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  1. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  2. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  3. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  4. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  5. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  6. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  7. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  8. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  9. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  10. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  11. Phonological whole-word measures in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English). Phonological whole-word measures (pMLU and Proximity) and consonant accuracy (PCC) were calculated on elicited single words. Differences were found on each measure between bilinguals and monolinguals in English, but in Spanish, only the PCC displayed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Bilinguals displayed language separation on the pMLU and the PCC but not the Proximity, indicating structural phonological differences between the Spanish and English of bilinguals but commensurate target approximations. This suggests that maintaining a consistent level of phonological proximity to the target is an important factor in phonological acquisition. The measures and their relationships are also discussed.

  12. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  13. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  14. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  15. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  16. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  17. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  18. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  19. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  20. Use of Acoustic Cues by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Escudero, Paola; Baker, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the use of different acoustic cues in auditory perception of consonant and vowel contrasts by profoundly deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to age-matched children and young adults with normal hearing. Method: A speech sound categorization task in an XAB format was administered to 15 children ages…

  1. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  2. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  3. Fundamental Movement Skills and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer Comparisons and Stimulant Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…

  4. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  5. Planum Temporale Volume in Children and Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Donald C.; Camou, Suzanne L.; Reite, Martin L.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a lack of planum temporale (PT) asymmetry in adults with autism. This finding is now extended to children and adolescents with the disorder. MRI scans were obtained from 12 children with autism and 12 gender, handedness and age-matched comparison participants. The volume of gray matter in the PT and Heschl's gyrus…

  6. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  7. Do Young Children Understand Relative Value Comparisons?

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children’s choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children’s pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously. PMID:25875949

  8. Predicting the Quality of Composition and Written Language Bursts from Oral Language, Spelling, and Handwriting Skills in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Walter, Kirsty; Critten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Writers typically produce their writing in bursts. In this article, the authors examine written language bursts in a sample of 33 children aged 11 years with specific language impairment. Comparisons of the children with specific language impairment with an age-matched group of typically developing children (n = 33) and a group of younger,…

  9. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  10. Mind and Body: Concepts of Human Cognition, Physiology and False Belief in Children with Autism or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4), 579-600],…

  11. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  12. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  13. A comparison of phonological processing skills of children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss and children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    Using the comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed phonological deficits that were restricted to phonological awareness tasks (elision/blending) and a phonological memory task (nonword repetition), yet exhibited unimpaired rapid naming ability. Children with dyslexia showed deficits in all 3 phonological constructs. Finally, both degree of hearing loss and age at which hearing loss was identified in the MSNH group were related to the children's phonological processing skills. Because of their deteriorated phonological skills, children with MSNH may be at risk of starting school with weaknesses in early literacy skills. Implications for practice aimed at improving phonological and literacy skills of these children are described. PMID:22978204

  14. A Comparison of Mexican Children's Music Compositions and Contextual Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make observations and comparisons between original music composed by Mexican children, and traditional Mexican songs. Data were obtained through notated music compositions created by the children, and through videotaped interviews during which the children performed their compositions, talked about both their…

  15. Eye-Hand Coordination in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Using a Gap-Overlap Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to…

  16. Failure Is Not an Option: Risk-Taking Is Moderated by Anxiety and Also by Cognitive Ability in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Dana, Julianne; White, Sarah E.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding hetereogeneity in symptom expression across the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a major challenge for identifying causes and effective treatments. In 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 37 IQ--and age-matched comparison participants (the TYP group), we found no differences in summary measures on an experimental…

  17. Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Hazrati, Hakimeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications. Methods This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18. Results Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.07±2.02 years, America 3.17±1.83 years, Asia 3.34±1.58 years, Europe 3.58±2.09 years and Oceania 3.52±2.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years. Conclusion The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed. PMID:26770225

  18. Fundamental movement skills and children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: peer comparisons and stimulant effects.

    PubMed

    Harvey, William J; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses revealed significant skill differences between children with and without ADHD (p children with ADHD. It is concluded that children with ADHD may be at risk for developmental delays in movement skill performance. Potential factors underlying the movement skill difficulties are discussed, with suggestions for future research.

  19. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  20. The Differing Roles of Comparison and Contrast in Children's Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namy, Laura L.; Clepper, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of perceptually similar exemplars from an object category encourages children to overlook compelling perceptual similarities and use relational and functional properties more relevant for taxonomic categorization. This article investigates whether showing children a contrasting object that is perceptually similar but out of kind serves…

  1. The differing roles of comparison and contrast in children's categorization.

    PubMed

    Namy, Laura L; Clepper, Lauren E

    2010-11-01

    Comparison of perceptually similar exemplars from an object category encourages children to overlook compelling perceptual similarities and use relational and functional properties more relevant for taxonomic categorization. This article investigates whether showing children a contrasting object that is perceptually similar but out of kind serves the same function as comparison in heightening children's attention to taxonomically relevant features. In this study, 4-year-olds completed a forced-choice categorization task in which they viewed exemplars from a target category and then selected among (a) a perceptually similar out-of-kind object, (b) a category member that differed perceptually from the exemplars, and (c) a thematically related object. Children were assigned to one of four conditions: No-Compare/No-Contrast, Compare/No-Contrast, No-Compare/Contrast, or Compare/Contrast. As in previous work, comparison increased the frequency of category responses, but there was no effect of contrast on categorization. However, only those in the Compare/Contrast condition displayed consistently taxonomic patterns of responding. Follow-up studies revealed that the effect of comparison plus contrast was evident only when comparison preceded, rather than followed, contrast information and that the value added by providing contrastive information is not attributable to the perceptual similarity between the category exemplars and the contrast object. Comparison and contrast make differing contributions to children's categorization. PMID:20609449

  2. Investigating Children's Abilities to Count and Make Quantitative Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate children's abilities to count and make quantitative comparisons. In addition, this study utilized reasoning questions (i.e., how did you know?). Thirty-four preschoolers, mean age 4.5 years old, participated in the study. According to the results, 89% of the children (n = 30) were able to do rote counting and…

  3. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  4. [Kinematics of Stair Ascent in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    PubMed

    Malyar, N L; Maximova, E V; Talis, V L

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed kinematics of stair ascent and descent in autistic children and adolescents in comparison with age-matched healthy children and adolescents. Eight healthy adolescents, 6 autistic adolescents, 7 healthy children and 6 autistic children participated in the study. We found that autistic subjects of both groups showed significantly more fluctuations of hip joint angular velocity than age-matched control subjects while preparing for stair ascent. During preparation for stair descent these velocity fluctuations appeared mainly in autistic adolescents, moreover, autistic children exhibited less velocity fluctuations than children in control group while preparing for stair descent. The kinematics of the movement itself demonstrated significantly less hip abduction in both autistic children and adolescents than in age-matched controls during stair ascent, and less ankle joint plantar extension in autistic adolescents than in healthy adolescents during stair descent. We suppose that age-related changes in kinematics of leg motion during stair ascent and descent in autistic patients indicate aggravated motor coordination in autistic adolescents as compared with both healthy adolescents and autistic children. PMID:27263276

  5. Specific grasp characteristics of children with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Jover, Marianne; Ayoun, Catherine; Berton, Catherine; Carlier, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    Children with trisomy 21 display atypical manual skills that change to some extent during development. We examined grasp characteristics and their development in 35 children with trisomy 21, aged 4-18 years, who performed simple manual tasks (two manual tasks of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and grasping of five wooden blocks whose size was determined by their hand size). The age-matched comparison group included 35 typically developing children. Children with trisomy 21 were found to use fewer fingers than children in the comparison group in each task. They also used specific grasps and tended to extend fingers that were not involved in the grip. While some specific grasp characteristics of children with trisomy 21 decreased with age, other did not, and remained present throughout development. The perceptual-motor development of children with trisomy 21 should be analyzed in terms of atypical development rather than developmental delay. PMID:20564329

  6. Anti-equality: Social comparison in young children

    PubMed Central

    Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Wynn, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Young children dislike getting less than others, which might suggest a general preference for equal outcomes. However, young children are typically not averse to others receiving less than themselves. These results are consistent with two alternatives: young children might not have any preferences about others receiving less than themselves, or they might have preferences for others receiving less than themselves. We test these alternatives with 5- to 10-year-old children. We replicate previous findings that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also find that 5- and 6-year-olds will spitefully take a cost to ensure that another’s welfare falls below their own. This result suggests that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for others to get less relative to oneself. PMID:24291266

  7. Children's Self-Concept: A Multicultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Self-concept is critical in the social and emotional development of children, although little research has examined its relationship to ethnicity. The self-concept of 214 fourth- and fifth-grade students (White, Black/Haitian American, and Hispanic) revealed differences among groups on the Behavior and Total Self-Concept subscales of the…

  8. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth.

