sediment composition indicate a shift towards eutrophication in both kettle holes, but with differences in timing and magnitude. Other morphologically similar kettle holes in NE Germany that are prone to erosion could have been similarly impacted but may differ in the extent of sediment infilling and degradation of their ecological functions.

  14. Preliminary Results of a Multi-Proxy Lake Sediment Core Study in East-Central France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, T.; Meyers, S.; Rosenmeier, M.; Strano, S.; Straffin, E.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a multi-proxy study of natural and human-induced changes in the Burgundian environment, as recorded in the sediment geochemistry of three small freshwater basins within the Arroux River Valley, east-central France. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates constrain the age of core material collected from the basins, and indicate that these mill and farm ponds were constructed by at least 1200 A.D. The pond sediments are predominantly massive, organic-rich muds that contain discrete sand and gravel lenses likely related to episodic flooding and/or basin drainage. In this study, continuous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning is used to quantify bulk geochemical variability throughout the lake sediment cores, and to investigate specific elemental proxies for paleoenvironmental change (detrital flux, biogenic flux, and redox state). The high-resolution XRF data are supplemented by sediment magnetic susceptibility measurements, and organic matter concentration as determined by loss on ignition. These records demonstrate a general increase in detrital sediment input from 1200 to 1300 A.D., during a period of known regional agricultural expansion. We infer these changes to be the consequence of increased catchment soil erosion and material flux to the water bodies. The data also suggest changes in mill and farm pond primary productivity, also related to soil erosion and changing transport of soil nutrients to the basins. Near the onset of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1500 A.D.) pond productivity reductions are apparent, likely indicating colder climates. These mill and farm pond sedimentary archives, in conjunction with historic records, can be used to better understand past land management strategies. Furthermore, historically documented landscape changes can be examined within the context of prevailing climatic conditions over the last ~800 years in an effort to establish future best management practices and the most

  15. Tracking the Transformation and Preservation of Organic Biomarkers in a Varved Sediment-Core Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolu, J.; Bigler, C.; Bindler, R.

    2014-12-01

    An important premise for reconstructing environmental changes using sediment records is to understand which environmental information reaches the lake bottom and how diagenetic processes may affect the proxies, such as terrestrial and aquatic organic biomarkers. We can tackle this question using a unique series of varved sediment cores collected from the lake Nylandssjön (northern Sweden). In addition to limnological and sediment trap sampling since 2001, we have a collection of freeze cores taken in late winter and stored since 1979, which allows us to track individual varve years (e.g., 1978) over time (~30 years). A previous study using this collection showed that 23 % of C and 35 % of N were lost during the first 25 years with a C:N ratio increase of ≈21, suggesting important implications for diagenetic effects on organic biomarkers. To assess the preservation/transformation of organic biomarkers, we developed a new Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry method that allows the rapid determination of biomarkers from the common OM classes (e.g., plant waxes, microbial lipids, lignins) using sub-mg sample sizes and thus applicable to high-resolution sampling of the varved sediment (Tolu et al., under review). Our results show that the different biomarkers exhibit a broad spectrum of reactivities over ~30 years -% change determined by ([Peak area at t] - [Peak area at t=0])/ [peak area at t=0] x 100-. For example: 67-80 % of the algal chlorophyll-derived product 'phytene' is lost depending which single varve year is followed over time (e.g., 1979). Only 12-32 % of "pristene", the degraded form of algal chlorophyll, is lost. The guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units are affected by a smaller loss, i.e. 5-15 %, and the S/G ratio, indicative of angiosperm/gymnosperm plant input remains stable, which is contrary to previous work on non-varved lake sediments. Considering all biomarkers, the degradation/production plateaued after ~15 years, which indicates that

  16. Quaternary sedimentation and subsidence history of Lake Baikal, Siberia, based on seismic stratigraphy and coring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Karabanov, E.B.; Nelson, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    The long, continuous, high-latitude, stratigraphic record of Lake Baikal was deposited in three broad sedimentary environments, defined by high-resolution seismic-reflection and coring methods: (1) turbidite depositional systems, by far the most widespread, characterizing most of the margins and floors of the main basins of the lake, (2) large deltas of major drainages, and (3) tectonically or topographically isolated ridges and banks. Holocene sedimentation rates based on radiocarbon ages vary by more than an order of magnitude among these environments, from less than about 0.03 mm/yr on ridges and banks to more than about 0.3 mm/yr on basin floors. Extrapolating these rates, with a correction for compaction, yields tentative estimates of about 25 and 11 Ma for the inception of rifting in the Central and North basins, respectively, and less than 6 Ma for the 200-m sediment depth on Academician Ridge. The Selenga Delta has the distinctive form of a classic prograding Gilbert-type delta, but its history appears to represent a complex combination of tectonism and sedimentation. The central part of the delta is underlain by prograding, shallow-water sequences, now several hundred meters below the lake surface. These deposits and much of the delta slope are mantled by fine-grained, deep-water, hemipelagic deposits whose base is estimated to be about 650,000 years old. Modern coarse-grained sediment bypasses the delta slope through fault-controlled canyons that feed large, subaqueous fans at the ends of the South and Central basins. These relations, along with abundant other evidence of recent faulting and the great depths of the Central and South basins, suggest that these two rift basins have experienced a period of unusually rapid subsidence over the last 650,000 years, during at least part of which sedimentation has failed to keep pace.

  17. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  18. Vertical distribution and indications of lipids biomarkers in the sediment core from East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jiangtao; Li, Feng; Yang, Shu; Tan, Liju

    2016-07-01

    To study the distribution and indications of lipids biomarkers in the mud areas of the East China Sea shelf, a sediment core was collected. Lipids were determined to find the origination of different organic matter (fatty acids and sterols) inputs. The results demonstrated that the distribution of fatty acids and sterols indicated the organic matter derived from the mixed allochthonous and autochthonous sources, but mainly autochthonous. The total fatty acids concentrations ranged from 29.08 μg g-1 to 303.92 μg g-1 and exhibited unimodal distribution with the predominance of C16-fatty acid. Neutral lipid concentrations ranged from 1.77 μg g-1 to 4.65 μg g-1. Furthermore, the distribution patterns of sterols varied with depth, and were dominated by C27-sterol and C29-sterol in the top and bottom sediments respectively. Although bacterial lipids were recruited during diagenesis, the refractory terrestrial lipids were usually preferentially preserved. This records dated from the 1980s suggested that the phytoplankton community was mainly influenced by eutrophication in the East China Sea and this variation may be recorded by lipid biomarkers deposited in the sediment.

  19. Phosphorus in foraminiferal sediments from North Atlantic Ridge cores and in pure limestones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B. A.; Sager, S. L.; Holland, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of foraminiferal ooze from two North Atlantic cores were cleaned and progressively dissolved. Most of the P, Fe, and Mn was released during the first of two reductive cleaning steps. Most of the remainder of these elements and most of the Ca were released during the final acid dissolution step. The P in these samples is present largely in Fe- and Mn-rich coatings, not as a constituent of the foraminiferal shells themselves. Our results are consistent with those of earlier studies. The concentration of P in carbonate oozes in which it is clearly associated with coatings is similar to that of modern calcareous sediments in general, and with that of reasonably pure limestones of all ages. Phosphorus is apparently associated with (Fe, Mn)-oxide coatings in many carbonate sediments. The rate of removal of P from the oceans as a constituent of such sediments depends on the rate of formation of (Fe, Mn) coatings, not on the rate of incorporation of P into calcium carbonate.

  20. Holocene paleoclimatic evidence and sedimentation rates from a core in southwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.; Forester, R.M.; Foster, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study of cores in southwestern Lake Michigan suggest that the materials in these cores can be interpreted in terms of both isostatically and climatically induced changes in lake level. Ostracodes and mollusks are well preserved in the Holocene sediments, and they provide paleolimnologic and paleoclimatic data, as well as biogenic carbonate for stable-isotope studies and radiocarbon dating. Pollen and diatom preservation in the cores is poor, which prevents comparison with regional vegetation records. New accelerator-mass spectrometer 14C ages, from both carbon and carbonate fractions, provide basin-wide correlations and appear to resolve the longstanding problem of anomalously old ages that result from detrital organic matter in Great Lakes sediments. Several cores contain a distinct unconformity associated with the abrupt fall in lake level that occurred about 10.3 ka when the isostatically depressed North Bay outlet was uncovered by the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet. Below the unconformity, ostracode assemblages imply deep, cold water with very low total dissolved solids (TDS), and bivalves have ?? 18O (PDB) values as light as - 10 per mil. Samples from just above the unconformity contain littoral to sublittoral ostracode species that imply warmer, higher-TDS (though still dilute) water than that inferred below the unconformity. Above this zone, another interval with ?? 18O values more negative than - 10 occurs. The isotopic data suggest that two influxes of cold, isotopically light meltwater from Laurentide ice entered the lake, one shortly before 10.3 ka and the other about 9 ka. These influxes were separated by a period during which the lake was warmer, shallower, but still very low in dissolved solids. One or both of the meltwater influxes may be related to discharge from Lake Agassiz into the Great Lakes. Sedimentation rates appear to have been constant from about 10 ka to 5 ka. Bivalve shells formed between about

  1. Submerged terrestrial landscapes in the Baltic Sea: Evidence from multiproxy analyses of sediment cores from Fehmarnbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen; Blume, Katharina; Segschneider, Martin; Lücke, Andreas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hübener, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Five sediment cores were taken from the southern part of the Fehmarn Belt (Baltic Sea) in the context of an environmental impact study for the intended fixed traverse between Germany and Denmark. The lithologies of the 8m long cores reveal dramatic changes in sedimentary environments which reflect the early Holocene history of the southern Baltic Sea. A succession of terrestrial, semiterrestrial and limnic facies from glacial sediments to peat, lacustrine/estuarine deposits and finally marine sediments document the interplay of eustatic sea level rise and isostatic rebound, which finally lead to the establishment of marine conditions during the Littorina transgression. An age control of the observed changes was established by dating over 50 C-14 samples of different fractions. During the Lateglacial minerogenic varves with thicknesses of several centimeters verify the existence of a proglacial lake in the Fehmarnbelt. Peat development started around 11.250 cal. BP and terminated ca. 10.600 cal. BP which is roughly contemporaneous with the end of the Yoldia Phase in the central Baltic Sea. The oldest peat layers consist of undecomposed sedges and reed. Woody remains of willows appear not before 10.700 cal BP and indicate a stagnant or slowly decreasing water table. This semi-terrestrial phase is followed by a shallow inland lake which existed until the Littorina transgression around 8.300 cal. BP. Initially the lacustrine sediments exhibit high C/N ratios, low low δ13Corg values and contain numerous wood fragments as well as other botanical macro remains. This indicates shallow conditions close to the lake shore. Later, the occurrence of planktonic diatom species such as Aulacoseira ambigua suggest greater water depths. We did not find any indications of the often postulated catastrophic outburst of the Ancylus Lake via Fehmarnbelt and the Great Belt into the North Sea. Likewise, XRF scanning does not show conspicuous peaks in Ti or K which would have been

  2. Disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb in a sediment core from a shallow Florida lake

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, M.; Peplov, A.J.; Schelske, C.L. )

    1994-07-01

    [sup 210]Pb dating can be used to assign ages in lake sediment cores, calculate rates of sediment accumulation, and determine the timing of recent changes in lake-watershed ecosystems. We used low-background gamma counting to measure [sup 226]Ra and total [sup 210]Pb activity in a core from Lake Rowell, Florida. [sup 226]Ra activity was high and strongly variable throughout the core, even exceeding total [sup 210]Pb activity in recently deposited sediments. We traced one source of Ra-rich sediments to the only inflow, Alligator Creek, where stream-bottom deposits display disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb. High and variable [sup 226]Ra activity in the Lake Rowell profile argues for direct estimates of in situ Ra in lake sediment cores from disturbed watersheds that have Ra-bearing bedrock. Isotopic disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb makes it difficult to distinguish between supported and unsupported [sup 210]Pb activity throughout the Lake Rowell core and would require special assumptions and nonconventional dating models to establish age-depth relationships. 78 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Dechlorane plus and other flame retardants in a sediment core from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xinghua; Marvin, Chris H; Hites, Ronald A

    2007-09-01

    Our previous research on atmospheric samples suggested that Lake Ontario might receive significant amounts of Dechlorane Plus (DP), a highly chlorinated flame retardant, from the atmosphere and from inputs from DP's manufacturing facility in Niagara Falls, New York. To confirm this suspicion, a sediment core from the central basin of Lake Ontario was analyzed for the two isomers of DP, for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and for 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (TBE). The results showed that the concentration of DP in sediment increased rapidly starting in the mid-1970s and reached its peak concentration (310 ng g(-1) dry weight) in the mid-1990s. The peak flux and total inventory of DP were estimated to be 9.3 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) and 120 ng cm(-2), respectively. These values suggest that the total burden of DP in Lake Ontario is approximately 20 tons and that the maximum load rate was approximately 2 tons per year. The highest concentrations of PBDEs and TBE were found in the surficial sediment, with average concentrations of 2.8, 14, and 6.7 ng g(-1) d.w. for PBDE(3-7) (tri-through hepta-BDEs), BDE-209, and TBE, respectively. The surface fluxes were 0.08, 0.43, and 0.20 ng cm(-2) yr(-1), and the inventories were 0.87, 3.9, and 1.8 ng cm(-2) for PBDE3-7, BDE-209, and TBE, respectively. The concentration of DP in Lake Ontario sediment exceeds that of the brominated flame retardants combined.

  4. Response of Core Microbial Consortia to Chronic Hydrocarbon Contaminations in Coastal Sediment Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Jeanbille, Mathilde; Gury, Jérôme; Duran, Robert; Tronczynski, Jacek; Agogué, Hélène; Ben Saïd, Olfa; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Auguet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, microbial surveys investigating the effect of chronic anthropogenic pressure such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminations consider just the alpha and beta diversity and ignore the interactions among the different taxa forming the microbial community. Here, we investigated the ecological relationships between the three domains of life (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya) using 454 pyrosequencing on the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from chronically impacted and pristine sediments, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion, Vermillion coast, Corsica, Bizerte lagoon and Lebanon) and the French Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay and English Channel). Our approach provided a robust ecological framework for the partition of the taxa abundance distribution into 859 core Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 6629 satellite OTUs. OTUs forming the core microbial community showed the highest sensitivity to changes in environmental and contaminant variations, with salinity, latitude, temperature, particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC) and PAH concentrations as main drivers of community assembly. The core communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria for Bacteria, by Thaumarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmata for Archaea and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata for Eukarya. In order to find associations among microorganisms, we generated a co-occurrence network in which PAHs were found to impact significantly the potential predator – prey relationship in one microbial consortium composed of ciliates and Actinobacteria. Comparison of network topological properties between contaminated and non-contaminated samples showed substantial differences in the network structure and indicated a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations in the contaminated sediments. PMID:27790213

  5. Response of Benthic Foraminiferal Size to Oxygen Concentration in Antarctic Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, D.; Keating-Bitonti, C.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen availability is important for biological reactions and the demand of oxygen is determined by the size of the organism. Few marine organisms can tolerate low oxygen conditions, but benthic foraminifera, a group of amoeboid protists that are highly sensitive to environmental factors, are known to live in these conditions. Benthic foraminifera may be able to live in oxygen stressed environments by changing the size and shape of their test. Low oxygen concentrations should favor smaller, thinner-shelled, flattened test morphologies. We hypothesize that the volume-to-surface area ratio of benthic foraminifera will decrease with decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we picked two calcareous species (Epistominella exigua and Cassulinoides porrectus) and one agglutinated species (Portatrochammina antarctica) from three sediment cores collected from Explorer's Cove, Antarctica. Starting at the sediment-water interface, each core spans approximately 5-8 cm of depth. Profiles of dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured at the time of collection. At specific depths within the cores, we measured the three dimensions of picked foraminiferal tests using NIS-Elements. We calculated the volume and surface area of the tests assuming the shape of the foraminifers was an ellipsoid. The size trends of E. exigua confirm our hypothesis that the test volume-to-surface area ratios correlate positively with dissolved oxygen concentrations (p-value < 0.001). However, the size trends of the other species refute our hypothesis: P. antarctica shows no correlation and C. porrectus shows a negative correlation (p-value < 0.001) to dissolved oxygen concentrations. Thus, our results show that the change in size in response to variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations is species dependent. Moreover, we find that calcareous species are more sensitive to oxygen fluctuations than agglutinated species.

  6. Response of Core Microbial Consortia to Chronic Hydrocarbon Contaminations in Coastal Sediment Habitats.

    PubMed

    Jeanbille, Mathilde; Gury, Jérôme; Duran, Robert; Tronczynski, Jacek; Agogué, Hélène; Ben Saïd, Olfa; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Auguet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, microbial surveys investigating the effect of chronic anthropogenic pressure such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminations consider just the alpha and beta diversity and ignore the interactions among the different taxa forming the microbial community. Here, we investigated the ecological relationships between the three domains of life (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya) using 454 pyrosequencing on the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from chronically impacted and pristine sediments, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion, Vermillion coast, Corsica, Bizerte lagoon and Lebanon) and the French Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay and English Channel). Our approach provided a robust ecological framework for the partition of the taxa abundance distribution into 859 core Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 6629 satellite OTUs. OTUs forming the core microbial community showed the highest sensitivity to changes in environmental and contaminant variations, with salinity, latitude, temperature, particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC) and PAH concentrations as main drivers of community assembly. The core communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria for Bacteria, by Thaumarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmata for Archaea and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata for Eukarya. In order to find associations among microorganisms, we generated a co-occurrence network in which PAHs were found to impact significantly the potential predator - prey relationship in one microbial consortium composed of ciliates and Actinobacteria. Comparison of network topological properties between contaminated and non-contaminated samples showed substantial differences in the network structure and indicated a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations in the contaminated sediments.

  7. Possible Recording of the Hilina Pali Excursion in Cored Tyrrhenian Sea Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Marina; Liddicoat, Joseph; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto; de Anteriis, Giovanni; Insinga, Donatella; Angelino, Antimo

    2013-04-01

    First encountered in marine sediment cored from the Gulf of Mexico (19.5˚ N, 267.0˚ E)(Clark and Kennett, 1973), the Hilina Pali Excursion (HPE) is named for a locality in Hawaii (19.5˚ N, 205.0˚ E) where inclination of about negative 40˚ is documented in cored basalt (Teanby et al., 2002). Prior to naming the excursion, Coe et al. (1978) also found shallow inclination in basalt from Kilauea Volcano (19.2˚ N, 204.7˚ E) that is dated at about 18,000 yrs B.P. (uncorrected Carbon-14, Rubin and Berthold, 1961) - the age now assigned to the HPE - and was erupted when the field intensity was reduced to nearly half the present intensity. More recently, the HPE was located at Changbaishan Volcano in northeastern China (40.2˚ N, 128.0˚ E) where the age is established by Ar40/Ar39 dates (Singer et al., 2011). In exposed lake sediments in the Mono Basin, CA (38.0˚ N, 240.8˚ E), shallow positive inclination at about 18,000 yrs B.P. might also be the HPE. In the Mono Basin, normalized (NRM/ARM) intensity is reduced at that time (Zimmerman et al., 2006), and the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) during the reduced intensity form a clockwise trending loop when followed from old to young that descends to 53.8˚ N, 22.7˚ E (n = 6, Alpha-95 = 2.3˚) and is centered at about 50˚ N, 30˚ E (Coe and Liddicoat, 2012). There is a possible excursion of the palaeomagnetic field recorded in marine sediment at a locality in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 25 km south of Ischia (40.5˚ N, 13.7˚ E). The excursion is in sediment from two core segments that span about 22,000-18,000 yrs B.P. (de Alteriis et al., 2010) and occurs as reduced positive inclination (about 50˚) at about 20,000 yrs B.P. that increases to about 80˚ at about 18,000 yrs B.P. when declination changes from west to east. This pattern of field behaviour is similar to the behaviour of the possible HPE in the Mono Basin (Coe and Liddicoat, 2012) and in sediment cored from Lac du Bouchet, FR (44.9˚ N, 3.8˚ E) that is

  8. A 59-year sedimentary record of metal pollution in the sediment core from the Huaihe River, Huainan, Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-12-01

    An approximately 59-year (1955-2014) sedimentary record of metal elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe) in a sediment core, collected from the Huaihe River, Huainan City, Anhui Province, China, was reconstructed by using (210)Pb geochronology. Copper, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn evaluated by enrichment factor (EF) indicated minor contamination due to water pollution accidents of the Huaihe River that occurred in 1990s and 2004. Lead presented the most severe pollution among the metals studied, especially during 1957-1974. The use of leaded petrol and atmospheric deposition of coal combustion flue gases could have contributed to Pb contamination. In spite of the general good quality (mean sediment pollution index (SPI) 35.69) of the sediment core evaluated by SPI based on the principal component analysis, worse sediment qualities in the upper section (<6 cm, 2004) were still observed, suggesting intensive human activities causing the increasing concentrations of metals in recent decades.

  9. The Impact of Enhanced He and CNONa Abundances on Globular Cluster Relative Age-Dating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Aparicio, Antonio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as ~0.5 (or ~6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates—taken from the literature—of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  10. Microbial population, activity, and phylogenetic diversity in the subseafloor core sediment from the Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Suzuki, M.; Takai, K.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

    2002-12-01

    Subseafloor environments has already been recognized as the largest biosphere on the planet Earth, however, the microbial diversity and activity has been still poorly understood, even in their impacts on biogeochemical processes, tectonic settings, and paleoenvironmental events. We demonstrate here the evaluation of microbial community structure and active habitats in deeply buried cold marine sediments collected from the Sea of Okhotsk by a combined use of molecular ecological surveys and culturing assays. The piston core sediment (MD01-2412) was collected by IMAGES (International Marine Global Change Study) Project from the southeastern Okhotsk Sea, June 2001. The total recovered length was about 58m. The lithology of the core sediment was mainly constructed from pelagic clay (PC) and volcanic ash layers (Ash). We collected aseptically the most inside core parts from 16 sections at different depths for microbiological study. The direct count of DAPI-stained cells revealed that the cells in Ash samples were present 1.2 to 2.2 times higher than in PC samples. The quantitative-PCR of 16S rDNA between bacterial and archaeal rDNA suggested that the increased population density in Ash layers was caused by the bacterial components. We studied approximately 650 and 550 sequences from bacterial and archaeal rDNA clone libraries, respectively. The similarity and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the microbial community structures were apparently different between in Ash layers and PC samples. From bacterial rDNA clone libraries, the members within gamma-Proteobacteria such as genera Halomonas, Shewanella, Psychromonas and Methylosinus were predominantly detected in Ash layers whereas the Dehalococcoides group and delta-Proteobacteria were major bacterial components in PC samples. From archaeal libraries, the sequences from Ash and PC samples were affiliated into the clusters represented by the environmental sequences obtained from terrestrial and deep-sea environments

  11. Radiometric dating of sediment cores from a hydrothermal vent zone off Milos Island in the Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Aysun; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Fowler, Scott W; Appleby, Peter

    2003-05-20

    Sediment cores from a hydrothermal vent zone off Milos Island in the Aegean Sea were dated using the 210Pb method. The average unsupported 210Pb inventory in the cores was calculated to be 3256 Bq m(-2). The corresponding mean annual 210Pb flux of 105 Bq m(-2) year(-1) is comparable to estimates of the atmospheric flux given in the literature. 210Pb fluxes calculated from the unsupported 210Pb inventories in cores are also comparable with the 210Pb vertical fluxes determined from settling particles off the coast of Milos Island. The highest unsupported 210Pb concentrations (89 Bq kg(-1)) were measured in the sediments nearest to the hydrothermal vent area suggesting that the sedimentation rate is lowest at this site. Direct gamma measurements of 210Pb were used to date three sediment cores that are located at different distances from the vent zone: one is in the immediate vicinity of the vent; and others are outside the zone. Sedimentation rates for these cores, calculated using the CRS and CIC models, ranged from 0.088+/-0.008 cm year(-1) to 0.14+/-0.01 cm year(-1). Where both models were applicable, the results given by the two methods were in good agreement. 137Cs concentrations in all three cores generally declined with depth but showed no clear signal of either the period of maximum fallout from weapons testing or the Chernobyl accident. 210Po activities were also measured and the maximum 210Po concentration was in the sediment surface layer (166 Bq kg(-1)).

  12. Diagenetic effects on magnetic minerals in a Holocene lacustrine sediment core from Huguangyan maar lake, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xudong; Wang, Yong; Bian, Liu; Shen, Ji

    2016-09-01

    Post-depositional reductive diagenesis usually results in partial or entire cleansing of the pristine palaeomagnetic signal, therefore, its intensity is important to be assessed for sediments that are in the purpose of retrieving palaeomagnetic information. Grain size, rock magnetic and geochemical studies on the entire core, along with scanning electron microscope observations and X-ray diffraction analyses for representative samples were carried out on a Holocene sediment core retrieved from the deep water part of Huguangyan maar lake (HGY), southeast China. The pristine magnetic mineral assemblage of the studied core is domianted by superparamagnetic (SP) and stable single domain titanomagnetite, and high coercivity minerals are not detectable. Based on down-core variations of the average grain size (MZ), total organic carbon (TOC), detrital elements (Al, Ti, Fe and Mn) and the concentration and mineralogy of magnetic minerals, the studied core could be divided into three subsections. The uppermost subsection is the least affected by diagenesis, with detrital titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic mineral. This is owing to low TOC contents, but high detrital input generated by weak Asian summer monsoon intensity during the late Holocene. The intermediate subsection shows down-core progressively enhanced dissolution of detrital titanomagnetite, and concomitant formation of authigenic pyrite and siderite, which indicates down-core progressively enhanced diagenesis generated by down-core progressive increasing TOC content, but decreasing detrital input as the result of down-core progressively strengthened Asian summer monsoon intensity. The pristine magnetic mineral assemblage has been profoundly modified in the lowermost subsection. At certain positions of the lowermost subsection, detrital titanomagnetite has been even completely dissolved via diagenesis, giving place to authigenic pyrite and siderite. High TOC content, but low detrital input generated from

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Renchao; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Yin, Wei; Fan, Aiping; Han, Zuozhen

    2016-09-01

    The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China). The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.

  14. Estimation of sources and inflow of dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the sediment core of Lake Suwa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Eun, Heesoo; Watanabe, Eiki; Kumon, Fujio; Miyabara, Yuichi

    2005-12-01

    To elucidate the historical changes in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (co-PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) inflows in Lake Suwa, their concentrations in the sediment core were analyzed in 5 cm interval. The maximum concentrations (depth cm) of PCDDs/DFs, co-PCBs, and PAHs were 25.2 ng/g dry (30-35 cm), 19.0 ng/g dry (30-35 cm), and 738, 795 ng/g dry (50-55 cm, 30-35 cm), respectively. Age and sedimentation rate of the sediment were estimated from the vertical changes in apparent density. Deposition rate of dioxins and PAHs were calculated from the concentration and sedimentation rate of the sediment. The results indicate that large amounts of dioxins and PAHs flowed into the lake in flood stage compared to normal stage.

  15. Concentration of antifouling biocides and metals in sediment core samples in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay.

    PubMed

    Tsunemasa, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2014-06-04

    Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter's degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT)) were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  16. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    PubMed Central

    Tsunemasa, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT)) were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation. PMID:24901529

  17. Characterization of organic matter in a sediment Core near the Mataripe refinery, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; Zucchi, Maria do Rosário; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; de Argollo, Roberto Max

    2016-04-15

    A sediment core was taken from the Todos os Santos Bay, near the Mataripe Bahia-Brazil refinery. The results of dating, (210)Pb and (137)Cs methods, combined with organic indicators, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and total organic carbon (TOC), showed significant change with the start of production of the oil fields of Aratu, Itaparica and Dom João (1939-1947) and the construction of the Mataripe refinery (1949-1950). This event was marked by a series of significant changes, including an abrupt increase in TOC and the growth of PAH concentrations and the presence Unresolved/Resolved ratio (UR/R)>4 in n-alkanes fraction, which indicated that the contamination was of petrogenic origin. The δ(13)C of specific n-alkanes compounds showed gradual deplete with the depth.

  18. Historical tide gauge data and sediment cores put Hurricane Sandy in context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-11-01

    Historical tide gauge data and sediment cores put Hurricane Sandy in context Several studies that put the recent devastating Hurricane Sandy in context were reported on 5 November at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Charlotte, N. C. Stefan Talke of Portland State University explained that old tide gauge data that he and colleagues have been digitizing show that Sandy was the largest hurricane to hit New York in more than 100 years. Compared to the 1893 storm that was the largest in their records, "Hurricane Sandy was much larger, probably about twice as large, in terms of storm surge," he said. Their study is part of an effort to determine whether sea level rise is accelerating.

  19. Major and trace elements in 35 lake and reservoir sediment cores from across the United States, 1994-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on major and trace element concentrations in sediment cores collected from 35 lakes and reservoirs during 1994-2001. The lakes and reservoirs are located in or near 18 major urban areas across the United States and provide a geographically diverse coverage of urban land use for the country as well as some reference settings. Vertical intervals of the cores were analyzed for eight major elements and eight trace elements.

  20. An assessment of butyltins and metals in sediment cores from the St. Thomas East End Reserves, USVI.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, S Ian; Apeti, Dennis A; Mason, Andrew L; Pait, Anthony S

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) concentrations near a marina complex in Benner Bay on St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, were elevated relative to other areas in a larger study of the southeastern shore of the island. At the request of the USVI Coastal Zone Management Program, sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected to better define the extent and history of TBT deposition in the vicinity of Benner Bay. The sediment cores were sectioned into 2-cm intervals and dated with (210)Pb and (137)Cs. The core sections and the surface samples were analyzed for butyltins and 16 elements. Deposition rates varied from 0.07-5.0 mm/year, and were highest in the marina complex. Core ages ranged from 54 to 200 years. The bottoms of the cores contained shell hash, but the top layers all consisted of much finer material. Surface concentrations of TBT exceeded 2000 ng Sn/g (dry weight) at two locations. At a depth of 8 cm TBT exceeded 8800 ng Sn/g in the marina complex sediment. Based on the ratio of tributyltin to total butyltins, it appears that the marina sediments are the source of contamination of the surrounding area. There is evidence that vessels from neighboring islands may also be a source of fresh TBT. Copper concentrations increase over time up to the present. Gradients of virtually all metals and metalloids extended away from the marina complex. NOAA sediment quality guidelines were exceeded for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg.

  1. The Effectiveness of L*a*b* Color Analysis in Determining the Elemental and Mineralogical Composition of Lake Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, S.; Lascu, I.; Myrbo, A.; Wittkop, C.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution L*a*b color and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental profiles were compared for a set of Midwestern U.S. lake sediment cores held in the National Lacustrine Core Repository. The cores all display centi- to decimeter scale light-dark banding (nicknamed "raccoon-tail banding"), determined by variations in carbonate versus organic matter content. Carbonate minerals are evidently depleted in the organic-rich strata due to carbonate dissolution in the hypolimnion and sediment column, which is the result of both external (i.e., climatic) and internal factors. XRF was performed at a resolution comparable to the L*a*b* image analysis of the core sections, which allowed the investigation of the relationship between sediment color and composition within a core. The "a" component in this image analysis is correlated with elemental iron abundance, and the "b" and "L" components are related to calcium (calcite) and organic carbon content. Overall, this study has determined that L*a*b* color analysis of high-resolution digital images is an easy and fast way to obtain preliminary information about the composition of core material. When used in conjunction with scanning XRF data, color analysis can replace lower-resolution geochemical analyses to produce sub-annual scale records of lake dynamics and responses to climate change.

  2. A carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur elemental and isotopic study in dated sediment cores from the Louisiana Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Kendall, C.; Orem, W.H.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rollog, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three sediment cores were collected off the Mississippi River delta on the Louisiana Shelf at sites that are variably influenced by recurring, summer-time water-column hypoxia and fluvial loadings. The cores, with established chronology, were analyzed for their respective carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur elemental and isotopic composition to examine variable organic matter inputs, and to assess the sediment record for possible evidence of hypoxic events. Sediment from site MRJ03-3, which is located close to the Mississippi Canyon and generally not influenced by summer-time hypoxia, is typical of marine sediment in that it contains mostly marine algae and fine-grained material from the erosion of terrestrial C4 plants. Sediment from site MRJ03-2, located closer to the mouth of the Mississippi River and at the periphery of the hypoxic zone (annual recurrence of summer-time hypoxia >50%), is similar in composition to core MRJ03-3, but exhibits more isotopic and elemental variability down-core, suggesting that this site is more directly influenced by river discharge. Site MRJ03-5 is located in an area of recurring hypoxia (annual recurrence >75%), and is isotopically and elementally distinct from the other two cores. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of this core prior to 1960 is similar to average particulate organic matter from the lower Mississippi River, and approaches the composition of C3 plants. This site likely receives a greater input of local terrestrial organic matter to the sediment. After 1960 and to the present, a gradual shift to higher values of ??13C and ??15N and lower C:N ratios suggests that algal input to these shelf sediments increased as a result of increased productivity and hypoxia. The values of C:S and ??34S reflect site-specific processes that may be influenced by the higher likelihood of recurring seasonal hypoxia. In particular, the temporal variations in the C:S and ??34S down-core are likely caused by changes in the rate of

  3. Grain Size Analyses of Neogene-Quaternary Sediments from the Arctic Coring Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Lado-Insua, T.; O'Regan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) recovered the first Cenozoic sediment sequence from the central Arctic Ocean. Results from this expedition indicate that perennial sea ice may have formed in the Arctic at or before the early mid-Miocene. Sea ice formation is an important process in the global climate system, affecting directly the Earth's albedo and indirectly the Meridional Overturning Circulation. The deep Arctic Ocean receives sediment primarily from ice-rafted debris and turbidity currents. Suspension freezing on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic has generally been considered the major process trapping sediment within sea ice. Sea ice motion is largely driven by wind. The anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre transports sea ice over the Amerasia Basin, while the Transpolar Drift transports it across the Eurasian Basin. The Transpolar Drift is divided into a Siberian and Polar branch, both branches cross the position of the ACEX drilling sites on the Lomonosov Ridge. Grain size analyses of ACEX sediments were obtained with a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle sizing system. Preliminary analyses indicate pulses with a higher percentage of sand between 3.64 Ma ago until the end of the Gelasian (1.8 Ma). The percent sand remained relatively low during the Cenozoic with the exception of two major increases of sand occurring ~6.2 and 9.2 Ma ago and a smaller peak ~8.2 Ma ago. These intervals also show less sorting and lower values for skewness and kurtosis. Increases in the percentage of sand and less sorting at this latitude relate to ice rafted debris, indicating an increase in sea-ice melting during these periods. A Principal Components Analysis and a Maximum Correlation Factor Analysis agree on a correlation between different grain sizes that would divide the grain size in two major distributions (<19 μm and 19 μm to 2 mm) based on the sedimentation and transport mechanism. These two classes do not agree with the major divisions of sand (63

  4. Geoacoustic characteristics at the DH-2 long-core sediments in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kim, Seong Pil; Hahn, Jooyoung

    2015-04-01

    A long core of 27.2 m was acquired at the DH-2 site (37°34.355'N and 129°19.516'E) in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. The core site is located near the Donghae City and the water depth is 316.6 m deep. The long-core sediment was recovered using the Portable Remotely Operated Drill (PROD), a fully contained drilling system, remotely operated at the seafloor. The recovered core sediments were analyzed for physical, sedimentological, and geoacoustic properties mostly at 10~30 cm intervals. Based on the long-core data with subbottom and air-gun profiles at the DH-2 core site, geoacoustic characteristics of the deeper sedimentary successions were firstly investigated in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. The geoacoustic measurements comprise 86 P-wave velocities and 76 attenuation values. These geoacoustic characteristics of the DH-2 long core probably contribute for reconstruction of geoacoustic models reflecting vertical and lateral variability of acoustic properties in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. Keywords: long core, geoacoustic, East Sea, continental margin, P-wave speed Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Agency of Defense Development (UD140003DD).

  5. THE IMPACT OF ENHANCED He AND CNONa ABUNDANCES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER RELATIVE AGE-DATING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    MarIn-Franch, Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano E-mail: antapaj@iac.e E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.i

    2010-05-10

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as {approx}0.5 (or {approx}6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates-taken from the literature-of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  6. 3D Porosity Estimation of the Nankai Trough Sediments from Core-log-seismic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake fault. Historic, great megathrust earthquakes with a recurrence interval of 100-200 yr have generated strong motion and large tsunamis along the Nankai Trough subduction zone. At the Nankai Trough margin, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate to the northwest at a convergence rate ~4 cm/yr. The Shikoku Basin, the northern part of the PSP, is estimated to have opened between 25 and 15 Ma by backarc spreading of the Izu-Bonin arc. The >100-km-wide Nankai accretionary wedge, which has developed landward of the trench since the Miocene, mainly consists of offscraped and underplated materials from the trough-fill turbidites and the Shikoku Basin hemipelagic sediments. Particularly, physical properties of the incoming hemipelagic sediments may be critical for seismogenic behavior of the megathrust fault. We have carried out core-log-seismic integration (CLSI) to estimate 3D acoustic impedance and porosity for the incoming sediments in the Nankai Trough. For the CLSI, we used 3D seismic reflection data, P-wave velocity and density data obtained during IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expeditions 322 and 333. We computed acoustic impedance depth profiles for the IODP drilling sites from P-wave velocity and density data. We constructed seismic convolution models with the acoustic impedance profiles and a source wavelet which is extracted from the seismic data, adjusting the seismic models to observed seismic traces with inversion method. As a result, we obtained 3D acoustic impedance volume and then converted it to 3D porosity volume. In general, the 3D porosities show decrease with depth. We found a porosity anomaly zone with alteration of high and low porosities seaward of the trough axis. In this talk, we will show detailed 3D porosity of the incoming sediments, and present implications of the porosity anomaly zone for the

  7. A Bayesian Approach for Reconstructing the Past Ocean Circulation from a Limited Number of Sediment-Core Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primeau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoceanographers are faced with the problem of making inferences about the ventilation of the ocean in the past from localized benthic and planktonic radiocarbon measurements obtained from a small number of sediment cores, which leads to an underdetermined problem. With the goal of moving beyond testing the null hypothesis that the sediment core data are consistent with the modern circulation we seek to reconstruct the most probable paleocirculation based on our knowledge of ocean dynamics and available constraints from sediment-core radiocarbon records. We propose a Bayesian inversion approach in which we use a modern circulation estimate constrained by modern radiocarbon data to define the mean of the prior probability distribution for the unknown paleocirculation. The approach resolves the indeterminacy of the inverse problem by choosing a paleocirculation that is minimally different from the modern circulation while still being consistent with the available sediment-core radiocarbon records. In this talk we will present the general formulation of the method as well as various approximations to reduce the computational challenge.

  8. RECONSTRUCTION OF CONTAMINANT TRENDS IN A SALT WEDGE ESTUARY WITH SEDIMENT CORES DATED USING A MULTIPLE PROXY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taunton River is a partially mixed tidal estuary in southeastern Massachusetts (USA) which has received significant contaminant inputs, yet little information exists on the history of discharge and the subsequent fate of these contaminants. Three sediment cores taken along a...

  9. Reconstruction of the conditions of Late Holocene sedimentation by integrated analysis of a core of the bottom sediments from the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vologina, E. G.; Sturm, M.; Kalugin, I. A.; Darin, A. V.; Astakhov, A. S.; Chernyaeva, G. P.; Kolesnik, A. N.; Bosin, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Integrated studies were performed on bottom sediments collected in the Chukchi Sea in the northern part of the Gerald Canyon 150 km northeast from Wrangel Island. The recent sedimentation rate amounted to 0.9 mm/year by 210Pb at the sampling site. The concentrations of biogenic components (SiO2bio, Corg, Ntot, and Br) were minimum at the lower part of the core, where an increase of Thalassiosira antarctica antarctica, probably results from low biological productivity during the Maunder Minimum. The increased concentrations of biogenic components, as well as the decreased values of magnetic susceptibility and X-ray density, in the upper part of the core (1-2 cm) correspond to the last decade of recent of global warming.

  10. Benchscale Assessment of the Efficacy of a Reactive Core Mat to Isolate PAH-spiked Aquatic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Meric, Dogus; Barbuto, Sara; Sheahan, Thomas C.; Shine, James P.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a benchscale testing program to assess the efficacy of a reactive core mat (RCM) for short term isolation and partial remediation of contaminated, subaqueous sediments. The 1.25 cm thick RCM (with a core reactive material such as organoclay with filtering layers on top and bottom) is placed on the sediment, and approximately 7.5 – 10 cm of overlying soil is placed on the RCM for stability and protection. A set of experiments were conducted to measure the sorption characteristics of the mat core (organoclay) and sediment used in the experiments, and to determine the fate of semi-volatile organic contaminants and non-reactive tracers through the sediment and reactive mat. The experimental study was conducted on naphthalene-spiked Neponset River (Milton, MA) sediment. The results show nonlinear sorption behavior for organoclay, with sorption capacity increasing with increasing naphthalene concentration. Neponset River sediment showed a notably high sorption capacity, likely due to the relatively high organic carbon fraction (14%). The fate and transport experiments demonstrated the short term efficiency of the reactive mat to capture the contamination that is associated with the post-capping period during which the highest consolidation-induced advective flux occurs, driving solid particles, pore fluid and soluble contaminants toward the reactive mat. The goal of the mat placement is to provide a physical filtering and chemically reactive layer to isolate contamination from the overlying water column. An important finding is that because of the high sorption capacity of the Neponset River sediment, the physical filtering capability of the mat is as critical as its chemical reactive capacity. PMID:24367237

  11. Initial Results on the Extraterrestrial Component of New Sediment Cores Containing Deposits of the Eltanin Impact Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Background The impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea (2.15 Ma) is the only known impact in a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) basin. In 1995, Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4 made the first geological survey of the suspected impact region. Three sediment cores sampled around the San Martin seamounts (approx. 57.5 S, 91 W) contained well-preserved impact deposits. Sediments of Eocene age and younger were ripped up and redeposited by the impact. The depositional sequence produced by the impact has three units: a chaotic assemblage of sediment fragments up to 50 cm, followed by laminated sands deposited as a turbulent flow, and finally silts and clays that accumulated from dispersed sediments in the water column. The meteoritic impact ejecta, which is composed of shock-melted asteroidal materials and unmelted meteorites, settled through the water column and concentrated near the top of the laminated sands.

  12. Normalization to lithium for the assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediment cores from the Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, M; Angelidis, M O

    2001-07-01

    Sediment cores from the harbour and the coastal zone of Mytilene, island of Lesvos, Greece, were used to study the metal contamination caused by the discharge of untreated urban effluents into the sea. In the harbour. the upper layers were highly enriched in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, while no metal enrichment was recorded in the cores from the wider coastal zone. The metal data were normalized to Li (conservative element) to compensate for the natural textural and mineralogical variability. It was found that only the upper 18 cm of the core collected from the harbour of Mytilene could be reported as metal contaminated. Also, through the normalization procedure, it was found that the surface layers of coastal sediments assumed 'clean' were enriched in Pb, probably as a result of atmospheric transportation of the metal from the nearby town.

  13. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  14. The multiproxy analysis of a lacustrine-palustrine sediment core from Lebanon reveals four climate cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasse, F. A.; van Campo, E.; Demory, F.; Develle, A.; Tachikawa, K.; Buchet, N.; Sonzogni, C.; Thouveny, N.; Bard, E. G.; Vidal, L.