    PubMed

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5-17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  9. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  10. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  11. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  12. Mathematical problems in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Stefanie; Desoete, Annemie; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; Roeyers, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a heterogeneous disorder, which is often co-morbid with learning disabilities. However, mathematical problems have rarely been studied in DCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the mathematical problems in children with various degrees of motor problems. Specifically, this study explored if the development of mathematical skills in children with DCD is delayed or deficient. Children with DCD performed significantly worse for number fact retrieval and procedural calculation in comparison with age-matched control children. Moreover, children with mild DCD differed significantly from children with severe DCD on both number fact retrieval and procedural calculation. In addition, we found a developmental delay of 1 year for number fact retrieval in children with mild DCD and a developmental delay of 2 years in children with severe DCD. No evidence for a mathematical deficit was found. Diagnostic implications are discussed. PMID:22502838

  13. Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.

  14. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  15. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  16. Longitudinal growth in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Comparison between unirradiated and irradiated patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marky, I.; Samuelsson, B.O.; Mellander, L.; Karlberg, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Longitudinal growth was studied in children treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the study was to compare these children's growth velocity with findings in a previous study we performed on age-matched children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received cranial irradiation. Nine children with NHL with an onset time of treatment between 4 and 9 years of age (mean 6.5 years) were studied with annual body measurements taken from the time of the diagnosis and thereafter annually during the following 4 years. None of the children received cranial irradiation. During the first treatment year a significantly low mean height velocity was observed (-1.4 standard deviation score (SDS)) for the NHL group. The consecutive two 1 year periods showed a normalization of the mean height velocity. For the group of children with ALL, there was a more prominent negative effect on height during the first 2 years of treatment than for the NHL group in the present study. After the cessation of therapy, the children with NHL showed a reduced catch-up growth compared with the children with ALL. The explanation offered is that cranial irradiation has a heavier impact on growth than chemotherapy during the first 2 years of treatment, but an intense chemotherapy during the maintenance period could have a considerable impact in blunting growth.

  17. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  18. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  19. Parents' and Children's Perceptions of Privacy Rights In China: A Cohort Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Shengming; Dong, Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a Chinese sample to explore children's privacy rights within the family. For the purpose of comparison, parental views of children's privacy rights and children's own perceptions are examined. Privacy rights are defined to include three spheres--spatial, physical, and mental. Results show that age differences in perceptions of…

  20. Comparison of urinary oxidative biomarkers in Iranian children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Akram; Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder usually presents in early childhood and thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. It is common for children with autism to exhibit eating disorders and some have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. Furthermore, a wide spectrum of medical and behavioral symptoms exhibited by children with autism makes routine dental care very difficult. Intellectual disability is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders, including autism, are associated with increased oxidative stress. 29 subjects diagnosed with autism, in the age group of 6 to 12 years, were a part of the study. Furturemore, 24 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as the control group. The present study aimed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers such as urinary total antioxidant concentration (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and total thiol molecules (TTM). The results showed the autism group have significantly higher CAT activity and concomitant lower TAC and TTM concentration in comparison with control group. The results are discussed in relation to an increased vulnerability to oxidative damage, which may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of symptoms of autism.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF LEARNING EFFICIENCY IN ARITHMETIC OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN COMPARISON WITH CHILDREN OF AVERAGE AND HIGH INTELLIGENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUSMEIER, HERBERT J.; AND OTHERS

    A COMPARISON OF THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY IN ARITHMETIC OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AND CHILDREN OF AVERAGE AND HIGH INTELLIGENCE WAS MADE. THIS STUDY TESTED FIVE HYPOTHESES--(1) UNEVEN PHYSICAL GROWTH ACCOMPANIES LOW EFFICIENCY IN LEARNING ARITHMETIC, (2) SLOW PHYSICAL GROWTH ACCOMPANIES LOW EFFICIENCY IN LEARNING ARITHMETIC, (3) THE LEVEL OF…

  2. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  3. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  4. Children's Attitudes Toward the Elderly: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Compares attitudes of children toward the elderly in a cross-cultural study of children from the mainland United States (N=60), the Aleutian Islands (N=29), Australia (N=39), and Paraguay (N=69). Scores on Children's Attitudes Toward the Elderly (CATE) indicated children in Alaska, Paraguay, and Australia rated older people less positively. (JAC)

  5. The influence of oculomotor tasks on postural control in dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Mélithe, Damien; Ajrezo, Layla; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gérard, Christophe-Loic

    2014-01-01

    Dual task is known to affect postural stability in children. We explored the effect of visual tasks on postural control in thirty dyslexic children. A selected group of thirty chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children (mean age: 9.92 ± 0.35 years) and a group of thirty reading age-matched non-dyslexic children (mean reading age: 7.90 ± 0.25 years) were chosen for comparison. All children underwent ophthalmologic and optometric evaluation. Eye movements were recorded by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2) and postural sway was recorded simultaneously by a force platform (TechnoConept®). All children performed fixations, pursuits, pro- and anti-saccades tasks. Dyslexic children showed significantly poor near fusional vergence ranges (convergence and divergence) with respect to the non-dyslexic children groups. During the postural task, quality of fixation and anti-saccade performance in dyslexic children were significantly worse compared to the two non-dyslexic children groups. In contrast, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits and the latency of pro- and anti-saccades were similar in the three groups of children examined. Concerning postural quality, dyslexic children were more unstable than chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children group. For all three groups of children tested we also observed that executing saccades (pro- and anti-saccades) reduced postural values significantly in comparison with fixation and pursuit tasks. The impairment in convergence and divergence fusional capabilities could be due to an immaturity in cortical structures controlling the vergence system. The poor oculomotor performance reported in dyslexic children suggested a deficit in allocating visual attention and their postural instability observed is in line with the cerebellar impairment previously reported in dyslexic children. Finally, pro- or anti-saccades reduce postural values compared to fixation and pursuit tasks in all groups of children tested

  6. The influence of oculomotor tasks on postural control in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Mélithe, Damien; Ajrezo, Layla; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gérard, Christophe-Loic

    2014-01-01

    Dual task is known to affect postural stability in children. We explored the effect of visual tasks on postural control in thirty dyslexic children. A selected group of thirty chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children (mean age: 9.92 ± 0.35 years) and a group of thirty reading age-matched non-dyslexic children (mean reading age: 7.90 ± 0.25 years) were chosen for comparison. All children underwent ophthalmologic and optometric evaluation. Eye movements were recorded by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2) and postural sway was recorded simultaneously by a force platform (TechnoConept®). All children performed fixations, pursuits, pro- and anti-saccades tasks. Dyslexic children showed significantly poor near fusional vergence ranges (convergence and divergence) with respect to the non-dyslexic children groups. During the postural task, quality of fixation and anti-saccade performance in dyslexic children were significantly worse compared to the two non-dyslexic children groups. In contrast, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits and the latency of pro- and anti-saccades were similar in the three groups of children examined. Concerning postural quality, dyslexic children were more unstable than chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children group. For all three groups of children tested we also observed that executing saccades (pro- and anti-saccades) reduced postural values significantly in comparison with fixation and pursuit tasks. The impairment in convergence and divergence fusional capabilities could be due to an immaturity in cortical structures controlling the vergence system. The poor oculomotor performance reported in dyslexic children suggested a deficit in allocating visual attention and their postural instability observed is in line with the cerebellar impairment previously reported in dyslexic children. Finally, pro- or anti-saccades reduce postural values compared to fixation and pursuit tasks in all groups of children tested

  7. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a 10-minute videotaped free play task with parents. Engagement states ranged from the lowest (unengaged) to the highest level (symbol-infused coordinated). Standardized language measures were administered. Results Multivariate analyses were conducted between the groups, stratified by chronological and language age. Children who were deaf (Deaf) spent less time in total symbol-infused JE than children with normal hearing (NH) across all ages. The majority of the Deaf group (83%) fell in the lowest language age group, in comparison to 35% of the NH group, and spent significantly less time in symbol-infused JE than hearing children. These delays were also observed in the Deaf group, who fell into the 18-36 month language age. No children in the Deaf group had achieved a language age of >36 months. Conclusions Young children with and without hearing had different developmental trajectories of JE, which were related to oral language skills. PMID:24845423

  8. Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum via Analogical Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre; Levine, Susan C.; Ping, Raedy; Isaia, Ashley; Dhillon, Sonica; Bradley, Claire; Honke, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering--namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results…

  9. Children's Representations of the Earth: A Methodological Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Banerjee, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of children's understanding of the earth can reveal much about the origins and development of scientific knowledge. Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children construct coherent, theory-like mental models of the earth. However, more recent research has indicated that children's knowledge of the earth is fragmented and…

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: a comparison between children and adults.