    2013-12-01

    The study of a sediment core retrieved from the small Yammouneh basin (34.06°N-34.09°N, 36.0°E-36.03°E, 1360 m a.s.l.), Lebanon, provides for the first time a nearly continuous record spanning approximately 360 ka in northern Levant. The basin, located on the eastern flank of Mount Lebanon, is mainly supplied by karstic springs which discharge snowmelt water infiltrated through the western highlands. Part of its water inputs is lost by seepage through its faulted bottom. The core, 73 m long, consists of four whitish carbonated intervals rich in lacustrine organism remains, interrupting a thick accumulation of colored silty clays almost devoid of shells but for ostracods. We analyzed sediment features (mineralogical and elemental composition, light microscopy and SEM observations, grain size), magnetic properties, pollen and calcite oxygen isotopes (δc) derived from ostracod shell composition. The chronological framework is based on 14C ages of wood fragments, U/Th dating, and a high resolution reconstruction of relative paleointensity variations correlated with regional (Portuguese margin) and global (Sint-800) master curves down to about 360 ka. Although the chronology still needs improvement, the 3 upper carbonated intervals undoubtedly fit Interglacials MIS 1, MIS 5.5 and MIS 7, respectively. The deepest one (49-60 m) is assigned to MIS 9 by its proxy analogies with dated Interglacials. The sequence covers a large part of MIS 10. Relationships between individual indicators are explored, in addition to visual comparisons of individual records, from the multiproxy matrix after resampling at a common depth scale of 25 cm. We compute simple linear coefficients between 20 variables, perform Principal Component Analyses based on all variables, on terrestrial pollen biomes, on all sedimentological proxies, and cross-correlations between them and δc. During Interglacial maxima, high local and regional efficient moisture is evidenced by dense arboreal vegetation of

  15. Historical trends of trace metals in a sediment core from a contaminated tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Green, Peter G; Young, Thomas M

    2009-08-01

    Sedimentation of metals preserves historical records of contaminant input from local and regional sources, and measurement of metals in sediment cores can provide information for reconstruction of historical changes in regional water and sediment quality. Sediment core was collected from Stege Marsh located in central San Francisco Bay (California, USA) to investigate the historical input of trace metals. Aluminum-normalized enrichment factors indicate that inputs from anthropogenic sources were predominant over natural input for Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Among these, lead was the most anthropogenically impacted metal with enrichment factors ranging from 32 to 108. Depth profiles and coefficients of variation show that As, Cd, and Se were also influenced by anthropogenic input. The levels of these anthropogenically impacted metals decline gradually towards the surface due to regulation of the use of leaded gasoline, municipal and industrial wastewater discharge control, and closure of point sources on the upland of Stege Marsh. Although trace metal contamination is expected to be continuously declining, the rates of decline have slowed down. For lead, it is estimated to take 44, 82, and 153 years to decrease to probable effects level (112 microg/g), the San Francisco Bay ambient surface sediment level (43.2 microg/g), and the local baseline levels (5 microg/g), respectively. Some metals in surface sediments (0-6 cm) are still higher than sediment quality guidelines such as the probable effects level. To further facilitate the recovery of sediment quality, more efficient management plans need to be developed and implemented to control trace metals from non-point sources such as stormwater runoff.

  16. Sediment Core Contaminant Profiling in Site Assessment: Implications for Atmospheric Deposition of Contaminants Versus Point Source Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, A. A.; Johnston, M. J.; Nelson, T.; Desrocher, S.; Bergquist, B.; Slater, G. F.

    2009-05-01

    Differentiating between point source industrial contamination and regional atmospheric deposition is integral to accurately implementing effective monitoring, mitigation and remediation programs. This study evaluates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) profiles in sediment cores retrieved from two northern Ontario lakes. One lake (Lake A) has an industrial facility located close to the shore, while the other (Lake B) located 3 km away does not. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the use of contaminant concentration profiling in sediment cores as a tool for differentiating atmospheric versus point source industrial inputs to lake sediments. Concentration profiles for Pb, Hg and PAH from both lakes were consistent with atmospheric deposition as observed in other lakes lacking industrial sources. Hg concentrations increased from 0.18 µg/g at a depositional date of approximately 1900 to 0.26 µg/g in the uppermost sediments. Concurrently, Pb concentrations increased from 5 ug/g at a depositional date of approximately 1900 to 25 ug/g and 26 ug/g in the most recent sediment of Lakes A and B respectfully. Both of these profiles were similar to other remote lakes. The range in concentrations of individual PAHs from both lakes (0.1 ug/g to 0.17 ug/g) were also within the range of concentrations found in other remote areas, however, they were significantly lower than those observed in nearby Siskiwit Lake. This difference was explained by the configuration of regional combustion sources and prevailing wind patterns that indicated Siskiwit Lake was receiving inputs from coal fired power generation plants which do not appear to be impacting the lakes in this study. In addition, comparison of cores collected proximal to the industrial site and in the middle of the lake revealed no relationship regarding increasing concentrations with proximity to the industrial facility. Thus the observed concentrations in these sediments were concluded to

  17. Paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism of GLAD800 sediment cores from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heil, C.W.; King, J.W.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Colman, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A ???220,000-year record recovered in a 120-m-long sediment core from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, provides an opportunity to reconstruct climate change in the Great Basin and compare it with global climate records. Paleomagnetic data exhibit a geomagnetic feature that possibly occurred during the Laschamp excursion (ca. 40 ka). Although the feature does not exhibit excursional behavior (???40?? departure from the expected value), it might provide an additional age constraint for the sequence. Temporal changes in salinity, which are likely related to changes in freshwater input (mainly through the Bear River) or evaporation, are indicated by variations in mineral magnetic properties. These changes are represented by intervals with preserved detrital Fe-oxide minerals and with varying degrees of diagenetic alteration, including sulfidization. On the basis of these changes, the Bear Lake sequence is divided into seven mineral magnetic zones. The differing magnetic mineralogies among these zones reflect changes in deposition, preservation, and formation of magnetic phases related to factors such as lake level, river input, and water chemistry. The occurrence of greigite and pyrite in the lake sediments corresponds to periods of higher salinity. Pyrite is most abundant in intervals of highest salinity, suggesting that the extent of sulfidization is limited by the availability of SO42-. During MIS 2 (zone II), Bear Lake transgressed to capture the Bear River, resulting in deposition of glacially derived hematite-rich detritus from the Uinta Mountains. Millennial-scale variations in the hematite content of Bear Lake sediments during the last glacial maximum (zone II) resemble Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations and Heinrich events (within dating uncertainties), suggesting that the influence of millennial-scale climate oscillations can extend beyond the North Atlantic and influence climate of the Great Basin. The magnetic mineralogy of zones IV-VII (MIS 5, 6, and 7

  18. Iridium Concentrations and Abundances of Meteoritic Ejecta from the Eltanin Impact in Sediment Cores from Polarstern Expedition ANT XII/4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2002-01-01

    The abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin asteroid impact have been examined in several sediment cores recovered by the FS Polarstern during expedition ANT XII/4 using elemental concentrations of iridium and weights of coarse ejecta debris. Three cores with well-preserved impact deposits, PS204-1, PS2708-1, and PS2709-1, each contain Ir and ejecta fluences similar to those found in USNS Eltanin core E13-4. Small Ir anomalies and traces of ejecta were found in cores PS2706-1 and PS2710-1, but since these cores lack well-defined deposits, these are considered to be reworked and not representative of the fallout. No evidence of ejecta was found in cores PS2802-1 and PS2705-1. These results confirm earlier speculation that the Eltanin impact resulted in deposits of ejecta with up to 1 gram/sq centimeter of depris over a wide area of the ocean floor. However, there are sill large uncertainties over the actual regional or global extent of this unique sediment deposit.

  19. Reconstructing Quaternary precipitation periodicities with Santa Barbara Basin sediment cores: application of the siliciclastic detrital element proxy at annual resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Hinnov, L.; Brown, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation patterns in Southern California directly affect water availability, and extreme weather exacerbates water stress and subsequent societal impacts in this highly populated and vital agricultural region. In the future, mean annual precipitation is predicted to decrease in California, although frequency of heavy precipitation events may increase. To reconstruct annual precipitation history in Southern California, including both the magnitude and recurrence intervals, we analyze sediment from two Late Holocene (past ~150 years and past ~2 ka) and five Pleistocene (~400-450 ka [MIS 11 and 12] and ~735 ka [MIS 18]) cores collected in Santa Barbara Basin using data from XRF core scans for elements associated with the terrigenous siliciclastic detrital fraction of core sediment (Al, Fe, K, Rb, Si, Ti, Zr). We develop a floating annual age model for each core through identification of the annual signal in the siliciclastic detrital fraction. Siliciclastic detrital element concentrations increase in sediment associated with precipitation events and floods, and decrease in sediment associated with droughts. Variability in the concentrations of these elements can thus be used as a precipitation and river runoff proxy. We investigate changes in annual detrital sediment input during glacial, deglacial, and interglacial climate states, and changes due to rapid climate change (centennial to millennial time scales). Power spectral analysis of our annually tuned time series reveals precipitation periodicities associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (15-25, 50-70 years) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (2-7 years) that are dissimilar to common tidal perigee and nodal periods. These results provide information on the nature and response of precipitation patterns due to past changes in climate forcing, which will improve climate predictions for this region, especially interannual and decadal variability that impact climate on human timescales (i.e. <100 years).

  20. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Q; Zhang, G; Li, X D; Li, J; Peng, X Z; Qi, S H

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the hydrodynamic and sedimentation conditions, the western shoal of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) is known to be an important sink of terrestrial substances including particle-associated pollutants from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. In this study, we report the sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the 20(th) century in a sediment core from the western shoal of the PRE. The summation PAH concentration ranged from 59 ng g(-1) to 330 ng g(-1) in the core with two distinct peaks. An initial increase of summation PAH concentration was found around the 1860s. The amounts of PAHs remained relatively constant for roughly 100 years, followed by the first peak in the 1950s. Then, there was a decrease in PAH concentration and flux in the 1960s and 1970s. A sharp increase of PAH concentration was observed in the early 1980s with a maximum concentration in the 1990s. The PAH diagnostic ratios indicated that the PAHs in the sediment core were mainly of pyrolytic origin, and that atmospheric deposition and land runoff may serve as the important pathways for PAHs input to the sediment. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was used as an index of socioeconomic development in the PRD region, which was correlated positively with the changes of PAH concentration and flux in the sediment core. The rapid increase in vehicle numbers and energy consumption in the region in the last two decades may have contributed to the rapid PAH increase since the early 1980s. The results clearly elucidated the impact of regional economic development on the estuarine environment.

  1. Quantitative mineralogy of surface sediments of the Iceland shelf, and application to down-core studies of holocene ice-rafted sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray diffraction analyses on the < 2 mm sediment fraction from the Iceland shelves are reported for subglacial diamictons, seafloor surface sediments, and the last 2000 cal yr BP from two cores. The overall goal of the paper is to characterize the spatial variability of the mineralogy of the present-day surface sediments (18 non-clay minerals and 7 clay minerals), compare that with largely in situ erosional products typified by the composition of subglacial diamictons, and finally examine the late Holocene temporal variability in mineral composition using multi-mineral compositions. The subglacial diamictons are dominated in the non-clay-mineral fraction by the plagioclase feldspars and pyroxene with 36.7 ?? 6.1 and 17.9 ?? 3.5 wt % respectively, with smectites being the dominant clay minerals. The surface seafloor sediments have similar compositions although there are substantial amounts of calcite, plus there is a distinct band of sites from NW to N-central Iceland that contain 1-6 wt% of quartz. This latter distribution mimics the modern and historic pattern of drift ice in Iceland waters. Principal component analysis of the transformed wt% (log-ratio) non-clay minerals is used to compare the subglacial, surface, and down-core mineral compositions. Fifty-eight percent of the variance is explained by the first two axes, with dolomite, microcline, and quartz being important "foreign" species. These analyses indicate that today the NW-N-central Iceland shelf is affected by the import of exotic minerals, which are transported and released from drift ice. The down-core mineralogy indicates that this is a process that has varied over the last 2000 cal yr BP. Copyright ?? 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  2. Compositional classification and sedimentological interpretation of the laminated lacustrine sediments at Baumkrichen (Western Austria) using XRF core scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Samuel; Tjallingii, Rik; Bloemsma, Menno; Brauer, Achim; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph; Dulski, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The outcrop at Baumkirchen (Austria) encloses part of a unique sequence of laminated lacustrine sediments deposited during the last glacial cycle. A ~250m long composite sediment record recovered at this location now continuously covers the periods ~33 to ~45 ka BP (MIS 3) and ~59 to ~73 ka BP (MIS 4), which are separated by a hiatus. The well-laminated (mm-cm scale) and almost entirely clastic sediments reveal alternations of clayey silt and medium silt to very-fine sand layers. Although radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating provide a robust chronology, accurate dating of the sediment laminations appears to be problematic due to very high sedimentation rates (3-8 cm/yr). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning provided a detailed ~150m long record of compositional changes of the sediments at Baumkirchen. Changes in the sediments are subtle and classification into different facies based on individual elements is therefore subjective. We applied a statistically robust clustering analysis to provide an objective compositional classification without prior knowledge, based on XRF measurements for 15 analysed elements (all those with an acceptable signal-noise ratio: Zr, Sr, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Ni, Fe, K, Cr, V, Si, Ba, T). The clustering analysis indicates a distinct compositional change between sediments deposited below and above the stratigraphic hiatus, but also differentiates between individual different laminae. Preliminary results suggest variations in the sequence are largely controlled by the relative occurrence of different kinds of sediment represented by different clusters. Three clusters identify well-laminated sediments, visually similar in appearance, each dominated by an anti-correlation between Ca and one or more of the detrital elements K, Zr, Ti, Si and Fe. Two of these clusters occur throughout the entire sequence, one frequently and the other restricted to short sections, while the third occurs almost exclusively below the

  3. USE OF SEDIMENT CORE PROFILING IN ASSESSING EFFECTIVENESS OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sediment Issue summarizes two studies conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the natural recovery of surface sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) an polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Natural recove...

  4. Chronologies of marine sediment cores during the Last Interglacial: strengths and limitations of commonly used climato-stratigraphic alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govin, Aline; Capron, Emilie

    2015-04-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG, ~129-116 thousand of years, ka) is relatively well documented in marine sediment cores retrieved across the globe. However, these records exhibit very few absolute age markers such as magnetic events and dated tephra layers, which limits the definition of independent and precise LIG age models. As a result, age models of marine sediments are defined using various methods based on the (i) synchronisation or (ii) climato-stratigraphic alignment of marine records to dated "reference" records, assuming simultaneous regional changes for a given climate variable (e.g. foraminiferal δ18O, temperature). The use of different "reference" chronologies (e.g. LR04, speleothem or ice core chronologies) also limits a precise investigation of climatic sequences across the LIG. Here, we evaluate the underlying hypotheses, strengths and limitations, and age uncertainties of methods commonly used in marine sediments during the LIG: i.e. benthic δ18O alignment to the LR04 benthic δ18O stack, temperature alignment to ice core or to speleothem records. We compare the resulting age models using examples from the North Atlantic core MD95-2042 and the Southern Ocean core MD02-2488. We show a lack of remarkable tie-points within the LIG, which limits the study of the sub-millennial-scale climate variability. We also report age offsets up to 4 ka when different reference chronologies (e.g. ice cores vs. speleothems) or different types of aligned records (e.g. SST vs. planktonic δ18O) are used. These results highlight the need for careful estimates of age uncertainties when defining age models in marine sediments. They also emphasize the fact that LIG chronologies should be considered with care. A clear statement on the reference chronology, the method of alignment and the type of tracers that are used should be given when investigating the LIG sequence of climatic events from various sediment cores or when comparing LIG marine records and climate model

  5. Historical trends of concentrations, source contributions and toxicities for PAHs in dated sediment cores from five lakes in western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Guo, Jian-Yang; Liu, Gui-Rong; Shi, Guo-Liang; Guo, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Yuan; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2014-02-01

    In this work, sixteen U.S. EPA priority PAH compounds in the dated sediment cores were detected from five lakes in western China. In most lakes, the concentrations of the total PAHs (ΣPAHs) increased from the deep layers to the surface sediments. Two source categories, i.e. vehicular emission and biomass & domestic coal combustion were identified by Unmix, a factor analysis receptor model to explore the source contributions of PAHs in the dated sediments. The source apportionment results showed that biomass & domestic coal combustion contributed larger proportion of PAHs in the five lakes. The toxicities of PAHs in the dated sediments, assessed by BaP equivalent (BaPE) values showed that the BaPE increased gradually from the deep layers to the surface sediments in most lakes. For the first effort, the contribution of each source to BaPE was apportioned by Unmix-BaPE method, and the result indicated that the vehicular emission posed the highest toxic risk. The percentage contribution of vehicular emission for PAHs and BaPE also increased from the deep layers to the surface sediments, while biomass & domestic coal combustion exhibited the opposite tendency.

  6. Numerical modeling of coupled nitrification-denitrification in sediment perfusion cores from the hyporheic zone of the Shingobee River, MN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, R.W.; Jackman, A.P.; Duff, J.H.; Triska, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrification and denitrification kinetics in sediment perfusion cores were numerically modeled and compared to experiments on cores from the Shingobee River MN, USA. The experimental design incorporated mixing groundwater discharge with stream water penetration into the cores, which provided a well-defined, one-dimensional simulation of in situ hydrologic conditions. Ammonium (NH+4) and nitrate (NO-3) concentration gradients suggested the upper region of the cores supported coupled nitrification-denitrification, where groundwater-derived NH+4 was first oxidized to NO-3 then subsequently reduced via denitrification to N2. Nitrification and denitrification were modeled using a Crank-Nicolson finite difference approximation to a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Both processes were modeled using first-order reaction kinetics because substrate concentrations (NH+4 and NO-3) were much smaller than published Michaelis constants. Rate coefficients for nitrification and denitrification ranged from 0.2 to 15.8 h-1 and 0.02 to 8.0 h-1, respectively. The rate constants followed an Arrhenius relationship between 7.5 and 22 ??C. Activation energies for nitrification and denitrification were 162 and 97.3 kJ/mol, respectively. Seasonal NH+4 concentration patterns in the Shingobee River were accurately simulated from the relationship between perfusion core temperature and NH+4 flux to the overlying water. The simulations suggest that NH+4 in groundwater discharge is controlled by sediment nitrification that, consistent with its activation energy, is strongly temperature dependent. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR

  8. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2012-09-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: cryptotephra PT0915-1 with the 512 AD eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-2 with the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), cryptotephras PT0915-3 and PT0915-4 with Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-5 with the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-7 with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), cryptotephra PT0915-8 with the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and tephra PT0915-9 with the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). Tephra PT0915-11 could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents a hitherto unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and

  9. Development of radiographic and microscopic techniques for the characterization of bacterial transport in intact sediment cores from Oyster, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dong, H; Onstott, T C; DeFlaun, M F; Fuller, M E; Gillespie, K M; Fredrickson, J K

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the physical and mineralogical properties responsible for the retention of bacteria in subsurface sediments. The sediment core chosen for this study was a fine-grained, quartz-rich sand with minor amounts of Fe and Al hydroxides. A bacterial transport experiment was performed using an intact core collected from a recent excavation of the Butler's Bluff member of the Nassawadox formation in the borrow pit at Oyster, VA. and a 14C-labeled bacterial strain OYS2-A was selected for its relatively low adhesion. After the bacterial breakthrough was observed in the effluent, the intact core was dissected to determine the internal distribution of the injected bacteria retained in the sediment. The sediment was dried, epoxy fixed, and thin sectioned. The distribution of 14C activity in the thin sections was mapped using a phosphor screen and X-ray film. The remainder of the core was subsampled and the 14C activity of the subsamples was determined by liquid scintillation counting. The phosphor imaging technique was capable of directly imaging the distribution of radiolabeled bacteria in thin sections, because of its high sensitivity and linear response over a large activity range. The phosphor imaging signal intensity was utilized as a measure of bacterial concentration. The distribution of bacteria at the millimeter scale in the thin sections was compared to the grain size, porosity, and mineralogy as measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analyses. No apparent correlation was observed between the retention or collision efficiency of bacteria in the sediment and the amount of Fe and Al hydroxides. This apparent lack of correlation can be qualitatively explained by combination of several factors including a nearly neutral surface charge of the bacterial strain, and texture of the Fe and Al hydroxides in the sediment. The combination of phosphor imaging with SEM-EDS proved to be a robust

  10. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: application of acid leachable technique.

    PubMed

    Janaki-Raman, D; Jonathan, M P; Srinivasalu, S; Armstrong-Altrin, J S; Mohan, S P; Ram-Mohan, V

    2007-01-01

    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO(3), organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO(3) indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources.

  11. Historical contamination of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and heavy metals in Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Presley, B J; Wade, T L; Garcia-Romero, B; Baskaran, M

    2001-07-01

    Profiles of trace contaminant concentrations in sediment columns can be a natural archive from which pollutant inputs into coastal areas can be reconstructed. Reconstruction of historical inputs of anthropogenic chemicals is important for improving management strategies and evaluating the success of recent pollution controls measures. Here we report a reconstruction of historical contamination into three coastal sites along the US Gulf Coast: Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay. Within the watersheds of these areas are extensive agricultural lands as well as more than 50% of the chemical and refinery capacity of the USA. Despite this pollution potential, relatively low concentrations of trace metals and trace organic contaminants were found in one core from each of the three sites. Concentrations and fluxes of most trace metals found in surface sediments at these three sites, when normalized to Al, are typical for uncontaminated Gulf Coast sediments. Hydrophobic trace organic contaminants that are anthropogenic (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are found in sediments from all locations. The presence in surface sediments from the Mississippi River Delta of low level trace contaminants such as DDTs, which were banned in the early 1970's, indicate that they are still washed out from cultivated soils. It appears that the DDTs profile in that sediment core was produced by a combination of erosion processes of riverine and other sedimentary deposits during floods. Most of the pollutant profiles indicate that present-day conditions have improved from the more contaminated conditions in the 1950-1970's, before the advent of the Clean Water Act.

  12. PAHs in sediment cores at main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake: implication for the change of local anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chen; Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Shuo; Wu, Liang-Liang; Liang, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhu, Cheng-Zhu; Sojinu, Samuel O; Wang, Ji-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in four sediment cores collected from the main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake, one of the severely polluted lakes in China. The results indicate that elevated concentrations of total PAHs (Σ28PAH) were found in the samples from the estuary of Nanfei River (ENF), considering BaP-based total toxicity equivalent (TEQ-BaP) and toxic unit (TU) results; there are potential adverse environmental implications. The total organic carbon (TOC) played an important role on the accumulation of PAHs at ENF and the estuary of Tongyang River (ETY). The predominant PAHs are high molecular weight (HMW) homologous for all samples; as a result, industrial wastewater from a steel company is expectedly the key source of PAHs in ENF, while coke consumption would be the important source of PAHs at other three sampling sites. Vertical distribution of PAHs in the sediment cores could be explained by the local social and economic activities. Furthermore, a minor variation of PAH composition in the sediment core could be justified by the stable structure of energy consumption in the Anhui Province. These results justify the need for further enhancement of industrial wastewater treatment and development of renewable energies which are the key factors on the control of PAH pollution in China.

  13. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  14. Tephra in marine sediment cores offshore southern Iceland: A 68,000 year record of explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanati, Christina; Wehrmann, Heidi; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj; Mirzaloo, Maryam; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions on Iceland, even of intermediate magnitude have far-reaching impacts. Their far-distal deposits have been found up to Northern Continental Europe and Greenland. On Iceland, the harsh environment and strongly erosive conditions limit the preservation of volcanic deposits and their accessibility on land. The area offshore southern Iceland preserves information about the depositional fans at medial distance from the volcanic source. Here we use this sedimentary archive to reconstruct the Icelandic eruption record in greater detail. This high resolution geological record allows us to infer eruption frequencies and explosiveness in great detail and contributes to the assessment of Icelandic volcanic hazards, volcano-climate interaction, stratigraphy and palaeoceanographic reconstructions. Eight gravity cores were obtained during RV Poseidon Cruise 457, at 260 to 1,600 m water depths and distances of 130 to 400 km west to southeast of Iceland. The ˜4 to 10 m long sediment cores reach back to the Late Pleistocene (˜68 ka BP; dated by 14C and sedimentation rates), mostly excluding the Holocene. Potential tephra layers were identified by visual inspection and color scans. Volcanic glass shards were analyzed for their major element composition by electron microprobe and assigned to their eruptive source by geochemical fingerprinting. More than 50 primary tephra layers and nearly as many reworked layers were identified, several of which were correlated across the cores. The mostly basaltic tephra shards are derived from the Katla, Grímsvötn-Lakagígar, Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn, and Hekla volcanic systems. Primary and mixed layers with particles of unique bimodal composition identical to the ˜12 ka BP Vedde-Tephra from the Katla Volcanic System, including rhyolitic particles, were identified in nearly all cores and used as time marker and for inter-core correlation. Tephra layers of unique unknown composition were also identified and

  15. Outcrop and core integrative ichnofabric analysis of Miocene sediments from Lepe, Huelva (SW Spain): Improving depositional and paleoenvironmental interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Dorador, Javier; Mayoral, Eduardo; Santos, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Ichnofabric analysis was conducted in Miocene sediments from Lepe (Huelva, SW Spain) based on integrative outcrop and core research, to improve interpretations of depositional and paleoenvironmental conditions, with special attention to sequence stratigraphy. Seven intervals were differentiated in outcrops based on stratigraphic and ichnological features, consisting of two ichnofabrics: Ophiomorpha-Thalassinoides-Spongeliomorpha ichnofabric characterizes intervals 1, 2, 6, 7 and 8, while Palaeophycus-Planolites-Phycosiphon ichnofabric characterizes intervals 3, 4 and 5. Fourteen ichnofabrics were differentiated in the core, mainly in view of lithological features, including ferruginous material, grain size, mottled background, ichnotaxa, and Bioturbation Index. A comparison between outcrop and core ichnofabrics through the upper 13.5 m, corresponding to the uppermost Tortonian-lowermost Messinian interval, revealed certain similarities as well as some differences. A continuous and relatively slow siliciclastic deposition with punctual variations in the sedimentation rate can be interpreted that, associated with favorable paleoenvironmental parameters such as aerobic conditions and nutrient availability, evidence that a well-developed and diverse macroinvertebrate trace maker community existed at that time. Softgrounds are dominant, but occasionally loosegrounds and even firmgrounds could develop. The ichnofabric distribution shows long-range patterns in outcrop and core, and short-range patterns exclusively in core. Long-range patterns reflect the last phases of a transgressive system tract, with a ;maximum flooding zone; at the end, and then a highstand normal regression. High-frequency, short-range, repetitive patterns in ichnofabrics from core, mainly between ichnofabrics 6/8 to 9 from lower to upper part of the pattern, can be linked to ;local flooding surfaces;, subdividing the ;maximum flooding zone; into parasequences. Our results reveals the usefulness of

  16. Investigation of mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediments recovered from the Eastern Nankai Trough using transparent acrylic cell triaxial testing system (TACTT-system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate-bearing pressure core sediments have been sheared in compression using a newly developed Transparent Acrylic Cell Triaxial Testing (TACTT) system to investigate the geophysical and geomechanical behavior of sediments recovered from the deep seabed in the Eastern Nankai Trough, the first Japanese offshore production test region. The sediments were recovered by hybrid pressure core system (hybrid PCS) and pressure cores were cut by pressure core analysis tools (PCATs) on board. These pressure cores were transferred to the AIST Hokkaido centre and trimmed by pressure core non-destructive analysis tools (PNATs) for TACTT system which maintained the pressure and temperature conditions within the hydrate stability boundary, through the entire process of core handling from drilling to the end of laboratory testing. An image processing technique was used to capture the motion of sediment in a transparent acrylic cell, and digital photographs were obtained at every 0.1% of vertical strain during the test. Analysis of the optical images showed that sediments with 63% hydrate saturation exhibited brittle failure, although nonhydrate-bearing sediments exhibited ductile failure. In addition, the increase in shear strength with hydrate saturation increase of natural gas hydrate is in agreement with previous data from synthetic gas hydrate. This research was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  17. A New Automated Technique for the Construction of More Accurate Composite Depth Scales and an Analysis of Core Deformation in Different Sediment Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, L. E.

    2003-12-01

    A composite depth section reconstructs a continuous record of the sediment at a drilling site by splicing together cores from different holes; its corresponding composite depth scale describes the correlation of the sediments between holes. Both are important tools for analyzing the sediment recovered from a drilling site. The standard splicing technique for creating composite depth sections does not correct for distortion within cores, so that a sedimentary feature may have a slightly different composite depth in each hole. Additionally, the splicing technique often results in composite depths which are ˜10% greater than recorded drill depths. A new automated compositing technique aligns features between holes and prevents the artificial increase in composite depth. The results of this technique are compared with the traditional composite depth scale. Additionally, the new technique allows for analysis of the deformation and extension that occurs in cores during the drilling and extraction process. This study describes typical core deformation and its effect on calculated sedimentation rates for the carbonate and siliceous sediments of ODP Leg 138 and the terrigenous-dominated pelagic sediments of ODP Leg 154. Preliminary results indicate that cores from Leg 138 are stretched by more than 5% and those from Leg 154 by nearly 3%. For both legs, extension is greatest in the top half of cores, but variability in deformation may increase toward either end of a core.

  18. Dating of pollen samples from the sediment core of Lake St Anne in the East Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubay, Katalin; Katalin Magyari, Enikö; Braun, Mihály; Schabitz, Frank; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Lake St Anne (950 m a.s.l.) is situated in the Ciomadul volcano crater, the youngest volcano in the Carpathians. Aims driving forward the studies there are twofold, one is dating the latest eruption of the Ciomadul volcano and the other is the multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of this region. The sediment of Lake St Anne was sampled several times already, but never reached the bottom of the lake before. During the winter of 2013 at a new core location drilling started at 600 cm water depth and finally reached the bottom of the lake sediment at approximately 2300 cm including water depth. As for all multi-proxy studies essential requirement was to build a reliable chronology. Sediments were dated by radiocarbon method. Previous radiocarbon dates were measured on plant macrofossils, charcoal, Cladocera eggs, chironomid head capsules and bulk lake sediments. Lake St Anne has volcanic origin and there is intensive upwelling of CO2it is important to study and take into consideration, whether there is any local reservoir effect at the case of samples where it could be problematic. Furthermore the late part of the sediment section (between 15,000 and 30,000 cal. yr BP) has low organic matter content (less than 2-4%) with scarcity of datable plant macrofossil material. In this review a different fraction of pollen samples with terrestrial origin was tested and studied as a novel sample type for the radiocarbon dating. Pollen samples were extracted from the lake sediment cores. This type of organic material could be an ideal candidate for radiocarbon based chronological studies as it has terrestrial source and is present in the whole core in contrast with the terrestrial macrofossils. Although the pollen remains were present in the whole core, in many cases their amount give a challenge even for the AMS technic. Samples were measured with EnvironMICADAS AMS and its gas ion source in the HEKAL laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). We examine the reliability the

  19. 230Th-234U Age-Dating Uranium by Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M

    2012-04-18

    This is the standard operating procedure used by the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Group of the Chemical Sciences Division at LLNL for the preparation of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U age-dating. The method described here includes the dissolution of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal, preparation of a secondary dilution, spiking of separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements, and purification of uranium and thorium aliquots for mass spectrometry. This SOP may be applied to uranium samples of unknown purity as in a nuclear forensic investigation, and also to well-characterized samples such as, for example, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U-metal certified reference materials. The sample of uranium is transferred to a quartz or PFA vial, concentrated nitric acid is added and the sample is heated on a hotplate at approximately 100 C for several hours until it dissolves. The sample solution is diluted with water to make the solution approximately 4 M HNO{sub 3} and hydrofluoric acid is added to make it 0.05 M HF. A secondary dilution of the primary uranium solution is prepared. Separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements are taken and spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 229}Th, respectively. The spiked aliquot for uranium isotope dilution analysis is purified using EiChrom UTEVA resin. The spiked aliquot for thorium isotope dilution analysis is purified by, first, a 1.8 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl on which U adsorbs and Th passes through; second, adsorbing Th on a 1 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 8 M HNO{sub 3} and then eluting it with 9 M HCl followed by 0.1 M HCl + 0.005 M HF; and third, by passing the Th through a final 1.0 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl. The mass spectrometry is performed using the procedure 'Th and U Mass Spectrometry for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U Age Dating'.

  20. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  1. Footprint of roman and modern mining activities in a sediment core from the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vale, Carlos; Naughton, Filipa; Brito, Pedro; Drago, Teresa; Anes, Bárbara; Raimundo, Joana; Schmidt, Sabine; Caetano, Miguel

    2016-11-15

    A 5-m long sediment core (VC2B), retrieved in the Southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf, at 96m water depth, was used to assess major changes in climate and human activities during the last 9.7kyrs. Analytical measurements included sedimentological (mean grain size, and the contents of sand, silt and clay), geochemical (major, minor, trace and rare earth elements; REEs) and chronological ((210)Pb and (14)C) parameters. Two episodes of increment of fine-grained particles, occurring at 3050BCE and 1350CE, suggest the retreat of the coast line to the present level and the beginning of a wetter phase associated with the "Little Ice Age". The North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized REE-pattern detected in the shelf is similar to that found in the Guadiana estuarine sediments. The possibility of this estuary as a contributor to the sediment load deposited in the adjacent coastal zone was indicated. Trace elements were significantly correlated with Al until 1850CE, pointing that grain-size rules its distribution in sediments. The depth variation of As, Cu and Pb enrichment factors relative to background values shows two periods of intense human activity that can be mainly linked to mining: (i) across the Roman Period, marked by low enrichments; and (ii) starting on the second half of the 19th century until nowadays with significantly increased enrichments, especially of Pb and Cu. In addition to As, Cu and Pb, this period is also marked by high enrichments of Hg and Zn. Despite the decrease/closure of sulphide massive deposits mining exploitation (e.g., São Domingos, Las Herrerias) during the second half of the 20th century, results showed ongoing input of Pb, Cu, As, Hg and Zn to coastal sediments. Thus, the legacy of contamination by these elements, mainly from leaching of slags and tailings, and remobilization/reworking of contaminated estuarine sediments, is still recorded in marine sediments.

  2. Preliminary Results from a Late Pleistocene to Holocene Paleoclimate Study of the Lake Sediment Cores, Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedillo, D. N.; Brister, A. R.; LoPresti, C. A.; Maldonado, M.; Pitrucha, R. M.; West, C.; Martinez, E.; Lineline, J.; Petronis, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the preliminary results from an integrated, paleoclimatic study of sediment cores collected from the Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge (LVNWR) and surrounding region that bear on the late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoclimatic variations in northeastern NM. We collected sedimentologic, midge fossil, and rock magnetic data from sediment cores to characterize the materials, identify stratigraphic changes, document shifting lake levels, assess temperature changes, and infer paleoclimate conditions. Data from McAllister and Wallace Lake are encouraging and reveal depth dependent changes in fossil assemblages, grain size, and rock magnetic properties that we interpret to reflect climatic driven variations impacting the depositional system. We recognize three different types of chironomid subfamilies (Chironomini, Tanypodinae, and Orthocladiinae). Based on the fossil results, the water has been warm in the most recent years. Grain size distribution from the lower to upper core levels reveal that the amount of fine sand-sized sediment (0.125 mm diameter) increases while the amount of medium (0.25) to coarse (0.50) sand-sized sediment decreases implying that there may have been a reduction in stream energy and hence precipitation over the time period represented by the core. Bulk low-field magnetic susceptibility decreases by an order of magnitude from the surface to the base of the measured core suggesting a change in detrital magnetic influx into the lacustrian system. Curie point estimates indicate that the dominant magnetic mineral in all samples is cubic, low-Ti titanomagnetite phase. We postulate that concurrent with alpine glacial activity during the Pleistocene, the LVNWR and the transitional Great Plains region to the northeast was an expansive single lake or interconnected lake system, analogous to the Pleistocene lakes of the Estancia Basin (Lake Estancia) and the Tularosa Basin (Lake Otero) of central and southern NM. Following the end of glacial

  3. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures revealed by X-ray computed tomography of boring cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Komatsubara, Junko

    2016-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) allows us to visualize three-dimensional structures hidden in boring cores nondestructively. We applied medical X-ray CT to cores containing seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs) obtained from the Kanto region of Japan, where the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred. The CT images obtained clearly revealed various types of the seismically induced SSDSs embedded in the cores: a propagating sand dyke bent complexly by the preexisting geological structure, deformed laminations of fluidized sandy layers, and two types of downward mass movement (ductile downward folding and brittle normal faulting) as compensation for upward sand transport through sand dykes. Two advanced image analysis techniques were applied to the sand dyke CT images for the first time. The GrowCut algorithm, a specific digital image segmentation technique that uses cellular automata, was used successfully to extract the three-dimensional complex sand dyke structures embedded in the sandy sediments, which would have been difficult to achieve using a conventional image processing technique. Local autocorrelation image analysis was performed to detect the flow pattern aligned along the sand dykes objectively. The results demonstrate that X-ray CT coupled with advanced digital image analysis techniques is a promising approach to studying the seismically induced SSDSs in boring cores.

  4. [Distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in bank soil samples and estuarial sediment core of the Minjiang River, Southeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Quan; Qi, Shi-Hua; Xing, Xin-Li; Tan, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jun-Peng; Hu, Ying; Song, Qi

    2011-03-01

    The 19 soil samples and one sediment core were collected from near the banks and in estuary of the Minjiang River. The concentrations of OCPs in the samples were determined by GC-ECD with the internal standard method. The results showed that the concentrations of OCPs, HCHs, DDTs in soils near the banks of Minjiang were in the ranges of 4.31-877.80 ng x g(-1) (with a mean 74.13 ng x g(-1)), 1.32-24.01 ng x g(-1) (7.50 ng x g(-1)), 1.67-876.49 ng x g(-1) (66.64 ng x g(-1)), respectively. Through the study of the vertical distribution characteristics of OCPs in the area, the pollution history of OCPs in the Minjiang estuary was discussed. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the core ranged from 0.34-11.72 ng x g(-1) and 1.12-31.04 ng x g(-1), respectively. The results also showed that the soils and cores in the area have polluted lightly by DDTs, but not been polluted by HCHs. Upper section of the sediment core, o ,p'-DDT was the main composition, which indicated that new DDTs may be still used recently in the Minjiang area. The vertical changes of OCPs reflected basically their production and application history in banks of Minjiang River, Fujian Province.

  5. Trends in chemical concentration in sediment cores from three lakes in New Jersey and one lake on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Gary R.; Ayers, Mark A.; Callender, Edward; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Data from this study indicate that changes in population, land use, and chemical use in the urbanized watersheds over the period of sedimentary record have contributed to upward trends in concentrations of trace elements and hydrophobic organic compounds. Although downward trends were observed for some constituents in the years after their concentrations peaked, concentrations of most constituents in urban lake cores were higher in the most recently deposited sediments than at the base of each respective core and in the reference lake cores. Similar trends in concentrations of these constituents have been observed in sediment cores from other urban lakes across the United States.

  6. Distribution of selenium, molybdenum and uranium in sediment cores from the Colorado River delta, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Durán, A; Daesslé, L W; Gutiérrez-Galindo, E A; Muñoz-Barbosa, A

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of selenium, molybdenum and uranium was studied in ~1.5 m sediment cores from the Colorado River delta, at the Colorado (CR) and Hardy (HR) riverbeds. Core HR2 showed highest Se, Mo and U concentrations at its bottom (2.3, 0.95 and 1.8 μg g(-1)) within a sandy-silt layer deposited prior to dam construction. In CR5 the highest concentrations of these elements (0.9, 1.4 and 1.7 μg g(-1) respectively) were located at the top of the core within a surface layer enriched in organic carbon. A few samples from HR2 had Se above the probable toxic effect level guidelines.

  7. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries.

  8. Initial Results on the Meteoritic Component of new Sediment Cores Containing Deposits of the Eltanin Impact Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid is the only known asteroid impact in a deep- ocean (-5 km) basin . This was first discovered in 1981 as an Ir anomaly in sediment cores collected by the USNS Eltanin in 1965. In 1995, Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4 made the first geological survey of the suspected impact region. Three sediment cores sampled around the San Martin seamounts (approx. 57.5 S, 91 W) contained well-preserved impact deposits that include disturbed ocean sediments and meteoritic impact ejecta. The latter is composed of shock-melted asteroidal materials and unmelted meteorites. In 2001, the FS Polarstern returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIIU5a. At least 16 cores were recovered that contain ejecta deposits. These cores and geophysical data from the expedition can be used to map the effects of the impact over a region of about 80,000 square km. To date we have measured Ir concentrations in sediments from seven of the new cores and preliminary data should be available for a few more by the time of the meeting. Our initial interpretation of these data is that there is a region in the vicinity of the San Martin Seamounts comprising at least 20,000 square km in which the average amount of meteoritic material deposited was more than 1 g per square cm. This alone is enough material to support a 500 m asteroid. Beyond this is a region of about 60,000 square km, mostly to the north and west, where the amount of ejecta probably averages about 0.2 g per square cm. Another 400 km to the east, USNS Eltanin core E10-2 has about 0.05 g per square cm, so we know that ejecta probably occurs across more than a million square km of ocean floor. A key to future exploration of this impact is to find evidence of the ejecta at more sites distant from the seamounts. We currently have almost no data from regions to the west or south of the San Martin seamounts.

  9. Vertical profile, contamination assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals in sediment cores of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-12-01

    Six sediment cores collected at the Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan were analyzed to evaluate their vertical profiles, enrichments, accumulations, and source apportionments of heavy metals. This was performed to investigate any potential ecological risks posed by heavy metals. Results indicated that the mean heavy metal content (mg kg(-1)) in the six sediment cores was as follows: Hg (0.4-6.4), Cd (<0.05-2.4), Cr (18-820), Cu (16-760), Pb (31-140), and Zn (76-1900). The patterns of heavy metal content in the sediment cores differed substantially among the four river mouths. However, the vertical profiles of metals were relatively stable, indicating that wastewater has the constant characteristics and has been discharged into the rivers for a long period of time. Results of pollution assessment of enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index, and pollution load index revealed that river mouths experience severe enrichment, strong accumulation, and high contamination from the primary heavy metals. It was not consistent in the assessment results of mean effect range median quotient, potential ecological risk index, and total toxic unit method. Potential ecological risks caused by Hg in the sediments at Canon River and Love River mouths on aquatic organisms were extremely high. The estimates derived from the receptor modeling of multiple linear regression of the absolute principal component scores indicated that the contributions of the composite heavy metals derived from the Canon River and the Love River on the potential toxicity and risks to the water environment of Kaohsiung Harbor were highest, followed by those derived from Salt River and Jen-Gen River.

  10. 19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 μm resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (<2 μm) analysis using X-ray defraction. Elements associated with siliciclastic sediment increase in relative abundance during wet years when significant river runoff events (floods) occurred. The relative proportions of these elements differ between flood events, possibly reflecting differences in temporal and/or spatial rainfall patterns that vary the response of each river catchment draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of

  11. Historical trends of PCDD/Fs and CO-PCBs in a sediment core collected in Sendai Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Y; Yamashita, Y; Kohno, Y; Nagasaka, H

    2004-09-01

    The vertical distribution of dioxins in a sediment core was investigated to elucidate historical trends of dioxins discharged into Sendai Bay, Japan. The dioxin concentration was 410 pg/g dry weight (dw) in sediments deposited in the mid-1930s and 3870 pg/g dw in those deposited in the mid-1980s. Dioxin fluxes increased from the mid-1930s and then reached a maximum in the mid-1980s. 1,3,6,8-TeCDD+1,3,7,9-TeCDD, OCDD, and Co-PCB concentrations were 110, 140, and 26 pg/g dw, respectively, in mid-1930s sediments, and reached maximums of 1800, 1100, and 200 pg/g dw, respectively, in mid-1980s sediments. Shipments to Miyagi Prefecture of CNP and PCP products, the major sources of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD+1,3,7,9-TeCDD and OCDD, were highest in 1975 (4700t) and 1970 (3100t), respectively; and in Japan, the amount of PCBs, the major source of Co-PCB congeners, used was highest (11,100t) in 1970. Thus, the period for which the maximum concentrations of 1,3,6,8+1,3,7,9-TeCDD, OCDD, and Co-PCBs were measured in the sediment core (mid-1980s) did not correspond to the time of maximum use of CNP, PCP, or PCB products, but lagged behind by more than 10 years. We attributed this time lag to the time required for the movement of dioxins from Miyagi Prefecture to Sendai Bay.