    PubMed

    Barst, R J; Ertel, S I; Beghetti, M; Ivy, D D

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), including pathology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed in children and adults. The histopathology seen in adults is also observed in children, although children have more medial hypertrophy at presentation. Both populations have vascular and endothelial dysfunction. Several unique disease states are present in children, as lung growth abnormalities contribute to pulmonary hypertension. Although both children and adults present at diagnosis with elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure, children have less heart failure. Dyspnoea on exertion is the most frequent symptom in children and adults with PAH, but heart failure with oedema occurs more frequently in adults. However, in idiopathic PAH, syncope is more common in children. Haemodynamic assessment remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the definition of vasoreactivity in adults may not apply to young children. Targeted PAH therapies approved for adults are associated with clinically meaningful effects in paediatric observational studies; children now survive as long as adults with current treatment guidelines. In conclusion, there are more similarities than differences in the characteristics of PAH in children and adults, resulting in guidelines recommending similar diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms in children (based on expert opinion) and adults (evidence-based).

  11. Developmental Comparison of Children's Word and Nonword Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael P.; And Others

    Word and nonword vocalizations produced by two groups of children aged 8-28 months were studied. The first group included six children whose speech was recorded monthly for 12 months. The second group contained 21 children. In both, only spontaneous vocalizations were recorded. Each sample was examined for frequency of word and nonword forms. A…

  12. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  13. Intellectual Estimates of Hearing-Impaired Children: A Comparison of Three Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, David R.

    1976-01-01

    The Arthur Adaptation of the Leiter International Performance Scale, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Performance Section were administered to 31 children with mild to moderate hearing impairments. A comparison of test results indicated moderate convergent validity among the measures. (Author)

  14. Bilingual Children with Language Impairment: A Comparison with Monolinguals and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Wagner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) to examine whether English finite morphology has the potential to differentiate children with and without language impairment (LI) from Spanish-speaking backgrounds and different levels of English proficiency in comparison to Hispanic English speakers and (b) to investigate the extent to which children who…

  15. A Comparison of Parenting Dimensions Between Deaf and Hearing Children.

    PubMed

    Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakci, Ayse Ferda

    2016-06-01

    Effective parenting is vital for intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of a child. This study examined the differences between the parenting dimensions of deaf children and healthy ones. The sample of the study consisted of 292 children and their parents (146 of them deaf children and 146 of them healthy ones). Dimensions of parenting (warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy, and coercion) were measured using the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire. The mean scores of the positive parenting dimensions of warmth and autonomy of deaf children were significantly lower; however, the mean scores of the negative dimensions of chaos and coercion of deaf children were significantly higher than those of healthy ones. Deaf children can become successful adults with the help of their parents. Our results regarding parenting dimensions will be a guide for future nursing interventions planned to develop the relationships between deaf children and their parents. PMID:26620870

  16. A Comparison of Parenting Dimensions Between Deaf and Hearing Children.

    PubMed

    Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakci, Ayse Ferda

    2016-06-01

    Effective parenting is vital for intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of a child. This study examined the differences between the parenting dimensions of deaf children and healthy ones. The sample of the study consisted of 292 children and their parents (146 of them deaf children and 146 of them healthy ones). Dimensions of parenting (warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy, and coercion) were measured using the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire. The mean scores of the positive parenting dimensions of warmth and autonomy of deaf children were significantly lower; however, the mean scores of the negative dimensions of chaos and coercion of deaf children were significantly higher than those of healthy ones. Deaf children can become successful adults with the help of their parents. Our results regarding parenting dimensions will be a guide for future nursing interventions planned to develop the relationships between deaf children and their parents.

  17. Social Comparison Processes and Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between social comparison processes and depressive symptoms in 36 participants (34 males and two females) aged 10 to 16 years with Asperger syndrome. Participants completed the Social Comparison Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with the…

  18. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  19. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  20. Validating the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in Dutch Children: Psychometric Properties and a Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factor Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; De Vries, Nanne N. K.; Thijs, Carel

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examined the factorial validity of the Dutch translation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Very Short Form scores. In addition, we conducted cross-cultural comparisons of temperament structure. In total, 353 parents of 6- to 8-year-olds completed the instrument. The original higher order factor structure of…

  1. Comparison of Physical Activity between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandini, Linda G.; Gleason, James; Curtin, Carol; Lividini, Keith; Anderson, Sarah E.; Cermak, Sharon A.; Maslin, Melissa; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for promoting health and well-being; however, physical activity behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have received little attention. We compared physical activity levels among 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3-11 years who participated in the Children's…

  2. Comparison of Two Children's Measures of Type A Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Hanson, Matthew R.

    Two measures of Type A behavior in children were compared. The first, the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH, 1980), is an instrument based on the factors of competitiveness-leadership and impatience-aggression. The second is the A-B Rating Scale (ABRS, 1982), a self-assessment measure for children that is based on the factors of…

  3. Comparison of psychopathology in the mothers of autistic and mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Firat, Sunay; Diler, Rasim Somer; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and general psychological symptoms in the mothers of autistic children in comparison with those in the mothers of mentally retarded children. Forty mothers of autistic children and 38 mothers of mentally retarded children were included in the study. After a clinical interview, psychometric tests were performed for depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and Symptom Distress Check List (SCL-90) for general psychological symptoms. Non-depression rates was 27.5% in the mothers of autistic children whereas the rate was 55.3% in the mothers of mentally retarded children. There was no difference regarding anxiety and alexithymia between the two groups. The psychopathology in the mothers of autistic children was more frequent than in those of mentally retarded children in all sub-scales of SCL-90 (somatization obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thought, psychotism, and extra scale). The mothers of autistic children experienced more psychological distress than those of mentally retarded children. Our findings indicates that the assessment of autistic and mentally retarded children should include psychological assessment of their mothers.

  4. Event-related brain potentials - Comparison between children and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation shows that nontarget stimuli which are infrequently presented and deviate from the background elicit Nc and Pc waves in children. The same stimuli elicit P3 waves in adults. The scalp distribution of P3 waves in adults appears to vary with the ease of stimulus recognition or the degree of stimulus novelty. However, the Nc and Pc distributions in children do not seem to vary with these factors. The differences between children and adults in event-related potentials suggest corresponding differences in the mode of processing employed by each when rare, deviant stimuli are encountered

  5. Does language about similarity play a role in fostering similarity comparison in children?

    PubMed Central

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Gentner, Dedre; Mylander, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Commenting on perceptual similarities between objects stands out as an important linguistic achievement, one that may pave the way towards noticing and commenting on more abstract relational commonalities between objects. To explore whether having a conventional linguistic system is necessary for children to comment on different types of similarity comparisons, we observed four children who had not been exposed to usable linguistic input—deaf children whose hearing losses prevented them from learning spoken language and whose hearing parents had not exposed them to sign language. These children developed gesture systems that have language-like structure at many different levels. Here we ask whether the deaf children used their gestures to comment on similarity relations and, if so, which types of relations they expressed. We found that all four deaf children were able to use their gestures to express similarity comparisons (POINT TO CAT+POINT TO TIGER) resembling those conveyed by 40 hearing children in early gesture+speech combinations (cat+POINT TO TIGER). However, the two groups diverged at later ages. Hearing children, after acquiring the word like, shifted from primarily expressing global similarity (as in cat/tiger) to primarily expressing single-property similarity (as in crayon is brown like my hair). In contrast, the deaf children, lacking an explicit term for similarity, continued to primarily express global similarity. The findings underscore the robustness of similarity comparisons in human communication, but also highlight the importance of conventional terms for comparison as likely contributors to routinely expressing more focused similarity relations. PMID:19524220

  6. Longitudinal Comparison of Early Speech and Language Milestones in Children with Cleft Palate: A Comparison of US and Slovak Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Nancy J.; Oravkinova, Zuzana; McBee, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare early speech and language development of children with and without cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) in the US and Slovakia from 6 to 24 months of age. Thirty-two children from the US (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) and Slovakia (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) participated in this study. The children…

  7. A cross-cultural comparison of children's imitative flexibility.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Jennifer M; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-09-01

    Recent research with Western populations has demonstrated that children use imitation flexibly to engage in both instrumental and conventional learning. Evidence for children's imitative flexibility in non-Western populations is limited, however, and has only assessed imitation of instrumental tasks. This study (N = 142, 6- to 8-year-olds) demonstrates both cultural continuity and cultural variation in imitative flexibility. Children engage in higher imitative fidelity for conventional tasks than for instrumental tasks in both an industrialized, Western culture (United States), and a subsistence-based, non-Western culture (Vanuatu). Children in Vanuatu engage in higher imitative fidelity of instrumental tasks than in the United States, a potential consequence of cultural variation in child socialization for conformity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570982

  8. Mealtime Behaviors of Preschool Children: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Beth; Crowe, Terry K.; Osbourn, Patricia L.; McClain, Catherine; Skipper, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified mealtime behaviors of young children (3-6 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these behaviors to children with typical development matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. The parents of children with ASD (n = 24) and children with typical development (n = 24) completed a mealtime survey to assess early…

  9. Taxonomic Knowledge of Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Dinsmoor, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the taxonomic vocabulary knowledge and organization of children with cochlear implants to (a) children with normal hearing matched for age, and (b) children matched for vocabulary development. Method: Ten children with cochlear implants, 10 age-matched children with normal hearing, and 10…

  10. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison with Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically referred children aged 7-18 years. DSM-IV…

  11. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  12. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  13. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  14. Comparison of physical activity between children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Bandini, Linda G; Gleason, James; Curtin, Carol; Lividini, Keith; Anderson, Sarah E; Cermak, Sharon A; Maslin, Melissa; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for promoting health and well-being; however, physical activity behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have received little attention. We compared physical activity levels among 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children ages 3–11 years who participated in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (CHAMPS). After adjustment for age and sex the amount of time spent daily in moderate and vigorous activity (MVPA) was similar in children with ASD (50.0 minutes/day, and typically developing children 57.1 minutes/day). However, parents reported that children with ASD participated in significantly fewer types of physical activities than did typically developing children (6.9vs.9.6, p < .001) and spent less time annually participating in these activities compared to typically developing children (158 vs. 225 hr/yr, p < 0.0001) after adjusting for age and sex. Although both groups of children engaged in similar levels of moderate and vigorous activity (MVPA) as measured by accelerometry, children with ASD engaged in fewer physical activities and for less time according to parental report, suggesting that some of the activity in children with ASD is not captured by standard questionnaire-based measures. PMID:22807562

  15. A comparison of general and descriptive praise in teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Polick, Amy S; Carr, James E; Hanney, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive praise has been recommended widely as an important teaching tactic for children with autism, despite the absence of published supporting evidence. We compared the effects of descriptive and general praise on the acquisition and maintenance of intraverbal skills with 2 children with autism. The results showed slight advantages of descriptive praise in teaching efficiency in the majority of comparisons; however, these effects dissipated over time.

  16. Comparison between the development of Malaysian and Denver children.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1989-01-01

    126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.

  17. An alternating treatment comparison of oral and total communications training programs with echolalic autistic children.

    PubMed

    Barrera, R D; Sulzer-Azaroff, B

    1983-01-01

    An alternating treatment comparison was conducted of the relative effectiveness of oral and total communication training models for teaching expressive labeling skills to three echolalic autistic children. The results of this comparison demonstrated that total communication proved to be the most successful approach with each of the subjects. In addition, the replication of these findings both within and across subjects suggest that total communication may be, in general, the most effective of these two training models for teaching basic vocal language skills to echolalic children. A number of hypotheses are presented that may provide a basis for the demonstrated effect.

  18. Longitudinal comparison of early speech and language milestones in children with cleft palate: a comparison of US and Slovak children.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Nancy J; Oravkinova, Zuzana; McBee, Matthew T

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare early speech and language development of children with and without cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) in the US and Slovakia from 6 to 24 months of age. Thirty-two children from the US (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) and Slovakia (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) participated in this study. The children were videotaped at four time points for 30 minutes during mother-child interaction with play sets controlled for early-developing sounds in each language. Mean Babbling Level, consonant inventories, number of different words and mean length of utterance were calculated for 6- to 24-month samples. Results indicated that the US and Slovak groups showed similar performance across the ages. Cleft and noncleft groups showed significant differences in acquisition of all of the speech and language measures. High-pressure consonants, particularly alveolar place of articulation, were problematic for children with CLP.

  19. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Children with Strabismus and in Children with Vergence Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lions, Cynthia; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of our study was to examine horizontal smooth pursuit performance in strabismic children and in children with vergence deficits, and to compare these data with those recorded in a group of control age-matched children. Methods Binocular eye movements were recorded by video-oculography in ten strabismic children (mean age: 9.8±0.8) and seven children with vergence deficits (mean age: 10.8±0.6). Data were compared to that of age-matched control children (mean age: 9.8±0.8 years). Results Catch-up saccades amplitude in strabismic children and in children with vergence deficits were significantly higher than in control age-matched children. Moreover, in strabismic children the amplitude of catch-up saccades was significantly higher in rightward than in leftward direction. The number of catch-up saccades was also significantly higher in rightward than in leftward direction. The gain value of pursuits in rightward direction was significantly higher in the right eye than in the left one; for the right eye, the gain value was significantly higher in rightward than in leftward direction. Binocular coordination of pursuit was better in control age-matched children than in children with vergence deficits and than in strabismic children. Conclusions Binocular coordination of pursuit is abnormal in children with vergence deficits and worse in strabismic children. Binocular vision plays an important role in improving binocular coordination of pursuit. PMID:24376777

  20. Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic (Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (dot constellations and hands) magnitude comparison tasks, whether deaf children show deficits in representations or in accessing numerical representations. The study participants were 10 prelocutive deaf children and 10 normally hearing children. Numerical distance and magnitude were manipulated. Response time (RT) analysis showed similar magnitude and distance effects in both groups on the 3 tasks. However, slower RTs were observed among the deaf participants on the symbolic task alone. These results suggest that although both groups' quantity representations were similar, the deaf group experienced a delay in accessing representations from symbolic codes.

  1. Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…

  2. University Access for Disadvantaged Children: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether certain countries are particularly adept (or particularly poor) at getting children from disadvantaged homes to study for a bachelor's degree. A series of university access models are estimated for four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the USA), which include controls for comparable…

  3. Exploring tool innovation: a comparison of Western and Bushman children.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mark; Tomaselli, Keyan; Mushin, Ilana; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    A capacity for constructing new tools, or using old tools in new ways, to solve novel problems is a core feature of what it means to be human. Yet current evidence suggests that young children are surprisingly poor at innovating tools. However, all studies of tool innovation to date have been conducted with children from comparatively privileged Western backgrounds. This raises questions as to whether or not previously documented tool innovation failure is culturally and economically specific. In the current study, thus, we explored the innovation capacities of children from Westernized urban backgrounds and from remote communities of South African Bushmen. Consistent with past research, we found tool innovation to occur at extremely low rates and that cultural background had no bearing on this. The current study is the first to empirically test tool innovation in children from non-Western backgrounds, with our data being consistent with the view that despite its key role in human evolution, a capacity for innovation in tool making remains remarkably undeveloped during early childhood.

  4. A comparison of differential reinforcement procedures with children with autism.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Brittany A; Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany M; Argott, Paul J; Kisamore, April N

    2015-12-01

    The current evaluation compared the effects of 2 differential reinforcement arrangements and a nondifferential reinforcement arrangement on the acquisition of tacts for 3 children with autism. Participants learned in all reinforcement-based conditions, and we discuss areas for future research in light of these findings and potential limitations.