  12. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    DOE PAGES

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; ...

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50–1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. Lastly, we present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  13. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Freeburg, Eric Wilcox; Williams, Richard

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50–1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. Lastly, we present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  14. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting.

    PubMed

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Wilcox Freeburg, Eric; Williams, Richard

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, (39)Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50-1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. We present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  15. Spatial trends and historical deposition of mercury in eastern and northern Canada inferred from lake sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Muir, D C G; Wang, X; Yang, F; Nguyen, N; Jackson, T A; Evans, M S; Douglas, M; Köck, G; Lamoureux, S; Pienitz, R; Smol, J P; Vincent, W F; Dastoor, A

    2009-07-01

    Recent and historical deposition of mercury (Hg) was examined over a broad geographic area from southwestern Northwest Territories to Labrador and from the U.S. Northeast to northern Ellesmere Island using dated sediment cores from 50 lakes (18 in midlatitudes (41-50 degrees N), 14 subarctic (51-64 degrees N) and 18 in the Arctic (65-83 degrees N)). Distinct increases of Hg overtime were observed in 76% of Arctic, 86% of subarctic and 100% of midlatitude cores. Subsurface maxima in Hg depositional fluxes (microg m(-2) y(-1)) were observed in only 28% of midlatitude lakes and 18% of arctic lakes, indicating little recent reduction of inputs. Anthropogenic Hg fluxes adjusted for sediment focusing and changes in sedimentation rates (deltaF(adj,F)) ranged from -22.9 to 61 microg m(-2) y(-1) and were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 0.001) with latitude. Hg flux ratios (FRs; post-1990)/pre-1850) ranged from 0.5 to 7.7. The latitudinal trend for Hg deltaF(adj,F) values showed excellent agreement with predictions of the global mercury model, GRAHM for the geographic location of each lake (r = 0.933, P < 0.001). The results are consistent with a scenario of slow atmospheric oxidation of mercury, and slow deposition of reactive mercury emissions, declining with increasing latitude away from emission sources in the midlatitudes, and support the view that there are significant anthropogenic Hg inputs in the Arctic.

  16. Watershed trend analysis and water-quality assessment using bottom-sediment cores from Cheney Reservoir, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of Cheney Reservoir bottom sediment was conducted in August 1997 to describe long-term trends and document the occurrence of selected constituents at concentrations that may be detrimental to aquatic organisms. Average concentrations of total phosphorus in bottom-sediment cores ranged from 94 to 674 milligrams per kilogram and were statistically related to silt- and (or) clay-size particles. Results from selected sampling sites in Cheney Reservoir indicate an increasing trend in total phosphorus concentrations. This trend is probably of nonpoint-source origin and may be related to an increase in fertilizer sales in the area, which more than doubled between 1965 and 1996, and to livestock production. Few organochlorine compounds were detected in bottom-sediment samples from Cheney Reservoir. DDT, its degradation products DDD and DDE, and dieldrin had detectable concentrations in the seven samples that were analyzed. DDT and DDD were each detected in one sample at concentrations of 1.0 and 0.65 microgram per kilogram, respectively. By far, the most frequently detected organochlorine insecticide was DDE, which was detected in all seven samples, ranging in concentration from 0.31 to 1.3 micrograms per kilogram. A decreasing trend in DDE concentrations was evident in sediment-core data from one sampling site. Dieldrin was detected in one sample from each of two sampling sites at concentrations of 0.21 and 0.22 micrograms per kilogram. Polychlorinated biphenyls were not detected in any bottom-sediment sample analyzed. Selected organophosphate, chlorophenoxy-acid, triazine, and acetanilide pesticides were analyzed in 18 bottom-sediment samples. Of the 23 pesticides analyzed, only the acetanilide herbicide metolachlor was detected (in 22 percent of the samples). Seven bottom-sediment samples were analyzed for major metals and trace elements. The median and maximum concentrations of arsenic and chromium, the maximum concentration of copper, and all

  17. Ecosystem history of southern and central Biscayne Bay; summary report on sediment core analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingard, G.L.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Ishman, S.E.; Willard, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Williams, C.P.; Marot, M.E.; Murray, J.B.; Stamm, R.G.; Murray, J.H.; Budet, C.

    2003-01-01

    of inter-decadal salinity extremes or periods of hypersalinity. o\tFreshwater and mesohaline salinities have had a minor influence on No Name bank throughout the time of deposition. At Featherbed Bank, the influence is reduced to mesohaline salinities. ?\tCard Bank has experienced relatively large swings in salinity over multi-decadal and centennial timescales, compared to central Biscayne Bay, but marine influence at the site has increased over the last century. ?\tIndications of regional scale patterns have been found, especially in the shell chemistry data and the pollen assemblages. These regional patterns indicate that the changes are not site specific and may not be limited to Biscayne Bay. ?\tSub-aquatic vegetation has undergone bay-wide patterns of change over the last 200-500 years, which includes expansion prior to 1900 and declines during the last century in central Biscayne Bay. o\tThalassia appears to have increased at all three core sites sometime between 1550 and 1750 AD. o\tA decline in Thalassia appears to have occurred after 1950 at No Name Bank and slightly earlier in the 20th century at Featherbed Bank. o\tCard Bank does not appear to have experienced any declines in vegetation on an inter-decadal scale during the 20th century. ?\tMolluscan faunal abundance and diversity have undergone significant changes in central Biscayne Bay. ?\tIndicators of increased organic-rich sediments at No Name occur between 1869 to 1888 and between the 1930's to 1975. These changes may correlate to human activities (settlement, population growth). These findings represent a first step towards the project's goal to reconstruct the history of Biscayne Bay and they provide us with a working model to be tested at other sites. It is clear from our findings that Biscayne Bay has been a dynamic environment over the last 500 years, with natural changes occurring in salinity and benthic habitats. However, several significant changes have occurred in the 20th ce

  18. A 600,000-year record of Antarctic Bottom Water activity inferred from sediment textures and structures in a sediment core from the Southern Brazil Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, Laurent; FaugèRes, Jean-Claude; Bernat, Michel; Pujos, Annick; MéZerais, Marie-Laure

    1994-12-01

    At the northern exit of the Vema Channel, in the Southern Brazil Basin, deep currents linked with Antarctic Bottom Water flow (AABW, below 4200 m) have formed contouritic accumulations along the continental rise. Lithologic and textural investigations were carried out on a Kullenberg core in order to establish a chronology of late Pleistocene-Holocene fluctuations in AABW flow. The core, spanning the last 600,000 years, was recovered from a field of sediment waves. The deposits consist of fine grained muds. Carbonate contents are very low because deposition takes place near the present-day carbonate compensation depth. The core stratigraphic framework is based on calcareous nannofossil and excess 230Th analyses. Two main types of facies can be identified: (1) yellowish brown muds, with frequent manganese enrichments forming dark laminae, and (2) homogeneous gray-green muds. Two indicators of paleocurrent activity have been considered: (1) erosional sediment features that give evidence for high amplitude and short-term current events, and (2) grain size fluctuations (percentage of panicles greater than 10 µm), indicating low amplitude and long-term variations. Two periods can be defined. The first one (circa 600 to circa 350 kyr B.P.) is characterized by an instability in current activity, with strong flow events recorded as erosional surfaces. Long-term fluctuations reveal the existence of several episodes of increased velocity occurring approximately every 50 kyr. The second period (350 kyr B.P. to present) is marked by globally weaker current activity and long-term fluctuations of lower amplitude and longer duration. Maximum velocities occur preferentially during periods of climatic cooling. These fluctuations might be correlated with the 100 kyr eccentricity cycle of the Earth's orbit.

  19. Relocation of the Yellow River estuary in 1855 AD recorded in the sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Jia, Nan; Cheng, Wenhan; Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Liguang

    2013-12-01

    Relocation of the Yellow River estuary has significant impacts on not only terrestrial environment and human activities, but also sedimentary and ecological environments in coastal seas. The responses of regional geochemical characteristics to the relocation event, however, have not been well studied. In the present study, we performed detailed geochemical elemental analyses of a sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea and studied their geochemical responses to the 1855 AD relocation of the Yellow River estuary. The results show that TOC/TN, Co/Al2O3, Cr/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Se/Al2O3 ratios all decreased abruptly after 1855 AD, and similar decreases are observed in the sediments of the mud area southwest off the Cheju Island. These abrupt changes are very likely caused by the changes in source materials due to the relocation of the Yellow River estuary from the southern Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, which the corresponding decreasing trends caused by the changes in main source materials from those transported by the Liaohe River, the Haihe River and the Luanhe River to those by the Yellow River. Because the events have precise ages recorded in historical archives, these obvious changes in elemental geochemistry of sediments can be used to calibrate age models of related coastal sea sediments.

  20. Sulfate reduction controlled by organic matter availability in deep sediment cores from the saline, alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Glombitza, Clemens; Stockhecke, Mona; Schubert, Carsten J.; Vetter, Alexandra; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    As part of the International Continental Drilling Program deep lake drilling project PaleoVan, we investigated sulfate reduction (SR) in deep sediment cores of the saline, alkaline (salinity 21.4‰, alkalinity 155 m mEq-1, pH 9.81) Lake Van, Turkey. The cores were retrieved in the Northern Basin (NB) and at Ahlat Ridge (AR) and reached a maximum depth of 220 m. Additionally, 65–75 cm long gravity cores were taken at both sites. SR rates (SRR) were low (≤22 nmol cm-3 day-1) compared to lakes with higher salinity and alkalinity, indicating that salinity and alkalinity are not limiting SR in Lake Van. Both sites differ significantly in rates and depth distribution of SR. In NB, SRR are up to 10 times higher than at AR. SR could be detected down to 19 mblf (meters below lake floor) at NB and down to 13 mblf at AR. Although SRR were lower at AR than at NB, organic matter (OM) concentrations were higher. In contrast, dissolved OM in the pore water at AR contained more macromolecular OM and less low molecular weight OM. We thus suggest, that OM content alone cannot be used to infer microbial activity at Lake Van but that quality of OM has an important impact as well. These differences suggest that biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediments are reacting very sensitively to small variations in geological, physical, or chemical parameters over relatively short distances. PMID:23908647

  1. Determination of Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Ziya River Watershed, China: Based on Laboratory Core Incubation and Microelectrode Measurements.

    PubMed

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao

    2016-02-19

    A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurement was performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19-1.41 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m²·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15-1.38 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m²·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R² = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05), the microelectrode method was shown to produce results that were similar to those from the core incubation method. The microelectrode method, therefore, could be used as an alternative method for traditional core incubation method, or as a method to verify SOD rates measured by other methods. We consider that high potential sediment oxygen demand would occur in the Ziya River Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water.

  2. Determination of Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Ziya River Watershed, China: Based on Laboratory Core Incubation and Microelectrode Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurementwas performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19–1.41 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m2·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15–1.38 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m2·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R2 = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05), the microelectrode method was shown to produce results that were similar to those from the core incubation method. The microelectrode method, therefore, could be used as an alternative method for traditional core incubation method, or as a method to verify SOD rates measured by other methods. We consider that high potential sediment oxygen demand would occur in the Ziya River Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water. PMID:26907307

  3. Pesticide and transformation product detections and age-dating relations from till and sand deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, K.L.; Morrow, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Pesticide and transformation product concentrations and frequencies in ground water from areas of similar crop and pesticide applications may vary substantially with differing lithologies. Pesticide analysis data for atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, acetochlor, and cyanazine and their pesticide transformation products were collected at 69 monitoring wells in Illinois and northern Indiana to document occurrence of pesticides and their transformation products in two agricultural areas of differing lithologies, till, and sand. The till is primarily tile drained and has preferential fractured flow, whereas the sand primarily has surface water drainage and primary porosity flow. Transformation products represent most of the agricultural pesticides in ground water regardless of aquifer material - till or sand. Transformation products were detected more frequently than parent pesticides in both the till and sand, with metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid being most frequently detected. Estimated ground-water recharge dates for the sand were based on chlorofluorocarbon analyses. These age-dating data indicate that ground water recharged prior to 1990 is more likely to have a detection of a pesticide or pesticide transformation product. Detections were twice as frequent in ground water recharged prior to 1990 (82%) than in ground water recharged on or after 1990 (33%). The highest concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and their transformation products, also were detected in samples from ground water recharged prior to 1990. These age/pesticide detection relations are opposite of what would normally be expected, and may be the result of preferential flow and/or ground-water mixing between aquifers and aquitards as evident by the detection of acetochlor transformation products in samples with estimated ground-water ages predating initial pesticide application. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  4. Chemical quality of sediment cores from the Laguna Madre, Laguna Atascosa and Arroyo Colorado, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Many contaminants introduced into the environment by human activities are hydrophobic, meaning they are relatively insoluble in water and, thus, are associated primarily with sediments. These contaminants include the organochlorine pesticides DOT and chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial facilities and urban areas, and heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and zinc. Understanding the occurrence of these contaminants in the environment requires sampling the sediments where the contaminants might be detected.

  5. Nutrient, trace-element, and ecological history of Musky Bay, Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin, as inferred from sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Garrison, Paul J.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Elder, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from Musky Bay, Lac Courte Oreilles, and from surrounding areas in 1999 and 2001 to determine whether the water quality of Musky Bay has declined during the last 100 years or more as a result of human activity, specifically cottage development and cranberry farming. Selected cores were analyzed for sedimentation rates, nutrients, minor and trace elements, biogenic silica, diatom assemblages, and pollen over the past several decades. Two cranberry bogs constructed along Musky Bay in 1939 and the early 1950s were substantially expanded between 1950?62 and between 1980?98. Cottage development on Musky Bay has occurred at a steady rate since about 1930, although currently housing density on Musky Bay is one-third to one-half the housing density surrounding three other Lac Courte Oreilles bays. Sedimentation rates were reconstructed for a core from Musky Bay by use of three lead radioisotope models and the cesium-137 profile. The historical average mass and linear sedimentation rates for Musky Bay are 0.023 grams per square centimeter per year and 0.84 centimeters per year, respectively, for the period of about 1936?90. There is also limited evidence that sedimentation rates may have increased after the mid-1990s. Historical changes in input of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur to Musky Bay could not be directly identified from concentration profiles of these elements because of the potential for postdepositional migration and recycling. Minor- and trace-element profiles from the Musky Bay core possibly reflect historical changes in the input of clastic material over time, as well as potential changes in atmospheric deposition inputs. The input of clastic material to the bay increased slightly after European settlement and possibly in the 1930s through 1950s. Concentrations of copper in the Musky Bay core increased steadily through the early to mid-1900s until about 1980 and appear to reflect inputs from atmospheric

  6. Structural identification of long-chain polyamines associated with diatom biosilica in a Southern Ocean sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridoux, Maxime C.; Ingalls, Anitra E.

    2010-07-01

    Long-chain polyamines (LCPAs) constitute a new family of natural organic compounds that have recently been isolated and characterized from the biosilicified cell walls of diatom cultures. To date, diatom-specific polyamines have not been investigated from the marine environment and their fate in the environment is entirely unknown. Here, we report a series of LCPAs in a diatom frustule-rich sediment core (TNO57-13 PC4), originating from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean and spanning from the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) revealed a complex mixture of linear polyamines with at least 28 individual molecular species. Ion trap mass fragmentation studies, combined with high resolution Time of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry showed that the polyamine pool consisted of a series of N-methylated propylamine compounds attached to a putrescine moiety, with individual LCPAs varying in chain length and degree of methylation. The structural similarity between LCPAs extracted from the diatom-rich sediment core and those extracted from the frustules of cultured diatoms suggests that sedimentary LCPAs are derived from diatom frustules. We hypothesize that these intrinsically labile organic molecular fossils are protected from diagenesis by encapsulation within the frustule. These compounds constitute a new class of biomarkers that could potentially be indicators of diatom species distribution. Isotopic analysis of LCPAs could be used to improve age models for sediment cores that lack calcium carbonate and to improve current interpretations of diatom-based paleoproxies, including diatom-bound nitrogen isotopes.

  7. Palaeohydrology of the Southwest Yukon Territory, Canada, based on multiproxy analyses of lake sediment cores from a depth transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, L.; Abbott, M.B.; Finney, B.P.; Edwards, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Lake-level variations at Marcella Lake, a small, hydrologically closed lake in the southwestern Yukon Territory, document changes in effective moisture since the early Holocene. Former water levels, driven by regional palaeohydrology, were reconstructed by multiproxy analyses of sediment cores from four sites spanning shallow to deep water. Marcella Lake today is thermally stratified, being protected from wind by its position in a depression. It is alkaline and undergoes bio-induced calcification. Relative accumulations of calcium carbonate and organic matter at the sediment-water interface depend on the location of the depositional site relative to the thermocline. We relate lake-level fluctuations to down-core stratigraphic variations in composition, geochemistry, sedimentary structures and to the occurrence of unconformities in four cores based on observations of modern limnology and sedimentation processes. Twenty-four AMS radiocarbon dates on macrofossils and pollen provide the lake-level chronology. Prior to 10 000 cal. BP water levels were low, but then they rose to 3 to 4 m below modern levels. Between 7500 and 5000 cal. BP water levels were 5 to 6 m below modern but rose by 4000 cal. BP. Between 4000 and 2000 cal. BP they were higher than modern. During the last 2000 years, water levels were either near or 1 to 2 m below modern levels. Marcella Lake water-level fluctuations correspond with previously documented palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes and provide new, independent effective moisture information. The improved geochronology and quantitative water-level estimates are a framework for more detailed studies in the southwest Yukon. ?? 2005 Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.

  8. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (<65 μm) were the predominant particle size (56-97%). Lacustrine source (with the peak towards 200-400 μm) and eolian sources derived from short (2.0-10 and 30-65 μm) and long (0.4-1.0 μm) distance suspension were indentified from frequency distribution pattern of particle size. Significant correlations between 3-6 ring PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors.

  9. The carbonate profile of two recent Ionian Sea cores: Evidence that the sedimentation rate is constant over the last millennia

    SciTech Connect

    Castagnoli, G.C.; Bonino, G.; Caprioglio, F.; Provenzale, A.; Serio, M.; Guang-Mei, Zhu Istituto di Fisica Generale dell'Universiat', Torino )

    1990-10-01

    The authors confirm and extend the results previously reported on the carbonate profile of the GT14 Ionian Sea core (Cini Castagnoli et al., 1990). A second, much longer core (2.81 meters) named GT89/3, has been taken about 1 km apart from the previous one. The carbonate profiles of the two cores are impressively similar; the details of the CaCO{sub 3} variations in the two sediments match on the scale of the sampling interval {Delta}d = 2.5 mm used for both cores. The authors show that {Delta}d corresponds to the mud deposited in a time interval {Delta}t = 3.87 {plus minus} 0.04 years, a value which is constant throughout the entire length of the cores. This precision is achieved by the tephroanalysis of the two cores. In this approach the markers of well-known historical eruptions in the Vesuvius area are recognized (Pompei, AD 79, Pollena, AD 472, Ischia, AD 1301), providing a precise dating which accurately tunes that obtained by the radiometric method. The correlation between the carbonate profile of the GT14 core and the tree-ring radiocarbon record has been discussed in (Cini Castagnoli et al., 1990); here the authors extend these results and show that the same correlation holds at least up to 1690 BC. Due to the longer length of the GT89/3 time series, they also show that three periodic components at about 206 yr, 228 yr and 179 yr may now be resolved in the carbonate series, in close agreement with the results already found for the radiocarbon record.

  10. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Costa, A B; Novotny, E H; Bloise, A C; de Azevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Zucchi, M R; Santos, V L C S; Azevedo, A E G

    2011-08-01

    The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subaé estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay.

  11. Holocene paleoclimate history of Fallen Leaf Lake, CA., from geochemistry and sedimentology of well-dated sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Paula J.; Ball, G. Ian; Zimmerman, Susan H.; Maloney, Jillian; Smith, Shane B.; Kent, Graham; Adams, Kenneth D.; Karlin, Robert E.; Driscoll, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Millennial-scale shifts in aridity patterns have been documented during the Holocene in the western United States, yet the precise timing, severity, and regional extent of these shifts prompts further study. We present lake sediment core data from Fallen Leaf Lake, a subalpine system at the southern end of the Lake Tahoe basin for which 80% of the contemporary inflow is derived from snowpack delivered by Pacific frontal storm systems. A high quality age model has been constructed using 14C ages on plant macrofossils, 210Pb, and the Tsoyowata tephra datum (7.74-7.95 cal kyr BP). One core captures the transition from the Late Tioga-younger Dryas glaciolacustrine package to laminated opaline clay at 11.48 cal kyr BP. Early Holocene sedimentation rates are relatively high (∼1.9 mm/year) and cooler winter temperatures are inferred by the presence of pebbles interpreted to be transported out into the lake via shore ice. There is a geochemically distinct interval from ∼4.71 to 3.65 cal kyr BP that is interpreted as a late Holocene neopluvial, characterized by depleted δ13C and lower C:N that point to reduced runoff of terrigenous organic matter, increased winter precipitation, and increased algal productivity. The largest Holocene signal in the cores occurs at the end of the neopluvial, at 3.65 cal kyr BP, and marks a shift into a climate state with variable precipitation, yet is overall more arid than the neopluvial. This new climate state persists for ∼3 ka, until the Little Ice Age. Low sedimentation rates (0.5 mm/year), the homogeneous opaline sediment, and steadily increasing contributions of terrestrial vs. algal organic matter in these cores suggest that the lowstand state of Fallen Leaf Lake may have been the norm from 3.65 to 0.55 cal kyr BP, punctuated by short term high precipitation years or multi-year intervals capable of rapid short duration lake level rise. Fallen Leaf Lake is strongly influenced by changes in winter precipitation and temperature

  12. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively.

  13. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms.

  14. Holocene climate change in Newfoundland reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonate minerals that precipitate from open-basin lakes can provide archives of past variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oppt). Holocene δ18Oppt records from the circum- North Atlantic region exhibit large fluctuations during times of rapid ice sheet deglaciation, followed by more stable conditions when interglacial boundary conditions were achieved. However, the timing, magnitude, and climatic controls on century to millennial-scale variations in δ18Oppt in northeastern North America are unclear principally because of a dearth of paleo-proxy data. Here we present a lacustrine sediment oxygen isotope (δ18O) record spanning 10,200 to 1200 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) from Cheeseman Lake, a small, alkaline, hydrologically open lake basin located in west-central Newfoundland, Canada. Stable isotope data from regional lakes, rivers, and precipitation indicate that Cheeseman Lake water δ18O values are consistent with the isotopic composition of inflowing meteoric water. In light of the open-basin hydrology and relatively short water residence time of the lake, we interpret down-core variations in calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Ocal) values to primarily reflect changes in δ18Oppt and atmospheric temperature, although other factors such as changes in the seasonality of precipitation may be a minor influence. We conducted a series of climate sensitivity simulations with a lake hydrologic and isotope mass balance model to investigate theoretical lake water δ18O responses to climate change. Results from these experiments suggest that Cheeseman Lake δ18O values are primarily controlled by temperature and to a much lesser extent, the seasonality of precipitation. Increasing and more positive δ18Ocal values between 10,200 and 8000 cal yr BP are interpreted to reflect the waning influence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet on atmospheric circulation, warming temperatures, and rapidly changing surface ocean δ18O from the input of

  15. Magnetotactic bacteria in marine sediments: clues from recent cores from Brazilian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovane, L.; Pellizari, V. H.; Brandini, F. P.; Braga, E. D. S.; Freitas, G. R.; Benites, M.; Rodelli, D.; Giorgioni, M.; Iacoviello, F.; Ruffato, D. G.; Lins, U.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic properties (first order reversal curves, ferromagnetic resonance and decomposition of saturation remanent magnetization acquisition) of marine magnetotactic bacteria, in conjunction with geophysical, geochemical and oceanographic data from the Brazilian Coast, provide interesting insights regarding the primary productivity distribution in oceans. This finding suggests that magnetite produced by some magnetotactic bacteria retains magnetic properties in relation to the crystallographic structure of the magnetic phase produced and thus might represent a "magnetic fingerprint" for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria. The use of those magnetic properties is a non-destructive, new technology that might allow for the identification and presence of specific species or types of magnetotactic bacteria in certain environments such as sediment. We will also show some preliminary results on the biogeochemical factors that control magnetotactic bacterial populations, documenting the environment and the preservation of bacterial magnetite, which dominates the palaeomagnetic signal throughout recent sediments from Brazilian Coast. We searched for magnetotactic bacteria in order to understand the ecosystems and environmental change related to their presence in sediments. We studied magnetotactic bacterial concentration and geophysical, geochemical and oceanographic results in marine settings measuring crucially nutrients availability in the water column and in sediments, on particulate delivery to the seafloor, to understand the environmental condition that allow the presence of magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes in sediments.

  16. Spatial variations in archaeal lipids of surface water and core-top sediments in the South china sea and their implications for paleoclimate studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuli; Wang, Jinxiang; Liu, Jie; Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Wang, Hui; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Meixun; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2011-11-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, yet little is known about archaeal distributions and TEX₈₆-based temperatures in this unique oceanic setting. Here we report findings of abundances in both core lipids (CL) and intact polar lipids (IPL) of Archaea from surface water (CL only) and core-top sediments from different regions of the SCS. TEX₈₆-derived temperatures were also calculated for these samples. The surface water had extremely low abundances of CL (average of 0.05 ± 0.13 ng/liter; n = 75), with higher values present in regions where upwelling is known to occur. The core-top sediments had CL values of 0.1 to 0.9 μg/g, which are on the low end of CL concentrations reported for other marine sediments and may reflect the oligotrophic nature of the open SCS. The IPL of Archaea accounted for 6 to 36.4% of total lipids (CL plus IPL), indicating that the majority of archaeal lipids in core-top sediments were derived from nonliving cells. The TEX₈₆-based temperatures of surface water were overall lower than satellite-based sea surface temperatures or CTD-measured in situ temperatures. The core-top sediment samples, however, had TEX₈₆ temperatures very close to the mean annual sea surface temperatures, except for samples with water depths of less than 100 m. Our results demonstrated low and heterogeneous distributions of archaeal lipids in surface water and core-top sediments of the SCS, which may reflect local or regional differences in productivity of Archaea. While TEX₈₆-based temperatures for core-top marine sediments at deep water depths (>100 m) generally reflected mean annual sea surface temperatures, TEX₈₆ temperatures in surface water varied basin wide and underestimated sea surface temperatures in most locations for the season when surface water samples were collected.

  17. Spatial Variations in Archaeal Lipids of Surface Water and Core-Top Sediments in the South China Sea and Their Implications for Paleoclimate Studies▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuli; Wang, Jinxiang; Liu, Jie; Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Wang, Hui; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Meixun; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2011-01-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, yet little is known about archaeal distributions and TEX86-based temperatures in this unique oceanic setting. Here we report findings of abundances in both core lipids (CL) and intact polar lipids (IPL) of Archaea from surface water (CL only) and core-top sediments from different regions of the SCS. TEX86-derived temperatures were also calculated for these samples. The surface water had extremely low abundances of CL (average of 0.05 ± 0.13 ng/liter; n = 75), with higher values present in regions where upwelling is known to occur. The core-top sediments had CL values of 0.1 to 0.9 μg/g, which are on the low end of CL concentrations reported for other marine sediments and may reflect the oligotrophic nature of the open SCS. The IPL of Archaea accounted for 6 to 36.4% of total lipids (CL plus IPL), indicating that the majority of archaeal lipids in core-top sediments were derived from nonliving cells. The TEX86-based temperatures of surface water were overall lower than satellite-based sea surface temperatures or CTD-measured in situ temperatures. The core-top sediment samples, however, had TEX86 temperatures very close to the mean annual sea surface temperatures, except for samples with water depths of less than 100 m. Our results demonstrated low and heterogeneous distributions of archaeal lipids in surface water and core-top sediments of the SCS, which may reflect local or regional differences in productivity of Archaea. While TEX86-based temperatures for core-top marine sediments at deep water depths (>100 m) generally reflected mean annual sea surface temperatures, TEX86 temperatures in surface water varied basin wide and underestimated sea surface temperatures in most locations for the season when surface water samples were collected. PMID:21890672

  18. Chronicling a century of lead pollution in Mexico: stable lead isotopic composition analyses of dated sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jimenez, Martin F; Hibdon, Sharon A; Rankin, Charley W; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Ruiz-Fernandez, A Carolina; Paez-Osuna, Federico; Flegal, A Russell

    2006-02-01

    Analyses of lead isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of dated sediment cores from two coastal estuaries and two inland lakes chronicle the predominance of industrial lead emissions in Mexico over the past century. These isotopic ratios exhibit a shift in composition from the turn of the previous century (1900) that corresponds with measurable increases (from 2- to 10-fold) in lead concentrations in the cores above their baseline values (3-22 microg/g)--both changes are consistent with the development of Mexican lead production for export and the manufacture of tetraethyl lead additives for Mexican gasolines. While subsequent changes in lead concentrations in the cores correspond with calculated emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Mexico, isotopic compositions of the cores remain relatively constant throughout most of the 1900s (e.g., 206Pb/207Pb = 1.200 +/- 0.003; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.463 +/- 0.004). That isotopic constancy is attributed to the widespread pollution from lead production in Mexico and the dispersion of some of that lead used as an additive in Mexican gasolines.

  19. Paleoenvironmental records from newly recovered sediment cores at the southeast margin of the Salar de Atacama, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Munk, L. A.; Hynek, S. A.; Corenthal, L.; Huff, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of new cores recovered from recent boreholes in the southeastern margin of the Salar de Atacama, Chile span a modern environmental gradient from distal alluvial fans, groundwater discharge marshes, sulfate-rich playas, saline lagoons, and the halite nucleus of the salar. These same environments are preserved as stratigraphic records of environmental change in the cores. Cores from the salar nucleus are dominated by halite, and similarly alluvial cores provide a poor paleoenvironmental record. However, the cores from the transition zone between the salar margin and the halite nucleus document alluvial, lagoonal, and evaporite environments. Cores near the halite nucleus record inter-bedded carbonate, gypsum, and halite. Finely laminated carbonates inter-bedded with cm-thick halite beds are a target for U-series geochronology. Cores near modern lagoons contain 2-6 m thick diatomites in addition to microbially-mediated carbonate, organic-rich mud, and minor alluvium. The uppermost 20 cm of diatomite deposits are commonly rooted with vascular plant material which is being processed for 14C geochronology. Ignimbrite and tephra deposits are also encountered and will provide important chronological control. The presence and absence of the 3.5-4.0 Ma Tucucaro ignimbrite in various cores documents a complex pattern of subsidence near the salar margin, some areas have accumulated little sediment since its deposition while in other areas the cores likely record only late Pleistocene deposition. Preliminary interpretations of the stratigraphic records within a paleohydrologic context are tenable. The specific control on this paleohydrologic record is likely to be a combination of increased inflow due to wetter climates and migration of the freshwater/brine interface which underlies the margins of the Salar de Atacama. Stratigraphic variations in the lithium content of evaporite minerals is being explored as a potential indicator of water balance. Lithium concentrations

  20. Historical lead isotope record of a sediment core from the Derwent River (Tasmania, Australia): a multiple source environment.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ashley T; Seen, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    A 105 cm sediment core from the Derwent River (Tasmania, Australia) was collected in 2004 and was characterised considering both physical (loss on ignition at 550 °C and grain size) and chemical (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations, Pb isotope ratios and (210)Pb dating) properties. The core was analysed to (i) investigate the historical profiles of some important elements associated with the Risdon zinc refinery adjacent to the Derwent River, (ii) determine Pb isotopic signatures of sediment samples, and (iii) assess the veracity of Pb isotope ratios as indicators of contaminant Pb input. Extractable metal concentrations were (all values as mgkg(-1), non-normalised for grain size) Fe: 20,000-35,000, Zn: 42-4500, Pb: 5-1090, Cu: 13-141, and Cd: 1-31; with a close correlation between Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Metal enrichment factors (normalised to Al) were Pb: 0.9-144, Zn: 0.8-93, Cd: 0.8-30, Cu: 0.8-8.9 and Fe: 0.9-1.3, confirming anthropogenic contributions of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd to the sediments. The onset of metal contamination above background levels occurred at a depth between 43 and 49 cm, with maximum concentrations noted near 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Lead isotope ratios were determined in sediments using sector field ICP-MS, and were found to be 36.5-38.8, 16.5-18.7 and 1.07-1.20 for (208)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, respectively. Major Australian ores processed at the refinery over the previous ~90 years include those from Broken Hill, Rosebery, Mt Isa, Elura, Hellyer and Century deposits. Anthropogenic impact by Pb with Broken Hill type isotopic ratio was initially evident in the core at 43-49 cm. The introduction of Rosebery and Elura ores to the refinery was also clearly noted. Pb isotope ratios further highlight that the Derwent River has been exposed to a greater impact by anthropogenic Pb in comparison to other major Tasmanian rivers, namely the Huon and Tamar.

  1. Magnetostratigraphy in three Arctic Ocean sediment cores; arguments for geomagnetic excursions within oxygen-isotope stage 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvlie, Reidar; Markussen, Berit; Sejrup, Hans Petter; Thiede, Jørn

    1986-06-01

    Two zones with shallow to steep negative palaeomagnetic directions have been detected within similar lithological units in three high latitude gravity cores from the Arctic Ocean. Coinciding azimuthal distributions of declinations relative to arbitrary oriented sub-sampling surfaces are attributed to the systematic acquisition of magnetic components by frictional deformation of the unconsolidated sediment during the sub-sampling procedure. Alternating field demagnetization to 50 mT was only partly successful in obtaining stable single component directions. Magnetic polarity zones are deduced by extrapolation of directional trends of inclinations during progressive af-demagnetization. High delta δ 18O values in sinistrally coiled N. pachyderma range between 4.30-4.68‰ PDB (mean values), reflecting sediment accumulation during continental glaciation. Amino acid ratios of N. pachyderma suggest ages less than approximately 60 000 years ago. When seen in conjunction, these observations suggest that the sediments were deposited within oxygen isotope stages 2-3. The reversed palaeomagnetic polarity zones are concluded to represent two short duration excursions of the geomagnetic field which occurred less than 60 000 years ago. Likely known candidates are the Lake Mungo (28 000-30 000 years ago) and Laschamp/Olby (35 000-40 000 years ago) excursions all confined within oxygen isotope stage 3 (24 000-59 000 years ago).

  2. Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane as a tool to evaluate sequestration of PAHs in lake sediment core at large temporal scale.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun; Deng, Jiancai; Gui, Zhifan

    2012-04-03

    Although numerous studies have addressed sequestration of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in laboratory, little attention has been paid to its evaluation method in field at large temporal scale. A biomimetic tool, triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM), was therefore tested to evaluate sequestration of six PAHs with various hydrophobicity in a well-dated sediment core sampled from Nanyi Lake, China. Properties of sediment organic matter (OM) varying with aging time dominated the sequestration of PAHs in the sediment core. TECAM-sediment accumulation factors (MSAFs) of the PAHs declined with aging time, and significantly correlated with the corresponding biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa) simultaneously incubated in the same sediment slices. Sequestration rates of the PAHs in the sediment core evaluated by TECAM were much lower than those obtained from laboratory study. The relationship between relative availability for TECAM (MSAF(t)/MSAF(0)) and aging time followed the first order exponential decay model. MSAF(t)/MSAF(0) was well-related to the minor changes of the properties of OM varying with aging time. Compared with chemical extraction, sequestration reflected by TECAM was much closer to that by B. aeruginosa. In contrast to B. aeruginosa, TECAM could avoid metabolism and the influences from feeding and other behaviors of organisms, and it is much easier to deploy and ready in laboratory. Hence TECAM provides an effective and convenient way to study sequestration of PAHs and probably other HOCs in field at large temporal scale.

  3. The Geologic History of Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, Reconstructed Using Seismic-Reflection Imaging and Sediment Core Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougardy, Devin D.

    only near the margins of the basin, suggesting that water occupied much of the middle of the southern basin after lake level drawdown. The reflection character and configuration of SU-C and SU-D are genetically different indicating that the depositional environment had changed following the formation of UNCF-2. Piston-type sediment cores collected from the southern basin of LOTW at depths that correspond to the middle of SU-D contain high amounts of organic material and charcoal fragments and sediment that are probably not related to Lake Agassiz. Instead, they were likely deposited during a transitional phase between when Lake Agassiz left the LOTW basin (UNCF-2) and inundation of LOTW from the northern basin due to differential isostatic rebound (UNCF-3). All sediment cores collected from the southern basin of LOTW record the uppermost unconformity, analogous in depth to UNCF-3 in the seismic images, which separates modern sediments from mid to late-Holocene sediments. The lithology of sediments below this unconformity varies across the basin from gray clay to laminated silt and clay. Radiocarbon ages from two peat layers immediately below the unconformity indicate that subaerial conditions had existed prior to the formation of UNCF-1, at about 7.75 ka cal BP. The timing correlates well with other lakes in the upper Midwest that record a prolonged dry climate during the mid-Holocene. UNCF-3 is planar and erosional across the entire survey area but erosion is greatest in the northern part of the basin as the result of a southward transgressing wave base driven by differential isostatic rebound. Deposition in the southern basin probably resumed around 3.3 ka cal BP, though no radiocarbon dates were collected directly above UNCF-3. The lithology of sediment above UNCF-3 is highly uniform across the basin and represents modern sedimentation. Late-Holocene sedimentation rates were calculated at about 0.9 mm year-1 and are roughly double the sedimentation rates in the NW

  4. A chronicle of organochlorine contamination in Clear Creek, Galveston and Harris Counties, Texas, 1960-2002, as recorded in sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Clear Creek flows through the Texas Coastal Plain from its headwaters southeast of Houston, Texas, to Clear Lake, which empties into Galveston Bay. Segments of Clear Creek were on the State of Texas 303(d) list for 1998, 1999, and 2000 as a result of a fish consumption advisory issued by the Texas Department of Health. One of the contaminants for which the fish consumption advisory was issued is the organochlorine pesticide chlordane. Chlordane is a hydrophobic (“waterfearing”) contaminant; that is, it adsorbs to sediment at concentrations much greater than those found in water. The study described here sought to answer three questions:Does chlordane occur in Clear Creek sediments at present?Is there current loading of chlordane to Clear Creek?How has occurrence of chlordane in Clear Creek changed over time?To answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected and analyzed sediment cores from Clear Creek (fig. 1). Sediment cores sometimes can be used to reconstruct historical trends in concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants (Eisenreich and others, 1989; Van Metre and others, 1997). Cores were collected from five ponds connected to Clear Creek but out of the main channel (fig. 1). Cesium-137 (137Cs) was analyzed in the cores to determine if the sediments in the cores were undisturbed and if the cores reached sediment predating 1964. The two cores that appeared most undisturbed on the basis of 137Cs profiles (see sidebar, p. 2) were further subsampled and additional samples analyzed for 137Cs, organic carbon, selected organochlorine pesticides (including chlordane), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of a greigite-bearing core from the South Yellow Sea: Implications for remagnetization and sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Qingsong; Ge, Shulan; Liu, Yanguang; Yao, Zhengquan; Zhao, Quanhong; Jin, Chunsheng; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Shengfa; Qiao, Shuqing; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanshun; Wang, Chunjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sediments from the continental shelf are sensitive to sea level, climatic changes, and local tectonic history. In this study, we carried out a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic investigation on the longest core (NHH01, 125.64 m) recovered from the South Yellow Sea (SYS). An abnormal interval dominated by negative inclinations was discovered by applying alternating field demagnetization (AFD) on samples from a greigite-bearing layer (44.90-51.80 m). In contrast, the inclinations of most greigite-bearing samples changed from negative to positive when heated to ~360°C. This strongly indicates that this inclination anomaly revealed by the AFD alone is not a true negative subchron. After neglecting the effects of greigite-bearing layers, the straightforward correlation of the interpreted magnetostratigraphy defines the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (781 ka) and the Jaramillo top (990 ka) at 68.64 m and 101.54 m, respectively. The linearly extrapolated basal age of the core is ~1.10 Ma. In addition, several short-lived inclination anomalies can be tentatively assigned to magnetic excursions, which indicates that the sedimentation could be continuous even at the millennial time scale at depth intervals bracketing these fast geomagnetic events. Moreover, the excellent correspondence between clay content variations of the core and the marine oxygen isotope record indicates the potential of clay content as a paleoclimatic proxy in the studied region in the past ~1 Ma. In brief, our study provides not only a robust age model in the SYS but also a methodological guide for paleomagnetic studies in continental shelf region.

  6. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  7. Comparison of historical record of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PCNs in sediment cores from Jiaozhou Bay and coastal Yellow Sea: implication of different sources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Yang, Yongliang; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Falandysz, Jerzy; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-12-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured in two sediment cores collected from Jiaozhou Bay. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PCNs in the cores were in the range of 2.8-26.3, 7.1-82.4 and 3.9-56.4 pg/g dw, respectively. The depth profiles of total concentrations PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were similar in the sediment core J37 inside Jiaozhou Bay, but different from those in the sediment core J94 outside the bay, suggesting the different sources. In both cores Tri-CNs and Tetra-CNs were dominant, similar to the PCNs composition of some Halowax technical products. The maximal PCNs contamination occurred in the mid-1970s (outside the Bay) and early-1990s (inside the Bay). An increase of the indicator CN congeners characteristic for thermal source in the top layers of the sediment core inside the bay indicated that the contribution from the municipal solid waste incineration has been more important in recent years.

  8. Zn and Cu isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic contamination in a sediment core from an Urban Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thapalia, A.; Borrok, D.M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Musgrove, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. ??66Zn and ??65Cu varied by 0.50% and 0.29%, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (~1450 to 1900 with ??66Zn = +0.39% ?? 0.09% and ??65Cu = +0.77% ?? 0.06%), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with ??66Zn = +0.14 ?? 0.06% and ??65Cu = +0.94 ?? 0.10%), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with ??66Zn = 0.00 ?? 0.10% and ??65Cu = +0.82% ?? 0.12%). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the ??66Zn and ??65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the (??66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Hg Deposition to Lakes in Northern New England Inferred at Multiple Scales From 210Pb-Dated Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamman, N. C.; Engstrom, D.

    2004-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems is recognized to be a problem of global consequence, and Hg bioaccumulation poses significant risks to piscivorous animals and humans who consume gamefish. In order to quantify historical and current Hg deposition to the northern New England landscape, we dated and performed Hg analyses on sediments cores from various lakes at local and regional scales. In this presentation, we contrast results of three studies: a regional assessment of Hg deposition to the VT-NH landscape (10 lakes); a localized study of deposition to the Lye Brook Wilderness of southern VT (four lakes); and the first-ever dated assessment of sediment Hg deposition history for Lake Champlain (three sites + one adjacent inland lake). At the VT-NH scale, total Hg (HgT) fluxes to sediments ranged from 5 to 17 μ g.m-2.yr-1 during pre-industrial times, and from 21 to 83 μ g.m-2.yr-1 presently. Present-day HgT fluxes are between 2.1 to 6.9 times greater than pre-1850 fluxes, and atmospheric Hg deposition to the VT-NH region was estimated at 21 μ g.m-2.yr-1. This agrees well with measured HgT deposition, when re-evasion of Hg is accounted for. Hg fluxes to lake sediments have declined in recent decades, owing to reductions in atmospheric Hg deposition to the lake surfaces. In the high-elevation Lye Brook Wilderness landscape, baseline, peak, and present accumulations were higher than those estimated from the VT-NH dataset, a finding that highlights the roles of elevation, watershed size, and dissolved organic carbon export in mediating Hg transport. Available data from the Lake Champlain Basin show the influence of historical and current watershed sediment delivery due to land cultivation, and more recently to land-use conversion. These studies jointly indicate that watershed export of legacy Hg continues despite declines in present-day deposition rates, contributing to the impression that Hg retention by watershed soils has declined.