  5. Comparison of Assessment Results of Children with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dennis J.; Reilly, AmySue; Henley, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a research study that assessed young children with a low incidence disability, specifically Cri-du-Chat Syndrome (CDSC). A description of the concerns of assessing individuals with low incidence disabilities is described. Parent reports (using the Development Observation Checklist System) on the functioning of their children…

  6. A Comparison of Intraverbal Training Procedures for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fuchtman, Rashea; Paden, Amber

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of three training procedures, echoic and tact prompting plus error correction and a cues-pause-point (CPP) procedure, for increasing intraverbals in 2 children with autism. We also measured echoic behavior that may have interfered with appropriate question answering. Results indicated that echoic prompting with error…

  7. Monitoring acetylcholinesterase levels in migrant agricultural workers and their children using a portable test kit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G M; Muñiz, J F; McCauley, L A

    2001-02-01

    The EQM Research, Inc., portable test kit was evaluated as a surveillance tool for blood cholinesterase levels among migrant workers and their children. Laboratory validation demonstrated a linear relationship between the reference Ellman and kit methods (Ellman = 0.95 x kit result + 0.82, r2 = 0.98). Pre- and post-season cholinesterase levels measured in 70 farm workers were within normal ranges, but significantly different at 28.5 and 29.7 U/g Hb, respectively (paired t-test, p = 0.014). Results from 98 migrant farm worker children and a comparison group of 53 age-matched non-agricultural children showed that cholinesterase levels were not significantly different between the agricultural and non-agricultural children (ANOVA, p = 0.69). These data demonstrate that a portable test kit can provide useful data pesticide exposures when measurements are made in a temperature-controlled setting. PMID:11398901

  8. Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Overseas Refugee Children with Low Income Children in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Matheson, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed anthropometric measurements of 1047 refugee children ages 0–10 years old to assess their nutritional status at the overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in WA from July 2012—June 2014. The prevalence estimates of the nutritional status categories were compared by country of origin. In addition, the nutritional status of refugee children age 0–5 years old were compared to that of low-income children in WA from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Results A total of 982 children were eligible for the study, with the majority (65%) from Somalia, Iraq and Burma. Overall, nearly one-half of all refugee children had at least one form of malnutrition (44.9%). Refugee children ages 0–10 years were affected by wasting (17.3%), stunting (20.1%), overweight (7.6%) and obesity (5.9%). Among children 0–5 years old, refugee children had a significantly higher prevalence of wasting (14.3% versus 1.9%, p<0.001) and stunting (21.3% versus 5.5%, p<0.001), and a lower prevalence of obesity (6.2% versus 12.9%, p<0.001) than low-income children in WA. Conclusion The dual burden of under- and over-nutrition among incoming refugee children as well as their overall difference in prevalence of nutritional status categories compared to low-income children in WA provides evidence for the importance of tailored interventions to address the nutritional needs of refugee children. PMID:26808275

  9. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress Problems…

  10. A Comparison of Function-Based Differential Reinforcement Interventions for Children Engaging in Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling-Turner, Heather; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellone, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief…

  11. Reading, Writing, and Math Self-Concept in Elementary School Children: Influence of Dimensional Comparison Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Lindberg, Sven; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model (Marsh, "Am Educ Res J" 23:129-149, 1986) conceptualizes students' self-concepts as being formed by dimensional as well as social comparison processes. In the present study, the I/E model was tested and extended in a sample of elementary school children. Core academic skills of…

  12. Dental age estimation in Egyptian children, comparison between two methods.

    PubMed

    El-Bakary, Amal A; Hammad, Shaza M; Mohammed, Fatma

    2010-10-01

    The need to estimate age of living individuals is becoming increasingly more important in both forensic science and clinical dentistry. The study of the morphological parameters of teeth on dental radiographs of adult humans is more reliable than most other methods for age estimation. Willems and Cameriere methods are newly presented methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of using these methods for Egyptian children. Digitalized panoramas taken from 286 Egyptian children (134 boys, 152 girls) with age range from 5 to 16 years were analyzed. The seven left permanent mandibular teeth were evaluated using the two methods. The results of this research showed that dental age estimated by both methods was significantly correlated to real age. However, Willems method was slightly more accurate (98.62%) compared to Cameriere method (98.02%). Therefore, both methods can be recommended for practical application in clinical dentistry and forensic procedures on the Egyptian population.

  13. A comparison of intraverbal training procedures for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fuchtman, Rashea; Paden, Amber

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of three training procedures, echoic and tact prompting plus error correction and a cues-pause-point (CPP) procedure, for increasing intraverbals in 2 children with autism. We also measured echoic behavior that may have interfered with appropriate question answering. Results indicated that echoic prompting with error correction was most effective and the CPP procedure was least effective for increasing intraverbals and decreasing echoic behavior. PMID:22403459

  14. Monitoring temperature in children undergoing anaesthesia: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Drake-Brockman, T F E; Hegarty, M; Chambers, N A; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-05-01

    Children undergoing anaesthesia are prone to hypothermia. Perioperative monitoring of patient temperature is, therefore, standard practice. Postoperative temperature is regarded as a key anaesthetic performance indicator in Australian hospitals. Many different methods and sites of temperature measurement are used perioperatively. It is unclear to what degree these methods might be interchangeable. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between temperatures measured at different sites in anaesthetised children. Two hundred children, 0 to 17 years, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective non-cardiac surgery, were prospectively recruited. Temperature measurements were taken in the operating theatre concurrently at the nasopharynx, tympanic membranes, temporal artery, axilla and skin (chest). Patient age and weight were documented. Temperatures varied according to site of measurement. The mean difference from nasopharyngeal temperature to temperatures at left and right tympanic, temporal, axillary and cutaneous sites were +0.24°C, +0.24°C, +0.35°C, -0.38°C and -1.70°C, respectively. Levels of agreement to nasopharyngeal temperature were similar at tympanic, temporal and axillary sites. Tympanic and temporal temperatures were superior to axillary temperatures for detection of mild hypothermia (<36°C). Skin temperature showed a large variation from nasopharyngeal measurements. Our findings indicate that measured temperatures vary between sites. Understanding these variations is important for interpreting temperature readings. PMID:24794470

  15. Parental Mediation of Children's Videogame Playing: A Comparison of the Reports by Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikken, Peter; Jansz, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    Through an Internet survey of 536 parent-child dyads, the authors researched which mediation strategies parents used to regulate videogaming by their children (8-18 years). Factor analyses revealed that both parents and children distinguished three types of parental mediation: (1) "restrictive mediation", (2) "active mediation", and (3)…

  16. Timing Abilities among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) in Comparison to Children with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Sara; Regev, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Timing ability is essential for common everyday performance. The aim of the study was to compare timing abilities and temporal aspects of handwriting performance and relationships between these two components among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) and a control group. Forty two children, 21 diagnosed as DCD and 21 with…

  17. Young Children's Thinking in Relation to Texts: A Comparison with Older Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feathers, Karen M.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the thinking of kindergartners and sixth-graders as expressed in unassisted retellings of a narrative text. Found no significant age differences in retelling lengths and few significant age differences in the amount of types of thinking. Older children tended to summarize paragraphs and single sentences; young children tended to summarize…

  18. Collaborative learning: comparison of outcomes for typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wishart, J G; Willis, D S; Cebula, K R; Pitcairn, T K

    2007-09-01

    Collaborative learning is widely used in mainstream education but rarely utilized with children who have intellectual disabilities, possibly on the assumption that the metacognitive skills on which it capitalizes are less likely to be available. Effects of collaborative learning experience on a core cognitive skill, sorting by category, were investigated in three child groups: typically developing (TD) children, children with nonspecific intellectual disabilities (NSID) and children with Down syndrome (DS). Following collaboration, sorting performance improved significantly in lower ability partners in TD-TD pairings, with this pattern reversed in NSID-NSID pairings. Neither partner improved significantly in DS-NSID pairings, suggesting that the sociability attributed to children with DS did not necessarily support either their or their partner's learning in this social context. PMID:17676960

  19. Pressor reactivity in American Samoan children: comparisons with Mainland American children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J K; McGarvey, S T

    1994-01-01

    In this investigation, 70 children from American Samoa participated in a standardized assessment of blood pressure and heart rate reactivity during a television video game. Data from Samoan children were compared with previously collected data from children (both black and white) residing in the continental United States. Samoan and black children demonstrated similar blood pressure reactivity (both absolute and delta values; P > .05); Samoans and blacks demonstrated greater blood pressure reactivity than whites (P < .05). Ethnic differences in heart rate reactivity were not as pronounced. After we adjusted reactivity values for ethnic differences in age, Quetelet index, and resting measurements, Samoans' reactivity continued to be more similar to the reactivity of blacks than that of whites. Results provide further evidence of ethnic differences in children's pressor reactivity; these differences may be related to differences in hypertension in adulthood. PMID:7742732

  20. Morphological constancy in spelling: a comparison of children with dyslexia and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Derrick C; Treiman, Rebecca

    2008-08-01

    The spellings of many English words follow a principle of morphological constancy. For example, musician includes the c of music, even though the pronunciation of this letter changes. With other words, such as explanation and explain, the spellings of morphemes are not retained when affixes are added. We asked whether children with dyslexia use root morphemes to aid their spelling of morphologically complex words. If so, they should sometimes produce misspellings such as 'explaination' for explanation. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia adhere to the principle of morphological constancy to the same extent as typically developing younger children of the same spelling level. In this and other ways, the spellings of older dyslexic children are remarkably similar to those of typical younger children. PMID:18720405

  1. Reinforcement enhances vigilance among children with ADHD: comparisons to typically developing children and to the effects of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n = 25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n = 19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention.

  2. Children's identity matching and oddity: assessing control by specific and general sample-comparison relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Stromer, J B

    1989-01-01

    After children in Experiments 1 and 2 learned identity matching or oddity, control by sample-comparison relations was assessed. Tests for generalized control displayed novel samples and two comparison stimuli, one identical to the sample. Specific relations were tested with identical or nonidentical sample-comparison stimuli from one set of stimuli and substitute comparisons from either the other training set or from a novel set. When tests displayed identical stimuli, patterns of comparison selection suggested control by generalized identity and oddity. However, selection patterns varied when stimuli were nonidentical and familiar or novel substitute comparisons were used. Therefore, control by specific relations is not a precondition for generalized identity and oddity. One set of training stimuli was used in Experiment 3, and generalized performances occurred again. Moreover, control by specific relations was shown by the oddity subjects and 2 of 6 identity subjects. Generalized and specific control may therefore exist simultaneously. In Experiment 4, selections were irregular on tests displaying substitute comparisons and samples and familiar comparison stimuli; this finding supported the relational account of specific sample-comparison control found in Experiment 3. PMID:2921587

  3. Pitch Perception in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias; Williams, Tim I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (M[subscript age]=9.34, SD[subscript age]=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (M[subscript age]=9.13, SD[subscript…

  4. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  5. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children. PMID:10967615

  6. Comparison Balance and Footprint Parameters in Normal and Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Amir Hossein; Bagheri, Ahmad; Azimi, Reza; Darchini, Mohsen Ali; Nik, Hossein Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was done in order to compare balance and footprint parameters in two groups of normal and overweight children. Methods: This semi-experimental study included randomly selected 22 male children (11 normal and 11 overweight boys). To measure the footprint parameters, an ink paper system was used, i.e., after putting their feet in the ink, the subjects were asked to stand comfortably on paper and their footprints were recorded. Then, with the use of ImageJ software, the areas of anterior, middle, and posterior parts, the total area, and the arch index parameter were calculated. For measuring balance in three posterolateral, posteromedial, and anterior directions as well as the total balance, Y-balance test was done. Finally, to analyze the data, mean and standard deviation were calculated and ANOVA test was used to compare the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed a significant difference between normal and overweight subjects in the anterior and posterior areas, whereas, in balance test, only the anterior areas showed significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that area parameters in these two groups do not have significant difference; hence, it cannot be used as the criteria for analyzing the effects of being overweight on these parameters. In addition, it is probable that, in a dynamic situation, recorded footprints are more valid parameters for analyzing foot structure. PMID:23717778

  7. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  8. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  9. Comparison of clinical and biochemical markers of dehydration with the clinical dehydration scale in children: a case comparison trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical dehydration scale (CDS) is a quick, easy-to-use tool with 4 clinical items and a score of 1–8 that serves to classify dehydration in children with gastroenteritis as no, some or moderate/severe dehydration. Studies validating the CDS (Friedman JN) with a comparison group remain elusive. We hypothesized that the CDS correlates with a wide spectrum of established markers of dehydration, making it an appropriate and easy-to-use clinical tool. Methods This study was designed as a prospective double-cohort trial in a single tertiary care center. Children with diarrhea and vomiting, who clinically required intravenous fluids for rehydration, were compared with minor trauma patients who required intravenous needling for conscious sedation. We compared the CDS with clinical and urinary markers (urinary electrolytes, proteins, ratios and fractional excretions) for dehydration in both groups using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the area under the curve (AUC). Results We enrolled 73 children (male = 36) in the dehydration group and 143 (male = 105) in the comparison group. Median age was 32 months (range 3–214) in the dehydration and 96 months (range 2.6-214 months, p < 0.0001) in the trauma group. Median CDS was 3 (range 0–8) within the dehydration group and 0 in the comparison group (p < 0.0001). The following parameters were statistically significant (p < 0.05) between the comparison group and the dehydrated group: difference in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, urine sodium/potassium ratio, urine sodium, fractional sodium excretion, serum bicarbonate, and creatinine measurements. The best markers for dehydration were urine Na and serum bicarbonate (ROC AUC = 0.798 and 0.821, respectively). CDS was most closely correlated with serum bicarbonate (Pearson r = -0.3696, p = 0.002). Conclusion Although serum bicarbonate is not the gold standard for dehydration, this study provides

  10. Are children with "pure" generalized anxiety disorder impaired? A comparison with comorbid and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Candice A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) of childhood continues to face questions as to whether it should be considered a distinct clinical disorder. A potentially critical issue embedded in this debate involves the role of functional impairment which has yet to be demonstrated in children with "pure" GAD. Participants included 41 children between the ages of 6 and 11 years who met diagnostic criteria for primary GAD. Children with pure GAD (n = 17) were compared to children with comorbid GAD (n = 24) as well as a healthy control group (n = 20) in terms of clinician-rated severity and impairment and child-reported adaptive functioning across four domains. On average, children with pure GAD were more likely to be male and younger than children with comorbid GAD. Based on traditional significance testing, global impairment was greater in the comorbid compared to pure GAD group, although functioning in both groups was in the "variable" range. Both clinical groups reported less adaptive family relationships than controls, whereas only the comorbid group reported lower levels of home-based functioning. Equivalence testing nonetheless indicated a lack of comparability (i.e., nonequivalence) across the three groups for each of the domains examined. Findings indicate children with pure GAD to be functionally impaired compared to their healthy peers, though not to the same extent as children with secondary psychiatric diagnoses. Child functioning within the family domain specifically may be among the most vulnerable when GAD is present. Results support consideration of childhood GAD as a distinct clinical disorder.

  11. VEP characteristics in children with achiasmia, in comparison to albino and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Brecelj, Jelka; Sustar, Maja; Pečarič-Meglič, Nuška; Skrbec, Miha; Stirn-Kranjc, Branka

    2012-04-01

    Achiasmia is a rare disorder of visual pathway maldevelopment that can show diverse clinical and magnetic resonance imaging spectra. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that differentiate abnormal optic-nerve-fibre decussation in children with achiasmia versus children with albinism and healthy children. In four children with achiasmia, the following VEP characteristics were studied and compared to children with ocular albinism and with healthy control children: (a) flash and pattern onset VEP interhemispheric asymmetry; (b) flash N2, P2 and onset C1 amplitudes and latencies; (c) interocular polarity differences in interhemisphere potentials; and (d) chiasm coefficients (CCs). In the children with achiasmia, VEPs were related to an absence of or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: ipsilateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the ipsilateral hemisphere (p < 0.05), interocular inverse polarity and negative CC. Other VEP features (uncrossed asymmetry and positive CC) were also seen if additional visual pathway maldevelopment (such as severe optic nerve hypoplasia and/or absence of the optic tractus on one side) were associated with achiasmia. In the children with albinism, the VEPs were related to excess optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: contralateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the contralateral hemisphere (p < 0.001), interocular inverse polarity and negative CC. In achiasmia and albinism, the VEPs to flash stimulation were more robust and more clearly distinguished between the conditions compared with the VEPs to pattern onset stimulation. VEPs in achiasmia are associated with absent or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation, where ipsilateral interhemispheric asymmetry is associated with interocular inverse polarity and a negative CC. PMID:22350928

  12. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    PubMed

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain(®) T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  13. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system. PMID:26924975

  14. Children with Dyslexia Are Slow Writers Because They Pause More Often and Not Because They Are Slow at Handwriting Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that children with dyslexia are slower at handwriting than other children. However, evidence of slow handwriting in children with dyslexia is very mixed. Thirty-one children with dyslexia, aged 9 years, were compared to both age-matched children and younger spelling-ability matched children. Participants completed an…

  15. A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jane S; Sparkman, Coleen R; Cohen, Howard G; Green, Gina; Stanislaw, Harold