  10. Integrated sequence stratigraphy of the postimpact sediments from the Eyreville core holes, Chesapeake Bay impact structure inner basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, J.V.; Miller, K.G.; McLaughlin, P.P.; Edwards, L.E.; Kulpecz, A.A.; Powars, D.S.; Wade, B.S.; Feigenson, M.D.; Wright, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Eyreville core holes provide the first continuously cored record of postimpact sequences from within the deepest part of the central Chesapeake Bay impact crater. We analyzed the upper Eocene to Pliocene postimpact sediments from the Eyreville A and C core holes for lithology (semiquantitative measurements of grain size and composition), sequence stratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy. Age is based primarily on Sr isotope stratigraphy supplemented by biostratigraphy (dinocysts, nannofossils, and planktonic foraminifers); age resolution is approximately ??0.5 Ma for early Miocene sequences and approximately ??1.0 Ma for younger and older sequences. Eocene-lower Miocene sequences are subtle, upper middle to lower upper Miocene sequences are more clearly distinguished, and upper Miocene- Pliocene sequences display a distinct facies pattern within sequences. We recognize two upper Eocene, two Oligocene, nine Miocene, three Pliocene, and one Pleistocene sequence and correlate them with those in New Jersey and Delaware. The upper Eocene through Pleistocene strata at Eyreville record changes from: (1) rapidly deposited, extremely fi ne-grained Eocene strata that probably represent two sequences deposited in a deep (>200 m) basin; to (2) highly dissected Oligocene (two very thin sequences) to lower Miocene (three thin sequences) with a long hiatus; to (3) a thick, rapidly deposited (43-73 m/Ma), very fi ne-grained, biosiliceous middle Miocene (16.5-14 Ma) section divided into three sequences (V5-V3) deposited in middle neritic paleoenvironments; to (4) a 4.5-Ma-long hiatus (12.8-8.3 Ma); to (5) sandy, shelly upper Miocene to Pliocene strata (8.3-2.0 Ma) divided into six sequences deposited in shelf and shoreface environments; and, last, to (6) a sandy middle Pleistocene paralic sequence (~400 ka). The Eyreville cores thus record the fi lling of a deep impact-generated basin where the timing of sequence boundaries is heavily infl uenced by eustasy. ?? 2009 The Geological

  11. Assessment of acid leachable trace metals in sediment cores from River Uppanar, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ayyamperumal, T; Jonathan, M P; Srinivasalu, S; Armstrong-Altrin, J S; Ram-Mohan, V

    2006-09-01

    An acid leachable technique is employed in core samples (C1, C2 and C3) to develop a baseline data on the sediment quality for trace metals of River Uppanar, Cuddalore, southeast coast of India. Acid leachable metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd) indicate peak values at the sulphidic phase and enrichment of metals in the surface layers are due to the anthropogenic activities. Association of trace metals with Fe, Mn indicates their adsorption onto Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and their correlation with S indicate that they are precipitated as metal sulphides. Factor analysis identified three possible types of geochemical associations and the supremacy of trace metals along with Fe, Mn, S and mud supports their geochemical associations. Factor analysis also signifies that anthropogenic activities have affected both the estuarine and fresh water regions of River Uppanar.

  12. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: Implications from recent age-dating research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Bradley, D.; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Symons, David T. A.; De Marsily, G.; Brannon, J.

    2001-01-01

    Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids

  13. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  14. Historical Associations of Molecular Measurements of Escherichia coli and Enterococci to Anthropogenic Activities and Climate Variables in Freshwater Sediment Cores.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Yolanda M; Baustian, Melissa M; Baskaran, Mark; Ostrom, Nathaniel E; Rose, Joan B

    2016-07-05

    This study investigated the long-term associations of anthropogenic (sedimentary P, C, and N concentrations, and human population in the watershed), and climatic variables (air temperature, and river discharge) with Escherichia coli uidA and enterococci 23S rRNA concentrations in sediment cores from Anchor Bay (AB) in Lake St. Clair, and near the mouth of the Clinton River (CR), Michigan. Calendar year was estimated from vertical abundances of (137)Cs. The AB and CR cores spanned c.1760-2012 and c.1895-2012, respectively. There were steady state concentrations of enterococci in AB during c.1760-c.1860 and c.1910-c.2003 at ∼0.1 × 10(5) and ∼2.0 × 10(5) cell equivalents (CE) per g-dry wt, respectively. Enterococci concentrations in CR increased toward present day, and ranged from ∼0.03 × 10(5) to 9.9 × 10(5) CE/g-dry wt. The E. coli concentrations in CR and AB increased toward present day, and ranged from 0.14 × 10(7) to 1.7 × 10(7) CE/g-dry wt, and 1.8 × 10(6) to 8.5 × 10(6) CE/g-dry wt, respectively. Enterococci was associated with population and river discharge, while E. coli was associated with population, air temperature, and N and C concentrations (p < 0.05). Sediments retain records of the abundance of fecal indicator bacteria, and offer a way to evaluate responses to increased population, nutrient loading, and environmental policies.

  15. Metal binding in soil cores and sediments in the vicinity of a dammed agricultural and industrial watershed.

    PubMed

    Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Hanna, Nour; El Samrani, Antoine G; Kazpard, Véronique; Kobaissi, Ahmad; Harb, Nafez; Amacha, Nabil

    2014-12-01

    The environment is witnessing a downgrade caused by the amelioration of the industrial and agricultural sectors, namely, soil and sediment compartments. For those reasons, a comparative study was done between soil cores and sediments taken from two locations in the Qaraaoun reservoir, Lebanon. The soil cores were partitioned into several layers. Each layer was analyzed for several physicochemical parameters, such as functional groups, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, texture, pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, active and total calcareous, available sodium and potassium, and metal content (cadmium, copper, and lead). The metal content of each site was linked to soil composition and characteristics. The two sites showed distinguishable characteristics for features such as organic matter, pH, mineral fraction, calcareous, and metal content. The samples taken toward the south site (Q1), though contain lower organic matter than the other but are more calcareous, showed higher metal content in comparison to the other site (Q2) (average metal content of Q1 > Q2; for Cd 3.8 > 1.8 mg/kg, Cu 28.6 > 21.9 mg/kg, Pb 26.7 > 19 mg/kg). However, the metal content in this study did not correlate as much to the organic matter; rather, it was influenced by the location of the samples with respect to the dam, the reservoir's hydrodynamics, the calcareous nature of the soil, and the variation of the industrial and agricultural influence on each site.

  16. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ202Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ202Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger.

  17. Shallow-marine sediment cores record climate variability and earthquake activity off Lisbon (Portugal) for the last 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, F.; Lebreiro, S.; Rodrigues, T.; Gil, I.; Bartels-Jónsdóttir, H.; Oliveira, P.; Kissel, C.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2005-12-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST), river discharge and biological productivity have been reconstructed from a multi-proxy study of a high-temporal-resolution sedimentary sequence recovered from the Tagus deposition center off Lisbon (Portugal) for the last 2000 years. SST shows 2 °C variability on a century scale that allows the identification of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). High Iron (Fe) and fine-sediment deposition accompanied by high n-alkane concentrations and presence of freshwater diatoms during the LIA (1300-1900 AD) (Science 292 (2001) 662) suggest augmented river discharge, whereas higher total-alkenone concentrations point to increased river-induced productivity. During the MWP (550-1300 AD) (Science 292 (2001) 662) larger mean-grain size and low values of magnetic susceptibility, and concentrations of Fe, n-alkanes, and n-alcohols are interpreted to reflect decreased runoff. At the same time, increased benthic and planktonic foraminifera abundances and presence of upwelling related diatoms point to increased oceanic productivity. On the basis of the excellent match found between the negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the intensified Tagus River discharge observed for the last century, it is hypothesized that the increased influx of terrigenous material during the LIA reflects a negative NAO-like state or the occurrence of frequent extreme NAO minima. During the milder few centuries of the MWP, stronger coastal upwelling conditions are attributed to a persistent, positive NAO-like state or the frequent occurrence of extreme NAO maxima. The peak in magnetic susceptibility, centered at 90 cm composite core depth (ccd), is interpreted as the result of the well-known 1755 AD Lisbon earthquake. The Lisbon earthquake and accompanying tsunami are estimated to have caused the loss of 39 cm of sediment (355 years of record—most of the LIA) and the instantaneous deposition of a 19-cm sediment bed.

  18. Anthropogenic impact on the Swartvlei lake system in the Wilderness area (South Africa) as reflected in a sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, Torsten; Kirsten, Kelly; Franz, Sarah; Reinwarth, Bastian; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Kasper, Thomas; Meadows, Michael; Su, Youliang; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Swartvlei is one of the most thoroughly investigated lacustrine coastal systems in South Africa. However, studies focussing on anthropogenic impacts on sediment deposition in the most recent past (i.e., the last 30-40 years) are rare. A 96 cm long sediment core, covering the past two centuries, provides evidence for intense changes over the last few decades probably related to anthropogenic activities, such as farming, water abstraction etc. A decrease in marine influence is observed starting somewhat earlier but was potentially supported by human management activities. The development of the age-depth model turned out to be a serious issue, as old marine carbon affected samples impacted the robustness of the chronology, hence further investigations are required in most coastal geoarchives from South Africa. A multi-dating approach using several methods is suggested as errors in the chronology distinctly impact paleoenvironmental reconstructions (timing, flux rates etc.). In this context initial paleomagnetic secular variation data are presented, which needs further exploration and inclusion in the future.

  19. Multiple-pressure-tapped core holder combined with X-ray computed tomography scanning for gas-water permeability measurements of methane-hydrate-bearing sediments.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Jin, Yusuke; Uchiumi, Takashi; Nagao, Jiro

    2013-06-01

    We present a novel setup for measuring the effective gas-water permeability of methane-hydrate-bearing sediments. We developed a core holder with multiple pressure taps for measuring the pressure gradient of the gas and water phases. The gas-water flooding process was simultaneously detected using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. We successfully measured the effective gas-water permeability of an artificial sandy core with methane hydrate during the gas-water flooding test.

  20. Extensive lake sediment coring survey on Sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean Kerguelen Archipelago (French Austral and Antarctic Lands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Poulenard, Jérôme; Støren, Eivind; Leloup, Anouk; Bakke, Jostein; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Recent paleo-studies revealed climatic southern high latitude climate evolution patterns that are crucial to understand the global climate evolution(1,2). Among others the strength and north-south shifts of westerlies wind appeared to be a key parameter(3). However, virtually no lands are located south of the 45th South parallel between Southern Georgia (60°W) and New Zealand (170°E) precluding the establishment of paleoclimate records of past westerlies dynamics. Located around 50°S and 70°E, lost in the middle of the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean, Kerguelen archipelago is a major, geomorphologically complex, land-mass that is covered by hundreds lakes of various sizes. It hence offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate and environment dynamics in a region where virtually nothing is known about it, except the remarkable recent reconstructions based on a Lateglacial peatbog sequence(4). During the 2014-2015 austral summer, a French-Norwegian team led the very first extensive lake sediment coring survey on Kerguelen Archipelago under the umbrella of the PALAS program supported by the French Polar Institute (IPEV). Two main areas were investigated: i) the southwest of the mainland, so-called Golfe du Morbihan, where glaciers are currently absent and ii) the northernmost Kerguelen mainland peninsula so-called Loranchet, where cirque glaciers are still present. This double-target strategy aims at reconstructing various independent indirect records of precipitation (glacier advance, flood dynamics) and wind speed (marine spray chemical species, wind-borne terrigenous input) to tackle the Holocene climate variability. Despite particularly harsh climate conditions and difficult logistics matters, we were able to core 6 lake sediment sites: 5 in Golfe du Morbihan and one in Loranchet peninsula. Among them two sequences taken in the 4km-long Lake Armor using a UWITEC re-entry piston coring system by 20 and 100m water-depth (6 and 7m-long, respectively). One

  1. Lake Chad sedimentation and environments during the late Miocene and Pliocene: New evidence from mineralogy and chemistry of the Bol core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Abderamane; Novello, Alice; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Decarreau, Alain; Fontaine, Claude; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Bourlès, Didier L.; Paillès, Christine; Buchet, Guillaume; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Maley, Jean; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Roquin, Claude; Schuster, Mathieu; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2016-06-01

    This study presents mineralogical and geochemical data from a borehole drilled near the locality of Bol (13°27‧N, 14°44‧E), in the eastern archipelago of the modern Lake Chad (Chad). Samples were taken from a ∼200 m long core section forming a unique sub-continuous record for Central Africa. Among these samples, 25 are dated between 6.4 and 2.4 Ma. Dominant minerals are clays (66% average) mixed with varying amounts of silt and diatomite. The clay fraction consists of Fe-beidellite (87% average), kaolinite, and traces of illite. Clay minerals originate from the erosion of the vertisols that surrounded the paleolake Chad. Sedimentological data indicate that a permanent lake (or recurrent lakes) existed from 6.7 until 2.4 Ma in the vicinity of Bol. By comparison with modern latitudinal distribution of vertisols in Africa the climate was Sudanian-like. Changes in the sedimentation rate suggest a succession of wetter and dryer periods during at least six million years in the region during the critical time period covering the Miocene-Pliocene transition.

  2. Event layers in the Japanese Lake Suigetsu 'SG06' sediment core: description, interpretation and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlolaut, Gordon; Brauer, Achim; Marshall, Michael H.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Staff, Richard A.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Lamb, Henry F.; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Naumann, Rudolf; Dulski, Peter; Brock, Fiona; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Tada, Ryuji; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Event layers in lake sediments are indicators of past extreme events, mostly the results of floods or earthquakes. Detailed characterisation of the layers allows the discrimination of the sedimentation processes involved, such as surface runoff, landslides or subaqueous slope failures. These processes can then be interpreted in terms of their triggering mechanisms. Here we present a 40 ka event layer chronology from Lake Suigetsu, Japan. The event layers were characterised using a multi-proxy approach, employing light microscopy and μXRF for microfacies analysis. The vast majority of event layers in Lake Suigetsu was produced by flood events (362 out of 369), allowing the construction of the first long-term, quantitative (with respect to recurrence) and well dated flood chronology from the region. The flood layer frequency shows a high variability over the last 40 ka, and it appears that extreme precipitation events were decoupled from the average long-term precipitation. For instance, the flood layer frequency is highest in the Glacial at around 25 ka BP, at which time Japan was experiencing a generally cold and dry climate. Other cold episodes, such as Heinrich Event 1 or the Late Glacial stadial, show a low flood layer frequency. Both observations together exclude a simple, straightforward relationship with average precipitation and temperature. We argue that, especially during Glacial times, changes in typhoon genesis/typhoon tracks are the most likely control on the flood layer frequency, rather than changes in the monsoon front or snow melts. Spectral analysis of the flood chronology revealed periodic variations on centennial and millennial time scales, with 220 yr, 450 yr and a 2000 yr cyclicity most pronounced. However, the flood layer frequency appears to have not only been influenced by climate changes, but also by changes in erosion rates due to, for instance, earthquakes.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Geomagnetic Field Determined From the Paleomagnetism of Sediment Cores From Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, G.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the main geomagnetic field at Earth's surface is important for understanding underlying geodynamo processes and conditions near the core-mantle boundary. Much of the geomagnetic variability, known as secular variation, occurs on timescales of tens of years to many thousands of years, requiring the use of paleomagnetic observations to derive continuous records of the ancient field, referred to as paleosecular variation (PSV) records. Marine depositional systems where thick sedimentary sections accumulate at high sedimentation rates provide some of the best locations for obtaining long continuous PSV records that can reveal both the short- and long-term changes in the field. Scientific ocean drilling has been successful at recovering many such sections and the paleomagnetic records from these reveal how the amplitude of PSV differs between sites and through time. In this study, several such records cored during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), and other cruises from high, mid, and low latitudes will be used to quantify time intervals of low and high PSV, to examine time-average properties of the field, to map spatial variations in the angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP), and to assess whether the spatial variation in angular dispersion changes with time.

  4. The Influence of CaCO3 Dissolution on Core Top Radiocarbon Ages for Deep-Sea Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Klas, Mieczyslawa; Clark, Elizabeth; Bonani, Georges; Ivy, Susan; Wolfli, Willy

    1991-10-01

    Radiocarbon ages on CaCO3 from deep-sea cores offer constraints on the nature of the CaCO3 dissolution process. The idea is that the toll taken by dissolution on grains within the core top bioturbation zone should be in proportion to their time of residence in this zone. If so, dissolution would shift the mass distribution in favor of younger grains, thereby reducing the mean radiocarbon age for the grain ensemble. We have searched in vain for evidence supporting the existence of such an age reduction. Instead, we find that for water depths of more than 4 km in the tropical Pacific the radiocarbon age increases with the extent of dissolution. We can find no satisfactory steady state explanation and are forced to conclude that this increase must be the result of chemical erosion. The idea is that during the Holocene the rate of dissolution of CaCO3 has exceeded the rain rate of CaCO3. In this circumstance, bioturbation exhumes CaCO3 from the underlying glacial sediment and mixes it with CaCO3 raining from the sea surface.

  5. Conversion of GISP2-based sediment core age models to the GICC05 extended chronology for coherent spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrochta, Stephen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Morén, Jan; Crowley, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Marine and lacustrine sediment-based paleoclimate records are often not comparable within the early to middle portion of the last glacial cycle. This is due in part to significant revisions over the past 15 years to the Greenland ice core chronologies commonly used to assign ages outside of the range of radiocarbon dating, which results in temporal offsets of up to 4,000 years between recently published and classical proxy data. Therefore, creation of a compatible chronology is required prior to analysis of the spatial and temporal nature of climate variability at multiple locations. This is accomplished with an automated mathematical function that updates GISP2-based chronologies to the newer, NGRIP GICC05 age scale between 8.24 and 103.74 ka b2k. The script uses, to the extent currently available, climate-independent volcanic synchronization of these two ice cores, supplemented by oxygen isotope alignment. Results of quantitative synthesis that fail to account for offset may produce spurious results.

  6. Apollo 11 drive-tube core samples: an initial physical analysis of lunar surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, R; Anderson, D; Carrier, D; Greenwood, W; Heiken, G

    1970-01-30

    Two drive-tube core samples were obtained at Tranquillity Base. Fines include much glass, are unweathered, medium gray, loose, nonstructured, very weakly coherent, and demonstrate both accumulation and mixing in a waterless vacuum environment. In contrast to chemical weathering characteristic on the earth, lunar alteration processes are primarily mechanical. We infer that environmental processes of the lunar surface may be expressed as follows: R (regolith) = f(cl, p, r, t, b, a, . . .), in which climate (cl) is constant and the time (t)-de-pendent processes of bombardment (b) and accumulation (a) assume significance unparalleled on the earth because of their effects on parent material (p) and relief (r).

  7. Controls on the distribution and fractionation of yttrium and rare earth elements in core sediments from the Mandovi estuary, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V. Purnachandra; Kessarkar, Pratima M.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogy, major elements (Fe, Mn and Al), rare earths and yttrium (REY) of bulk sediments were analyzed in four gravity cores recovered along the main channel of the Mandovi estuary, western India, to determine the sources and controls on REY distribution. The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) ages of total organic carbon indicated modern age for the sediments of the upper estuary and, maximum mean ages of 1588 years AD and 539 years AD for the bottom sediments of the cores in the lower estuary and bay, respectively. The sediments of the upper/middle estuary showed abundant hematite, magnetite and goethite and high Fe, Mn, total-REE (ΣREE) and Y, while those in the lower estuary/bay showed abundant silicate minerals and relatively low Fe, Mn, ΣREE and Y. ΣREE showed significant correlation with clay and silt fractions and Y, Al and organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments. The light to heavy REE ratios (LREE/HREE) of sediments were lower than in Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS). The PAAS-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REY; Y inserted between Dy and Ho) patterns of sediments showed middle REE (MREE)- and HREE-enrichment with positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) and variable Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*). The REY of sediments is primarily controlled by its texture and REE of source sediment, which is ore material-dominated in the upper/middle estuary and silicate material-dominated in the lower estuary/bay. Low LREE/HREE ratios suggest that very fine-grained sediments were carried away from the estuary because of high-energy conditions. Fractionations of REY (Y/Ho, Sm/Nd, Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu*) are controlled by different mechanisms. High Y/Ho ratios in clayey silts are due to redistribution of Y and Ho by adsorption onto organic-rich, clays. Variations in Sm/Nd ratios are similar to that of Eu/Eu* in cores from the lower estuary/bay and are controlled by mineral constituents of the sediments. Positive Ce and Eu anomalies are inherited from ore material, and ore

  8. Problems with the dating of sediment core using excess (210)Pb in a freshwater system impacted by large scale watershed changes.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Mark; Nix, Joe; Kuyper, Clark; Karunakara, N

    2014-12-01

    Pb-210 dating of freshwater and coastal sediments have been extensively conducted over the past 40 years for historical pollution reconstruction studies, sediment focusing, sediment accumulation and mixing rate determination. In areas where there is large scale disturbance of sediments and the watershed, the vertical profiles of excess (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) could provide erroneous or less reliable information on sediment accumulation rates. We analyzed one sediment core from Hendrix Lake in southwestern Arkansas for excess (210)Pb and (137)Cs. There is no decrease in excess (210)Pb activity with depth while the (137)Cs profile indicates sharp peak corresponding to 1963 and the (137)Cs penetration depth of (137)Cs corresponds to 1952. The historical data on the accelerated mercury mining during 1931-1944 resulted in large-scale Hg input to this watershed. Using the peak Hg activity as a time marker, the obtained sediment accumulation rates agree well with the (137)Cs-based rates. Four independent evidences (two-marker events based on (137)Cs and two marker events based on Hg mining activity) result in about the same sedimentation rates and thus, we endorse earlier suggestion that (210)Pb profile always needs to be validated with at least one another independent method. We also present a concise discussion on what important factors that can affect the vertical profiles of (210)Pbxs in relatively smaller lakes.

  9. Pb Concentration and Stable PB Isotopes in Dated-Core Sediments in the Ulleung Basin, East/japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J.; Choi, M.; Kim, D.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated temporal and spatial variation of Pb and stable Pb isotopes accumulated in Ulleung Basin core sediments (12) using MC ICP/MS in order to identify the sources of anthropogenic Pb in the East/Japan Sea. Leached (1M HCl) Pb concentration and isotope ratios (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) ware constant at around 20 mg/kg and 0.845 and 2.092 from 1700 to 1930 year, respectively and increased steadily up to 40 mg/kg and 0.873 to 2.129 at the beginning of 2000s, increased up to twice in concentration and as much as 3.31% and 1.64%. On the other hand, residual Pb concentrations were nearly constant for past 400 yrs. From the vertical profiles of Pb concentration and two end-members mixing model, anthropogenic Pb concentration and isotope ratios were estimated. The transport pathways of anthropogenic Pb could be estimated from 1) the comparison between the inventories of excess 210Pb in each sediment column and the input fluxes from the atmosphere and seawater column, 2) between the accumulation rate of anthropogenic Pb and mass accumulation rate of sediments. From the detailed evaluation for the pathways and isotope ratios of anthropogenic Pb, we proposed probable source of anthropogenic Pb. Pb emission by coal burning from the China and Korea initiated the accumulation of anthropogenic Pb in the sediments of East/Japan Sea from 1930s. The accumulation of Pb increased by the addition of anti-nocking agents from both countries untill beginning of 1990s, but from the middle of 1990s to the present, the phase-out of gasoline additives and the rapid increase of coal burning from China maintained the atmospheric Pb levels in the Ulleung basin nearly similar to before. However the local sources (e.g. ocean dumping) within this basin might take an important role in the rapid increase of anthropogenic Pb accumulation in slope areas from the middle of 1990s.

  10. Zn and Cu Isotopes as Tracers of Anthropogenic Contamination in a Sediment Core from an Urban Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thapalia, Anita; Borrok, David M.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Landa, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. δ66Zn and δ65Cu varied by 0.50%o and 0.29%o, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (~1450 to 1900 with δ66Zn = +0.39%o ± 0.09%o and δ65Cu = +0.77%o ± 0.06%o), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with δ66Zn = +0.14 ± 0.06%o and δ65Cu = +0.94 ± 0.10%o), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with δ66Zn = 0.00 ± 0.10%o and δ65Cu = +0.82%o ± 0.12%o). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the δ66Zn and δ65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the δ66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn.

  11. Characterization and FATE of PAH-contaminated sediments at the Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Richard C; Magar, Victor S; Ickes, Jennifer A; Abbott, James E; Stout, Scott A; Crecelius, Eric A; Bingler, Linda S

    2002-06-15

    Eagle Harbor, a shallow marine embayment of Bainbridge Island, WA approximately 10 miles west of Seattle, WA), was formerly the site of the Wyckoff wood-treatment facility. The facility used large quantities of creosote in its wood-treating processes from the early 1900s to 1988. Historical creosote seepage into the harbor resulted in substantial accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the harbor sediments over time. This investigation focused on the distribution and fate of the PAH-contaminated harbor sediments. Analyses of 10 sediment cores using total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) fingerprinting, the distribution of 50 PAH analytes, and sediment age dating revealed the contributions of three distinct sources of PAHs to sediment contamination in the harbor during various periods over the past 100 years; namely, creosote, urban runoff, and natural background. Surface sediments (upper 20-30 cm) in the cores closestto the Wyckoff wood-treatment facility and southeast of an existing cap were dominated by urban runoff and weathered creosote; the deeper sediments (> 30 cm) were heavily contaminated with relatively unweathered creosote and some pure-phase creosote. Cores located the furthest from the area of contamination, in the center of the harbor, were dominated by urban runoff, showed no signs of creosote contamination, and had much lower PAH and TPH concentrations than those adjacent to the facility. In the four cores in the center of the Harbor, farthest from the former Wyckoff facility, PAH concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.01) with proximity to the northern shore of the harbor, which is more heavily developed than the southern shore and is where all automobile traffic enters and exits the island through the Bainbridge Island ferry terminal. Deeper portions of these cores were contaminated primarily with natural background PAHs, likely representing preurbanization sediments. Sedimentation rates ranged from 0.54 to 1.10 gm

  12. RECENT DECLINES IN PAH, PCB, AND TOXAPHENE LEVELS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT LAKES AS DETERMINED FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SEDIMENT CORES. (R825151)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were collected from two sites in Grand Traverse Bay, Lake
    Michigan in May 1998, dated using 210Pb geochronology, and analyzed
    for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    (PAHs), and toxaphene. The extraor...

  13. Simultaneous determination of mercury and organic carbon using a direct mercury analyzer: Mercury profiles in sediment cores from oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediment cores from seasonal wetland and open water areas from six oxbow lakes in the Mississippi River alluvial flood plain were analyzed for total-mercury (Hg) using a direct mercury analyzer (DMA). In the process we evaluated the feasibility of simultaneously determining organic matter content by...

  14. Hydrothermal energy transfer and contribution to autotrophic CO2 fixation down sediment core in Central Indian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindita; LokaBharathi P., A.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal Energy Transfer is not only restricted to active vents sites but also to the passive ones. These passive sources could include the sub-seafloor hydrothermal fluid flux derived from distant sources like erupting vents or from deep-mantle. The contribution from such fluxes in stimulating autotrophic carbon fixation could be measurable. In this paper an attempt is made to measure the autotrophic CO2 fixation down a siliceous sediment core (Core 20, 75?30'E, 12?S) adjoining Trace of Rodrigues Triple Junction in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) with a fluid flux influence at 15-20 cms bsf (below sea-floor) which is quite distinct from the pelagic influence on the overlying 0-15 cms bsf. This work assumes that NH4+and S2- are major e-donors/reductants to fuel C-Fixation. The down-core carbon fixation varied from 0.032-0.122μmol C g-1day-1 with the larger peak at 15-20 cms bsf. This coincides with the dips in pore-water concentrations of NH4+ and S2-. Therefore the corresponding standard free energy change (ΔG?') down-core varied from -97 at 4-6 cms bsf to -375 J μmol-1 C fixed m-3 day-1 at 12-14 cms bsf in case of NH4+. In case of S2- the values varied from -42 at 4-6 cms bsf to -162 J μmol-1 m-3 day-1at 12-14 cms bsf. Integrated down-core estimate of ΔG?' is calculated to be -26.97 J μmol-1 C fixation m-2 day-1 during CO2 fixation using NH4+ and -11.7 J μmol-1 C fixation m-2 day-1 using S2-. This fluid-flow influenced layer appears physically as a brown-green transition zone in the core at a depth of 15-20 cm bsf. Interestingly similar observations have been made in >15 such cores around the present test core. These observations suggest that this spreading bed at this depth could be due to the upward fluid flow that then spreads laterally. This spread could perhaps be more than the area that the current observations permit. So the Hydrothermal Energy Transfer is equivalent to -11.70 to -26.97 J μmol-1 C fixation m-2 day-1and corresponds to 88 μmol of

  15. The rare earth element geochemistry on surface sediments, shallow cores and lithological units of Lake Acıgöl basin, Denizli, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Kumral, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The sediments in Lake Acıgöl, located in SW Anatolia, Turkey, were formed under tectono-sedimentary events. REE geochemical investigations of the Lake Acıgöl sediments, from surface and shallow core sediments at different depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) are presented to clarify the characteristics of REE and the nature of source rocks in the lake sediments' and to deduce their paleoenvironmental proxies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these sediments are shown as light enrichment in LREE and flat HREE with a negative Eu anomaly that is close to the continental collision basin (CCB) in its profile; this is not comparable with PAAS and UCC. Inorganic detrital materials control the REE characteristics of the Lake Acıgöl sediments and these sediments were accumulated in oxic and dysoxic depositional conditions and/or at passive margins derived from oceanic island arc rocks. They were affected by low chemical weathering, either at the original source or during transport, before deposition under arid or subtropical humid climatic conditions. In addition, we used GIS techniques (such as Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)) to investigate the spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the REEs from the lake surface sediments in Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units. GIS techniques showed that the lithological units (e.g., Hayrettin Formation) north of Lake Acıgöl have high REE contents; however, Eu/Eu∗ values were higher in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units, and that refers to a negative Eu-anomaly. Therefore, Lake Acıgöl sediments are derived from the weathered products, mainly from local, highly basic bedrock around the lake from the Archean crust. The chronology of Lake Acıgöl sediment was conducted using the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Using the CRS methods for the calculation of sedimentation rate, we obtained a 0.012 g/cm2/year value which is an

  16. Late-Holocene climate andecosystem history from Chesapeake Bay sediment cores, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Cronin, T. M.; Verardo, S.

    2003-01-01

    Palaeoclimate records from late-Holocene sediments in Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the USA, provide evidence that both decadal to centennial climate variability and European colonization had severe impacts on the watershed and estuary. Using pollen and dinoflagellate cysts as proxies for mid-Atlantic regional precipitation, estuarine salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO) during the last 2300 years, we identified four dry intervals, centred on AD 50 (P1/D1), AD 1000 (P2/D2), AD 1400 (P3) and AD 1600 (P4). Two centennial-scale events, P1/D1 and P2/D2, altered forest composition and led to increased salinity and DO levels in the estuary. Intervals P3 and P4 lasted several decades, leading to decreased production of pine pollen. Periods of dry mid-Atlantic climate correspond to 'megadroughts' identified from tree-ring records in the southeastern and central USA. The observed mid-Atlantic climate variability may be explained by changes in atmospheric circulation resulting in longer-term, perhaps amplified, intervals of meridional flow. After European colonization in the early seventeenth century, forest clearance for agriculture, timber and urbanization altered estuarine water quality, with dinoflagellate assemblages indicating reduced DO and increased turbidity.

  17. Effects of adaptation on biodegradation rates in sediment/water cores from estuarine and freshwater environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Pritchard, P.H.; Bourquin, A.W.

    1980-10-01

    Experiments were devised to determine whether exposure to xenobiotics would cause microbial populations to degrade the compounds more rapidly during subsequent exposures. Studies were done with water/sediment systems (ecocores) taken from a salt marsh and a river. Systems were tested for adaptation to the model compounds methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ released from radioactive parent compounds was used as a measure of mineralization. River populations preexposed to p-nitrophenol at concentrations as low as 60 ..mu..g/liter degraded the nitrophenol much faster than did control populations. River populations preexposed to methyl parathion also adapted to degrade the pesticide more rapidly, but higher concentrations were required. Salt marsh populations did not adapt to degrade methyl parathion. p-nitrophenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from river samples but not from salt marsh samples. Numbers of nitrophenol-degrading bacteria increased 4 to 5 orders of magnitude during adaptation. Results indicate that the ability of populations to adapt depends on the presence of specific microorganisms. Biodegradation rates in laboratory systems can be affected by concentration and prior exposure; therefore, adaptation must be considered when such systems are used to predict the fate of xenobiotics in the environment.

  18. Late Quaternary sediment deposition of core MA01 in the Mendeleev Ridge, the western Arctic Ocean: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwang-Kyu; Kim, Sunghan; Khim, Boo-Keun; Xiao, Wenshen; Wang, Rujian

    2014-05-01

    Late Quaternary deep marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean are characterized by brown layers intercalated with yellowish to olive gray layers (Poore et al., 1999; Polyak et al., 2004). Previous studies reported that the brown and gray layers were deposited during interglacial (or interstadial) and glacial (or stadial) periods, respectively. A 5.5-m long gravity core MA01 was obtained from the Mendeleev Ridge in the western Arctic Ocean by R/V Xue Long during scientific cruise CHINARE-V. Age (~450 ka) of core MA01 was tentatively estimated by correlation of brown layers with an adjacent core HLY0503-8JPC (Adler et al., 2009). A total of 22 brown layers characterized by low L* and b*, high Mn concentration, and abundant foraminifera were identified. Corresponding gray layers are characterized by high L* and b*, low Mn concentration, and few foraminiferal tests. Foraminifera abundance peaks are not well correlated to CaCO3 peaks which occurred with the coarse-grained (>0.063 mm) fractions (i.e., IRD) both in brown and gray layers. IRDs are transported presumably by sea ice for the deposition of brown layers and by iceberg for the deposition of gray layers (Polyak et al., 2004). A strong correlation coefficient (r2=0.89) between TOC content and C/N ratio indicates that the major source of organic matter is terrestrial. The good correlations of CaCO3 content to TOC (r2=0.56) and C/N ratio (r2=0.69) imply that IRDs contain detrital CaCO3 which mainly originated from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In addition, high kaolinite/chlorite (K/C) ratios mostly correspond to CaCO3 peaks, which suggests that the fine-grained particles in the Mendeleev Ridge are transported from the north coast Alaska and Canada where Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata are widely distributed. Thus, the Beaufort Gyre, the predominant surface current in the western Arctic Ocean, played an important role in the sediment delivery to the Mendeleev Ridge. It is worthy of note that the TOC and CaCO3 peaks are

  19. Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project. Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia: How to get from three tonnes of sediment core to > 500 ka of continuous climate history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Verena; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew S.; Gromig, Raphael; Günter, Christina; Junginger, Annett; Lamb, Henry F.; Schaebitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin H.

    2016-04-01

    In search of the environmental context of the evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens and our close relatives within and beyond the African continent, the ICDP-funded Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has recently cored five fluvio-lacustrine archives of climate change in East Africa. The sediment cores collected in Ethiopia and Kenya are expected to provide valuable insights into East African environmental variability during the last ~3.5 Ma. The tectonically-bound Chew Bahir basin in the southern Ethiopian rift is one of the five sites within HSPDP, located in close proximity to the Lower Omo River valley, the site of the oldest known fossils of anatomically modern humans. In late 2014, the two cores (279 and 266 m long respectively, HSPDP-CHB14-2A and 2B) were recovered, summing up to nearly three tonnes of mostly calcareous clays and silts. Deciphering an environmental record from multiple records, from the source region of modern humans could eventually allow us to reconstruct the pronounced variations of moisture availability during the transition into Middle Stone Age, and its implications for the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens. Here we present the first results of our analysis of the Chew Bahir cores. Following the HSPDP protocols, the two parallel Chew Bahir sediment cores have been merged into one single, 280 m long and nearly continuous (>90%) composite core on the basis of a high resolution MSCL data set (e.g., magnetic susceptibility, gamma ray density, color intensity transects, core photographs). Based on the obvious cyclicities in the MSCL, correlated with orbital cycles, the time interval covered by our sediment archive of climate change is inferred to span the last 500-600 kyrs. Combining our first results from the long cores with the results from the accomplished pre-study of short cores taken in 2009/10 along a NW-SE transect across the basin (Foerster et al., 2012, Trauth et al., 2015), we have developed a hypothesis

  20. 235U–231Pa age dating of uranium materials for nuclear forensic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Eppich, Gary R.; Williams, Ross W.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Schorzman, Kerri C.

    2013-04-03

    Here, age dating of nuclear material can provide insight into source and suspected use in nuclear forensic investigations. We report here a method for the determination of the date of most recent chemical purification for uranium materials using the 235U-231Pa chronometer. Protactinium is separated from uranium and neptunium matrices using anion exchange resin, followed by sorption of Pa to an SiO2 medium. The concentration of 231Pa is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using 233Pa spikes prepared from an aliquot of 237Np and calibrated in-house using the rock standard Table Mountain Latite and the uranium isotopic standard U100. Combined uncertainties of age dates using this method are 1.5 to 3.5 %, an improvement over alpha spectrometry measurement methods. Model ages of five uranium standard reference materials are presented; all standards have concordant 235U-231Pa and 234U-230Th model ages.

  1. Analysis of the La:P ratio in lake sediments - Vertical and spatial distribution assessed by a multiple-core survey.

    PubMed

    Yasseri, Said; Epe, Tim S

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, lanthanum modified bentonite has been increasingly applied to eutrophic lakes with the aim of converting potentially bio-available forms of phosphorus in sediments into biologically unavailable forms. In many of these applications, however, no attempts have been made to assess the efficiency and efficacy of the measure in terms of its effect on the sediment. In this study, we collected sediment cores from a heavily eutrophied lake that has previously been treated with lanthanum modified clay. This restoration method is based on the strong ionic bond formed between lanthanum and phosphate which results in the formation of LaPO4 (Rhabdophane) in the sediment. In order to determine the changes that had occurred in the sediments as a result of the addition of the clay, we measured the vertical distribution of lanthanum in the collected cores, calculated La:P ratios of the different sediment layers and used the ratios to determine whether or not the applied dosage was sufficient. By means of the geostatistical method of kriging these values were transferred into maps of different depth intervals to visualize the results. The results indicate that the La:P ratio may be a useful tool which allows lake managers to measure the vertical distribution of lanthanum in sediments following treatments and determine whether or not dosages are sufficient to permanently render sediment phosphorus biologically unavailable. The method may also provide a basis on which to decide whether or not smaller reapplications are needed and can be used to control the dispersion of the material.

  2. Deriving a High-Resolution - Continuous Record of Climate Change for the Past 15,000 cal BP, Maxwell Bay Sediment Core, South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, K. T.; Anderson, J. B.; Wellner, J. S.; Manley, P.; Bohaty, S.

    2005-12-01

    In the Antarctic Peninusla area, a climatic gradient, created by orographic and oceanographic effects, is manifested in extreme temperature and precipitation patterns. Thus, the area provides a natural laboratory to study the nature and timing of climate change at high southern latitudes during the past several thousand years. Two benchmark long term continuous records can now be compared; Maxwell Bay, situated in a warm wet subpolar climate setting and Palmer Deep, located in a cold wet subpolar climatic regime. Both of these records span the past 14000 years, document the LGM ice pullback and provide the means to contrast climate fluctuations in two different area. This paper presents the preliminary results from a 108 m sediment core (93 % recovery) recovered from Maxwell Bay (South Shetland islands). The pre-existing Palmer Deep cores sampled 50 m of structureless diatom ooze/mud, rhythmically interbedded diatom ooze and pebbly mud and muddy diatomicton (Domack et. al., 2001). The alternation of diatom ooze and diatomaceous mud is interpreted to represent climate driven oscillations of biogenic productivity. Magnetic susceptibility and other paleoenvironmental proxies track biogenic productivity and provide a means to quantify decadal, century, and millennia scales of climate change. Additionally, five global climate intervals are noted including, deglaciation, climatic reversal, Hypsithermal (Holocene Climatic Optimum), Neoglacial, and Little Ice Age. Several radiocarbon dates are used to establish an age model and show significant variations in sedimentation rates through time. The sedimentation rate variations correspond to sediment facies changes within the core. High sedimentation rates (10 to 30 mm/yr) correspond to silty diatomaceous mud with abundant sand laminae interpreted as proximal glaciomarine facies. Lower sedimentation rates (4 mm/yr) are associated with diatomaceous mud with few sand laminae and abundant bioturbation, interpreted to represent

  3. Thin Film XRF measurements (Wet and dry) of Black Sea Sediment Samples And Their Elemental Comparisons With Same Core U Channel Sample.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Eris, Kadir; Sarı, Erol; Genc, S. Can

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the XRF data from about 0.3mm thin film sediment core. We prepared 3 different model from same sediment core. The main aim is the finding for elemental changing of spectra variety and their comparison with physical changes of samples about mass and water content. Our XRF measurements were carried out by ITRAX (Cox System), and we have documented the some useful and more precision tricks; a) the first point is that the wet or dry nature of the core, b) the second is the use of U channel sample or thin film sample. For base referencing for the selected elements, we prepared normal wet U channel sample with the thickness of 1.5 cm. We used thin material (film) for keeping the humidty of every core sample's surface. Because humidity loss very high on thin film core sample and very effective to get bad results related to changing of topography and beam emission related to loss of pore water. Our XRF measurements have revealed that the Zn, Ti, Si, V,S, Cr, Mn, Ba, K and Ca elements were measured more precisely and accurate using by the dry thin film sample than those of wet U channel and wet thin sediment sample experiments. Beside this, Y, Zr, Nb, Rb, Sr, Ir, Fe,Co, Ni and Al elements were measured from the wet U channeled core more reliable with respect to the former. Lead (Pb) and Cd elements have behaved constantly during the three types of measurements. Keywords: Thin film XRF, U channel, Elements, Sediment, Measurement

  4. Ultra-high-resolution paleoenvironmental records via direct laser-based analysis of lipid biomarkers in sediment core samples

    PubMed Central

    Wörmer, Lars; Elvert, Marcus; Fuchser, Jens; Lipp, Julius Sebastian; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Zabel, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Marine microorganisms adapt to their habitat by structural modification of their membrane lipids. This concept is the basis of numerous molecular proxies used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Archaeal tetraether lipids from ubiquitous marine planktonic archaea are particularly abundant, well preserved in the sedimentary record and used in several molecular proxies. We here introduce the direct, extraction-free analysis of these compounds in intact sediment core sections using laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). LDI FTICR-MS can detect the target lipids in single submillimeter-sized spots on sediment sections, equivalent to a sample mass in the nanogram range, and could thus pave the way for biomarker-based reconstruction of past environments and ecosystems at subannual to decadal resolution. We demonstrate that ratios of selected archaeal tetraethers acquired by LDI FTICR-MS are highly correlated with values obtained by conventional liquid chromatography/MS protocols. The ratio of the major archaeal lipids, caldarchaeol and crenarchaeol, analyzed in a 6.2-cm intact section of Mediterranean sapropel S1 at 250-µm resolution (∼4-y temporal resolution), provides an unprecedented view of the fine-scale patchiness of sedimentary biomarker distributions and the processes involved in proxy signal formation. Temporal variations of this lipid ratio indicate a strong influence of the ∼200-y de Vries solar cycle on reconstructed sea surface temperatures with possible amplitudes of several degrees, and suggest signal amplification by a complex interplay of ecological and environmental factors. Laser-based biomarker analysis of geological samples has the potential to revolutionize molecular stratigraphic studies of paleoenvironments. PMID:25331871

  5. Record of the North American southwest monsoon from Gulf of Mexico sediment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, R.Z.; Pavich, M.J.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    Summer monsoonal rains (the southwest monsoon) are an important source of moisture for parts of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Improved documentation of the variability in the southwest monsoon is needed because changes in the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation in this semiarid region of North America influence overall water supply and fire severity. Comparison of abundance variations in the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer in marine cores from the western and northern Gulf of Mexico with terrestrial proxy records of precipitation (tree-ring width and packrat-midden occurrences) from the southwestern United States indicate that G. sacculifer abundance is a proxy for the southwest monsoon on millennial and submillennial time scales. The marine record confirms the presence of a severe multicentury drought centered ca. 1600 calendar (cal.) yr B.P. as well as several multidecadal droughts that have been identified in a long tree-ring record spanning the past 2000 cal. yr from westcentral New Mexico. The marine record further suggests that monsoon circulation, and thus summer rainfall, was enhanced in the middle Holocene (ca. 6500-4500 14C yr B.P.; ca. 6980-4710 cal. yr B.P.). The marine proxy provides the potential for constructing a highly resolved, well-dated, and continuous history of the southwest monsoon for the entire Holocene. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  6. Historical trend in heavy metal pollution in core sediments from the Masan Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jinhyung; Hyun, Sangmin; Han, J-H; Kim, Suhyun; Shin, Dong-Hyeok

    2015-06-15

    The spatiotemporal distribution and their mass accumulation rate (MAR) of heavy metals were investigated to evaluate the time-dependent historical trends of heavy metal concentration. The three short cores used for this study were collected from the catchment area (MS-PC5, 60cm length), the central part (MS-PC4, 40cm length) and the offshore (MS-PC2, 60cm length) of the Masan Bay, Korea. The concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) in catchment area is as much as 1.5-2 times higher than central part of the Bay, and about 2 times higher than offshore area approximately. In particular, MAR of metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) show clear spatiotemporal variation, so that MAR's of heavy metal may provide more accurate information in evaluating the degree of pollution. Temporally, the heavy metal concentration had been increased since the late 1970s, but it seems to decrease again since the 2004yr in catchment area. This may came from concentrated efforts for the government to reduce industrial waste release.

  7. Hg Isotope Ratios of a Sediment Core from Plastic Lake, Ontario: Implications for Hg Cycle in Aquatic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q.; Dillon, P.; Evans, D.; Lu, S.

    2004-12-01

    Hg isotope ratios in a sediment core obtained in Plastic Lake, Ontario, Canada, have been measured by coupling a gold trap with an MC-ICP-MS. The core is about 30 cm in depth and corresponds to a time period of about 250 years, based on 210Pb dating. The samples were combusted at high temperature and the Hg collected onto a gold trap. The gold trap was subsequently heated to release Hg directly into the MC-ICP-MS. An in-house sample introduction system was employed to extend Hg signal duration in order to obtain high precision in isotope ratio measurement. The instrumental mass bias was corrected using Tl introduced simultaneously via an Aridus membrane desolvation nebulizer. Based on long term measurement of a NIST-2225 elemental Hg standard (over 120 measurements since Oct. 2002), the external reproducibility ranges from 45 ppm for 201Hg/202Hg to 100 ppm for 199Hg/202Hg (2 sigma relative standard error). Hg in the sediments shows an increase in light isotope enrichment at about 10 cm depth. The total Hg also displays an increase at the same depth. The depth corresponds to approximately the 1920s, a time period when there was a major increase in coal-burning power generation. Limited Hg isotope data for other terrestrial samples appears to indicate that Hg bound to organic carbon is enriched in light isotopes relative to elemental Hg. For example, the DOLT-3, a dogfish liver standard reference material with half of its Hg as MeHg, has the lightest Hg isotope composition among measured terrestrial samples. It is not clear at this stage whether the increase in total Hg and light Hg isotope enrichment in recent years represent a change in methylation rate of the lake, or an increase in atmospheric deposition of Hg combined with a change in source. Discussions based on available Hg isotope data of terrestrial samples together with other chemical data for the lake will be presented.

  8. A detailed record of the Lower Jaramillo Polarity Transition from a southern hemisphere, deep-sea sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Bradford M.; Kent, Dennis V.

    1984-02-01

    A detailed record of the lower Jaramillo (reversed to normal) polarity transition was obtained from a southern hemisphere, deep-sea sediment core (latitude = 35.91°E, longitude = 59.97°E) The record consists of over 850 samples taken across 140 cm of section. The transition itself is recorded across approximately 70 cm and is represented by more than 475 specimens from about 160 levels giving intermediate directions. The transition is identified by a nearly 180° shift from directions in good agreement with a reversed, axial dipole field to those closely aligned with a normal, axial dipole field for the core site latitude. The inclinations shallow gradually early in the reversal and pass through very steep negative values (-80°) late in the transition. The declinations show little appreciable variation until the inclinations have moved through the near vertical, and then slowly approach values in agreement with a normal polarity field. An intensity low accompanies the directional change during which the intensity drops to less than 15% of the maximum values observed in this sample interval. The intensity fluctuation spans a wider interval than the directional change, decreasing prior to any systematic change in the directions and then increasing to pre-transition levels by the same depth at which the directions have stabilized. The VGP path constructed for this reversal is longitudinally constrained to a certain extent, between 140° and 230° for intermediate VGP latitudes and is roughly centered 120° from the site longitude. This path is therefore a far-sided VGP path in Hoffman's [1977] terminology. Assuming a constant sedimentation rate (67m/Ma) through the Jaramillo Subchron, the duration of the transition is estimated to be 11,200 years to 4,500 years (depending on the criteria) for the directional change, whereas the associated intensity variation occurred over 15,000 to 20,000 years. Considered together with records of the most recent reversal

  9. The permafrost carbon inventory on the Tibetan Plateau: a new evaluation using deep sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinzhi; Li, Fei; Yang, Guibiao; Chen, Leiyi; Zhang, Beibei; Liu, Li; Fang, Kai; Qin, Shuqi; Chen, Yongliang; Peng, Yunfeng; Ji, Chengjun; He, Honglin; Smith, Pete; Yang, Yuanhe

    2016-08-01

    The permafrost organic carbon (OC) stock is of global significance because of its large pool size and the potential positive feedback to climate warming. However, due to the lack of systematic field observations and appropriate upscaling methodologies, substantial uncertainties exist in the permafrost OC budget, which limits our understanding of the fate of frozen carbon in a warming world. In particular, the lack of comprehensive estimates of OC stocks across alpine permafrost means that current knowledge on this issue remains incomplete. Here, we evaluated the pool size and spatial variations of permafrost OC stock to 3 m depth on the Tibetan Plateau by combining systematic measurements from a substantial number of pedons (i.e. 342 three-metre-deep cores and 177 50-cm-deep pits) with a machine learning technique (i.e. support vector machine, SVM). We also quantified uncertainties in permafrost carbon budget by conducting Monte Carlo simulations. Our results revealed that the combination of systematic measurements with the SVM model allowed spatially explicit estimates to be made. The OC density (OC amount per unit area, OCD) exhibited a decreasing trend from the south-eastern to the north-western plateau, with the exception that OCD in the swamp meadow was substantially higher than that in surrounding regions. Our results also demonstrated that Tibetan permafrost stored a large amount of OC in the top 3 m, with the median OC pool size being 15.31 Pg C (interquartile range: 13.03-17.77 Pg C). 44% of OC occurred in deep layers (i.e. 100-300 cm), close to the proportion observed across the northern circumpolar permafrost region. The large carbon pool size together with significant permafrost thawing suggests a risk of carbon emissions and positive climate feedback across the Tibetan alpine permafrost region.

  10. CSciBox: An Intelligent Assistant for Dating Ice and Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlinson, K.; Bradley, E.; White, J. W. C.; Anderson, K. A.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; de Vesine, L. R.; Jones, T. R.; Lindsay, C. M.; Israelsen, B.

    2015-12-01

    CSciBox is an integrated software system for the construction and evaluation of age models of paleo-environmental archives. It incorporates a number of data-processing and visualization facilities, ranging from simple interpolation to reservoir-age correction and 14C calibration via the Calib algorithm, as well as a number of firn and ice-flow models. It employs modern database technology to store paleoclimate proxy data and analysis results in an easily accessible and searchable form, and offers the user access to those data and computational elements via a modern graphical user interface (GUI). In the case of truly large data or computations, CSciBox is parallelizable across modern multi-core processors, or clusters, or even the cloud. The code is open source and freely available on github, as are one-click installers for various versions of Windows and Mac OSX. The system's architecture allows users to incorporate their own software in the form of computational components that can be built smoothly into CSciBox workflows, taking advantage of CSciBox's GUI, data importing facilities, and plotting capabilities. To date, BACON and StratiCounter have been integrated into CSciBox as embedded components. The user can manipulate and compose all of these tools and facilities as she sees fit. Alternatively, she can employ CSciBox's automated reasoning engine, which uses artificial intelligence techniques to explore the gamut of age models and cross-dating scenarios automatically. The automated reasoning engine captures the knowledge of expert geoscientists, and can output a description of its reasoning.

  11. Radiocarbon Age Offsets Among co-Existing Foraminifers: Effects of Bioturbation, Dissolution, and Sediment Redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, A. C.; Mekik, F.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon dating of microfossils in deep sea cores has many caveats. Of these, three are the most problematic: bioturbation, dissolution, and lateral sediment redistribution. We attempted to isolate these caveats by selecting cores with different sedimentation rates and water depths. Our ultimate goal is to identify a foraminifer species that is affected the least by these caveats and thus is the most reliable for age dating. We present species-specific radiocarbon ages, whole assemblage counts, and calculations of sediment mixing rates in two cores extending to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM): Y69-71 in the Panama Basin and MD98-2177 in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Thorium normalization yields high lateral sediment redistribution in Y69-71 which is located below the lysocline. MD98-2177 has high sediment accumulation rates (~50cm/kyr) and is located above the lysocline. We found large disagreement among the ages of co-occurring microfossils in several horizons (up to 2000 years) in MD98-2177. Based on our whole assemblage counts bracketing these horizons, we conclude that bioturbation is the most likely agent of age discrepancy among co-occurring sedimentary components in MD98-2177 despite its high sedimentation rate. Surprisingly, the age offset among co-occurring components is reduced in Y69-71, especially during the LGM when the sediment focusing factor was about 8. This may suggest that sediment focusing was not disruptive enough to hinder the accurate dating of sediment layers in this core, especially during the LGM when foraminifer preservation was good. Lastly, we conclude that shells of G. menardii may be the most reliable for dating due to their flat morphology and high dissolution resistance.

  12. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  13. Comparison of chlorofluorocarbon-age dating with particle-tracking results of a regional ground-water flow model of the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study in which chlorofluorocarbon-age dating was used to evaluate the results of a ground-water particle tracker for the Portland Basin in Oregon and Washington.

  14. Geologic columns for the ICDP-USGS Eyreville A and B cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Sediment-clast breccias, 1096 to 444 m depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.; Powars, D.S.; Gohn, G.S.; Dypvik, H.

    2009-01-01

    The Eyreville A and B cores, recovered from the "moat" of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, provide a thick section of sediment-clast breccias and minor stratified sediments from 1095.74 to 443.90 m. This paper discusses the components of these breccias, presents a geologic column and descriptive lithologic framework for them, and formalizes the Exmore Formation. From 1095.74 to ??867 m, the cores consist of nonmarine sediment boulders and sand (rare blocks up to 15.3 m intersected diameter). A sharp contact in both cores at ??867 m marks the lowest clayey, silty, glauconitic quartz sand that constitutes the base of the Exmore Formation and its lower diamicton member. Here, material derived from the upper sediment target layers, as well as some impact ejecta, occurs. The block-dominated member of the Exmore Formation, from ??855-618.23 m, consists of nonmarine sediment blocks and boulders (up to 45.5 m) that are juxtaposed complexly. Blocks of oxidized clay are an important component. Above 618.23 m, which is the base of the informal upper diamicton member of the Exmore Formation, the glauconitic matrix is a consistent component in diamicton layers between nonmarine sediment clasts that decrease in size upward in the section. Crystalline-rock clasts are not randomly distributed but rather form local concentrations. The upper part of the Exmore Formation consists of crudely fining-upward sandy packages capped by laminated silt and clay. The overlap interval of Eyreville A and B (940-??760 m) allows recognition of local similarities and differences in the breccias. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Mid-Pleistocene Orbital and Millennial Scale Climate Change in a 200 ky lacustrine sediment core from SW North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Brown, E. T.; Berke, M. A.; Smith, S.; Goff, F. E.; Hurley, L. L.; Cisneros Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J. L.; Fessenden, J. E.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Allen, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    How anthropogenic climate change will affect hydroclimate of the arid regions of SW North America over the next century is a concern. Model projections suggest permanent “dust bowl-like” conditions; however, any anthropogenic change will be superimposed on long-term natural climate variability. We use the paleoclimatic record from an 82-m deep lacustrine sediment core (VC-3) from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico to examine continental climate variations spanning two glacial cycles through the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 to MIS 10 (552 ka to ~360 ka). Both orbital and millennial-scale variations are evident in multiple proxies, and a strong relationship occurs between the warmest temperatures in the record and periods of extended aridity. We suggest that these periods of aridity are characterized by decreased winter as well as summer precipitation amounts. A new group of organic geochemical proxies (MBT and CBT) allow us to reconstruct the annual mean air temperature (MAT) of the Valles Caldera watershed as well as the watershed soil pH down the length of the core. We compare these proxies to climatically sensitive pollen taxa and other core properties. The MAT record of VC-3 shows considerable glacial-interglacial variation and significant variability within individual glacial and interglacial periods. The warmest interglacial MATs (5 to 7°C) compare favorably with modern MATs of ~5°C in the Valle Grande. MIS 11 has three warm substages, based on MAT estimates (2°C warmer than the cool substages), warm (Juniperus, Quercus, Rosaceae) vs. cool (Abies, Picea, Artemisia) pollen taxa and variation in aquatic productivity proxies (TOC, Si:Ti). The three warm substages of MIS 11 appear to correspond to the three precessional peaks that occur during this interval. Glacial MATs range from -5 to +2°C, with multiple millennial-scale temperature oscillations evident. Several of the interstadials show a distinct pattern of relatively slower temperature increases and

  16. Distribution and hosts of arsenic in a sediment core from the Chianan Plain in SW Taiwan: Implications on arsenic primary source and release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Jen; Lee, Chi-Yu; Chiang, Yu-Ju; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Shau, Yen-Hong; Takazawa, Eiichi; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2016-11-01

    High arsenic abundance of 50-700μg/L in the groundwater from the Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan is a well-known environmental hazard. The groundwater-associated sediments, however, have not been geochemically characterized, thus hindering a comprehensive understanding of arsenic cycling in this region. In this study, samples collected from a 250m sediment core at the centre of the Chianan Plain were analyzed for arsenic and TOC concentrations (N=158), constituent minerals (N=25), major element abundances (N=105), and sequential arsenic extraction (N=23). The arsenic data show a prevalence of >10mg/kg with higher concentrations of 20-50mg/kg concentrated at 60-80 and 195-210m. Arsenic was extracted mainly as an adsorbate on clay minerals, as a co-precipitate in amorphous iron oxyhydroxide, and as a structural component in clay minerals. Since the sediments consist mainly of quartz, chlorite, and illite, the correlations between arsenic concentration and abundances of K2O and MgO pinpoint illite and chlorite as the major arsenic hosts. The arsenic-total iron correlation reflects the role of chlorite along with the contribution from amorphous iron oxyhydroxide as indicated by arsenic extraction data. Organic matter is not the dominant arsenic host for low TOC content, low arsenic abundance extracted from it, and a relatively low R(2) of the arsenic-TOC correlation. The major constituent minerals in the sediments are the same as those of the upriver metapelites, establishing a sink-source relationship. Composition data from two deep groundwater samples near the sediment core show Eh values and As(V)/As(III) ratios of reducing environments and high arsenic, K, Mg, and Fe contents necessary for deriving arsenic from sediments by desorption from clay and dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide. Therefore, groundwater arsenic was mainly derived from groundwater-associated sediments with limited contributions from other sources, such as mud volcanoes.

  17. Characterization and Fate of PAH-contaminated Sediments at the Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, Richard C.; Magar, Victor S.; Ickes, Jennifer A.; Abbott, James E.; Stout, Scott A.; Crecelius, Eric A. ); Bingler, Linda S. )

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in Eagle Harbor, a shallow marine embayment of Bainbridge Island, WA, and the former site of the Wyckoff wood-treatment facility, which used large quantities of creosote in its wood-treating processes from the early 1900s to 1988. Analyses of 10 sediment cores using TPH fingerprinting, the distribution of 50 PAH analytes, and sediment age dating revealed the contributions of three distinct sources of PAHs to sediment contamination during various periods over the past 100 years; namely, creosote, urban runoff, and natural background. Recognition that urban runoff has been a fairly consistent and ongoing source of PAHs to the harbor's sediment for the past 50-70 years may influence future sediment management decisions for this site with respect to long-term monitoring of surface sediment to assess cap performance. The results provide information on the ability of Eagle Harbor sediment to recover under natural conditions, identified the occurrence of creosote-derived PAH weathering in off-cap surface sediment, and distinguished between these distinct PAH sources in the harbor.

  18. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    dominantly by sand- to coarse sand-sized sediment. Sandy areas also include Raccoon Strait, off Point Tiburon, and on the subtidal Alcatraz, Point Knox, and Presidio Shoals. Drab-colored silty clays are the dominant sediment observed in gravity cores from central bay. Their dominance along the length of the core suggests that silty clays have been deposited consistently over much of this subembayment for the time period covered by the recovered sediments (Woodrow and others, this report). Stratification types include weakly-defined laminae, 1-3 mm thick. Few examples of horizontal lamination in very fine sand or silt were observed. Cross lamination, including ripples, was observed in seven cores. Erosional surfaces were evident in almost every core where x-radiographs were available (they are very difficult to observe visually). Minor cut-and-fill structures also were noted in three cores and inclined strata were observed in three cores. Textural patterns in central bay indicate that silts and clays dominate the shallow water areas and margins of the bay. Sand dominates the tidal channel just east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands and to the west of the islands to the Golden Gate. The pattern of sand-sized sediment, as determined by particle-size analysis, suggests that sand movement is easterly from the west-central part of the bay. A second pattern of sand movement is to the south from the southwestern extremity of San Pablo Bay (boundary approximated by the location of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge). Age dates for central bay sediment samples were obtained by carbon-14 radiometric age dating. Age dates were determined from shell material that was interpreted to be largely in-place (not transported). Age dates subsequently were reservoir corrected and then converted to calendar years. Sediments sampled from central bay cores range in age from 330 to 4,155 years before present. Foraminiferal distribution in the San Francisco Bay estuary is fairly well

  19. Water-quality trends in White Rock Creek Basin from 1912-1994 identified using sediment cores from White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.

    1997-01-01

    Historical trends in selected water-quality variables from 1912 to 1994 in White Rock Creek Basin were identified by dated sediment cores from White Rock Lake. White Rock Lake is a 4.4-km2 reservoir filled in 1912 and located on the north side of Dallas, Texas, with a drainage area of 259 km2. Agriculture dominated land use in White Rock Creek Basin before about 1950. By 1990, 72% of the basin was urban. Sediment cores were dated using cesium-137 and core lithology. Major element concentrations changed, and sedimentation rates and percentage of clay-sized particles in sediments decreased beginning in about 1952 in response to the change in land use. Lead concentrations, normalized with respect to aluminum, were six times larger in sediment deposited in about 1978 than in pre-1952 sediment. Following the introduction of unleaded gasoline in the 1970s, normalized lead concentrations in sediment declined and stabilized at about two and one-half times the pre-1952 level. Normalized zinc and arsenic concentrations increased 66 and 76%, respectively, from before 1952 to 1994. No organochlorine compounds were detected in sediments deposited prior to about 1940. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDE (a metabolite of DDT) increased rapidly beginning in the 1940s and peaked in the 1960s at 21 and 20 ??g kg-1, respectively, which is coincident with their peak use in the United States. Concentrations of both declined about an order of magnitude from the 1960s to the 1990s to 3.0 and 2.0 ??g kg-1, respectively. Chlordane and dieldrin concentrations increased during the 1970s and 1980s. The largest chlordane concentration was 8.0 ??g kg-1 and occurred in a sediment sample deposited in about 1990. The largest dieldrin concentration was 0.7 ??g kg-1 and occurred in the most recent sample deposited in the early 1990s. Agricultural use of chlordane and dieldrin was restricted in the 1970s; however, both were used as termiticides, and urban use of chlordane

  20. The Couple Who Facebooks Together, Stays Together: Facebook Self-Presentation and Relationship Longevity Among College-Aged Dating Couples.

    PubMed

    Toma, Catalina L; Choi, Mina

    2015-07-01

    Drawing on public commitment theory, this research examined the association between Facebook self-presentations of coupledom and relationship longevity among college-aged dating partners. Using a longitudinal design and a path model analytic approach, this study shows that Facebook self-presentational cues (i.e., being listed as "in a relationship," posting dyadic photographs, writing on the partner's wall) were associated with an increase in relationship commitment for dating couples, which, in turn, increased their likelihood of remaining together after 6 months. Contrary to predictions, the number of mutual Friends and the number of posts written by partners on participants' walls were negatively related to relationship commitment. This study is the first to apply public commitment theory to an online romantic relationship context, and one of the few to examine the effects of Facebook on the state and fate of romantic relationships.

  1. δ 18Osw estimate for Globigerinoides ruber from core-top sediments in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Keiji; Kodaira, Tomohiro; Zhang, Jing; Murayama, Masafumi

    2015-12-01

    The paired analyses of the Mg/Ca ratio and oxygen isotopic composition ( δ 18Oc) of surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera have become a widely used method for reconstructing the oxygen isotopic composition of ambient seawater ( δ 18Osw) as a robust proxy for surface salinity. Globigerinoides ruber ( G. ruber) is a mixed-layer dweller, and its fossil shell is an ideal archive for recording past sea surface water conditions, such as those caused by variability in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). Here, we investigate the validity of shell-derived δ 18Osw estimates for G. ruber using core-top sediments from the East China Sea (ECS). First, we determined a local δ 18Osw-salinity equation for the eastern part of the ECS in July [ δ 18Osw = -7.74 + 0.23 × salinity]. Then, we calculated δ 18Osw from core-top δ 18Oc and Mg/Ca values in G. ruber using the δ 18Oc-temperature equation of Bemis et al. (Paleoceanography 13(2):150-160, 1998) and the Mg/Ca-temperature equation of Hastings et al. (EOS 82:PP12B-10, 2001). The core-top δ 18Osw and salinity were estimated to be in the ranges of -0.2 to +0.39 ‰ and 33.7 to 34.5, respectively, which fall close to the local δ 18Osw-salinity regression line. The core-top data showed that the Mg/Ca-temperature calibration by Hastings et al. (EOS 82:PP12B-10, 2001) and the δ 18Oc-temperature equation by Bemis et al. (Paleoceanography 13(2):150-160, 1998) are appropriate for calculating δ 18Osw in the ECS. Furthermore, we measured core-top Ba/Ca ratios of G. ruber (Ba/Ca G. ruber ), which ranged from 0.66 to 2.82 μmol mol-1. There was not a significant relationship between the salinity and Ba/Ca G. ruber ratios due to the highly variable Ba/Ca G. ruber data. Given the seawater Ba/Ca data and the published partition coefficient for Ba ( D Ba = 0.15-0.22), pristine Ba/Ca G. ruber ratios at northern Okinawa Trough sites should be less than 0.84 μmol mol-1. Anomalously high Ba/Ca G. ruber ratios (>0.84 μmol mol-1) might

  2. A new sediment core from the early Aptian OAE1a: the Cau section (Prebetic Zone, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Castro, José Manuel; de Gea, Ginés A.; Jarvis, Ian; Loeser, Hannes; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Skelton, Peter; Weissert, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of time intervals of enhanced deposition of organic matter (OM) during the Cretaceous, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE), reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The exemplary Aptian OAE1a (120 Ma), is recorded in all the main ocean basins and associated with massive burial of OM in marine sediments [1]. OAE1a is concomitant with the 'nannoconid crisis', which represents a major biotic turnover [2], and also with widespread demise of carbonate platforms [1]. Much research has been done on the OAE1a from different sections in the world over the last decades, since the definition of the C-isotope stratigraphy of the event [3]. Notwithstanding, high-resolution studies across the entire event will be crucial to elucidate the precise timing and rates of the different environmental and biotic changes involved. In order to perform high-resolution studies, drill-cores can represent the best option. Previous cores with successful scientific results has been performed in two reference sections, the Cismon Apti-core [4], and more recently in La Bédoule [5]. Here we present a new drill-core from southern Spain, the Cau section core, drilled in the last quarter of 2015. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents the platform deposits of the Southern Iberian Palaeomargin. The lower Aptian of the Cau section is represented by an hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation, ca. 200 m thick), deposited in a highly subsiding sector of a tilted block, located in the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous studies of the early Aptian of the Cau section have focused on the stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry [6], [7], among others. A recent study on the Cau section based on biomarkers has presented a detailed record of the PCO2, [8]. All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to investigate the OAE1a, based

  3. Volcanic time-markers for Marine Isotopic Stages 6 and 5 in Southern Ocean sediments and Antarctic ice cores: implications for tephra correlations between palaeoclimatic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Moreton, S. G.; Caburlotto, A.; Pudsey, C. J.; Lucchi, R. G.; Smellie, J. L.; Benetti, S.; Grobe, H.; Hunt, J. B.; Larter, R. D.

    2008-03-01

    Three megascopic and disseminated tephra layers (which we refer to as layers A, B, and C) occur in late Quaternary glaciomarine sediments deposited on the West Antarctic continental margin. The stratigraphical positions of the distal tephra layers in 28 of the 32 studied sediment cores suggest their deposition during latest Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 6 and MIS 5. One prominent tephra layer (layer B), which was deposited subsequent to the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II), is present in almost all of the cores. Geochemical analyses carried out on the glass shards of the layers reveal a uniform trachytic composition and indicate Marie Byrd Land (MBL), West Antarctica, as the common volcanic source. The geochemical composition of the marine tephra is compared to that of ash layers of similar age described from Mount Moulton and Mount Takahe in MBL and from ice cores drilled at Dome Fuji, Vostok and EPICA Dome C in East Antarctica. The three tephra layers in the marine sediments are chemically indistinguishable. Also five englacial ash layers from Mt. Moulton, which originated from highly explosive Plinian eruptions of the Mt. Berlin volcano in MBL between 142 and 92 ka ago, are chemically very similar, as are two tephra layers erupted from Mt. Takahe at ca 102 ka and ca 93 ka. Statistical analysis of the chemical composition of the glass shards indicates that the youngest tephra (layer A) in the marine cores matches the ash layer that erupted from Mt. Berlin at 92 ka, which was previously correlated with tephra layers in the EPICA Dome C and the Dome Fuji ice cores. A tephra erupted from Mt. Berlin at 136 ka seems to correspond to a tephra layer deposited at 1733 m in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Additionally, the oldest tephra (layer C) in the marine sediments resembles an ash layer deposited at Vostok around 142 ka, but statistical evidence for the validity of this correlation is inconclusive. Although our results underscore the potential of

  4. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility as a tool for recognizing core deformation: reevaluation of the paleomagnetic record of Pleistocene sediments from drill hole OL-92, Owens Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, Joseph; Reynolds, Richard T.; Smoot, Joseph; Meyer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    At Owens Lake, California, paleomagnetic data document the Matuyama/Brunhes polarity boundary near the bottom of a 323-m core (OL-92) and display numerous directional fluctuations throughout the Brunhes chron. Many of the intervals of high directional dispersion were previously interpreted to record magnetic excursions. For the upper ~120 m, these interpretations were tested using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which typically defines a subhorizontal planar fabric for sediments deposited in quiet water. AMS data from intervals of deformed core, determined from detailed analysis of sedimentary structures, were compared to a reference AMS fabric derived from undisturbed sediment. This comparison shows that changes in the AMS fabric provide a means of screening core samples for deformation and the associated paleomagnetic record for the adverse effects of distortion. For that portion of core OL-92 studied here (about the upper 120 m), the combined analyses of sedimentary structures and AMS data demonstrate that most of the paleomagnetic features, previously interpreted as geomagnetic excursions, are likely the result of core deformation.

  5. Early Miocene Antarctic glacial history: new insights from heavy mineral analysis from ANDRILL AND-2A drill core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacoviello, Francesco; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Turbanti Memmi, Isabella; Passchier, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL—SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6-20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene and it collected a variety of terrigenous lithologies. The heavy mineral assemblages of the lower 650-m-thick sedimentary succession were analyzed through SEM observations and SEM-EDS microanalyses on heavy mineral grains. The heavy mineral analysis shows that the sediments are a mix of detritus dominated by McMurdo Volcanic Group sources most likely located in the present-day Mount Morning area (Proto-Mount Morning) with minor contribution from Transantarctic Mountains source rocks located west of the drill site. The heavy mineral assemblages in Interval 1 indicate that between 20.2 and 20.1 Ma, the grounding line of the ice sheet advanced to a position near the present-day Mount Morning volcanic center. During deposition of Interval 2 (20.1-19.3 Ma), the ice sheet most likely experienced a dynamic behavior with interval of ice advance alternating with periods of ice retreat, while Interval 3 (19.3-18.7 Ma) records further retreat to open water conditions. A dynamic behavior is noted in Interval 4 (18.7-17.6 Ma) with a decreasing contribution of materials derived from the basalts of the Mount Morning volcanic center located to the south of the drill site and a consequent increasing contribution of materials derived from the Transantarctic Mountains to the west of the drill site.

  6. Use of strontium isotopes to constrain the timing and mode of dolomitization of upper Cenozoic sediments in a core from San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swart, Peter K.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Holmes, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and the activity ratios of 234U/238U and 230Th/238U have been measured in dolomites from a 168-m-deep core taken on the island of San Salvador, Bahamas. These data suggest two periods of dolomitization. The first episode dolomitized Miocene age sediments during the latest Miocene, and the second dolomitized the Pliocene portion of the core and was still active as recently as 150 ka. The late timing of the second episode argues against penecontemporaneous models of dolomitization for the Pliocene sediments. Instead, dolomitization is favored either as a result of mixing-zone development during the large Pleistocene sea-level changes or by movement of seawater through the platform.

  7. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment core from a maar lake, Northeast China: evidence in historical atmospheric deposition.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yu-Feng; Sun, Jian-Lin; Ni, Hong-Gang; Guo, Jian-Yang

    2012-09-01

    A maar lake is an excellent ecosystem to study the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, as its contaminants are primarily by atmospheric deposition. In this study, a sediment core from Sihailongwan Maar Lake, Northeast China, was collected and the historical atmospherically deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The concentrations of TPAHs (the sum of the US EPA proposed 16 priority PAHs, excluding naphthalene and pyrene) ranged from 473.9 to 2289 ng g(-1) with a slow increasing stage in the deeper sediments and a sharp increasing stage in the upper sediments. The input rate of TPAHs, especially that of PAH(9) (the sum of fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthrathene, and benzo(ghi)perylene), correlated well to the Chinese historical socioeconomic data. This indicates that sediment PAHs were mainly derived from human activities and PAH(9) can be regarded as a better indicator of the local socioeconomic development. Source identification suggested that PAHs were originated primarily from mixed sources (e.g., coal and biomass burning and petroleum combustion), except for perylene which was mostly of diagenetic origin. In addition, the down-core PAHs profile clearly illustrated that PAHs sources in Northeast China experienced a transformation from low- and moderate temperature to high-temperature combustion processes, especially after the late 1980s. Additionally, an ecological risk assessment using two redefined biological thresholds (TEQ(ERL) and TEQ(ERM)) indicated that most of the PAHs measured in the present sediment core would not cause an immediate toxic effect; only FLU and PHEN are a potential source of concern for biological impairment.

  8. Paleomagnetism of a 150 m Sediment Core from the Co-Seismic Subsidence Depocenter of the 2009 Mw=6.1 L'Aquila Earthquake (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macri', P.; Porreca, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Smedile, A.; Speranza, F.

    2014-12-01

    The 150 m deep borehole LAQUI-CORE was drilled in the co-seismic subsidence depocenter, shown by INSAR images in the middle Aterno continental basin, after the 2009 Mw=6.1 earthquake that struck the historical city of L'Aquila (Italy). The drill site was located where geological, seismological and geophysical surveys indicated a continuous record with a maximum thickness of fine-grained sediments. The aim was to investigate stratigraphic and geometrical architecture of the middle Aterno basin, in order to define its relationship with the local active fault system. The core consists of continental Holocene and Pleistocene sediments subdivided into two main sequences separated by an erosional discontinuity. The upper sequence consists of 41 m thick fluvial-alluvial deposits of silt and sand interbedded with metric intervals of rounded gravel. The lower sequence consists of palustrine sediments of clays and sands interrupted in the middle by a 30 m thick coarse gravel deposit. Biostratigraphic and radiometric measurements on the core are still in progress, while high-resolution paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements were performed on u-channel samples. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), magnetic susceptibility (k) were measured at 1-cm spacing using a 2G Cryogenic magnetometer. The sediments carry a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), isolated between 15 and 40 mT AF steps. The ChRM is of normal polarity down to ca. 83 m depth, with paleomagnetic inclination values oscillating around 57°. The main magnetic carrier in this interval is magnetite, below ca. 115 m depth the data show frequent apparent polarity changes due to the additional widespread occurrence of greigite. This interval has to be anyway older than the Brunhes-Matuyama transition. Relative paleointensity (RPI) curves were obtained by normalising the NRM20mT with k and ARM20mT and may be useful to improve the dating of the core.

  9. Distribution characteristics and sources of trace metals in sediment cores from a trans-boundary watercourse: An example from the Shima River, Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhuowei; Shan, Jiju; Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Yi, Ming; Zhao, Xinfeng

    2016-12-01

    Metal pollution in sediments from the Shima River, a typical transboundary watercourse in the Pearl River Delta area, was investigated. Sediment cores were collected at eight sites from the upper to the lower reaches crossing Shenzhen, Dongguan and Huizhou cities. Sediment physicochemical properties and the total concentrations of trace metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were determined. The results showed that riverine sediment was significantly polluted by Cr (content range: 13.8-469mgkg(-1)), Ni (14.1-257mgkg(-1)), Cu (10.8-630mgkg(-1)), Zn (50.2-1700mgkg(-1)) and Cd (0.172-2.26mgkg(-1)). The geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) of trace metals decreased in the order Cd>Zn>Ni>Cu>Co>Cr>Pb>As>V. The pollution load indices and potential ecological risk indices (RI) at the sampling sites were similar, with more severe pollution and greater risk presenting in the upper and middle reaches (S1-S6) compared with the lower reaches (S7 and S8). Cd contributed significantly (77.2-87.6%) to the RI. Source identification based on multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA), correlation analysis (CA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA), was performed to differentiate the origins of trace metals. PCA and CA yielded similar results, indicating that As and V originated from natural sources (e.g., parent materials) and that the other metals were related to anthropogenic activities. HACA based on the Igeo showed that Cd was associated mainly with fertilizers, and the origins of Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were probably industrial effluents, whereas Co and Pb were related to traffic activities. HACA of sediment cores suggested that Dongguan and Shenzhen cities contribute large quantities of metals to the riverine sediment, whereas few metals were discharged from Huizhou City.

  10. Diversity of active microbial communities subjected to long-term exposure to chemical contaminants along a 40-year-old sediment core.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Assia; Petit, Fabienne; Fournier, Matthieu; Cécillon, Sébastien; Boust, Dominique; Lesueur, Patrick; Berthe, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In estuarine ecosystems, metallic and organic contaminants are mainly associated with fine grain sediments which settle on mudflats. Over time, the layers of sediment accumulate and are then transformed by diagenetic processes mainly controlled by microbial activity, recording the history of the estuary's chemical contamination. In an environment of this specific type, we investigated the evolution of the chemical contamination and the structure of both total and active microbial communities, based on PhyloChip analysis of a 4.6-m core corresponding to a 40-year sedimentary record. While the archaeal abundance remained constant along the core, a decrease by one order of magnitude in the bacterial abundance was observed with depth. Both total and active microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes in all sediment samples. Among Proteobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria dominated both total (from 37 to 60 %) and metabolically active (from 19.7 to 34.6 %) communities, including the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter, Caulobacterales, and Sphingomonadales orders. Co-inertia analysis revealed a relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, zinc and some polychlorobiphenyls concentrations, and the structure of total and active microbial communities in the oldest and most contaminated sediments (from 1970 to 1975), suggesting that long-term exposure to chemicals shaped the structure of the microbial community.

  11. Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.

    2002-01-01

    Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace

  12. Trace metals in a sediment core from the largest mariculture base of the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Vertical distribution, speciation, and biological risk.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin

    2016-12-15

    A sediment core collected from Zhelin Bay, the biggest mariculture base of the eastern Guangdong Province, was analyzed for trace metal concentrations and chemical fractions. Average total concentrations (mg/kg) were 20.7±15.4 (Pb), 74.6±11.6 (Cr), 40.7±6.0 (Ni), 55.9±13.0 (Cu), and 169.0±11.9 (Zn), with the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn being significantly higher than their corresponding background values. We identified two vertical distribution patterns of the trace metals in the sediment core. In all sub-samples, Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction, whereas a major portion (62.2 to 95.2%) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was strongly associated with the residual fractions. Biological risk assessment based on the mean effects range-median quotient suggests that the Zhelin Bay sediment core has a 21% probability of being toxic.

  13. Biogeochemistry of sulfur in a sediment core from the west-central Baltic Sea: Evidence from stable isotopes and pyrite textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Lepland, Aivo

    2000-07-01

    The biogeochemistry of the sulfur cycle in a ca. 5-m-long sediment core from the eastern slope (221 m water depth) of the Landsort Deep in the west-central Baltic Sea was investigated by analyzing the solid phase records of sulfur isotopes and pyrite textures, besides selected main and minor elements. The sediments were deposited during post-glacial history of the Baltic Sea when the basin experienced alteration of brackish (Yoldia Sea, Littorina Sea) and freshwater (Baltic Ice Lake, Ancylus Lake) conditions. The stable isotopic composition of total sulfur was analyzed as a function of depth. In selected samples pyrite (FeS 2), greigite (Fe 3S 4), and barite (BaSO 4) fractions were separated for isotope analyses. Pyrite textures were analyzed by SEM and optical microscopy. Microbial reactions associated with the oxidation of organic matter resulted in assemblages of authigenic sulfide minerals which for the post-Ancylus Lake brackish water environment are dominated by pyrite and for freshwater environments by Fe-monosulfides. The sulfur isotopic composition of the brackish water Littorina Sea sediments ( δ34S between -40 and -27‰ vs. V-CDT) is believed to be determined by cellular sulfate reduction rates and reactions involving intermediate sulfur species. The availability of reactive iron and decomposable organic matter as well as sedimentation rate and the chemocline position are important variables upon the δ34S values of sulfides in brackish water environment. The syn-depositional abundance of sulfur and organic matter, and transport of dissolved sulfur species vs. rates of microbial reactions determine δ34S in the freshwater sediments. The upper part of the Ancylus Lake sediments is sulfidized by downward diffusing H 2S and/or sulfate from overlying brackish water sediments. Minor concretionary barite formation in the freshwater sediments is most likely due to the reaction of pore water sulfate diffusing downward from brackish water sediments with barium

  14. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.

    2014-07-01

    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in

  15. Carbon isotopes and iodine concentrations in a Mississippi River delta core recording land use, sediment transport, and dam building in the river's drainage basin.

    PubMed

    Santschi, Peter H; Oktay, Sarah D; Cifuentes, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Sedimentary material from coastal and nearshore areas in the Mississippi Delta region are comprised of different organic carbon sources with diverse ages that require isotopic and elemental records for resolving the various sources of plant residues. Carbon isotopic ((13)C, (14)C) values were used to differentiate contributions from plants using the C3, C4, and/or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) carbon fixation pathways., and iodine concentrations indicated that wetland plant residues are a significant source of organic carbon in a sediment core from the Mississippi River delta region collected at a 60 m water depth. This sediment core had been extensively described in Oktay et al. [Oktay, S.D., Santschi, P.H., Moran, J.E., Sharma, P., 2000. The (129)Iodine Bomb Pulse Recorded in Mississippi River delta Sediments: Results from Isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (6), 989-996.] and significantly, includes unique features that had not previously been seen in the marine environment. These special features include a plutonium isotopic close-in fallout record that indicates a purely terrestrial source for these sediment particles and the elements associated with it, and a distinct iodine isotopic peak (as well as peaks for plutonium and cesium isotopes) that indicate little bioturbation in this core. Our carbon isotopic and iodine data can thus be compared to published records of changes in drainage basin land use, river hydrology, and hydrodynamic sorting of suspended particles to elucidate if these changes are reflected in nearshore sediments. This comparison suggests a significant contribution for organic carbon (OC) from C4 plants to these sediments during the 1950's to early 1960's. Relative older carbon isotopes, and episodically high iodine concentrations (up to 34 ppm) were observed during this time period that (1) indicate sediment deposition that is coincident with the times of major hydrological changes induced from dam and levee

  16. Practicability of In Situ K-Ar Age Dating by Martian Landers; A Study of Mars Analogs and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jisun; Ming, D. W.; Garrison, D. H.; Jones, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose of this noble gas investigation was to evaluate the feasibility of in situ K-Ar radiometric age dating of Martian surface rocks by future robotic missions, such as the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL), under constraints inherent to the Martian surface and lander design. The MSL Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) instrument has the capability to measure noble gas compositions of Martain rocks and atmosphere. We evaluate requirements for SAM to obtain adequate noble gas abundances and compositions within the current instrumental operating conditions. In particular, maximum furnace temperature is limited to 1100ºC or lower due to power supply constraints. As a simulation experiment, we analyzed three Martian shergottites and terrestrial MORB, under the same conditions afforded SAM on the Martian surface. Our results suggest that SAM noble gas recoveries might be sufficient for K-Ar age determinations. Comparing these results with previous experiments performed on Martian meteorites at NASA-JSC, we can asses the capability of Mars lander designs with a variety of Martian rock types. The noble gas composition of Martian meteorites can be difficult to interpret due to the combined signals of in situ 40K decay, shock implanted 40Ar from Martian atmosphere[2,3], and 40Ar inherited from parent magma[4,5]. These components should also be considered in interpreting lander data. A possible advantage for landers is that K concentrations reported from the Martian surface are variable and possibly quite high, a desirable trait for K-Ar age dating. Spirit APXS reports 3000-7000ppm K for most locations but in some areas, concentrations as high as 25000ppm have been observed[6,7]. [1] Bogard (2009) MaPS44, 3-14; [2] Bogard and Johnson (1983) Science221,651-654 [3] Marti et al. (1995) Science267, 1981-1984; [4] Bogard and Park (2008) MAPS43, 1113-1126. [5] Bogard et al. (2009) MAPS44, 905-923. [6] Ming et al. (2006) JGR111, E02S12. [7] Ming D.W. et al. (2008) JGR113, E12S39.

  17. Why would we use the Sediment Isotope Tomography (SIT) model to establish a 210Pb-based chronology in recent-sediment cores?

    PubMed

    Abril Hernández, José-María

    2015-05-01

    After half a century, the use of unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbexc) is still far off from being a well established dating tool for recent sediments with widespread applicability. Recent results from the statistical analysis of time series of fluxes, mass sediment accumulation rates (SAR), and initial activities, derived from varved sediments, place serious constraints to the assumption of constant fluxes, which is widely used in dating models. The Sediment Isotope Tomography (SIT) model, under the assumption of non post-depositional redistribution, is used for dating recent sediments in scenarios in that fluxes and SAR are uncorrelated and both vary with time. By using a simple graphical analysis, this paper shows that under the above assumptions, any given (210)Pbexc profile, even with the restriction of a discrete set of reference points, is compatible with an infinite number of chronological lines, and thus generating an infinite number of mathematically exact solutions for histories of initial activity concentrations, SAR and fluxes onto the SWI, with these two last ranging from zero up to infinity. Particularly, SIT results, without additional assumptions, cannot contain any statistically significant difference with respect to the exact solutions consisting in intervals of constant SAR or constant fluxes (both being consistent with the reference points). Therefore, there is not any benefit in its use as a dating tool without the explicit introduction of additional restrictive assumptions about fluxes, SAR and/or their interrelationship.