    2005-01-01

    We compared the effects of three treatment approaches on preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorders. Twenty-nine children received intensive behavior analytic intervention (IBT; 1:1 adult:child ratio, 25-40 h per week). A comparison group (n=16) received intensive "eclectic" intervention (a combination of methods, 1:1 or 1:2 ratio, 30 h per week) in public special education classrooms (designated the AP group). A second comparison group (GP) comprised 16 children in non-intensive public early intervention programs (a combination of methods, small groups, 15 h per week). Independent examiners administered standardized tests of cognitive, language, and adaptive skills to children in all three groups at intake and about 14 months after treatment began. The groups were similar on key variables at intake. At follow-up, the IBT group had higher mean standard scores in all skill domains than the AP and GP groups. The differences were statistically significant for all domains except motor skills. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the AP and GP groups. Learning rates at follow-up were also substantially higher for children in the IBT group than for either of the other two groups. These findings are consistent with other research showing that IBT is considerably more efficacious than "eclectic" intervention. PMID:15766629

  16. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  17. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  18. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  19. Children's Fears: A Pre-9/11 and Post-9/11 Comparison Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Children are influenced by the salient events surrounding them (e.g., 9/11 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, massacre at Virginia Tech). In this study, the author examined fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 in a pre-and post-September 11, 2001, comparison using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J.…

  20. IQ Scores of Children with Moderate Asthma: A Comparison with Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masume

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intelligence quotient is an indicator of one's efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may impact upon it. This study aims to compare the IQ of children diagnosed with moderate asthma to the IQ of healthy children. Methods This comparative study was conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 in an Academic Referral Clinic. In this study, 114 patients aged 6 to 13 years who were diagnosed with moderate asthma were compared with 90 age and sex matched healthy patients from their families. Wechsler intelligence scale for children was used by split half method to calculate the overall IQ, verbal IQ and practical IQ. The t-test and Chi square test were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. Results In this study, 204 children, 114 (56%) in the case group and 90 children (44%) in the control group participated in comparing their IQs. One hundred and fifteen (56%) were males and 89 (44%) were females. The overall IQs of asthmatic patients and healthy patients were 109 and 108, respectively; the difference was not significant (p=0.905). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the IQ scores between males and females. Conclusion Although asthma is a chronic disease and causes many respiratory problems, it has no negative impact on IQ. PMID:24498486

  1. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  2. Distilled water challenges in asthmatic children. Comparison of different protocols.

    PubMed

    Eichler, I; Götz, M; Zarkovic, J; Köfinger, A

    1992-09-01

    Inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) appears a promising candidate for routine challenge testing in bronchial asthma. We have compared two different methods of application of UNDW in 12 asthmatic children with a positive response to methacholine provocation (MCh), in an attempt to increase UNDW sensitivity and to establish standard testing protocols. In addition, results from UNDW challenges were compared to responses to inhalation of jet-nebulized distilled water (JNDW) and cold air (CACh). Compared to MCh, the sensitivity of continuously or intermittently (iUNDW) inhaled UNDW was 67 percent or 75 percent, respectively, when a positive response was defined by a greater than or equal to 20 percent fall in FEV1, but was higher when definition of a positive response was based on results from flow volume curves. Sensitivity of continuous or intermittent inhalation of JNDW was lower than for UNDW. The UNDW inhalations were better tolerated than CACh. Following stepwise iUNDW challenge, there was a clear reaction plateau for all variables measured. Results indicate that testing protocols with iUNDW inhalations over 6 to 10 min (corresponding to 7 to 11 ml water inhalation) yield the maximum sensitivity attainable with UNDW challenges, and require a minimum of patient and investigator effort.

  3. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  4. Early language development in children with a genetic risk of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, Petra; de Bree, Elise; Gerrits, Ellen; de Jong, Jan; Wilsenach, Carien; Wijnen, Frank

    2004-11-01

    We report on a prospective longitudinal research programme exploring the connection between language acquisition deficits and dyslexia. The language development profile of children at-risk for dyslexia is compared to that of age-matched controls as well as of children who have been diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI). The experiments described concern the perception and production of grammatical morphology, categorical perception of speech sounds, phonological processing (non-word repetition), mispronunciation detection, and rhyme detection. The results of each of these indicate that the at-risk children as a group underperform in comparison to the controls, and that, in most cases, they approach the SLI group. It can be concluded that dyslexia most likely has precursors in language development, also in domains other than those traditionally considered conditional for the acquisition of literacy skills. The dyslexia-SLI connection awaits further, particularly qualitative, analyses. PMID:15573960

  5. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Kolathu Parambil; Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramadas, Konnanath T

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods: In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M) and triclofos sodium group (Group T) of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Results: Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002). Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population. PMID:27330204

  6. A comparison of multiple methods for the identification of children with reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sofie, Cecilia A; Riccio, Cynthia A

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion of the methods used for the identification of children with reading disabilities. This study examined three different methods that could be used in the identification of children with reading disabilities and their consistency with teacher ratings of behaviors believed to be associated with reading disabilities. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of achievement, phonological processing measures, and curriculum-based measures of reading fluency were used with 40 children in Grades 1 and 2. Comparisons were made to determine which measures, if any, differentiated between children referred for reading disabilities (n = 20) and children who were progressing typically in reading in their general education classroom settings (n = 20). The results indicated significant between-group differences on standardized, norm-referenced measures of reading recognition, word attack, and comprehension; phonological measures of blending nonwords and elision; and reading fluency. Teacher ratings on the Dyslexia Screening Instrument were consistent with teacher beliefs regarding children's progress in reading. All measures were found to correlate significantly with each other. However, correlations were generally in the moderate range, suggesting that the measures used did not measure the same reading skills or, in the case of phonological processing, the underlying abilities believed to be necessary for reading. Given the differences in tasks and the moderate correlations, it is likely that the choice of measures may affect the conclusions reached regarding a student's reading ability. PMID:15493320

  7. Collaborative Learning: Comparison of Outcomes for Typically Developing Children and Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, J. G.; Willis, D. S.; Cebula, K. R.; Pitcairn, T. K.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative learning is widely used in mainstream education but rarely utilized with children who have intellectual disabilities, possibly on the assumption that the metacognitive skills on which it capitalizes are less likely to be available. Effects of collaborative learning experience on a core cognitive skill, sorting by category, were…

  8. A Comparison of Urinary Mercury between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Control Children

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Pearce, Helen; Allgar, Victoria; Miles, Jeremy; Whitton, Clare; Leon, Irene; Jardine, Jenny; McCaffrey, Nicola; Smith, Rob; Holbrook, Ian; Lewis, John; Goodall, David; Alderson-Day, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. Methods Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to their siblings (n = 42) and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121) and special schools (n = 34). Results There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. Conclusions This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors. PMID:22355303

  9. Comparison of Pausing Behavior in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Have Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrame, Jessica Monique; Viera, Renata Alves Torello; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Arcuri, Claudia Fassin; Osborn, Ellen; Perissinoto, Jacy; Schiefer, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this research was to compare the number and types of grammatical and non-grammatical silent pauses presented by stutterers and subjects with Asperger syndrome in their narratives. Method: Ten children who stutter and four participants with Asperger syndrome (mean ages of both groups 10 years) were assessed at the Speech…

  10. Morphological Constancy in Spelling: A Comparison of Children with Dyslexia and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourassa, Derrick C.; Treiman, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The spellings of many English words follow a principle of morphological constancy. For example, "musician" includes the c of "music", even though the pronunciation of this letter changes. With other words, such as "explanation" and "explain", the spellings of morphemes are not retained when affixes are added. We asked whether children with…

  11. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  12. Hebrew Language Assessment Measure for Preschool Children: A Comparison between Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenberger, Irit; Meilijson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The Katzenberger Hebrew Language Assessment for Preschool Children (henceforth: the KHLA) is the first comprehensive, standardized language assessment tool developed in Hebrew specifically for older preschoolers (4;0-5;11 years). The KHLA is a norm-referenced, Hebrew specific assessment, based on well-established psycholinguistic principles, as…

  13. Integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children: empirical comparisons with epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, K; Marcus, A; Smith, R; White, P