  18. Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated surface sediments at the Sangamo-westonl Twelvemile Creek/lake Hartwell Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Richard C; Magar, Victor S; Ickes, Jennifer A; Foote, Eric A; Abbott, James E; Bingler, Linda S; Crecelius, Eric A

    2004-04-15

    Natural recovery of contaminated sediments relies on burial of contaminated sediments with increasingly clean sediments over time (i.e., natural capping). Natural capping reduces the risk of resuspension of contaminated surface sediments, and it reduces the potential for contaminant transport into the food chain by limiting bioturbation of contaminated surface or near-surface sediments. This study evaluated the natural recovery of surface sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the Sangamo-Weston/Twelvemile Creek/Lake Hartwell Superfund Site (Lake Hartwell), Pickens County, SC. The primary focus was on sediment recovery resulting from natural capping processes. Total PCB (t-PCB), lead-210 (210Pb), and cesium-137 (137Cs) sediment core profiles were used to establish vertical t-PCB concentration profiles, age date sediments, and determine surface sedimentation and surface sediment recovery rates in 18 cores collected along 10 transects. Four upgradient transects in the headwaters of Lake Hartwell were impacted by historical sediment releases from three upgradient sediment impoundments. These transects were characterized by silt/ clay and sand layering. The highest PCB concentrations were associated with silt/clay layers (1.8-3.5% total organic carbon (TOC)), while sand layers (0.05-0.32% TOC) contained much lower PCB concentrations. The historical sediment releases resulted in substantial burial of PCB-contaminated sediment in the vicinity of these four cores; each core contained less than 1 mg/kg t-PCBs in the surface sand layers. Cores collected from six downgradient Lake Hartwell transects consisted primarily of silt and clay (0.91-5.1% TOC) and were less noticeably impacted by the release of sand from the impoundments. Vertical t-PCB concentration profiles in these cores began with relatively low PCB concentrations at the sediment-water interface and increased in concentration with depth until maximum PCB concentrations were measured at

  19. Spatial and vertical distribution of metals in sediment cores from Río Espíritu Santo estuary, Puerto Rico, United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nekesha; Block, Karin A.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated in three sediment cores representing 100–150 years of accumulation in upriver, midriver, and estuarine environments in Río Espíritu Santo (RES), Puerto Rico. Grain-size distribution, organic matter and carbonate content were determined to assess their influence on metal concentrations. Minimum biotoxicity levels of Ni and Cu were exceeded in the upriver and midriver sites, while the minimum biotoxicity level of Cu was exceeded in the estuarine location. Pb concentration decreased by ~35 % in the upper portion of the midriver and estuarine cores compared to downcore concentrations as a consequence of leaded gasoline regulation. Enrichment Factors and Geoaccumulation Indices were calculated for each metal revealing high levels of Cu in all three cores, likely from an igneous source. Our results provide a baseline for metal contamination in an area facing further land use change. PMID:26337229

  20. Spatial and vertical distribution of metals in sediment cores from Río Espíritu Santo estuary, Puerto Rico, United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nekesha; Block, Karin A

    2015-11-15

    The concentration and distribution of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated in three sediment cores representing 100-150years of accumulation in upriver, midriver, and estuarine environments in Río Espíritu Santo (RES), Puerto Rico. Grain-size distribution, organic matter and carbonate content were determined to assess their influence on metal concentrations. Minimum biotoxicity levels of Ni and Cu were exceeded in the upriver and midriver sites, while the minimum biotoxicity level of Cu was exceeded in the estuarine location. Pb concentration decreased by ~35% in the upper portion of the midriver and estuarine cores compared to downcore concentrations as a consequence of leaded gasoline regulation. Enrichment Factors and Geoaccumulation Indices were calculated for each metal revealing high levels of Cu in all three cores, likely from an igneous source. Our results provide a baseline for metal contamination in an area facing further land use change.

  1. Vertical distributions of radionuclides ((239+240)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, and (137)Cs) in sediment cores of Lake Bosten in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haiqing; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-01

    Artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu, (241)Am) deposited in lacustrine sediments have been used for dating as well as radionuclide source identification. In the present work, we investigated the vertical distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities, (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in sediment cores collected from Lake Bosten, which is the lake closest to the Lop Nor Chinese Nuclear Weapon Test site in northwestern China. Uniformly high concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs were found in the upper layers deposited since 1964 in the sediment cores, and these were controlled by the resuspension of soil containing radionuclides from the nearby land surface. As the Chinese nuclear tests varied remarkably in yield, the mixing of the tropospheric deposition from these tests and the stratospheric deposition of global fallout has led to a (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio that is similar to that of global fallout and to a (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio that is slightly higher than that of global fallout. However, a low (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of 0.080 and high (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio of 0.087, significantly different from the global fallout values, were observed in one sediment core (07BS10-2), indicating the inhomogenous tropospheric deposition from the Chinese nuclear tests in Lake Bosten during 1967-1973. These results are important to understand the influence of the CNTs on the radionuclide contamination in Lake Bosten.

  2. Noble Gas Analysis for Mars Robotic Missions: Evaluating K-Ar Age Dating for Mars Rock Analogs and Martian Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Ming, D. W.; Garrison, D. H.; Jones, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Nagao, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this noble gas investigation was to evaluate the possibility of measuring noble gases in martian rocks and air by future robotic missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission has, as part of its payload, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument, which consists of a pyrolysis oven integrated with a GCMS. The MSL SAM instrument has the capability to measure noble gas compositions of martian rocks and atmosphere. Here we suggest the possibility of K-Ar age dating based on noble gas release of martian rocks by conducting laboratory simulation experiments on terrestrial basalts and martian meteorites. We provide requirements for the SAM instrument to obtain adequate noble gas abundances and compositions within the current SAM instrumental operating conditions, especially, a power limit that prevents heating the furnace above approx.1100 C. In addition, Martian meteorite analyses from NASA-JSC will be used as ground truth to evaluate the feasibility of robotic experiments to constrain the ages of martian surface rocks.

  3. Geochemical analyses, age dates, and flow-volume estimates for quaternary volcanic rocks, Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P.E.; Korosec, M.A.

    1983-12-01

    Data collected over the last three years as part of a continuing study of the Quaternary volcanic rocks of the southern Cascade Mountains are presented. Whole-rock chemical analyses, selected trace element geochemistry, volume approximations, specific gravity determinations, and locations are provided for most of the 103 samples collected, and 21 radiometric age dates are included. In addition, partial information, including names and flow-volumes, are presented for 98 additional samples, collected for related studies. The study extends from the Columbia River north to the Cowlitz River and Goat Rocks Wilderness area, and from the Klickitat River west to the Puget-Willamette Trough. The volcanic rocks are all younger than 3 million years and consist primarily of tholeiitic and high-alumina basalts and basaltic-andesites erupted from numerous shield volcanoes and cinder cones. A few analyses of more silicic rocks, including hornblende and/or pyroxene andesites and dacites characteristic of the stratovolcanoes of the region, are also presented. However, systematic sampling of the stratovolcanoes in the study area, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, was not conducted. A map of the areal extent of Quaternary volcanic units and sample locations is included. It has been based on the 1:125,000 reconnaissance geologic map of the southern Cascade Range by Hammond (1980).

  4. Geochemical analyses, age dates, and flow-volume estimates for quaternary volcanic rocks, Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, P. E.; Korosec, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Data collected over the last three years as part of a continuing study of the Quaternary volcanic rocks of the southern Cascade Mountains are presented. Whole-rock chemical analyses, selected trace element geochemistry, volume approximations, specific gravity determinations, and locations are provided for most of the 103 samples collected, and 21 radiometric age dates are included. In addition, partial information, including names and flow-volumes, are presented for 98 additional samples, collected for related studies. The study extends from the Columbia River north to the Cowlitz River and Goat Rocks Wilderness area, and from the Klickitat River west to the Puget-Williamette Trough. The volcanic rocks are all younger than 3 million years and consist primarily of tholeitic and high-alumina basalts and basaltic-andesites erupted from numerous shield volcanoes and cinder cones. A few analyses of more silicic rocks, including hornblende and/or pyroxene andesites and dacites characteristic of the stratovolcanoes of the region, are also presented.

  5. Tracing historical trends of Hg in the Mississippi River using Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions in a lake sediment core, Lake Whittington, Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Pribil, Michael J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in a sediment core collected from Lake Whittington, an oxbow lake on the Lower Mississippi River, were used to evaluate historical sources of Hg in the Mississippi River basin. Sediment Hg concentrations in the Lake Whittington core have a large 10-15 y peak centered on the 1960s, with a maximum enrichment factor relative to Hg in the core of 4.8 in 1966. The Hg concentration profile indicates a different Hg source history than seen in most historical reconstructions of Hg loading. The timing of the peak is consistent with large releases of Hg from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), primarily in the late 1950s and 1960s. Mercury was used in a lithiumisotope separation process by ORNL and an estimated 128Mg (megagrams) of Hgwas discharged to a local stream that flows into the Tennessee River and, eventually, the Mississippi River. Mass balance analyses of Hg concentrations and isotopic compositions in the Lake Whittington core fit a binary mixing model with a Hg-rich upstream source contributing about 70% of the Hg to Lake Whittington at the height of the Hg peak in 1966. This upstream Hg source is isotopically similar to Hg isotope compositions of stream sediment collected downstream near ORNL. It is estimated that about one-half of the Hg released from the ORNL potentially reached the LowerMississippi River basin in the 1960s, suggesting considerable downstream transport of Hg. It is also possible that upstream urban and industrial sources contributed some proportion of Hg to Lake Whittington in the 1960s and 1970s.

  6. ChronRater: A simple approach to assessing the accuracy of age models from Holocene sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Balascio, N. L.; McKay, N. P.; Sundqvist, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    We have assembled a database of previously published Holocene proxy climate records from the Arctic, with the goal of reconstructing the spatial-temporal pattern of past climate changes. The focus is on well-dated, highly resolved, continuous records that extend to at least 6 ka, most of which (90%) are from sedimentary sequences sampled in cores from lakes and oceans. The database includes the original geochronological data (radiocarbon ages) for each record so that the accuracy of the underlying age models can be assessed uniformly. Determining the accuracy of age control for sedimentary sequences is difficult because it depends on many factors, some of which are difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, the geochronological accuracy of each time series in the database must be assessed systematically to objectively identify those that are appropriate to address a particular level of temporal inquiry. We have therefore devised a scoring scheme to rate the accuracy of age models that focuses on the most important factors and uses just the most commonly published information to determine the overall geochronological accuracy. The algorithm, "ChronRater" is written in the open-source statistical package, R. It relies on three characteristics of dated materials and their downcore trends: (1) The delineation of the downcore trend, which is quantified based on three attributes, namely: (a) the frequency of ages, (b) the regularity of their spacing, and (c) the uniformity of the sedimentation rate. (2) The quality of the dated materials, as determined by: (a) the proportion of outliers and downcore reversals, and (b) the type of materials analyzed and the extent to which their ages are verified by independent information as judged by a five-point scale for the entire sequence of ages. And (3) the overall uncertainty in the calibrated ages, which includes the analytical precision and the associated calibrated age ranges. Although our geochronological accuracy score is

  7. Preliminary TEX86 temperatures and a lake level record of tropical climate extremes derived from sediment cores and seismic stratigraphy from Lake Turkana, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, A. J.; Scholz, C. A.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest lake in the Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System and records hydrologic conditions of a region spanning nearly 2.5 degrees of latitude (~2.0 - 4.5 degrees N) in the African tropics. New data suggest the Turkana region likely experienced much wetter and cooler climate over several intervals since the latest Pleistocene. Lake level was extremely low twice during the latest Pleistocene, evidenced by depositional hiatuses in high-resolution CHIRP seismic reflection data that correlate with sediments that have low water-content, abundant sand, and low total organic carbon (TOC as low as <0.7%). Lake Turkana, like many lakes in northern tropical Africa, had a wetter climate during the African Humid Period. Intervals of high lake levels (up to ~440 m amsl) are indicated by flat-lying, laterally continuous, low-amplitude reflections that correlate in sediment cores to dark, fine-grained, laminated sediment with high TOC (up to ~6%). Calcium carbonate accumulation during this time period is nearly 0%, and combined with evidence of laminated, unbioturbated sediment suggests a fresh, stratified lake with anoxic bottom waters. During the early mid-Holocene, lake level began to fall to close to present levels (~365 m amsl). Sediments deposited during this time period have low but variable organic carbon content (~0.5 - ~2%) and are much higher in inorganic carbon (from fine-grained calcite precipitation). A moderate lowstand during the late Holocene is indicated by an erosional unconformity seen down to ~40 m below the current lake surface in several seismic profiles. This record of lake level extremes suggests highly variable rainfall patterns, forced by migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone) across tropical East Africa over the last 20,000 years. More than 50 sediment samples from 3 piston cores represent a continuous record of TEX86 temperature from ~20,000 years ago to modern. The generally low (<0.25) BIT index for the

  8. Phosphorus fractionation in sediment cores collected in 2005 before and after onset of an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in upper Klamath Lake, OR, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Lynch, D.; Gallaher, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that there would be measurable losses of phosphorus (P) from surficial sediments of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, if sediments were a source of P during an algal bloom. We compared concentrations of total and forms of P at various depths in cores collected before and after the onset of a large Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom. Concentrations of inorganic P were determined in extraction solutions of MgCl2 (1 M, pH 8), citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate, and 1 M HCl. Sediments below 2 cm were dominated by residual P which is defined as total P minus inorganic P. During the study period, data from the top 2-cm of sediment indicated (a) significant decrease in total P concentration, primarily associated with iron oxyhydroxides at one site, and (b) significant increase in total P concentration associated with residual P at a second site. Data from two other sites indicated no net changes in concentrations of total P. ?? 2009 US Government.

  9. Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Rice, D.E.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Drenkard, S.; Schlosser, P.

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater age dating through the combination of transient tracer methods (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium 3 (3H/3He)) and groundwater flow path analysis is useful for investigating groundwater travel times, flow patterns, and recharge rates, as demonstrated by this study of the homogeneous shallow, unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the southern New Jersey coastal plain. Water samples for age dating were collected from three sets of nested observation wells (10 wells) with 1.5-m-long screens located near groundwater divides. Three steady state finite difference groundwater flow models were calibrated by adjusting horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities to match measured heads and head differences (range, 0.002-0.23 m) among the nested wells, with a uniform recharge rate of 0.46 m per year and porosities of 0.35 (sand) and 0.45 (silt) that were assumed constant for all model simulations and travel time calculations. The simulated groundwater travel times increase with depth in the aquifer, ranging from about 1.5 to 6.5 years for the shallow wells (screen bottoms 3-4 m below the water table), from about 10 to 25 years for the medium-depth wells (screen bottoms 8-19 m below the water table), and from about 30 to more than 40 years for the deep wells (screen bottoms 24-26 m below the water table). Apparent groundwater ages based on CFC- and 3H/3He-dating techniques and model-based travel times could not be statistically differentiated, and all were strongly correlated with depth. Confinement of 3He was high because of the rapid vertical flow velocity (of the order of 1 m/yr), resulting in clear delineation of groundwater travel times based on the 3H/3He-dating technique. The correspondence between the 3H/3He and CFC ages indicates that dispersion has had a minimal effect on the tracer-based ages of water in this aquifer. Differences between the tracer-based apparent ages for seven of the 10 samples were smaller than the error values

  10. Grain-size distribution and selected major and trace element concentrations in bed-sediment cores from the Lower Granite Reservoir and Snake and Clearwater Rivers, eastern Washington and northern Idaho, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty subsamples from 15 cores were analyzed for major and trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements were low, with respect to sediment quality guidelines, in most cores. Typically, major and trace element concentrations were lower in the subsamples collected from the Snake River compared to those collected from the Clearwater River, the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, and Lower Granite Reservoir. Generally, lower concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with coarser sediments (larger than 0.0625 millimeter) and higher concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with finer sediments (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter).

  11. Distribution of radionuclides in a marine sediment core off the waterspout of the nuclear power plants in Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Li, Haitao; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Hongbiao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    A sediment core was collected and dated using (210)Pbex dating method off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides were analyzed using HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation and to study the past environment changes. It suggested that NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment based on the low specific activity of (137)Cs. Two broad peaks of TOC, TC and LOI accorded well with the commercial operations of Daya Bay NPP (1994.2 and 1994.5) and LNPP Phase I (2002.5 and 2003.3), implying that the mass input of cooling water from NPP may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities.

  12. Spatial and temporal dynamics of heavy metal pollution and source identification in sediment cores from the short-term flooding riparian wetlands in a Chinese delta.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-12-01

    Sediment samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm along a 350-m sampling belt in a short-term-flooding riparian wetland in the Yellow River Delta of China in three sampling seasons. Contents of heavy metals were determined to investigate their spatial and temporal distributions, sources and ecotoxities. Our results showed that As contents in the top 20 cm sediments increased before decreasing along the sampling belt in summer, whereas they kept stable before increasing in fall and spring. Cd contents increased along the sampling belt in three sampling seasons, whereas Ni and Cr generally exhibited a decreasing tendency. Comparatively, Cu, Pb and Zn consistently increased at the first 50 m distance and then decreased before increasing from the distance of 150 m in summer and fall and increased to the maximum at the distance of 250 m and then showed a decrease in spring. Two "hotspots" of heavy metal accumulation in sediment cores along the belt were observed at the distance from 50 to 100 m in summer and at the distance from 200 to 300 m in spring. Most of sediment samples contained higher heavy metals in excess of threshold effect levels except for Zn and Pb in three sampling seasons and the values of toxic units in more than 30% of sediment samples exceeded 4 in summer. As, Ni and Cr had relatively higher contribution to the values of toxic units compared with other heavy metals in three sampling seasons. Multivariance analysis showed that As and Cd might originate from the same source and Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni might derive from another similar source. Cd was significantly correlated with salinity (p < 0.01) and pH (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, these heavy metals were also significantly correlated with other properties such as S, Al, TP, SOM and Silt + Clay.

  13. Glacial and post-glacial history of Lake Windermere, The Lake District, UK: integrating high resolution multibeam bathymetry, airborne LiDAR, and sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H.; Bull, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Dix, J. K.; Henstock, T.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution multibeam bathymetry and airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data, supplemented by geomorphological and geological field mapping have been used to investigate the glacial and post-glacial history of Windermere, the largest natural lake in England. In addition, recently acquired piston cores, supplemented with 2D and 3D seismic reflection data from previous surveys have been used to examine the well preserved sequence stratigraphy. The data is used to generate a present-day landscape map, revealing a complex landform record, characterised by nine sub-basins separated by steps, ridges and isolated topographic highs related to the retreat of the British and Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS). Debris flows and anthropogenic features are superimposed on the general bathymetric framework formed since the Last Glacial Maximum. There is also evidence of glacial features preserved onshore, which identify a series of depositional environments that accompanied ice advance, ice retreat and post-glacial deposition within the Lake District. Core analysis has identified a sequence of sand with finely laminated sand, silt and clay, fining upwards into varved clays, overlain by organic rich lacustrine gyttja. The stratigraphic units correlate with existing seismic stratigraphic facies, suggesting the sequence extends through an overlying drape of Holocene gyttja into glaciolacustrine and lacustrine sediment fill relating to Interstadial/BIIS retreat, and further penetrates to the till surface. Analysis of geophysical core properties reveals coarser layers in the varved clay are correlated with peaks in magnetic susceptibility and iron, suggesting retreat was punctuated by surges in ice movement leading to the deposition of coarser layers rich in iron bearing minerals. This study indicates that an integrated approach, using high resolution geophysical datasets combined with sediment coring is capable of deriving an in-depth understanding of glacial and post

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in sediment cores from the northern Baltic Sea: declines over the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Vallius, Henry

    2014-02-15

    The Baltic Sea has received considerable loads of pollutants due to industrialization in Eastern Europe. Concern for the Baltic's ecological health eventually led to legislation and voluntary measures to limit pollution during the last decades of the 20th century. Heavy metal concentrations in open sea surface sediments reflected these steps to limit contaminant loads almost immediately, suggesting the possibility that the trend would continue in the ensuing years. Recent seafloor samples reveal that the declines have persisted over the past two decades. Currently, almost all heavy metal species have declined in surface sediments to levels approaching the safe limits for humans and the environment. Cadmium and mercury however remain at relatively high concentrations in many areas. Arsenic concentrations, which occur at safe levels within the Gulf of Finland persist at unacceptably high levels in surface sediments of the Bothnian Bay, and thus pose a potential threat to marine life in the area.

  15. Identification of acetate-oxidizing bacteria in a coastal marine surface sediment by RNA-stable isotope probing in anoxic slurries and intact cores.

    PubMed

    Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the terminal electron-accepting pathways and the acetate-oxidizing bacteria in surface sediment (0-5 mm depth) of Aarhus Bay, Denmark, in anoxic slurry and intact core incubations. In the intact cores, oxygen, nitrate, oxides of manganese and iron, and sulfate were all available and likely all used as electron acceptors by the microbial community, whereas microbial iron and sulfate reduction dominated in the slurries. The availability of electron acceptors clearly affected which organisms were labeled by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Members of the Oceanospirillaceae were identified as (13) C-acetate oxidizers in both types of incubations, but bacteria related to Colwellia and Arcobacter oxidized acetate in the intact core, while members of the Desulfuromonadales and Acidithiobacillaceae did so in the slurry incubation. Desulfuromonadales sequences also dominated 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the highest positive dilution of the acetate-oxidizing most probable number cultures with manganese and iron oxides. Thus, members of Desulfuromonadales are likely important for acetate oxidation coupled to iron and manganese reduction in situ, while the identified Gammaproteobacteria and affiliates of Arcobacter may utilize oxygen, nitrate and manganese oxides. Our study further highlights some of the biases that are associated with the use of RNA-SIP as well as slurry and intact core incubations.

  16. Biostratigraphic data for the Cretaceous marine sediments in the USGS-St. George no. 1 core (DOR-211), Dorchester County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Self-Trail, Jean M.; Gohn, Gregory S.

    1997-01-01

    The USGS-St. George corehole was drilled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by a commercial drilling company during 1982. The corehole is located within the Coastal Plain Province in northern Dorchester County, South Carolina, about three miles southeast of the town of St. George near the village of Byrd (fig. 1). Coordinates for the corehole are 33o09'25'N latitude and 80o31'18'W longitude; ground elevation at the site is +78 feet (Reid and others, 1986). The St. George corehole is designated as USGS drill hole DOR-211. The St. George corehole was drilled to a total depth of 2,067 ft. The hole was cored continuously with generally good recovery from 300 ft to its total depth. Spot cores were taken at selected intervals between the top of the hole and a depth of 300 ft (50-55 ft, 100-110 ft, 150-165 ft, 200-205 ft, and 250-255 ft); however, recovery was poor in most of these intervals. The St. George core currently is stored at the USGS National Center, Reston, VA (March, 1997). The St. George corehole bottomed in basalt of probable early Mesozoic age beneath an Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedi-mentary section. Reid and others (1986) placed the top of basalt saprolite at 1,962 ft in the hole. Our examination of the geophysical logs and original core descriptions suggests that the top of the saprolite is higher in the hole, at about 1,939 ft. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was placed at or near 550 ft in the core by Reid and others (1986) and by Habib and Miller (1989). In this report, we provide paleontologic data for marine sediments in the upper part of the Upper Cretaceous section in the St. George core. Biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental data and interpretations based on the study of calcareous nannofossils and ostracodes from the Cretaceous section are discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo correlation of sediment records: Application to core and downhole log measurements from Equatorial Pacific Sites U1337 and U1338 (IODP Expedition 321)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, A.

    2011-12-01

    Physical property records in coeval equatorial Pacific Ocean sediments are closely correlated even between sites drilled hundreds of kilometers apart. Site-to-site lithostratigraphic correlations are vital to build a composite record and construct a common timescale. The work described here aims to establish a detailed lithostratigraphic correlation between Sites U1337 and U1338 (IODP Expedition 321) on the basis of high-resolution bulk density measurements from core samples and downhole logs. Using core and log measurements together best constrains site-to-site correlations, but complications occur because these two data types are registered on different depth scales. The measured length of the wireline cable is typically used to determine depth in downhole logs, whereas the cumulative length of drill pipe is used for core depth. Moreover, to obtain as complete a record as possible, a composite depth scale is constructed from cores taken in different holes at the same site, typically expanding the actual thickness of the drilled interval by 10-15%. Reconciling the discrepancies among these different depth scales requires a detailed correlation to precisely align the high-resolution core and log records at each site prior to site-to-site correlation. This study uses an automated Monte Carlo algorithm to align core and log records at the same site and to determine site-to-site correlations. The distinguishing feature of this method is that it does not produce a single optimal correlation, but rather a large sample of possible values that result in a good fit to the data. The average of these sampled values gives the best correlation and their variability measures the uncertainty that is inherent to the correlation (e.g., highlighting intervals where the match is relatively poor and the correlation less reliable). This analysis assists in interpreting the quality of the lithostratigraphic correlation between Sites U1337 and U1338 and in building a composite

  18. The recent climatic change of subarctic zone recorded in core sediments of Lake Abashiri in the east part of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Sonoda, T.; Kawajiri, T.; Watanabe, T.; Okazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Especially, the Okhotsk brackish-water lake group around Abashiri City is constituted by major lake in Japan such as Lake Abashiri, Lake Mokoto, Lake Tofutsu, and Lake Notoro. The each lake shows a different present environment and history. Therefore, the change that is common in those lakes seems to be the change concerning the climate. In this study, recent environment change in Abashiri region (after the Little Ice Age) is discussed by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis of the sediment cores collected from the Lake Abashiri. The water column of Lake Abashiri has a distinct halocline around 5m depths, and is divided into oligohaline surface waters and polyhaline bottom water by its halocline. The bottom water in Lake Abashiri shows the euxinic conditions throughout the annual. Therefore, surface sediment of below water depth 5m shows the black organic mud with the lamination. The 10AB-5C core collected from Lake Abashiri shows the length of 332cm. This core is composed of muddy sediment with a distinct lamination through all horizons. The Ta-a tephra (AD 1739) and Ko-c2 tephra (AD 1694) are found at the horizon of 250 cm, and 291 cm, respectively. Sedimentation rate based on these ages was 0.92cm/yr between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra, and was 0.91cm/yr between surface and Ta-a tephra. Lamina set of 44 was recognized between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra. This is suggested that this set is annual lamina. In 10AB-5C core, total organic carbon (TOC) contents, total sulfur (TS) contents, and C / N ratios were revealed by CNS elemental analysis. And the content of major elements were revealed by XRF elemental analysis. The change of iron (Fe) content synchronized with that of TS content. However, in the peak of TS contents around the horizon of 60cm, the Fe content does not change enough. It is

  19. Iron-oxide Magnetic, Morphologic, and Compositional Tracers of Sediment Provenance and Ice Sheet Extent in the ANDRILL AND-1B Drill Core, Ross Sea, Antarctica (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Pinzon, J.; Darley, J. S.; Sagnotti, L.; Kuhn, G.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Monien, D.; Joseph, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The first drilling season of the Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record of paleoclimate change (core AND-1B) within the Ross Sea. The magnetic mineral assemblage records the varying contributions of biological productivity, changing sediment sources, the emergence of volcanic centers, and post-depositional diagenesis. Characterization of bedrock samples from the McMurdo Volcanic Group (MVG) and Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) lithologic units allows us to construct fingerprints for the major source rocks bordering the Ross Sea, and identify their signatures within the AND-1B sediment. Key parameters that can be traced from source rock to sediment for the MVG-derived sediment include a 100-200 C order-disorder transition, titanomaghemite grains with homogenous textures but with substantial Al and Mg content, Fe-spinels with substantial Al, Cr, Mg, and Ti content, and titanomagnetite host grains with 1-3 swarms of ilmenite lamellae (both with variable amounts of oxidation). Distinctive signatures in TAM lithologies include low S-ratios in Koettlitz Group gneisses and Fe-sulfides with magnetite intergrowths in Byrd Glacier basement samples. The Cambrian Granite Harbor Intrusive Complex is characterized by coarse, homogeneous Mn-bearing ilmenite and nearly pure magnetite. The Jurassic dolerites and basalts of the Ferrar Group contain pseudo single domain to stable single domain-sized Fe-oxides with low-Ti content and homogeneous textures. Cu-Fe sulfides are also present in the Ferrar Group. Diamictites in the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the AND-1B drill core contains Fe-oxide assemblages with MVG-type rock magnetic and textural characteristics, while the Miocene diamictites contain TAM-type signatures. These observations can be explained by increased ice flow from the west during the Miocene and/or the absence of MVG volcanic centers, which had not yet reached a significant size. During the Pliocene and

  20. Initial Results from a New Lake Elsinore Sediment Core Reveal Evidence for Hydrologic Change During the Late-Glacial/Holocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, J. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Lund, S.; Hiner, C.

    2010-12-01

    While there are several well-developed records of marine climate from Southern California that span the late-Glacial/Holocene transition, there are currently no high-resolution terrestrial counterparts. In June 2010, a 20 meter sediment core covering 10-30 meters below the sediment-water interface was extracted from the depocenter of Lake Elsinore, California - the largest natural, permanent lake in the region. Here, we present the initial results of a multi-proxy study on the section of this sediment core that spans the late-Glacial/Holocene transition (10-18.5 m below the sediment-water line [bswl]). Initial results reveal three distinct sediment units. Unit I (10-15m bswl) is composed of a homogeneous, often mottled (bioturbated?), gray mud with high and moderately variable magnetic susceptibility values (avg=1.20±0.29x10-7m3/kg), low organic matter content (6.50±0.83%), and highly variable carbonate content (12.21±4.89%). Unit II (15-17m bswl) is a transitional unit that begins as a gray mud similar to that of Unit I and transitions into a massive to laminated brown mud with low and variable magnetic susceptibility values (0.88±0.38x10-7m3/kg), increasing organic matter content (11.52±2.19%), and highly variable carbonate content (10.84±4.75%). Unit III (17-18.5m bswl) is characterized by a massive to laminated brown mud with very low and stable magnetic susceptibility values (0.87±0.19x10-7m3/kg), declining organic matter content (11.21±2.02%), and low to negligible carbonate content (5.0±0.87%). Together, these data indicate a significant change in Lake Elsinore’s depositional environment that is likely related to hydrologic change (i.e. average lake level) during the late Glacial to Holocene transition - a change that has not previously been documented in Southern California.

  1. 3.5-D model of sediment age and grain size for the Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (Red Sea) using submarine cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanari, Mor; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tibor, Gideon; Goodman Tchernov, Beverly N.; Bookman, Revital; Taha, Nimer; Marco, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    The Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (NGAE) is the northeast extension of the Red Sea, located at the southernmost part of the Dead Sea Fault, at the transition zone between the deep en-echelon submarine basins of the Red Sea and the shallow continental basins of the Arava Valley (Israel and Jordan). We aim to characterize the top sedimentary cover across the NGAE in order to check the effect of tectonics on the sedimentary column, using high resolution grain size data and radiocarbon dating of core sediments. We analyzed 11 piston cores and 9 short cores: high resolution grain-size and radiocarbon age determinations were used to compile a 3.5-D (3.5 dimensional) model of age-depth-grain size for the top 3-5 meters of the NGAE. Two general trends of the grain size spatial distribution are observed: grains are coarsest at the NE corner of the NGAE (Aqaba coastline) and grow finer with the distance to the west on the shelf and with the distance from shore to the south. Long- and short-term accumulation rates were compiled for the entire NGAE, demonstrating a distinct E-W trend on the shelf and a NNE-SSW trend in the deep basin. The 3.5-D age-depth-grain size model conforms to- and validates the tectonic structure of the shelf detailed by previous authors. We suggest that the impact of tectonic structure of the shelf is highly significant in terms of spatial variations across the shelf, both in age of the sediment and its grain size characteristics. The temporal-spatial distribution of the grain size in the deep basin of the NGAE reveals a correlation between sediment age, dominant grain size and active tectonics: fine-grain, old sediment in the margins (Late Pleistocene, as old as >40 ka on the west margin; Early Holocene, as old as 7.5 ka, on the east margin), and Late Pleistocene sediment farther south from the dominant active diagonal fault which underlies the Elat Canyon. Young coarse sediment is present in the middle of the basin, where most of the active sediment

  2. Characterization of fecal indicator bacteria in sediments cores from the largest freshwater lake of Western Europe (Lake Geneva, Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Florian; Regier, Nicole; Benagli, Cinzia; Tonolla, Mauro; Adatte, Thierry; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2012-04-01

    This study characterized the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enteroccocus (ENT), disseminated over time in the Bay of Vidy, which is the most contaminated area of Lake Geneva. Sediments were collected from a site located at ∼500 m from the present waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outlet pipe, in front of the former WWTP outlet pipe, which was located at only 300 m from the coastal recreational area (before 2001). E. coli and ENT were enumerated in sediment suspension using the membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for human Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and human specific bacteroides by PCR using specific primers and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bacterial cultures revealed that maximum values of 35.2 × 10(8) and 6.6 × 10(6)CFU g(-1) dry sediment for E. coli and ENT, respectively, were found in the sediments deposited following eutrophication of Lake Geneva in the 1970s, whereas the WWTP started operating in 1964. The same tendency was observed for the presence of human fecal pollution: the percentage of PCR amplification with primers ESP-1/ESP-2 for E. faecalis and E. faecium indicated that more than 90% of these bacteria were from human origin. Interestingly, the PCR assays for specific-human bacteroides HF183/HF134 were positive for DNA extracted from all isolated strains of sediment surrounding WWPT outlet pipe discharge. The MALDI-TOF MS confirmed the presence of general E. coli and predominance E. faecium in isolated strains. Our results demonstrated that human fecal bacteria highly increased in the sediments contaminated with WWTP effluent following the eutrophication of Lake Geneva. Additionally, other FIB cultivable strains from animals or adapted environmental strains were detected in the sediment of the bay. The approaches used in this research are valuable to assess the

  3. Disentangling Holocene lake level changes with a transect of lake sediment cores - a case study from Lake Fürstenseer See, northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Slowinski, Michal; Kienel, Ulrike; Zawiska, Izabela; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    Deciphering the main processes contributing to lake and landscape evolution in the northern central European lowlands on different temporal scales is one of the main targets of the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. In the context of future climatic changes especially the hydrological system is a vulnerable landscape component that showed considerably large changes in the recent past. The analysis of lake sediment archives can help to infer long-term dynamics of regional lake and groundwater levels, although available proxy information needs to be studied carefully, as water level changes are only one trigger. Lake Fürstenseer See (53°19'N, 13°12'E, lake level in 2009: 63.3 m a.s.l.) formed after the retreat of the Weichselian ice sheet in a subglacial channel in the direct forefront of the Pommerian ice margin. The ~2 km2 large lake (zmax = 24.5 m) has a (sub-) surficial catchment area of ~(20) 40 km2 including other smaller lakes and peatlands. In the past, the lake system was artificially dammed for the operation of water mills. Located within the well-drained sandur substrate, the lake levels vary with groundwater levels in response to hydrological and catchment-related groundwater recharge. Detrital matter input from fluvial activity can be excluded. Lake sediment cores at four sites along a transect down to 23 m water depth show distinct sediment facies patterns. Stratigraphic descriptions and non-destructive continuous micro-XRF scanning allowed the differentiation of the main sediment facies, which were microscopically described using thin sections. Quantification of total organic and inorganic matter (TOC, TIC, C/N-composition) and discontinuous macrorest, diatom and Cladocera analysis helped to approach the sedimentation history. Stable isotopes of (delta-180, delta-13C) were used for characterization of carbonates. A high amount of non-reworked terrestrial plant remains from

  4. Première datation des lydiennes paléozoïques dans les Hellénides internes (mont Parnis, Grèce); implications géologiquesFirst age dating of the Lydian stones in the Inner Hellenides (Mount Parnis, Greece); geological significances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridroit, Martial; Ferrière, Jacky; Dégardin, Jean-Marie; Vachard, Daniel; Clément, Bernard

    2000-09-01

    Using radiolarian and conodont remains, a Tournaisian age has been obtained from the Lydian rocks (or lydites) of the Parnis Mount (Greece); this result is the first direct age dating of the Lydian rocks of continental Greece. In the same area, some limestone strata, interbedded in sandstones, yield Carboniferous and Permian foraminifers; the established stratigraphy is not consistent and so, the Lydian rocks have to be considered as blocks in an olistostrome unconformably overlain or thrusted by Triassic limestones. Otherwise, the Lydian rocks are interpreted as biogenic siliceous deposits due to the absence of carbonate sedimentation (not as a high siliceous production).

  5. Determining Historical Pesticide Deposition on Cape Cod through Sediment Core Analysis:A Validation of GIS as An Exposure Assessment Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, B. J.; Benoit, G.; Rudel, R.

    2006-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess current and historical exposure to environmental pollutants. GIS aids in the visualization and understanding of associations between exposure to contaminants and disease. This study is an example of the bridge between environmental science and public health and of how new technology such as GIS can be incorporated into these fields to strengthen both the research and the communication of scientific results. It attempts to validate a GIS-based aerial drift model which predicts the residential exposure to and boundaries of historical organochlorine pesticide (OCP) drift from applications on cranberry bogs, tree pest sprayings and others by analytically quantifying the historical pesticide deposition in a transect of lakes radiating from a distinct spray source. This model was previously used to assess historical residential exposure to OCPs in an environmental epidemiological case-control study of breast cancer incidence on Cape Cod, MA, where the incidence rate of the disease is significantly higher than in the rest of the state. The model's validation in this current study is essential to establishing its predictive ability and thus, its further use. Ground truthing of the model was done through the collection and analysis of sediment cores along a transect of five hydrologically independent kettle ponds radiating from a distinct OCP tree-pest spray area. Measurements of OCP concentrations, total carbon and total organic carbon were determined, and dating of the sediments was completed using 210Pb and verified using 137Cs. Each 50-cm core was sliced into 25 2- cm sections for the analyses, creating a fine-scale depositional history in each pond. Information gathered from each core allows for the determination of the extent and degree of dissipation of individual spray events of a known source area and determine how well the model fits the actual data.

  6. Identification of a series of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in core samples of riverine sediments (Lackawanna River, PA)

    SciTech Connect

    Dickneider, T.A.; Martin, S.E.; Vullo, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Lackawanna River runs for 62 miles through northeastern Pennsylvania. Its 350 square mile watershed area covers 4 counties and includes 23 municipalities with a total population of over a quarter of a million people. The River rises in two branches from glacial ponds and wetlands of the Allegheny-Pocono plateau. A 40 mile stretch runs through the anthracite coal fields that have played such an important role in the history of this valley and whose products are still widely used for local energy production. The Lackawanna is the largest tributary to the North Branch of the Susquehanna which empties into Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, the conditions of the waters and sediments of the Lackawanna are of significant concern. This study presents the results of 19 river water samples and 8 sediment samples.

  7. Data Package of Samples Collected for Hydrogeologic and Geochemical Characterization: 300 Area RI/FS Sediment Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Benjamin D.

    2011-05-01

    This is a data package for sediment samples received from the 300 FF 5 OU. This report was prepared for CHPRC. Between August 16, 2010 and April 25, 2011 sediment samples were received from 300-FF-5 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  8. Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as hydrologic tracers and age-dating tools: The alluvium and terrace system of central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

    1992-01-01

    The use of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as an age-dating tool and tracer in shallow groundwaters has been investigated. New methodology for field sampling and preserving groundwaters containing parts per trillion concentrations of the CFCs, F-1l and F-12, is presented. Samples are analyzed by purge-and-trap gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Physical and chemical processes that can alter natural concentrations (air-water equilibrium) of CFCs were investigated to assess dating uncertainties. CFC model recharge ages appear to be defined within 2 years under optimum conditions. The method was applied to central Oklahoma to demonstrate the usefulness of CFCs as (1) an age-dating tool of shallow groundwaters, (2) a tracer of sewage effluent in surface and shallow groundwaters, and (3) a tracer of shallow groundwater. Results of dating indicate two primary recharge periods in central Oklahoma over the past 45 years that correspond to the wet periods 1945–1960 and 1967–1975.

  9. Distribution of heavy metals in sediment cores of Lake Pamvotis (Greece): a pollution and potential risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, K; Stamoulis, K; Papachristodoulou, C; Tziamou, E; Markantonaki, C; Tsodoulos, I

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical distributions of metals in surface sediments of Lake Pamvotis (NW Greece) were assessed using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A wide range of values was determined, associated with the specific types of contaminating effluents draining into different parts of the lake. Overall, Cr levels ranged from 43 to 3295 mg kg(-1), Ni from 13 to 372 mg kg(-1), Cu from 15 to 24,985 mg kg(-1), Zn from 129 to 22,983 mg kg(-1), Zr from 64 to 4063 mg kg(-1) and Pb from 19 to 2634 mg kg(-1). Principal component analysis revealed distinct elemental fingerprints in each sampling location, while correlation analysis and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provided insight to metal association and pollution sources. Enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices were calculated to quantify sediment contamination, and potential ecotoxic effects were evaluated based on sediment quality guidelines. Moderate to very severe enrichment in Zn, Cu and Pb was evidenced in sediments near the lake's outflow. The proximity of these sampling points to a heavy traffic national road suggests that roadway runoff is the dominant source of elevated metal levels. Contribution from municipal sewage water discharges from the nearby communities should also be accounted for. Moderate to very severe Zn and Pb enrichment was determined in the vicinity on the main lake's inflow, primarily associated with runoff and leaching from agricultural land. Very severe to extremely severe Cr enrichment was detected in the same location, most likely associated with wastewater discharged into the lake over several decades, by nearby-operating leather tanneries. The above two locations were ranked at the highest priority level in terms of potential ecological risk.

  10. Provenance and flux of detrital materials in Lake Suigetsu sediment (SG12 core) and their temporal changes during the last 20 kyrs based on color and XRF data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tada, R.; Nakagawa, T.; Gotanda, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Nagashima, K.; Irino, T.; Sugisaki, S.; Kojima, H.; Horiuchi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Suigetsu in Central Japan is known for its annual lamination (varve) starting from 70kys ago. Extremely precise Age-depth model is established for SG06 core based on over 800 14C dates obtained on terrestrial leaf fossils and wiggle-matched to stalagmite 14C records constrained by varve counts (Staff et al., 2013). By projecting this age model to newly drilled core from the same site, we can obtain precisely age-controlled high resolution paleoenvironmental record around the Lake Suigetsu drainage. It is likely that detrital materials in Lake Suigetsu sediments have several different sources such as soil on the slopes around the lake itself, aeolian dust from inland Asia, and suspended particles supplied from Hasu river through lake Mikata, which is located immediately upstream of Lake Suigetsu and trapping most of coarse detrital grains. However, the relative contribution from each detrital source and its temporal changes are poorly known. The lack of knowledge on relative contribution of different detrital sources limits utility of detrital materials as proxies of paleo-environments. In this study, we are aiming to reconstruct the history of precipitation changes in the drainage area of Lake Suigetsu during the Holocene to explore the relationship between precipitation in the Japan Sea side of SW Japan, behavior of Asian monsoon system as an important component of the global climate system. It is well known that flux of suspended particles in rivers increases with precipitation. In order for us to be able to use the Hasu river's flux of suspended particles as the precipitation proxy, however, we first need to establish a simple and swift way to estimate the contribution of detrital materials from Hasu River flowing through Lake Mikata into Lake Suigetsu. We carried out color measurement with 5mm resolution on split half core surface of the sediment drilled in the summer of 2012(SG12), and compared these values to chemical composition data by XRF microscanner

  11. Holocene environmental changes in the south-western Baltic Sea reflected by the geochemical data and diatoms of the sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Robert; Janczak-Kostecka, Beata

    2012-12-01

    Marine sediment cores from the Pomeranian Bay and Arkona Basin were analysed in terms of geochemical composition, diatom assemblages and radiocarbon dating, in order to evaluate the characteristics of the Littorina transgression, on the environment of the south Baltic basin. The data show that this transgression had a strong influence on the evolution of the hydrographic system, which has changed substantially from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. The beginning of the period of the Littorina Sea was estimated at 7400-8000 cal BP, but culmination of the marine ingression appeared a few hundred years afterwards in the western cores from the Arkona Basin, and almost 2000 years later in the eastern cores from the Pomeranian Bay. In this study we present a new look at the evolution of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, based on the statistical analysis of relations between geochemical composition and diatom occurrence. Canonical correlation analysis clearly describes Ancylus and Littorina environments. The Ancylus Lake was characterised as a cold lacustrine environment with poor nutrient availability and high mineral matter inflow, probably from adjacent rivers, while the Littorina Sea environment was much warmer, with a high inflow of nutrients that favoured biogenic production.

  12. A 200,000-Year Record of Change in Oxygen Isotope Composition of Sulfate in a Saline Sediment Core, Death Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenbo; Krouse, H. Roy; Spencer, Ronald J.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Hutcheon, Ian E.; Ku, Teh-Lung; Li, Jianren; Roberts, Sheila M.; Brown, Christopher B.

    1999-03-01

    δ 18O values of sulfate minerals from a 186-m core (past 200,000 years) in Death Valley varied from +9 to +23‰ (V-SMOW). Sulfates that accumulated in the past ephemeral saline lake, salt pans, and mud flats have relatively low δ 18O values similar to those of present-day local inflows. Sulfates that accumulated during two perennial lake intervals, however, have higher δ 18O values, reflecting changes in temperature, lake water levels, and/or sulfur redox reactions. Over the same time interval, the δ 18O record for sulfate had excursions that bear similarities to those found for carbonate in the Death Valley core, marine carbonate (SPECMAP), and polar ice in the Summit ice core, Greenland. The δ 18O record differed considerably from the records reported for carbonate at Owens Lake and Devils Hole, which probably relates to different water sources. Death Valley, Owens Lake, and Devils Hole are responding to the same climatic changes but manifesting them differently. In Death Valley sediments, the isotopic composition of sulfate may have potential as an indicator of paleoenvironmental changes.

  13. Mid-term variation of vertical distribution of acid volatile sulphide and simultaneously extracted metals in sediment cores from Lake Albufera (Valencia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Crespo, Carmen; Martín, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Lake Albufera is one of the most eutrophic bodies of water in Spain due to point and diffuse pollution over past decades, and its sediments are likely to be anoxic because of high organic matter flux. Hence, sulphides can play an important role in limiting the mobility of heavy metals. This study aimed to study the vertical variation of acid volatile sulphide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediment cores collected from Lake Albufera; other sediment characteristics, such as organic matter, biochemical oxygen, demand or total metals, were also studied. Three sites were selected, and four sampling campaigns were performed to study spatial and temporal variation as well as to obtain information regarding historical variation in the composition of sediments. AVS and SEM were analysed by the purge-and-trap method. The vertical distribution of AVS and SEM varied depending on the sampling site-concentrations of AVS and SEM were higher at sites close to mouths of inflowing channels. A decreasing trend of AVS has been found at these sites over time: In the two first samplings, AVS increased with depth reaching maximum concentrations of 40 and 21 μmol g(-1), but from then on AVS were lower and decreased with depth. SEM decreased with depth from 3 μmol g(-1) in surface layers to approximately 1 μmol g(-1) at deeper segments at these sites. However, the central site was more uniform with respect to depth as well as with time; it presented lower values of SEM and AVS (mean 0.9 and 2.0 μmol g(-1) respectively), and the maximum value of AVS (7 μmol g(-1)) was found at the top layer (0-3 cm). According to the (SEM-AVS)/fOC approach, every site, and throughout the cores, can be classified as containing nontoxic metals because the values were <130 μmol g(-1).

  14. Biomarker signatures in sediment cores of Lake Urmia (NW Iran): Potential implications for paleo-climate and paleo-environment reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghipour, Negar; Eglinton, Timothy Ian; McIntyre, Cameron; Darvishi Khatooni, Javad; Hunziker, Daniela; Mohammadi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, in northwest Iran, is the largest saline lake in the Middle East with a surface area of ~ 5000km2. Historical documents indicate its existence since at least 2000 years BC, and palynological investigation of a 100 m-long core suggest it contains a sedimentary record spanning the last 200 ka. Despite this potential as an archive of paleo-climate and paleo-environmental information, to date there has been no molecular organic geochemical investigation or precise dating of these sediments. As part of an exploratory study, we have analyzed material from 3 recently collected 8 m-long cores from the eastern, western and middle part of the lake, with the aim of gaining insight in to past depositional and environmental conditions from biomarker signatures preserved in Lake Urmia sediments. The main objectives are to 1) constrain major source(s) of organic matter and gain insights into carbon cycle and depositional processes from bulk isotopic (δ13Corg, 14Corg) and molecular information, 2) determine the applicability of molecular proxies (TEX86 index derived from glyceroldialkylglycerol tetraethers, GDGTs, and unsaturation index UK37 based on long chain alkenones) for paleo-temperature reconstruction and 3) reconstruct the paleo- vegetation and hydrology from compound-specific stable isotopes (δ13C and δD of n-alkanes). In select samples examined from the three cores, we find the hydrocarbon fractions are dominated by long-chain n-alkanes, with n-C29 and C31 as the dominant homologues in most of the samples. Based on the n-alkane distribution, we distinguish two main types; Type 1 mainly includes the samples deeper than ca 4 m (CPI= 10.2, ACL= 30), characteristic of a terrestrial higher plant source; Type 2 comprises mainly shallower samples (CPI =1.5, ACL = 27.3) which may suggest an increased contribution of aquatic plants. Preliminary GDGT analyses indicate low BIT values for most samples, which suggest little input of soil-derived branched-GDGTs. The

  15. DIRECT PUSH METHODS FOR LOCATING AND COLLECTING CORES OF AQUIFER SEDIMENT AND ZERO-VALENT IRON FROM PERMEABLE REACYTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is often necessary to collect core samples that do not fit the normal sampling protocol. This Field Innovation Forum submission describes new methodology that enables researchers to collect soil samples in situations where the normal vertical sampling techniques will deliver ...

  16. The paleoenvironmental and climatic record of the Common Era in core sediments of Lake Abashiri in the east part of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Yamada, K.; Sonoda, T.; Kawajiri, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Abashiri has a distinct halocline around 5m depths, and is divided into oligohaline epilimnion and polyhaline hypolimnion by its pycnocline. In this study, paleoenvironmental and climatic changes of the Common Era in Abashiri region is discussed by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis of the sediment cores collected from the Lake Abashiri. The 13AB-B1 core collected from Lake Abashiri shows the length of 27m. This core is composed of muddy sediment with a distinct lamination up to 19.31m below surface. The Ta-a tephra (AD 1739), Ko-c2 tephra (AD 1694) and Ma-b tephra (10th century) are found at the horizon of 2.65m, 2.91m, and 6.19m below surface, respectively. Sedimentation rate based on these ages was 5.7mm/yr between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra, and was 4.7mm/yr between Ma-b tephra and Ko-c2 tephra. The environment of bottom water indicates the anoxic and/or euxinic conditions during the Common Era.  The result of observation used by Soft X-ray photograph, the lamina-set of high, low, intermediate density layers was observed. High-density layers have characteristics of low TOC, low SiO2, and high Al contents. This is suggested that high-density layer is formed by the supply of inorganic clastics. The lamina set of 44 was recognized between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra in the 10AB-5C core. This is suggested that this set is annual lamina (varve). If its so, it is considered that high density layer indicate the high precipitation term of summer season judging from precipitation pattern in Abashiri Area during 100 years. Particularly, the year of flood events tend to show a thick and distinguished layer in lamina-set. The 13AB-B core is correlated with 10AB-5C core under the lamina level. The high-density lamina-set group is repeated with 20 to 30 year cycle. The horizon of high-density lamina

  17. Historical record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) in marine sediment cores from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Rose, Neil L; Taniguchi, Satie; Lourenço, Rafael A; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mahiques, Michel M; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first results of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) in sediment cores of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica. These markers were used to assess the local input of anthropogenic materials (particulate and organic compounds) as a result of the influence of human occupation in a sub-Antarctic region and a possible long-range atmospheric transport of combustion products from sources in South America. The highest SCPs and PAHs concentrations were observed during the last 30 years, when three research stations were built in the area and industrial activities in South America increased. The concentrations of SCPs and PAHs were much lower than those of other regions in the northern hemisphere and other reported data for the southern hemisphere. The PAH isomer ratios showed that the major sources of PAHs are fossil fuels/petroleum, biomass combustion and sewage contribution generally close to the Brazilian scientific station.

  18. Mercury levels in sediments of central Mediterranean Sea: a 150+ year record from box-cores recovered in the Strait of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tranchida, Giorgio; Bellanca, Adriana; Neri, Rodolfo; Angelone, Massimo; Mazzola, Salvo

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the degree of anthropogenic mercury pollution, Hg contents have been measured for box-core sediments sampled along three nearshore-offshore transects in the Strait of Sicily and well constrained for their mineralogy, bulk geochemistry and TOC%. Hg values are generally low (from 15 to 70 microg kg(-1)); however, depth profiles clearly display upcore rising concentrations (up to 202 microg kg(-1) near the SE Sicily coast) that are attributed to anthropogenic load. Based on (210)Pb chronology, these trends are more dramatic across the last 20-30 years. Geogenic influence is thought to explain some anomalies related to volcanic emission and geothermal activity. Combined effects due to eastward flowing of the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) and sea bottom morphology drove major anthropogenic accumulation.

  19. Bioavailability and assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediment cores off the Mejerda River Delta (Gulf of Tunis): How useful is a multiproxy approach?

    PubMed

    Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Added, Ayed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-15

    Three core samples were taken from zones offshore from the Mejerda River Delta (Tunisia) and analyzed for major and trace elements to assess their relationships with organic matter, monosulfides and carbonates, as well as for pollution and bioavailability. Chemical speciation, ∑ SEM/AVS, the enrichment factor (EF) and the geo-accumulation index (I-geo) were used. Iron, cadmium, lead and zinc - the most frequently mined metals in the Mejerda catchment - were found as contaminants in the offshore areas. Estimations of trace element accumulation using the EF and the I-geo index show that lead, and to a lesser extent zinc, are the most polluting metals off the Mejerda outlet. According to their bioavailability, these metals are also the most toxic. Only cadmium is heavily present in delta sediment (EF>100) though deeply sequestrated (100% bound to the residual fraction) and thus presents no toxicity.

  20. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began full implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (Leahy and others, 1990). Also in 1991, the State of Texas established the Clean Rivers Program (CRP) administered by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). The coring study reported here was a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the CRP Rio Grande Border Environmental Assessment Team, with additional funding support from the El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1.

  1. Distribution of trace metals, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the Sicily Channel and the gulf of Tunis (south-western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Mzoughi, Nadia; Chouba, Lassaad

    2011-01-01

    Under the framework of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation project RAF7/004, international research cruises were carried out in 2004 to assess the distribution of radionuclides and micropollutants in the south-western Mediterranean Sea. Sediments samples had variable concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 microg g(-1) and 26.9 to 364.4 ng g(-1), respectively, in the Sicily Channel and from 0.7 to 2.8 microg g(-1) and 14.7 to 618.1 ng g(-1), respectively, in the open sea of the Gulf of Tunis. Hydrocarbon concentrations changed with depth and were relatively high at 3 cm and 10 cm depths. The use of 'fingerprint' ratios of certain isomeric pairs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the proportion of 2-3 ring and 4-5 ring PAH concentrations showed that the main origins are characteristic of petroleum sources. The ranges of trace metal concentrations, expressed in microgg(-1), in the Sicily Channel and in the Gulf of Tunis, respectively, were: Hg 0.009-0.2 and 0.02-0.1; Pb 9.9-26.1 and 21.2-32.5; Cd 0.06-0.1 and 0.07-0.33; Fe 23.7-28.1 and 29.9-36.2p; Zn 83-99.5 and 83-104; Mn 309.2-752.5 and 651-814; Cu 17.1-18.5 and 33.5-51.3. Sediment metal abundances were in the order: Mn > Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for trace metal and hydrocarbon mean concentrations between the two cores. These concentrations are generally similar to the background levels from the Mediterranean Sea and could be affected by physico-chemical conditions and sedimentation rate as well as biodegradation.

  2. Anthropogenic mercury deposition in Flin Flon Manitoba and the Experimental Lakes Area Ontario (Canada): A multi-lake sediment core reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Johan A; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene; Yang, Fan; Keating, Jonathan; Parsons, Matthew T

    2017-05-15

    High-resolution records of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) deposition were constructed from 9 lakes located 5-75km from the Flin Flon, Manitoba smelter (formerly one of North America's largest atmospheric Hg point sources) and 5 lakes in Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario; a region remote from major Hg point sources. Anthropogenic Hg deposition, as both a flux and inventory, was determined after accounting for lake-specific natural Hg background concentrations, changes in sedimentation and sediment focusing. Results show that records of anthropogenic flux and inventory of Hg were remarkably consistent among the ELA lakes, but varied by 2 orders of magnitude among Flin Flon lakes. The relation between Hg inventories (normalized for prevailing wind direction) and distance from the smelter was used to estimate the total Hg fallout within a 50km radius in 5year time-steps, thus providing a quantitative spatial-temporal Hg depositional history for the Flin Flon region. The same relation solved for 8 cardinal directions weighted by the inverse of the previously applied wind direction normalization generates a map of Hg inventory and deposition on the landscape (Supplementary video). This novel application of sediment core data constructs a landscape model and allows for a visualization of contaminant deposition with respect to a point major source in both space and time. The propensity for Hg to undergo long-range, even global transport explains why Hg deposition within 50km of Flin Flon was ~11% of estimated releases. That is until smelter releases were reduced >10-fold (post-2000), after which observed deposition exceeded smelter releases, suggesting landscape re-emission/remobilization of legacy Hg is a major ongoing regional source of Hg.

  3. Watershed erosion estimated from a high-resolution sediment core reveals a non-stationary frequency-magnitude relationship and importance of seasonal climate drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, D. G.; Colombaroli, D.; Morey, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The inclusion of paleo-flood events greatly affects estimates of peak magnitudes (e.g., Q100) in flood-frequency analysis. Likewise, peak events also are associated with certain synoptic climatic patterns that vary on all time scales. Geologic records preserved in lake sediments have the potential to capture the non-stationarity in frequency-magnitude relationships, but few such records preserve a continuous history of event magnitudes. We present a 10-meter 2000-yr record from Upper Squaw Lake, Oregon, that contains finely laminated silt layers that reflect landscape erosion events from the 40 km2 watershed. CT-scans of the core (<1 mm resolution) and a 14C-dated chronology yielded a pseudo-annual time series of erosion magnitudes. The most recent 80 years of the record correlates strongly with annual peak stream discharge and road construction. We examined the frequency-magnitude relationship for the entire pre-road period and show that the seven largest events fall above a strongly linear relationship, suggesting a distinct process (e.g., severe fires or earthquakes) operating at low-frequency to generate large-magnitude events. Expressing the record as cumulative sediment accumulation anomalies showed the importance of the large events in "returning the system" to the long-term mean rate. Applying frequency-magnitude analysis in a moving window showed that the Q100 and Q10 of watershed erosion varied by 1.7 and 1.0 orders of magnitude, respectively. The variations in watershed erosion are weakly correlated with temperature and precipitation reconstructions at the decadal to centennial scale. This suggests that dynamics both internal (i.e., sediment production) and external (i.e., earthquakes) to the system, as well as more stochastic events (i.e., single severe wildfires) can at least partially over-ride external climate forcing of watershed erosion at decadal to centennial time scales.

  4. Trends in hydrophobic organic contaminants in urban and reference lake sediments across the United States, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    A shift in national policy toward stronger environmental protection began in the United States in about 1970. Conversely, urban land use, population, energy consumption, and vehicle use have increased greatly since then. To assess the effects of these changes on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey used sediment cores to reconstruct water-quality histories for38 urban and reference lakes across the United States. Cores were age-dated, and concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons were tested statistically. Significant trends in total DDT, p,p???-DDE, and total PCBs were all downward. Trends in chlordane were split evenly between upward and downward, and trends in PAHs were mostly upward. Significant trends did not occur in about one-half of cases tested. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, and PCBs were about one-half as likely to exceed the probable effect concentration (PEC), a sediment quality guideline, in sediments deposited in the 1990s as in 1965-1975, whereas PAHs were twice as likely to exceed the PEC in the more recently deposited sediments. Concentrations of all contaminants evaluated correlated strongly with urban land use. Upward trends in PAH concentrations, the strong association of PAH with urban settings, and rapid urbanization occurring in the United States suggest that PAHs could surpass chlorinated hydrocarbons in the threat they pose to aquatic biota in urban streams and lakes.

  5. Coastal Marsh Sediments from Bodega Harbor: Archives of Environmental Changes at the Terrestrial-Marine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, L. K.; Rong, Y.; Hill, T. M.; Hiromoto, C.; Fisher, A.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal marsh sediments provide an important archive of environmental changes at the terrestrial-marine interface. Over the last century, humans have significantly altered the coastal environment near Bodega Bay, California, through changes in hydrology, sediment sources, and the dominant ecosystem. Previous investigations of recent coastal marsh sediments (< 50 years) suggest that physical barriers, such as roads, which limit the connection between Bodega Bay and the marshes, alters biogeochemical cycling (including carbon storage) in the coastal environment. The present study extends the record of changes in biogeochemical cycling in the coastal marshes back more than 100 years (approximately 90 cm) through the use of grain size analysis, C and N isotopes, and age dating. Sediments were analyzed for grain size distribution, the amount of carbon and nitrogen, and the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in 1 cm intervals throughout the core. In addition, a subset of eight samples was analyzed for sediment age using a combination of Pb-210 and Cs-137 techniques. Sediments from >40 cm and <55 cm depth have a higher percentage of fine-grained sediment (>2%). In addition, these sediments also contain higher levels of total organic carbon and nitrogen, higher C:N ratios, we well as heavier carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. The sediments likely correspond to a pre-1900 depositional environment based on Pb-210 dates, when development in the region was increasing. These results suggest a stronger influence of the marine environment during that time. Interestingly, smaller transitions in sediment properties toward what appears to reflect a more marine environment also occur near the top of the core (<10 cm depth) and near the bottom of the core (>75 cm depth). Although these transitions are less pronounced, the significant shift in sediment properties suggests a less stable environment with greater communication between the terrestrial and marine environments

  6. Holocene lake level changes at a lowland lake in northeastern Germany inferred from acoustic sub-bottom profiling and a transect of sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Zawiska, Izabela; Słowiński, Michał; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Holocene lake level changes were studied at Lake Fürstenseer See, a typical lake with complex basin morphology in northeastern German sandur area. An acoustic sub-bottom profile and a transect of four long sediment cores in the deepest lake sub-basin were analyzed. The cores were dated with AMS-14C and correlated with multiple proxies (sediment facies, μ-XRF, macrofossils, subfossil Cladocera, carbonate isotopes). At sites in 10 and 15 m water depth, shifts in the sand-mud boundary, i.e. sediment limit sensu Digerfeldt (1986), allowed quantitative estimates of the absolute amplitude of lake level changes. At sites in 20 and 23 m water depth, the negative correlation of Ca and Ti reflect lake level changes qualitatively. During high lake stands massive organic muds were deposited. Lower lake levels isolated the lake sub-basins which reduced the overall water circulation and lead to the deposition of Ti-poor carbonate muds. Furthermore, macrofossil and subfossil Cladocera analyses were used as proxies for the intense reworking at the slope and for the trophic state of the lake, respectively. Lake levels were up to 4 m higher, e.g. around 5000 cal. yrs BP and during the Medieval time period (see also Kaiser et al., 2014). During the early to mid-Holocene (between 9400 and 6400 cal. yrs BP), Lake Fürstenseer See fluctuated at an at least 3-m lower level. Further water level changes can be related to known climatic events and regional human impact. Digerfeldt, G., 1986. Studies on past lake-level fluctuations. In Berglund, B. (ed.), Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology: 127-144. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Kaiser, K., Küster, M., Fülling, A., Theuerkauf, M., Dietze, E., Graventein, H., Koch, P.J., Bens, O., Brauer, A., 2014. Littoral landforms and pedosedimentary sequences indicating late Holocene lake-level changes in northern central Europe ' A case study from northeastern Germany. Geomorphology 216, 58-78.

  7. Large mass movements, probably earthquake triggered, in Lake Geneva off the city of Lausanne revealed by seismic and sediment coring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia Demand, Jehanne; Marillier, François; Yrro, Blé; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic studies in the central part of Lake Geneva have revealed the presence a series of Holocene sedimentary layers with either well-organized reflections or with chaotic or transparent seismic character. While the former correspond to lacustrine sediments deposited as hemipelagic or turbidite layers, the latter are interpreted to be related to mass movements. One of these events has recently been identified in the lake off the city of Lausanne. The total volume of the mass flow deposits, the surface of the associated turbidite and the length of its failure scar show that it was a major slide event. To study this lacustrine slide, two types of seismic data were acquired. The first one was a multichannel system with a 15 inch3 water gun with a central frequency of 800 Hz and the second one was a 3.5 kHz single channel pinger. The data sets provide complementary data, because of their differing vertical resolution, respectively 0.5 m and 0.15 m. Some data were acquired with both systems along the same profiles for direct comparison. A depth-age relationship derived from a sediment core located above the main mass deposit yields an age for the mass movement deposit between 3488 and 3820 cal BP (2 sigma uncertainty). The failure scar that lies close to the lake north shore appears to be continuous over a distance of more than 7 km. However, the presence of two separated mass flow deposits associated with this scar suggests that there were in fact two simultaneous slides and not only one. This, together with the observation of another simultaneous mass movement on the lake south shore of the lake, suggests that the mass movements were triggered by an earthquake. The mass movements off the city of Lausanne are located over a major fault zone affecting the Mesozoic substratum under the Quaternary sediments. The fault zone which is related to the formation of the Alps is not known to be seismically active at present. However, conspicuous features within the

  8. Glacial/interglacial changes in export production in a series of sediment cores spanning the Indian sector Antarctic Polar Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, S.; Thöle, L.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Studer, A.; Michel, E.; Mazaud, A.

    2014-12-01

    Export of organic carbon from surface waters of the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean decreased during the last ice age, coinciding with declining atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, signaling reduced exchange of CO2 between the ocean interior and the atmosphere. In contrast, in the Subantarctic Zone, export production increased into ice ages coinciding with rising dust fluxes, thus suggesting iron fertilization of Subantarctic phytoplankton. Recently developed XRF core-scanning methods permit paleoceanographic reconstructions on time-scales similar to ice core temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. We have investigated the sedimentary distribution of various proxies allowing reconstructing export production in a series of sedimentary archives retrieved from the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean spanning the Antarctic Polar Front in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island (Marion Dufresne Expeditions IndienSud-1 & 2). These high-resolution measurements are complemented with reconstruction of 230Th-normalized biogenic particle flux to the seafloor covering the last glacial termination.This contribution will explore the effects of Fe-fertilization on export production in an area remote from major dust sources. Furthermore, quantitative vertical flux determinations will allow comparing carbon export efficiency in the Indian Ocean with previously published records from the South Atlantic.

  9. A New Sediment Core From Lake Elsinore, CA Reveals Evidence for Large Amplitude Hydrologic Change Between 9ka and 30ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Fantozzi, J. M.; Lund, S.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hiner, C.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Elsinore is the largest natural lake in coastal southwestern North America (CSWNA). Building on cores taken in 2003, a new 20-meter core (LEDC10-1) spanning 9ka to 30ka was acquired in 2010. Twenty-one AMS 14C dates, mostly on discrete organic material (e.g. seeds, charcoal), provide an initial age model. On average 1 cm equals 13 years of sedimentation making this new core the highest resolution, most complete glacial-age terrestrial archive yet obtained from CSWNA. We present initial multi-proxy results including magnetic susceptibility, organic and carbonate content, grain size, CN ratios, and δD plant leaf waxes to infer past climate state and change. The deglacial sequence is characterized by large amplitude hydrologic change: from a very wet full glacial to a dry Holocene. A δD shift of 100 per mil indicates a dramatic shift in either P:E ratio or changes in storm tracks/moisture sources. Sand % increases from the Holocene into the glacial, which is interpreted to indicate a wetter-than-present glacial climate in CSWNA. High amplitude sand variability at centennial-to-millennial scales also suggests a highly dynamic climate in CSWNA during the last glacial. Comparisons of the Elsinore record of abrupt hydrologic events to high latitude records show coherence with various climate intervals including Heinrich events 2 and 3. We also observe connections to local marine conditions in the Santa Barbara Basin. Future plans include additional dates, grain size, elemental data, compound specific isotope analyses, microfossil identification/counts, and palynology.

  10. A record of the upper Olduvai geomagnetic polarity transition from a sediment core in southern Yokohama City, Pacific side of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusu, Chie; Okada, Makoto; Nozaki, Atsushi; Majima, Ryuichi; Wada, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic record of the upper Olduvai polarity transition was obtained from a 106.72 m-long sediment core drilled in southern Yokohama City, located on the northern Miura Peninsula, on the Pacific side of central Japan. The core spans the upper part of the Nojima Formation and the lowermost part of the Ofuna Formation, both of which correspond to the middle Kazusa Group (Lower Pleistocene forearc basin fill). The record was reconstructed using discrete specimens taken throughout mudstone and/or sandy mudstone sequences in the Nojima Formation. In this record, the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) fluctuation accompanying the polarity transition was determined to occur between depths of 66.99 and 63.60 m. These depths have been dated at 1784.4 and 1779.9 ka, respectively, and the duration of the polarity transition is estimated to be 4.5 kyr using an age model based on a δ18O record from that core. The VGP paths during the transition do not appear to show any preferred longitudinal bands. However, the VGP positions cluster in five areas: (A) eastern Asia near Japan, (B) the Middle East, (C) eastern North America (North Atlantic), (D) off southern Australasia, and (E) the southern South Atlantic off South Africa. The primary locations of the observed VGP clusters coincide with the areas on the Earth's surface that possess a strong downward flux of the vertical component of the present geomagnetic non-axial dipole field. The relative paleointensity rapidly decreased approximately 1 kyr before the beginning of the polarity transition and gradually recovered to its initial level in 12 kyr.

  11. Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; Msaky, Emma; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2004-05-01

    Initial results of scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. A total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly clays and claystones deposited in a deep marine shelf environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology), magnetostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 1 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko airstrip (8°54.516 'S, 39°30.397 'E). It yielded 8.55 m of barren blue-grey clays that may be Miocene in age, followed by 1.2 m of greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay probably of the same age. The remainder of the hole cored 62.35 m of lower Oligocene sediments (nannofossil Zone NP23), which are predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clays. Total penetration was 74.10 m. The coring represents the first report of a thick Oligocene clay formation in the area. TDP Site 2 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko prison (8°55.277 'S, 39°30.219 'E). It yielded 92.78 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with occasional allochthonous limestone beds that consist mostly of redeposited larger foraminifers. The site encompasses lower to middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P8/9 to P11 and nannofossil Subzones NP14b to NP15c. It encompasses a rarely cored interval across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition. TDP Site 3 was drilled near Mpara in the Kilwa area (8°51.585 'S, 39°27.655 'E). It yielded 56.4 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clays and claystones. The site is assigned to lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P6 and nannofossil Zone NP11. TDP Site 4 was drilled near Ras Tipuli on the northwest side of Lindi creek (9°56.999 'S, 39°42.985 'E). It yielded 19.8 m of predominantly dark greenish

  12. Meiofauna, microflora and geochemical properties of the late quaternary (Holocene) core sediments in the Gulf of Izmir (Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yümün, Zeki Ü.; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi; Nazik, Atike; Barut, İpek F.; Yokeş, Baki; Sagular, Enis K.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Eryilmaz, Mustafa; Kam, Erol; Başsari, Asiye; Sonuvar, Bora; Dinçer, Feyza; Baykal, Kubilay; Kaya, Seyhan

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf of Izmir has seen the construction of marinas at four locations; Karşıyaka, Bayraklı, İnciraltı and Urla (Çeşmealtı). Six drilling holes have been structured for each location. Morphological abnormities observed in foraminifer tests, obtained from these core drillings, and coloring encountered in both foraminifer tests and ostracod carapeces, provide evidence of natural and unnatural environmental pollution. The objectives of this study are to identify micro and macro fauna, foraminifers in particular, contained within sediments in the above-mentioned locations; to investigate the background of pollution in the Gulf Region; and to determine pollution's impact upon benthic foraminifer and ostracods. Çeşmealtı foraminifera tests did not lead to color and morphological changes. But foraminifera tests samples collected from Karşıyaka, Bayraklı and İnciraltı led them to turn black (Plate 4-6). However, concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cr and Mn) obtained from the sediments of Karşıyaka, Bayraklı and İnciraltı locations are higher than those obtained from the Çeşmealtı samples and high concentrations of these elements may be the cause of the color change in the samples during the foraminifera tests. In Karşıyaka and Bayraklı ostracod samples, Bosquetina carinella, Pterygocythereis jonesi, Semicytherura species; in the Çeşmealtı/Urla zone, Cyprideis torosa; in İnciraltı, Pseudopsammocythere reniformis; and in four zones, Loxoconcha and Xestoleberis species were observed in the range of relative frequency. The same analyses were done on nannoplankton but they did not lead to color and morphological changes.

  13. Meteoric diagenesis of catastrophic rockslide deposits of the Alps: diagenetic systems and implications for radiometric age-dating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D.; Ostermann, M.; Kramers, J.; Brandner, R.

    2009-04-01

    Deposits of catastrophic subaerial rockslides (=rapid mass-wasting events involving more than a million cubic meters of rock) composed of lithologies rich in carbonate minerals may undergo precipitation of cements that, in many cases, can be used to U/Th proxy-date the rockslide event and/or subsequent changes of the rockslide mass. In the Alps, lithification of rockslide masses into breccias is observed in rockslides composed of limestones, dolostones, calcitic-dolomitic marbles, and calcphyllites. Cementation may be localized to meteoric 'runoff-shadows' below larger boulders, or may comprise a continous surface veneer of breccia or, more rarely, may affect the entire rockslide mass. In addition, precipitation of flowstone cements and stalactites may take place in megapores along the underside of boulders. Cements comprise skalenohedral calcite, prismatic calcite, blocky calcite, calcimicrite, micropeloidal calcitic cement and, rarely, isopachous to botryoidal aragonite. Cement formation probably is driven by meteoric dissolution-reprecipitation of fine-grained, abrasive rock powder generated during the rockslide event. U/Th ages of cements indicate that most, but not all, precipitation starts closely after a rockslide event. In rockslides composed of calcphyllites with an accessory content of pyrite, aside of 'normal' meteoric dissolution-reprecipitation of abrasive carbonate gauge, oxidation of pyrite drives widespread carbonate dissolution followed by reprecipitation, as a cement, of part of the dissolved calcium carbonate. Drill coring indicates that rockslide deposits composed of pyritiferous calcphyllites can be lithified from top to bottom. Limestone-precipitating springs emerging from rockslide deposits, and well-cemented 'secondary' deposits (e. g. talus slopes or fluvial conglomerates onlapping rockslide deposits) percolated by groundwaters emerging from rockslide masses, indicate that rockslide deposits remain diagenetically active for thousands of

  14. New Insights on Long Term Geomagnetic Moment Variation from Cosmogenic Nuclide and Paleointensity Signatures along Ocean Sediment Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.; Valet, J. P.; Bassinot, F. C.; Ménabréaz, L.; Simon, Q.; Demory, F.; Valery, G.; Vidal, L.; Beaufort, L.; de Garidel-Thoron, T.

    2015-12-01

    Some numerical and experimental simulations suggest that precession might supply enough power to influence planetary dynamos. The demonstration of a causal relationship between the Earth's orbital motion and variations of the geomagnetic field intensity, would open interesting perspective for modelling the past and future geomagnetic field behaviour and its eventual relationships to past and future orbitally constrained, climatic changes. Although pristine geomagnetic signals can be extracted by filtering and stacking multiple normalized intensity records, the reconstruction of high resolution geomagnetic field variations still raises questions. Namely, significant variance at orbital frequencies in relative paleointensity (RPI) records are generally considered as clues of residual contamination by paleoclimatically induced variations of magnetic carriers size ranges or mineralogy. Such questions can be adressed using other indicators of the geomagnetic dipole moment variation, such as the cosmogenic production modulated by the magnetospheric shielding. During the MAGORB project (ANR-09-BLAN-053-001) cosmogenic nuclide geochemistry, d18O, and paleomagnetic records were constructed along thick clayey-carbonate sequences deposited in the equatorial pacific and indian oceans over the last million of years. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio and RPI variations generally exhibit similar ranges of oscillations. However significant offsets appear between some RPI lows and their corresponding 10Be/9Be peaks, suggesting delayed lock-in of the remanent magnetization. After transfer on time scales the new geomagnetic moment series can be compared with the PISO-1500 and SINT-2000 stacks, and with the 10Be ice core record of EPICA Dome C. These new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio records provide new opportunities to: 1) assess the validity of high resolution RPI records, 2) evaluate address the question of the presence of orbital periods in the paleo-field geomagnetic spectrum, and 3) to

  15. Assessment of trace element contamination in sediment cores from the Pearl River and estuary, South China: geochemical and multivariate analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhuli; Chen, Fanrong; Wu, Shijun; Zhang, Ling; Kang, Mingliang; Li, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-four major and trace elements and the mineralogical composition of four sediment cores along the Pearl River and estuary were analyzed using ICP-AES, ICP-MS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate contamination levels. The dominant minerals were quartz, kaolinite, and illite, followed by montmorillonite and feldspars, while small amounts of halite and calcite were also observed in a few samples. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the element sources. The highest metal concentrations were found at Huangpu, primarily due to wastewater treatment plant discharge and/or the surreptitious dumping of sludge, and these data differed from those of other sources. Excluding the data from Huangpu, the PCA showed that most elements could be considered as lithogenic; few elements are the combination of lithogenic and anthropogenic sources. An antagonistic relationship between the anthropogenic source metals (K, Ba, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Tl, and U) and marine source metals (Na, Mg, Ti, V, and Ca) was observed. The resulting normalized Al enrichment factor (EF) indicated very high or significant pollution of Cd, Ag, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Pb at Huangpu, which may cause serious environmental effects. Conflicting results between the PCA and EF can be attributed to the background values used, indicating that background values must be selected carefully.

  16. Trace element fluxes and natural potential risks from 210Pb-dated sediment cores in lacustrine environments at the Central Mexican Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros-Cuadras, J F; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Pérez-Bernal, L H; Sericano, J L; Preda, M; Wee Kwong, L Liong; Páez-Osuna, F

    2014-01-15

    The accumulation, enrichment and provenance of selected trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were studied in sediment cores collected from three lakes located in the Central Mexican Plateau, selected on the basis of their contrasting degree of urbanization: Santa Elena Lake, in a rural and remote area; El Tule Lake, in a rural and slightly urbanized area; and Chapala Lake, in a highly urbanized area. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary constituents such as organic carbon, calcium carbonate, as well as major (Al, Fe, Mn) and minor (Ca, Li, Rb, Sr, Th) elements were analyzed to explain the concentration trends of trace metals. Factor analysis (FA) was used to assess the provenance of the trace elements. The highest metal enrichment factor (EF) above natural concentration levels was found at Chapala Lake for Ag (EF = 3.9), although other trace element EF in all lakes was <2.0, indicating slight contamination. However, the concentration levels of Cr and Ni in all lakes, Hg and Zn in Chapala Lake, Cu in El Tule Lake and As in Santa Elena Lake were above international benchmarks for which adverse effects are expected to occur frequently, even for those metals only slightly enriched (e.g. As, Cr). Through FA, the terrigenous contribution was identified as the most important source of trace metals to the three lakes, most likely related to deforestation and erosion of the surrounding areas, followed by atmospheric transport of volcanic ashes, rather than to direct sources.

  17. Possible Linkage between Geomagnetic Field, Temperature and Monsoon: Implication of High-Resolution Magnetic and Climatic Data from a Sediment Core in Osaka Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaba, I.; Hyodo, M.; Katoh, S.; Dettman, D. L.; Sato, H.

    2013-12-01

    Observed correlation between galactic cosmic ray (CR) flux and cloud cover suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. Kitaba et al. (2013) reported a pollen-based climate cooling that coincided with a large decrease in field intensity during the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo geomagnetic polarity reversals using a sediment core from Osaka Bay, Japan. The cooling event is not attributed to orbital forcing, but to the geomagnetic field intensity variation through modulation of CR flux. If the geomagnetic field intensity disturbs global heat balance, it may further affect monsoon and/or precipitation. Our pollen-based climate data show that during the cooling the difference in mean temperature between the warmest and coldest months (indicator of land-ocean temperature gradient) increased, and the summer precipitation (indicator of summer monsoon intensity) decreased. Assuming a simple model that the monsoon is driven by the land-ocean temperature gradient, the cooling effect would be larger over the land than the sea.

  18. Onset of a small but significant regional climate change documented in high-resolution late Holocene sediment cores from the maritime western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, A.; Wellner, J. S.; Anderson, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    The glacimarine environment of the Antarctic Peninsula region is one of the fastest warming places on earth; however, late Holocene paleoclimate reconstructions in this region are separated by large distances and details of past changes remain uncertain. This study focuses on a marine sediment core collected in 2007 from the deep Central Bransfield Basin in 1980 m of water and provides a central tie for other published studies in this region. The core lithology is dominantly diatomaceous mud with some turbidites. Radiocarbon and cesium dates have been used to create a age model that spans the interval 3600 cal yr BP to present. This chronostratigraphic framework was used to establish five units, which are grouped into two super-units, based upon: detailed facies descriptions, laser particle size analysis, x-ray radiograph analysis, multi-sensor core logger data, elemental and isotopic data. The two super-units that have been recognized are a lower super-unit (3559-1600 cal yr BP) and an upper super-unit (1600 cal yr BP - present). The upper super-unit signature is described by elevated δ13C coupled with decreasing δ15N values, lower magnetic susceptibility values and less frequent facies changes. This signature is interpreted as an increase in primary productivity and a potential mechanism for this small but significant change may be an increase in surface water temperature and/or shortening of the sea-ice season. The five units that are recognized are comparable with known climatic transitions across the western Antarctic Peninsula: the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum, the Neoglacial, the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, and rapid recent warming. The super-unit boundary coincides with an early onset of the Medieval Warm Period (1600 cal yr BP) which is typically at 1200 cal yr BP. These changes in the Bransfield Basin have been compared to other published records from the Bransfield Basin, Firth of Tay, Maxwell Bay, and Palmer Deep. These comparisons

  19. Timing of the intensification of Australian Monsoon during the last two terminations recorded in the deep sea sediment core from Timor Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiike, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sakai, S.; Ohkouchi, N.; Kawahata, H.; Suzuki, A.; Oda, H.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2007-12-01

    Timing of the past variations of the monsoon is a key to understand low to mid latitude climate in the past. We therefore examined a sediment core MD05-2970 obtained from Timor Sea to understand the evolution of the Australian monsoon since previous works proposed much lesser Australian monsoon during the ice ages. Radiocarbon dates as well as oxygen isotope of the planktonic foraminifers indicates that the core covers last 220 kyr which enables us to compare the last two glacial-to-interglacial climatic terminations. Our planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic compositions range from -1.0 permil for the last glacial maximum to -2.8 permil for the Holocene which is consistent with the record previously reported from nearby locations.(Spooner et al., 2005). The present study showed the similar structures of oxygen isotopes between the penultimate glacial maximum and the last interglacial. However the oxygen isotope record obtained from the Makasser Strait indicated - 1.0permil and -4.0 permil respectively for the last two glacial maxima and the interglacials (Visser et al., 2003). No differences in the SST between the two core sites are recognized and hence any discrepancies in the oxygen isotopes are attributable to changes in the oxygen isotopes of seawater due to the hydrological differences. Modern satellites based observations show that the sea surface salinity in Makasser Strait is reduced as much as 4 psu during the Austral summer due to the transportation of the fresher water from the Banda Sea by Austral summer monsoon(Gordon et al., 2003). This creates the salinity difference between the Makasser Strait and the Timor Sea. On the other hand no salinity differences between the two sites were observed during the Austral winter. Therefore Austral summer monsoon was not as strong as today to create salinity differences between the two during the glacial times. Time series analyses of the two oxygen isotope curves would tell us the inception of the intensified

  20. Potential for timing high-energy marine inundation events in the recent geological past through age-dating of reef boulders in Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.

  1. Core descriptions, core photographs, physical property logs and surface textural data of sediment cores recovered from the continental shelf of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary during the research cruises M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97-MB

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzech, Kevin M.; Dahl, Wendy E.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the 1992 creation of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a multiyear investigation of the Sanctuary continental margin. As part of the investigative effort, this report summarizes the shipboard procedures, subsequent laboratory analyses, and data results from three seafloor sampling cruises conducted on the continental shelf between Monterey peninsula, CA and San Francisco, CA. The cruises were conducted in 1995 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur (M-1-95-MB) and in 1995 and 1997 aboard the R/V Point Sur (P-2-95-MB and P-1-97-MB). Scientists and representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), and the San Jose State University Moss Landing Marine Laboratory (SJSU-MLML) supported the research effort. In this report we present sediment descriptions, sediment textural data, physical property logs, station metadata, and photographs of subcores from a total of three hundred and eighty four sample stations. At these sites either a box corer, MultiCore™r, grab sampler or a combination of these sampling devices were used to collect the sea floor sediments. The report is presented in an interactive web-based format with each mapped core station linked to the corresponding description and photo, and to a spreadsheet of surface texture and other sampling data.

  2. Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.; Cowdery, T.K.; McMahon, P.B.; Tornes, L.H.; Stoner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of chemical and dissolved gas analyses, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and hydrologic measurements were used to determine the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a riparian wetland were responsible for removing NO3- from groundwaters discharging to the Otter Tail River in west central Minnesota. An analysis of river chemistry and flow data revealed that NO3- concentrations in the river increased in the lower half of the 8.3 km study reach as the result of groundwater discharge to the river. Groundwater head measurements along a study transect through the riparian wetland revealed a zone of groundwater discharge extending out under the river. On the basis of combined chemical, dissolved gas, age date, and hydrologic results, it was determined that water chemistry under the riparian wetland was controlled largely by upgradient groundwaters that followed flow paths up to 16 m deep and discharged under the wetland, creating a pattern of progressively older, more chemically reduced, low NO3- water the farther one progressed from the edge of the wetland toward the river. These findings pose challenges for researchers investigating biogeochemical processes in riparian buffer zones because the progressively older groundwaters entered the aquifer in earlier years when less NO3- fertilizer was being used. NO3- concentrations originally present in the groundwater had also decreased in the upgradient aquifer as a result of denitrification and progressively stronger reducing conditions there. The resulting pattern of decreasing NO3- concentrations across the riparian zone may be incorrectly interpreted as evidence of denitrification losses there instead of in the upgradient aquifer. Consequently, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic setting and age structure of the groundwaters being sampled in order to avgid misinterpreting biogeochemical processes in riparian zones.

  3. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    μThis study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (μm) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-μm particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-μm. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 μm) and the fine particle-size fraction (<63 μm) were approximately equal in samples at depths greater than 10 cm below the sediment water interface. Chemical analyses included both size fractions of freeze-dried samples. Chemical analyses included determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-μm particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-μm particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P

  4. Evaluating the accretion of meteoritic debris and interplanetary dust particles in the GPC-3 sediment core using noble gas and mineralogical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-05-01

    Extraterrestrial (ET) noble gases (helium and neon) in 35 sediment samples from Central Pacific core LL-44 GPC-3 demonstrate the variable flux of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and major meteorite impacts over the past 70 Ma (21-72 Ma). Spinel mineralogical and chemical compositions clearly distinguish major impact events from the continuous flux of IDPs, including the well-established Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) and late Eocene (E/O) impact boundaries. No spinel grains with chemical or mineralogical evidence of a distinctly ET origin were found in an extensive survey of 'background' samples (i.e. non E/O or K/T boundary) suggesting that either the carrier grains for ET noble gas occur within the Fe-Ti oxide mineral fraction observed in this study (found to include ilmenite and ulvospinel) or are too small for identification by SEM. The presence of ilmenite and ulvospinel suggest lunar regolith is a potential source for ET noble gas-rich particles. Noble gas analysis on both the EMF (extractable magnetic fraction) and the Bulk minus EMF (Bulk - EMF) show that the He and Ne compositions are consistent with partially degassed noble gas signatures of zero-age magnetic grains (Z-MAG) and stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Conclusive evidence for a 'planetary' (Ne-A) noble gas signature is found only in the bulk sediments at the K/T boundary, although all GPC-3 K/T fractions (Bulk, EMF, and HF Digestion) plot along a mixing line between planetary (Ne-A) and solar wind (SW). Spinels from major impact boundaries (K/T; E/O) exhibit dendritic texture and elevated [Ni], consistent with previous reports. In contrast to the otherwise consistent [3He] signal from IDPs, the [3He] at the known impact boundaries (K/T and E/O) actually decreases. These anomalously low [3He] are accompanied by significantly elevated [Ne] and significantly lower (3He/20Ne)solar ratios (˜10× lower) produced by both preferentially degassing of He relative to Ne at times of

  5. Depth-related coupling relation between methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in a marine sediment core from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Xi; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-12-01

    The vertical distributions of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in the marine sediment core of DH-CL14 from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea, were investigated. To enumerate MOBs and SRBs, their specific genes of pmoA and apsA were quantified by a culture-independent molecular biological technique, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result shows that the pmoA gene copies per gram of sediments reached the maximum of 1,118,679 at the depth of 140-160 cm. Overall considering the detection precision, sample amount, measurement cost, and sensitivity to the seepage of methane from the oil/gas reservoirs or gas hydrates, we suggest that the depth of 140-160 cm may be the optimal sampling position for the marine microbial exploration of oils, gases, and gas hydrates in the Dongsha region. The data of the pmoA and apsA gene copies exhibit an evident coupling relation between MOBs and SRBs as illustrated in their vertical distributions in this sediment core, which may well be interpreted by a high sulfate concentration inhibiting methane production and further leading to the reduction of MOBs. In comparison with the numbers of the pmoA and apsA copies at the same sediment depth, we find out that there were two methane-oxidizing mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic oxidation in this sediment core, i.e., the aerobic oxidation with free oxygen dominantly occurred above the depth of 210-230 cm, while the anaerobic oxidation with the other electron acceptors such as sulfates and manganese-iron oxides happened below the depth of 210-230 cm.

  6. Glacial discharge, upwelling and productivity off the Adélie coast, Antarctica: results from a 171 m Holocene sediment core from IODP Expedition 318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Kate; Bendle, James; McKay, Robert; Albot, Anya; Moossen, Heiko; Seki, Osamu; Willmott, Veronica; Schouten, Stefan; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's coastal oceans play a vital role in controlling both the global carbon cycle and climate change, through variations in primary production, ocean stratification and ice melt. Yet, the Southern Ocean remains the least studied region on Earth with respect to Holocene climate variability. The few Antarctic proximal marine sedimentary records available tend to be short, low resolution, and discontinuous. However, sediments recovered from the Adélie drift during IODP Expedition 318 present a new opportunity to study East Antarctic Holocene climatic evolution, at a resolution that facilitates direct comparison with ice-cores. A 171m core of Holocene laminated diatom ooze was recovered from site U1357, representing continuous Holocene accumulation in a climatically-sensitive coastal polynya. We present results of biomarker analyses (TEX86-L and compound specific fatty acid delta-D and delta-13C, and sterol delta-D) and grain size from throughout the Holocene, revealing the complexities of this climatically sensitive environment. Carbon isotopes are interpreted predominantly as a productivity signal via CO2 drawdown, whilst hydrogen isotopes reflect inputs of isotopically-depleted glacial meltwater from the large Mertz glacier tongue and other proximal glaciers. Both upwelling, as shown by TEX86-L and grain size, and glacial meltwater inputs, indicated by biomarker delta-D, appear to have an important control on productivity on various time scales. The latter may be forced by warm subsurface temperatures through basal melting of the Mertz glacier tongue, indicating both direct and indirect effects of upwelling on productivity. The post-glacial, Early Holocene appears to be characterized by a highly variable system, due to both strong upwelling and meltwater inputs, followed by a more stable and highly productive Middle Holocene under a warmer climate. During the Late Holocene, characterized by a sea-ice expansion, temperature-induced sea-ice melt may have

  7. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  8. Paleoclimate of the Eastern Mediterranean/North Africa during the past 26 cal ka based on organic geochemical investigations of a Nile River Delta sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, I. S.; Schefuss, E.; Patzold, J.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is situated within a highly sensitive climatic region, which is influenced by both tropical and mid-latitude climate dynamics, and the paleoenvironmental history of this region is of interest because large human populations occupy the surrounding landmasses. In this study, multiple organic geochemical proxies are examined from a Nile River Delta sediment core (GeoB 7702-3) to investigate the paleoclimatic history of the North Africa/Eastern Mediterranean region during the past ~26 cal ka. Sea surface temperatures were reconstructed using both the TEX86 and alkenone paleothermometers. The TEX86 record exhibits centennial to millennial scale variability and captures global climate events including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Heinrich Event 1 (H1), the Bolling/Allerod and the Younger Dryas (YD). The recently developed Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT) index, used to differentiate between marine and terrestrial inputs, closely tracks changes noted in bulk C/N ratios. Overall, these records indicate greater variability during the Late Pleistocene than during the Holocene, with the highest terrestrial inputs noted at approximately the time of the YD and prior to H1. Although it might be expected that fluvial organic matter inputs should be the lowest during the LGM, when the sources of both the Blue and White Nile were severely reduced or desiccated, higher (more terrestrial) BIT values noted at these times may be related to changes in vegetation cover in North Africa. During the Holocene, a major shift in the BIT index to lower (more marine) values marks the onset of deposition of the S1 sapropel layer. The lower BIT values noted during this interval are caused by a dramatic (order of magnitude) increase in the absolute abundance of crenarchaeol, attesting to enhanced marine productivity at this time. Following deposition of the S1 sapropel, absolute abundances of crenarchaeol are generally higher than during the Late Pleistocene

  9. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in dated sediment cores: Chemical fingerprinting of the anthropogenic impacts in the Seine River basin, Paris.

    PubMed

    Lorgeoux, C; Moilleron, R; Gasperi, J; Ayrault, S; Bonté, P; Lefèvre, I; Tassin, B

    2016-01-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extensively produced and used throughout the last century. In the early 1980s, a rising concern on the environmental impact of these chemicals has led to the establishment of regulations and changes of use including bans. Long term monitoring of the environmental impacts of these emissions and regulations is a challenge because regular monitoring was not mandatory at the beginning of the first emissions. Moreover, the analytical methods have been strongly improved over the decades. To overcome the lack of monitoring and accurate data, sediment cores are powerful tools to construct contamination records. In this study, a high resolution record was constructed for four POPs families (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 alkylphenols (APs) and 8 polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) to establish their historical trends in a long-term urbanized and industrialized environment: the Seine River basin, France. These specific families were selected because they had different sources, uses and histories. The results showed concentrations up to 90 mg/kg for ∑PAHs, 2.3mg/kg for ∑PCB, 1.2mg/kg for ∑APs and 0.06 mg/kg for ∑PBDE. The vertical distribution profiles were different from one family to another and presented a good correlation with uses (e.g. transition from coal to natural gas for PAHs), and regulation implementation (e.g., AP ban after "OSPAR Convention" in 1992). The study of compounds distribution provided original information on sources, e.g. temporal variations in PAH uses. This study demonstrates the usefulness and accuracy of sedimentary archives in floodplain to assess the fate of POPs through time in continental hydrosystems. These first results give a comprehensive overview of the contamination in the Seine River basin downstream of Paris Megacity. They were in good agreement with previous studies dedicated to European areas and highlighted specificities of this basin

  10. A thermophilic, hydrogenogenic and carboxydotrophic bacterium, Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov., from a marine sediment core of an undersea caldera.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Yasuda, Hisato; Imada, Chiaki; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    A hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic marine bacterium, strain KKC1(T), was isolated from a sediment core sample taken from a submerged marine caldera. Cells were non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, 1.0-3.0 µm straight rods, often observed with round endospores. Strain KKC1(T) grew at 55-68 °C, pH 5.2-9.2 and 0.8-14 % (w/v) salinity. Optimum growth occurred at 65 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 2.46 % salinity with a doubling time of 3.7 h. The isolate grew chemolithotrophically, producing H2 from carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation with reduction of various electron acceptors, e.g. sulfite, thiosulfate, fumarate, ferric iron and AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate). KKC1(T) grew heterotrophically on pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, glucose, fructose and mannose with thiosulfate as an electron acceptor. When grown mixotrophically on CO and pyruvate, C16 : 0 constituted almost half of the total cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 50.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of KKC1(T) was most closely related to those of members of the genus Moorella with similarity ranging from 91 to 89 %. Based on physiological and phylogenetic novelty, we propose the isolate as a representative of a new genus and novel species with the name Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of the type species is KKC1(T) ( = DSM 26464(T) = NBRC 109353(T)).

  11. Dating of Holocene lateral moraines in the western Southern Alps, New Zealand, applying Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Research on Holocene mountain glacier chronologies has recently intensified due to the importance of mountain glaciers as key indicators for past and present climate change. This progress is closely connected with major improvements in modern dating techniques and the application of multi-proxy approaches adapted to specific local/regional conditions. Despite recent progress there is, however, still a need for better spatial differentiation and a lack of generally accepted concepts for global and inter-hemispheric correlation of Holocene glacier chronologies. Furthermore, the "geomorphological uncertainty" inevitably connected with numerical dating of moraines in neotectonic active mountain ranges characterised by highly dynamic geomorphological process systems requires careful consideration of any subsequent palaeoclimatic interpretation. During the past few years Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has revealed its potential to successfully challenge those specific circumstances. The Southern Alps of New Zealand have provided one of only a few suitable study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Recent years have seen a significant increase in terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND)-ages published for the Southern Alps, mainly for the last Glaciation, but also for the Holocene. The availability of a regional 10Be-production curve has improved the calibration of TCND-ages. These studies applying TCND alongside previous chronological studies using a variety of different dating techniques focus, however, primarily on a few selected glacier forelands east of the Main Divide in Aoraki/Mt Cook National Park. Bad accessibility and methodological problems account for comparatively few investigations on glacier forelands west of the Main Divide. Chronological studies applying Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) were performed on six glacier forelands in the western part of the Southern Alps

  12. The effects of acid leaching on 40Ar/39Ar age dating results using samples from the Walvis Ridge hotspot trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Koppers, A. A.; Heaton, D. E.; Schnur, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we systematically explore how acid leaching can be used to reduce the negative effects of seawater alteration on the 40Ar/39Ar age dating of submarine basalts. Koppers et al (2000) showed that acid leaching of groundmass samples generated more consistent ages as well as ages more concordant with phenocrystic mineral phases, compared to samples that were left untreated. By studying the effects of progressively increasing the strength and length of acid treatment, we will show how acid leaching of groundmass separates reduces alteration while leaving the initial eruption signature intact. Samples were chosen from the Walvis ridge hotspot trail in the southeast Atlantic. Three samples were selected based on degree and style of alteration. Two samples (basalt and basaltic andesite) appear highly altered in thin section. The basalt contains diffuse iddingsite alteration that is pervasive throughout the groundmass. The basaltic andesite displays focused secondary mineral phases within and around abundant vesicles. The third sample, a trachyte, shows relatively minor degrees of alteration in thin section. These groundmass separates were divided into four splits and treated with a progressively stronger acid and for longer duration. One split from each rock was left untreated to act as a baseline. Of the other three splits from each sample, one was treated with a mild leach (1N HCl and 1N HNO3), one a strong leach (1N HCl, 1N HNO3, 6N HCl, and 3N HNO3), and lastly the strong leach performed twice. The samples were then handpicked to remove any remaining visible alteration. The untreated samples were picked as well, removing the most distinctly altered grains. All splits were analyzed by electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and the incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar dating method. We will report on the results of an image analysis of microprobe backscatter images and elemental maps taken of individual groundmass grains. This analysis will show the location

  13. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gael; Sonke, Jeroen E; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1,500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1,100 μg kg(-1), with the maxima between 840 and 1,100 μg kg(-1). A chronological framework was established using radiometric (210)Pb and (14)C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1,300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m(-2)y(-1) (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 μg m(-2)y(-1) between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records.

  14. Strategies for potential age dating of fingerprints through the diffusion of sebum molecules on a nonporous surface analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shin; Sisco, Edward

    2015-08-18

    Age dating of fingerprints could have a significant impact in forensic science, as it has the potential to facilitate the judicial process by assessing the relevance of a fingerprint found at a crime scene. However, no method currently exists that can reliably predict the age of a latent fingerprint. In this manuscript, time-of-flight secondary ion imaging mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to measure the diffusivity of saturated fatty acid molecules from a fingerprint on a silicon wafer. It was found that their diffusion from relatively fresh fingerprints (t ≤ 96 h) could be modeled using an error function, with diffusivities (mm(2)/h) that followed a power function when plotted against molecular weight. The equation x = 0.02t(0.5) was obtained for palmitic acid that could be used to find its position in millimeters (where the concentration is 50% of its initial value or c0/2) as a function of time in hours. The results show that on a clean silicon substrate, the age of a fingerprint (t ≤ 96 h) could reliably be obtained through the extent of diffusion of palmitic acid.

  15. Analytical results for 35 mine-waste tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples, and an estimate of the volume of contaminated material at Buckeye meadow on upper Basin Creek, northern Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, D.L.; Church, S.E.; Finney, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acidgeneration and toxic-metal solubilization. Flotation-mill tailings in the meadow below the Buckeye mine, hereafter referred to as the Buckeye mill-tailings site, have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek, Montana. Basin Creek is one of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area; bed sediments and waters draining from the Buckeye mine have also been implicated. Geochemical analysis of 35 tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb,and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms that constitute their food. A suite of one-inch cores of dispersed flotation-mill tailings and underlying premining material was taken from a large, flat area north of Basin Creek near the site of the Buckeye mine. Thirty-five core samples were taken and divided into 204 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements listed above are present at moderate to very high concentrations (arsenic to 63,000 ppm, silver to 290 ppm, cadmium to 370 ppm, copper to 4,800 ppm, lead to 93,000 ppm, and zinc to 23,000 ppm). Volume calculations indicate that an estimated 8,400 metric tons of contaminated material are present at the site. Six bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50oC) 2M HCl-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of Basin Creek are only slightly impacted by past mining above the Buckeye-Enterprise complex, moderately impacted at the upper (eastern

  16. A new device to mount portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-ED-XRF) for semi-continuous analyses of split (sediment) cores and solid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Klein, Torsten; Kutz, Frank; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-ED-XRF) have become increasingly popular in sedimentary laboratories to quantify the chemical composition of a range of materials such as sediments, solid samples, and artefacts. Here, we introduce a low-cost, clearly arranged unit that functions as a sample chamber (German industrial property right no. 20 2014 106 048.0) for p-ED-XRF devices to facilitate economic, non-destructive, fast, and semi-continuous analysis of (sediment) cores and/or other solid samples. The spatial resolution of the measurements is limited to the specifications of the applied p-ED-XRF device - in our case a Thermo Scientific NITON XL3t p-ED-XRF spectrometer with a maximum spatial resolution of 1 cm and equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-camera to document the measurement spot. We demonstrate the strength of combining p-ED-XRF analyses with this new sample chamber to identify Holocene facies changes (e.g. marine vs terrestrial sedimentary facies) using a sediment core from an estuarine environment in context of a geoarchaeological investigation at the Atlantic coast of southern Spain.

  17. A new device to mount portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-ED-XRF) for semi-continuous analyses of split (sediment) cores and solid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Klein, Torsten; Kutz, Frank; Schütt, Brigitta

    2017-02-01

    Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-ED-XRF) have become increasingly popular in sedimentary laboratories to quantify the chemical composition of a range of materials such as sediments, soils, solid samples, and artefacts. Here, we introduce a low-cost, clearly arranged unit that functions as a sample chamber (German industrial property rights no. 20 2014 106 048.0) for p-ED-XRF devices to facilitate economic, non-destructive, fast, and semi-continuous analysis of (sediment) cores or other solid samples. The spatial resolution of the measurements is limited to the specifications of the applied p-ED-XRF device - in our case a Thermo Scientific Niton XL3t p-ED-XRF spectrometer with a maximum spatial resolution of 0.3 cm and equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to document the measurement spot. We demonstrate the strength of combining p-ED-XRF analyses with this new sample chamber to identify Holocene facies changes (e.g. marine vs. terrestrial sedimentary facies) using a sediment core from an estuarine environment in the context of a geoarchaeological investigation at the Atlantic coast of southern Spain.

  18. Place-based research project design for 10-week REU and two-week "mini-REU" internships using lake sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.; Thompson, R.; Drake, C.; Woods, P.; Schuldt, N.; Borkholder, B.; Marty, J.; Lafrancois, T.; Pellerin, H.

    2012-12-01

    Lake sediment cores provide scalable, interdisciplinary research projects that are well suited for summer internships such as the NSF-REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates). Short paleorecords (100-500 years or about a meter of core) are easy to collect and are tractable in terms of sample numbers (Myrbo et al. 2011). Many students find it compelling to reconstruct the recent past; choosing sites with cultural or historical significance is another way to make research seem more relevant. We present the results and experiences of designing two- and ten-week individual, group, and team research projects. Each of these projects contributes to the findings of a collaborative inquiry by the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (FDL) and the University of Minnesota (UMN). Research questions are determined and framed by FDL Resource Management, and student projects are supported and advised by both FDL and UMN scientists. The research is focused on the past environmental conditions of on- and off-Reservation wild rice lakes and the surrounding landscapes and people, and includes the study of biological and chemical proxies as well as historical records. Over the past three years, this approach has enabled diverse groups of students to conduct authentic and original basic research that also has applications to management and planning issues for Tribal resource managers, and to develop skills that are portable to other management and academic settings. These compelling "short" time scale projects can serve as a gateway for students to further pursue science including longer term paleorecords, climate change research, other disciplines in ecology, water resources, geography, archeology, and geology, as well as humanities research areas such as history and landscape architecture. An overarching goal is to help students understand current environmental change in the context of long-term changes, pre-industrial human land use, and accelerated Anthropocene impacts

  19. Sediment Flux from Source to Sink in the Brazos-Trinity Depositional System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirmez, C.; Prather, B. E.; Droxler, A.; Ohayer, W.

    2007-12-01

    During the Late Pleistocene a series of intra-slope basins offshore Texas in the Western Gulf of Mexico, received a high influx of clastic sediments derived primarily from the Brazos, Trinity, and Mississippi rivers. Sediment failures initiated at shelf edge deltas resulted in mass flows that negotiate a complex slope and basin topography caused by salt tectonics. Sediment locally fill ponded basins eventually spilling into subsequent basins downstream. Interaction between these flows and slope topography leads to a complex partitioning of sediment over time and space that can only be unraveled with high-resolution data. The availability of system-wide coverage with conventional 3d seismic surveys, a dense grid of high-resolution 2d seismic lines and cored wells from two of the four linked intraslope basins, makes this locale an ideal area to investigate the transfer of sediment across the continental margin, from river sources to the ultimate sink within an enclosed intraslope basin. Data from IODP Expedition 308 and industry wells, combined with data from previous studies on the shelf constrain an integrated seismic stratigraphic framework for the depositional system. Numerous radiocarbon age dates coupled with multiple stratigraphic tools (seismic-, bio-, and tephra correlations and oxygen isotope measurements) provide an unprecedented high-resolution chronology that allow for detailed estimation of sedimentation rates in this turbidite system and calculation of sediment volumes in each of the basins over time intervals of a few millennia during the late Pleistocene. We find that rates of sedimentation exceed 10 m/kyr during some periods of ultra-fast turbidite accumulation. Rates of channel incision and tectonic subsidence can also be calculated and are comparable to the rapid accumulation rates measured in the basin fill. Our observations indicate that while sealevel changes exert a first order control on delivery of sediment to the basins, the sedimentary

  20. Retrospective analysis by data processing tools for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a challenge for matrix-rich sediment core sample from Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Shunji; Tamada, Masafumi; Masunaga, Shigeki; Kanai, Yutaka; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-18

    Data processing tools for non-target analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS) were developed and applied to a sediment core in Tokyo Bay, focusing on chlorinated compounds in this study. The processing tools were classified in two different methods: (1) the consecutive use of mass defect filter followed by artificial neutral loss scan (MDF/artificial NLS) as a qualitative non-target screening method and (2) Entire Domain Combined Spectra Extraction and Integration Program (ComSpec) and two-dimensional peak sentinel (T-SEN) as a semi-quantitative target screening method. MDF/artificial NLS as a non-target screening approach revealed that PCBs, followed by octachlorodibenzo dioxin (OCDD), were the main chlorinated compounds present in all sediment layers. Furthermore, unknown peaks thought to be chlorinated compounds were found in increasing numbers, some in increasing amounts. T-SEN and ComSpec as a target screening approach were adapted for automatic semi-quantitative analysis showed that, in decreasing concentration order, PCBs, OCDD, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDEs, DDDs) were the main chlorinated pollutants in the sediments. The complementary use of both techniques allows us to extract significant chlorinated pollutants, including non-targeted compounds. This retrospective analysis by this approach performed well even on matrix-rich sediment samples and provided us an interesting insight of historical trends of pollution in Tokyo Bay.

  1. X-ray CT Observations of Methane Hydrate Distribution Changes over Time in a Natural Sediment Core from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2010-03-01

    When maintained under hydrate-stable conditions, methane hydrate in laboratory samples is often considered a stable and immobile solid material. Currently, there do not appear to be any studies in which the long-term redistribution of hydrates in sediments has been investigated in the laboratory. These observations are important because if the location of hydrate in a sample were to change over time (e.g. by dissociating at one location and reforming at another), the properties of the sample that depend on hydrate saturation and pore space occupancy would also change. Observations of hydrate redistribution under stable conditions are also important in understanding natural hydrate deposits, as these may also change over time. The processes by which solid hydrate can move include dissociation, hydrate-former and water migration in the gas and liquid phases, and hydrate formation. Chemical potential gradients induced by temperature, pressure, and pore water or host sediment chemistry can drive these processes. A series of tests were performed on a formerly natural methane-hydrate-bearing core sample from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, in order to observe hydrate formation and morphology within this natural sediment, and changes over time using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Long-term observations (over several weeks) of methane hydrate in natural sediments were made to investigate spatial changes in hydrate saturation in the core. During the test sequence, mild buffered thermal and pressure oscillations occurred within the sample in response to laboratory temperature changes. These oscillations were small in magnitude, and conditions were maintained well within the hydrate stability zone.

  2. Pressure Core Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamarina, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates form under high fluid pressure and low temperature, and are found in permafrost, deep lakes or ocean sediments. Hydrate dissociation by depressurization and/or heating is accompanied by a multifold hydrate volume expansion and host sediments with low permeability experience massive destructuration. Proper characterization requires coring, recovery, manipulation and testing under P-T conditions within the stability field. Pressure core technology allows for the reliable characterization of hydrate bearing sediments within the stability field in order to address scientific and engineering needs, including the measurement of parameters used in hydro-thermo-mechanical analyses, and the monitoring of hydrate dissociation under controlled pressure, temperature, effective stress and chemical conditions. Inherent sampling effects remain and need to be addressed in test protocols and data interpretation. Pressure core technology has been deployed to study hydrate bearing sediments at several locations around the world. In addition to pressure core testing, a comprehensive characterization program should include sediment analysis, testing of reconstituted specimens (with and without synthetic hydrate), and in situ testing. Pressure core characterization technology can be used to study other gas-charged formations such as deep sea sediments, coal bed methane and gas shales.

  3. Hazards in determination and extrapolation of depositional rates of recent sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Isphording, W.C. . Dept. of Geology-Geography); Jackson, R.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Calculation of depositional rates for the past 250 years in estuarine sediments at sites in the Gulf of Mexico have been carried out by measuring changes that have taken place on bathymetric charts. Depositional rates during the past 50 to 100 years can similarly be estimated by this method and may be often confirmed by relatively abrupt changes at depth in the content of certain heavy metals in core samples. Analysis of bathymetric charts of Mobile Bay, Alabama, dating back to 1858, disclosed an essentially constant sedimentation rate of 3.9 mm/year. Apalachicola Bay, Florida, similarly, was found to have a rate of 5.4 mm/year. Though, in theory, these rates should provide reliable estimates of the influx of sediment into the estuaries, considerable caution must be used in attempting to extrapolate them to any depth in core samples. The passage of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico is a common event and can rapidly, and markedly, alter the bathymetry of an estuary. The passage of Hurricane Elena near Apalachicola Bay in 1985, for example, removed over 84 million tons of sediment from the bay and caused an average deepening of nearly 50 cm. The impact of Hurricane Frederick on Mobile Bay in 1979 was more dramatic. During the approximate 7 hour period when winds from this storm impacted the estuary, nearly 290 million tons of sediment was driven out of the bay and an average deepening of 46 cm was observed. With such weather events common in the Gulf Coast, it is not surprising that when radioactive age dating methods were used to obtain dates of approximately 7,500 years for organic remains in cores from Apalachicola Bay, that the depths at which the dated materials were obtained in the cores corresponded to depositional rates of only 0.4 mm/year, or one-tenth that obtained from historic bathymetric data. Because storm scour effects are a common occurrence in the Gulf, no attempt should be made to extrapolate bathymetric-derived rates to beyond the age of the charts.

  4. Acquisition, Processing, and Archiving of High-Quality Core Data, North Carolina Outer Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, R. W.; Hoffman, C. W.; Farrell, K. M.

    2002-12-01

    Rotosonic drilling technology was used to recover approximately 350 m of core (10 cm diameter) at eight different locations on the Outer Banks of North Carolina as part of a coastal geology cooperative research program. A combination of vibration and rotation of the drill pipe and casing is used to advance the hole. Water is used to wash out the casing, but is not circulated and no cuttings are brought to the surface. This leaves the site relatively undisturbed, so working in municipal areas is not a problem. Drill costs averaged about \\$140/m. Coring runs are 3.3 m (10 ft) long, with each run recovering two 1.65 m (5 ft.) long polycarbonate tubes containing the core sample. In the laboratory, tubes are cut lengthwise with a circular saw and then split by pulling piano wire through the sediment. One half-core is used for sampling; the other half is used to create a detailed visual log and digital image, and is retained as an archive sample. The drilling recovered high-quality lithologic samples in unconsolidated sediments with recovery rates of over 90 percent in most holes. This allowed for thorough, detailed description and stratigraphic analysis, and closely controlled sampling for age dating and geochemical studies. High-resolution (2048 x 1536 pixel) digital images (TIFF format) of the cores are taken in a controlled setting. Lighting, camera settings, and core positioning are carefully monitored to ensure consistency. A tape measure is included in the frame to provide depth reference information in each image. Approximately 36cm of the core is imaged at a time (9 Mb file). To construct composited core images, each 36 cm-long segment is digitally stitched together using a software program written specifically for piecing together panoramic photographs. This process yields a high-resolution (TIFF format; 36 Mb) image showing the full 1.65 m (5 ft.) core tube. The composite image is then saved in JPEG format to reduce the file size to just over 4.5 Mb without

  5. Relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic field over the last 4,500 years BP from sediment cores of Laguna Chaltel (Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Irurzun, M. A.; Sinito, A. M.; Aldana, M.; Fey, M.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2013-05-01

    One motivation to investigate the magnetism of rocks is to study the behaviour of Earth's magnetic field of the past. The magnetic field is a vector field, having both direction and intensity. A complete understanding of it requires the study of all vector properties. However, paleointensity determinations are much more difficult than directions alone. This is one reason why the majority of paleomagnetic studies is concerned only with the directional variability of the magnetic field. Four short gravity cores from Laguna Chaltel in Patagonia, Argentina (49° 57'S, 71° 06'W) have been used to estimate the regional geomagnetic paleointensity. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility (k), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), as well as back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k, SIRM/ ARM100mT). In order to identify the magnetic mineralogy of the samples, IRM curves of a group of pilot samples were decomposed applying a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) (Aldana et al., 2011). Results indicate the presence of magnetite, with logB1/2=1.8 and a relative proportion of 80%. Two other magnetic phases are observed at lower and higher logB1/2 values, probably greigite and goethite, respectively. DSA also indicates that the relative proportion of these minerals is the same in all samples analyzed. Studies also show that the magnetic grain size varies between 1 and 8 μm and that their concentration is between 0.01 and 0.08%. This range of the studied parameters indicates that our samples are suitable for paleointensity studies. The remanent magnetization at 15 mT (NRM15mT) has been normalized using the anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 15 mT (ARM15 mT), the saturation of isothermal remanent magnetization at 15 mT (SIRM15mT) and low field magnetic susceptibility (k

  6. Ground water/surface water interactions in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, using delta 18O, delta D, and 3H/3He age-dating.

    PubMed

    Ojiambo, B S; Poreda, R J; Lyons, W B

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed a series of ground water samples from the Lake Naivasha region, Kenya, for their helium isotopic composition. Lake Naivasha is unique among the East Africa Rift Valley lakes in that it is fresh. It has long been thought that the low salinity of this lake is due, in part, to rapid water loss from the lake into the local ground water system. Our results show that the Olkaria geothermal waters, south of the lake, are devoid of tritium and, thus, are more than 50 years old. An important implication of these results is that even if Olkaria geothermal reservoir water originated from Lake Naivasha, it has been underground for a long time, (> 50 years) and is not derived from present-day Lake Naivasha water. This flow time is of the same order of magnitude as conservative major solutes, such as chloride, as determined through residence time calculations. On the north side of Lake Naivasha, deep wells (91 m) have water approximately 20 years old. Water from these wells has stable isotopic values resembling those of nearby rivers, and high-elevation eastern Rift water. This indicates that this water recharges from rains from high eastern Rift Valley escarpments. Many of the shallow wells on the south side of the lake have 3H/3He ages between four and 17 years. The young ages and the delta 18 O-enriched signature of the water from these wells indicate that they are recharged by a mixture of water from the lake, Rift flanks, and water from deep pumping wells that is recharged during irrigation. Water mixing ratio calculations using delta 18O and delta D isotopes show that about 50% to 70% of the southern ground water system is derived from the lake, while the Olkaria geothermal reservoir water shows that 40% to 50% of this water is originally lake water. Calculated mean recharge rates range from 0.10 to 1.59 m/yr with a mean of 0.52 +/- 0.40 m/yr. Estimated horizontal velocity from 3H/3He age dating between Lake Naivasha and a well about 3 km to the south is

  7. Historical trace metal accumulation in the sediments of an urbanized region of the Lake Champlain watershed, Burlington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed, for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments

  8. An 80-year record of sediment quality in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1937, the US Army Corps of Engineers cut through the "neck" of a large meander on the lower Mississippi River (below the confluence with the Ohio River) forming the Caulk Neck cutoff and creating Lake Whittington, a 26-km long oxbow lake, in northern Mississippi. Since 1938, seasonal flooding and a boat channel connecting the lake with the Mississippi River have led to sediment accumulation in the lake, resulting in an 80-year record of sediment quality in the river. On the basis of an age-dated sediment core from the lake, trends in trace metals and hydrophobic organic compounds (except polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) follow well-known patterns with upward trends from the 1930s to the ca 1970s, followed by downward trends to the present. Two factors contribute to these patterns: reservoir construction and changes in emissions. The construction of seven large reservoirs on the Missouri River, in particular the closure of the Fort Randall (1953) and Gavins Point (1955) Dams, greatly reduced the load of relatively clean sediment to the Mississippi River, likely contributing to downstream increases in contaminant concentrations in the Mississippi River. Increasing anthropogenic emissions also contributed to upward trends until ca 1970 when major environmental policy actions began resulting in broad decreases in emissions and downward trends in the concentrations of most of the contaminants monitored. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phosphorus are partial exceptions to this pattern, with increases to the 1960s and variable concentrations showing no clear trend since. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Lake Worth bottom sediments : A chronicle of water-quality changes in western Fort Worth, Texas, 1914-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Harwell, Glenn R.

    2004-01-01

    In spring 2000, the Texas Department of Health issued a fish-consumption advisory for Lake Worth, Tex., because of elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish (Texas Department of Health, 2000). In response to the advisory and in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 21 surficial samples and three deeper gravity core samples from the sediment deposited at the bottom of Lake Worth. The purpose of that study was to assess the spatial distribution and historical trends of selected hydrophobic contaminants, including PCBs, and to determine, to the extent possible, sources of selected metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to Lake Worth. Hydrophobic (literally “water fearing”) contaminants tend to chemically adsorb to soils and sediments. Fifteen of the top 20 contaminants on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001) priority list of hazardous substances are hydrophobic. Chemical analysis of sediment cores is one method that can be used to determine trends in HOCs such as PCBs. As sediments accumulate in lakes and reservoirs, they generate a partial historical record of water quality. This fact sheet describes the collection of sediment cores, age-dating methods, and historical trends in PCBs in Lake Worth sediments. The fact sheet also describes the spatial distribution of PCBs in surficial sediments and concludes with objectives for the second phase of data collection and the approach that will be used to achieve these objectives. The USGS published a comprehensive report on the first phase of the study (Harwell and others, 2003). Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth in Tarrant County. In 1914, the City of Fort Worth completed the reservoir to serve as a municipal water supply. Lake Worth has a surface area of 13.2 square kilometers and a storage capacity of 47 million cubic meters. The drainage area to the

  10. A first approximation of sand distribution and provenance on the Canterbury Shelf, New Zealand - implications for across shelf vs. along shelf transport based on sediment cores recovered during IODP Expedition 317

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, C.; Marsaglia, K. M.; Browne, G.; Carson, D.; Jaeger, J. M.; Kemp, D.; Lever, H.; McHugh, C. M.; Murakoshi, N.; Richaud, M.; Tanabe, S.; Uramoto, G.; Fulthorpe, C.; Hoyanagi, K.; Blum, P.; Shipboard Scientific Party, E.

    2010-12-01

    Expedition 317 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drilled a transect of four sites across the Canterbury Margin of South Island, New Zealand all of which encountered sandy sediment. Seismic correlation suggests that from west (shallow water) to east (deeper water), Sites U1353 and 1354 sampled only shelf facies, Site U1351 sampled shelf to slope facies, and Site U1352 sampled only slope to bathyal facies. Sand was present in the cores as discrete beds as well as dispersed material in muddy lithologies. Sandy beds locally occurred within well-defined facies motifs in the Quaternary section. Recovery ranged from good to poor in the thicker sand units. The dispersed sand was likely a product of mixing through bioturbation. The arrangement of lithologies encountered at Sites U1353, U1354 and the upper part of U1351 is characteristic of a dip-fed, eustatically-influenced shelf. Large onshore river systems emanating from the Southern Alps would seem the most likely delivery mechanisms of sandy sediment to the shelf. These rivers drain mostly Torlesse Terrane rocks, sedimentary to metasedimentary lithologies of Mesozoic age that produce lithic and quartz-rich sand. However, the shelf facies contain some clastics with high mica, quartz and feldspar contents that are more characteristic of schist detritus found in rivers draining the Otago Schist to the south. Thus there has been significant along shelf transport of sandy sediment. In a simple model, the proportion of Torlesse-sourced vs. schist-sourced sand should provide an approximation of the relative influence of current/wave and fluvial processes in constructing the Canterbury shelf sequences. This has implications for calculating sediment budgets for the basin.

  11. Asteroseismology for "à la carte" stellar age-dating and weighing. Age and mass of the CoRoT exoplanet host HD 52265

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Y.; Goupil, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Context. In the context of the space missions CoRoT, Kepler, Gaia, TESS, and PLATO, precise and accurate stellar ages, masses, and radii are of paramount importance. For instance, they are crucial for constraining scenarii of planetary formation and evolution. Aims: We aim at quantifying how detailed stellar modelling can improve the accuracy and precision on age and mass of individual stars. To that end, we adopt a multifaceted approach where we carefully examine how the number of observational constraints as well as the uncertainties on observations and on model input physics affect the results of age-dating and weighing. Methods: We modelled in detail the exoplanet host-star HD 52265, a main-sequence, solar-like oscillator that CoRoT observed for four months. We considered different sets of observational constraints (Hertzsprung-Russell data, metallicity, various sets of seismic constraints). For each case, we determined the age, mass, and properties of HD 52265 inferred from stellar models, and we quantified the impact of the model input physics and free parameters. We also compared model ages with ages derived by empirical methods or Hertzsprung-Russell diagram inversion. Results: For our case study HD 52265, our seismic analysis provides an age A = 2.10-2.54 Gyr, a mass M = 1.14-1.32 M⊙, and a radius R = 1.30-1.34 R⊙, which corresponds to age, mass, and radius uncertainties of ~10, ~7, and ~1.5 per cent, respectively. These uncertainties account for observational errors and current state-of-the-art stellar model uncertainties. Our seismic study also provides constraints on surface convection properties through the mixing-length, which we find to be 12-15 per cent lower than the solar value. On the other hand, because of helium-mass degeneracy, the initial helium abundance is determined modulo the mass value. Finally, we evaluate the seismic mass of the exoplanet to be Mpsini = 1.17-1.26 MJupiter, much more precise than what can be derived by Hertzsprung

  12. Prediction of the impact of nonpoint sources on a drinking production well field using 85Kr, 39Ar and 3H/3He age dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broers, H.; Visser, A.; Heerdink, R.; Marsman, A.

    2011-12-01

    show deterioration in water quality in the future, although nitrate concentrations in these wells are kept low by denitrification. To reproduce the historical time series of concentrations in individual pumping wells it appeared crucial to calculate the time-varying travel time distributions using a regional groundwater flow model. The temporal variations in travel time distributions were caused by mutual interference between the wells during expansion of the well field and changes in pumping regimes over the past 40 years. This showed that the 85Kr, 3H/3He and 39Ar age dating of the abstraction wells provided only a snapshot of these dynamic travel time distributions. This snapshot was used to calibrate the travel time distributions of a regional groundwater flow model at the time of age tracer sampling. We conclude that combining 3H/3He dating of the monitoring wells with dynamic travel time distributions from a calibrated groundwater flow model provides a robust water quality prognosis and well vulnerability assessment.

  13. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of Lateglacial rock glacier systems near the eastern margin of the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers are widespread permafrost landforms in Austria. Various rock glacier inventories list more than 4500 rock glaciers in the country; some 30-40% of them are intact. Relict (permafrost free) and pseudo-relict rock glaciers (sporadic and isolated permafrost particularly near the root zone) prevail in number. Rock glaciers are commonly formed over a period of several ka. Dating such landforms helps to understand palaeoclimatic conditions. In this study three rock glaciers consisting of gneiss were dated applying the Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) method. The rock glaciers are located at three neighbouring cirques in the Seckauer Tauern Range named Reichart Rock Glacier (RRG, area 1.26 km², length 1800 m, elevation range 1520-1940 m a.s.l.), Schöneben Rock Glacier (SRG, 0.11 km², 750 m, 1715-1905 m a.s.l.), and Dürrtal Rock Glacier (DRG, 0.08 km², 850 m, 1750-1980 m a.s.l.). RRG is one of the largest rock glaciers in Austria. All three landforms are influenced by lenses of permafrost at present (as indicated by ERT). During the LGM the Seckauer Tauern were covered by valley glaciers and deglaciation occurred presumably already early in the Alpine Lateglacial period. An analogue N-type Schmidt-hammer (proceq) was used for measuring the surface strength of stable blocks at the rock glacier surface by recording a rebound value (R-value) of a spring-loaded bolt. The R-value gives a relative measure of the surface hardness and hence time since exposure to weathering. Eight (RRG) or six (SRG, DRG) Schmidt-hammer measurement sites (with 50-100 individual readings) aligned along longitudinal transects (=former central flow line) between a talus slope (with relatively fresh boulders) in the root zone and the frontal ridge were measured. Mean R-value differences of 30.5 at RRG, 25.1 at SRG, and 20.7 at DRG were revealed along the three transects. The differences between the lowest and the highest R-value at the rock glaciers itself were 19.0 at RRG, 15

  14. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  15. Geology, mineralogy, and chemistry of sediment-hosted clastic massive sulfides in shallow cores, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W.D.; Franklin, J.M. )

    1993-12-01

    Middle Valley is a sediment-covered rift near the northern end of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hydrothermal fluids are presently being discharged at two vent fields about 3 km apart, Bent Hill and the area of active venting. The hydrothermally active chimneys at both Bent Hill and the area of active venting consist of anhydrite and Mg-rich silicates with minor pyrite, Cu-Fe sulfide, sphalerite, and galena. Hydrothermal discharge in these areas appears to be focused along extensional faults. At the Bent Hill massive sulfide deposit, clastic sulfide layers are interbedded with hydrothermally altered and unaltered hemipelagic and turbiditic sediment along the flanks of the sulfide mound. Sulfide textures and mineralogy suggest that the Bent Hill sulfide mound formed by the build-up and collapse of sulfide chimneys, the resedimentation of sulfide debris and the formation of clastic sulfide layers, and the infilling and replacement of clastic sulfides by hydrothermal fluids near vents. Sulfur isotope values that are consistently more positive than basaltic sulfur support the addition of seawater sulfur. Pb isotope values for the Bent Hill deposit that are transitional between midocean ridge basalt (MORB) and Middle Valley sediments indicate that the sulfides probably formed from fluids which originated in the oceanic crust but which have been modified by reaction with lower temperature (<274 C) fluids generated in the sedimentary pile, similar to those now venting in Middle Valley.

  16. Distribution of Holocene Sediment in Chesapeake Bay as Interpreted from Submarine Geomorphology of the Submerged Landforms, Selected Core Holes, Bridge Borings and Seismic Profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, Wayne L.; Clark, Inga; Bricker, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- We have interpreted the geomorphology of the submerged landforms to show thick Holocene sediment that accumulated from three different sources during on-going sea level rise that began 10,000 - 12,000 years ago at the end of Pleistocene. We used a variety of subsurface data from the literature and unpublished information to document thicknesses, materials, dates and duration of processes. Although the details of the true extent and thicknesses are unknown, the deposits of different sources have affinity for particular geographic and submerged geomorphic regions of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries. During the last Pleistocene glacial event (Wisconsian), the area now occupied by the Chesapeake Bay was exposed, sea level being about 100 m lower than present. The Susquehanna River valley extended beyond the Bay well out on the exposed Atlantic Shelf. The Susquehanna transported glacial outwash from northern Pennsylvania and New York; the glacio-fluvial deposits were graded to the edge of the continental shelf (Colman et al., 1990; Hack, 1957). Other Piedmont and Appalachian Rivers including the Potomac and James Rivers transported large volumes of sediment to confluence with the Susquehanna channel. Locally, across the encompasing coastal plain landscape, intensive headward erosion, gullies, and slope failure, generated extensive debris flows, sheet wash, and terraces of braided alluvial channel deposits. Large volumes of sediment were moved through the river system to the continental shelf. This was accomplished by a cold, wet climate that included much freezing and thawing; steep eroding slopes resulted from the lowering of sea level from the previous high stand (Stage 5e) between glacial events. Across the Delmarva peninsula extensive wind-blown deposits of sand and loess were recycled onto low terraces and uplands from the unvegetated glacio-fluvial sediments moving through the system (Denny et al., 1979). The volume and distribution of

  17. Sediment-deposition rates and orga