    1998-01-01

    The concept of model validation is evolving in the scientific community. This paper addresses the comparison of observed and predicted estimates as one component of model validation as applied to the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model for lead in children. The IEUBK model is an exposure (dose)-response model that uses children's environmental lead exposures to estimate risk of elevated blood lead (typically > 10 micrograms/dl) through estimation of lead body burdens in a mass balance framework. We used residence-specific environmental lead measurements from three epidemiologic datasets as inputs for the IEUBK model to predict blood lead levels, and compared these predictions with blood lead levels of children living at these residences. When the IEUBK modeling focused on children with representative exposure measurements, that is, children who spent the bulk of their time near the locations sampled, there was reasonably close agreement between observed and predicted blood lead distributions in the three studies considered. Geometric mean observed and predicted blood lead levels were within 0.7 microgram/dl, and proportions of study populations expected to be above 10 micrograms/dl were within 4% of those observed. PMID:9860915

  14. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  15. Visual Influences on Speech Perception in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarocci, Grace; Rombough, Adrienne; Yager, Jodi; Weeks, Daniel J.; Chua, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The bimodal perception of speech sounds was examined in children with autism as compared to mental age--matched typically developing (TD) children. A computer task was employed wherein only the mouth region of the face was displayed and children reported what they heard or saw when presented with consonant-vowel sounds in unimodal auditory…

  16. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  17. Early Language and Communicative Abilities of Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Heidi M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Ten two-year-old children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a brain injury associated with prematurity, were evaluated using language samples. The five children with delayed cognitive ability produced significantly fewer lexical tokens and spontaneous verbal utterances than did chronological age-matched nondelayed PVL children. (Author/DB)

  18. Object and Action Naming in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the accuracy, latency, and errors of noun (object) and verb (action) naming in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and to determine whether children with SLI have a particularly large noun-verb performance gap. Method: Children with SLI, age-matched peers (AM), and…

  19. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  20. Cognitive Mechanisms underlying visual perspective taking in typical and ASC children.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amy; Marsh, Lauren; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that people with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) may have difficulty with visual perspective taking (VPT) but it is not clear how this relates to different strategies that can be used in perspective taking tasks. The current study examined VPT in 30 children with autism and 30 verbal mental age matched typical children, in comparison to mental rotation (MR) abilities and body representation abilities. Using a similar paradigm to Hamilton, Brindley, and Frith [2009] all children completed three tasks: a VPT task in which children decided what a toy on a table would look like from a different points of view; a MR task in which the child decided what a toy would look like after it had been rotated; and a body posture matching task, in which children matched pictures of a body shown from different viewpoints. Results showed that children with ASC performed better than the typically developing children on the MR task, and at a similar level on the VPT task and body matching task. Importantly, in the typical children VPT performance was predicted by performance on the body matching task, whereas in the ASC children VPT performance was predicted by MR ability. These findings suggest that differences in VPT in ASC may be explained by the use of a spatial rotation strategy rather than the embodied egocentric transformation strategy used by typical children. PMID:26052836

  1. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Material and methods Inclusion criteria: children aged 7–18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score – PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. Results The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p < 0.0001) and psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p < 0.005). No significant differences were found within the social relationships domain or the environment domain. On the basis of PARS in the SVT group the patients reported significantly increased symptoms within Phd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; p < 0.0001) as well as increased negative feelings within Psd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.6; p < 0.005). Conclusions Medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children.

  2. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Material and methods Inclusion criteria: children aged 7–18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score – PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. Results The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p < 0.0001) and psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p < 0.005). No significant differences were found within the social relationships domain or the environment domain. On the basis of PARS in the SVT group the patients reported significantly increased symptoms within Phd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; p < 0.0001) as well as increased negative feelings within Psd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.6; p < 0.005). Conclusions Medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children. PMID:27695497

  3. Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Seassau, Magali; Gérard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8–13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:25400559

  4. Comparison of Behavioral Profiles for Anxiety-Related Comorbidities including ADHD and Selective Mutism in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795

  5. Spelling of Derivational and Inflectional Suffixes by Greek-Speaking Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanti, Vassiliki; Goulandris, Nata; Stuart, Morag; Campbell, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the spelling of derivational and inflectional suffixes by 10-13-year-old Greek children. Twenty children with dyslexia (DYS), 20 spelling-level-matched (SA) and 20 age-matched (CA) children spelled adjectives, nouns, and verbs in dictated word pairs and sentences. Children spelled nouns and verbs more accurately than adjectives and…

  6. Atypical Brain Responses to Sounds in Children with Specific Language and Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve; Atkinson, Carmen; Ellis, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study tested if children with specific language impairment (SLI) or children with specific reading disability (SRD) have abnormal brain responses to sounds. We tested 6- to 12-year-old children with SLI (N = 19), children with SRD (N = 55), and age-matched controls (N = 36) for their passive auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to tones,…

  7. Food Variety as a Predictor of Nutritional Status among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Michelle H.; Hart, Laura C.; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Murray, Donna S.; Bing, Nicole M.; Summer, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of selective eating and nutritional deficiency was studied among 22 children with autism and an age matched typically developing control group. Children with autism ate fewer foods on average than typically developing children. (33.5 vs. 54.5 foods, P less than 0.001) As compared to typical controls, children with autism had a higher…

  8. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  9. Comparison of motor praxis and performance in children with varying levels of developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2016-08-01

    The praxis test is a less well-documented method to determine functional manifestations of childhood dyspraxia. For this study, children aged 6-8years were recruited as follows: 17 children with DCD, 18 at risk of DCD and 35 without obvious problems in motor coordination. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used to measure motor performance and identify the motor incoordination. This study developed a battery of tests to assess limb praxis using a praxis imagery questionnaire, gesture representation, and questions about knowledge of object use. In the comparison of subtests within the praxis test, significant differences were observed across groups on the praxis imagery questionnaire and gesture representation tests but not on knowledge of object use. Similar results were observed in the correlation analyses, in which a weak relationship between MABC-2 and praxis tests was observed. The DCD group had lower scores on the praxis imagery questionnaire, whereas the group at risk of DCD had lower scores on most gesture production tests. Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of the childhood dyspraxia and sheds light on its effect on motor coordination to identify praxis tests with specific clinical meanings in children with movement disorders. PMID:27101560

  10. Comparison of five teacher actions to encourage children's new food acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hendy, H M

    1999-01-01

    How can teachers encourage children to accept new fruits and vegetables? A quasi-experimental study with 64 preschool children (32 boys, 32 girls) compared the effectiveness of five teacher actions to encourage children's acceptance of four new fruits and vegetables presented during three preschool lunches. The five teacher actions included reward (special dessert), modeling, insisting children try one bite, choice-offering ("Do you want any of this?"), and a control condition of simple exposure.In factorial analyses of variance (two genders x five teacher actions), the five teacher actions produced differences in number of foods sampled (p<.001), number of meals during which foods were sampled (p<.004), and total number of bites (p<.002). Paired comparisons revealed that reward, insisting, and choice-offering were more effective than simple exposure to encourage number of foods, number of meals, and number of bites. Dessert reward and choice-offering were equally effective for all three measures of new food acceptance, but insisting produced fewer bites than did choice-offering. Under the present conditions, teacher modeling was ineffective compared to simple exposure. No gender differences were found in new food acceptance or in interactions with the five teacher actions to encourage new food acceptance. PMID:18425650

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of mothers' beliefs about their parenting very young children.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H; Haynes, O Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers' parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% male). To conduct substantive cross-cultural comparisons of beliefs, the measurement invariance of the PSQ was first established by hierarchical multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The PSQ was essentially invariant across cultures. Italian mothers reported that they engaged in both social and didactic behaviors with their young children less frequently than U.S. mothers. Results of our study confirm that mothers in different cultures differentially value parental stimulation and its relevance for early child development.

  12. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, Bouchra; Lahssaini, Mohammed; Tiger, Abdelaziz; Benhassain, Sidi Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months - 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients envenomed by Am than Bo, and in all population in comparison to control group. The correlation among these biological analyzes and clinical status showed that higher levels of LDH and value of leukocytes ≥19 × 10(3)/mm(3) were indices of cardiac dysfunction with APE. Pallor sign was correlated with a state of shock and/or low level of hemoglobin, associated or not to bilirubin increase. Fatalities (7.3%), presenting toxic myocarditis, had lowest count of lymphocytes (≤4.2%) in comparison to survivors. This is the first report on lymphopenia which may be useful for forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation. PMID:25218169

  13. Ritalin vs. response cost in the control of hyperactive children: a within-subject comparison.

    PubMed

    Rapport, M D; Murphy, H A; Bailey, J S

    1982-01-01

    A within-subject comparison was made of the effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) and response cost in reducing the off-task behavior of two boys, 7 and 8 years of age, who had been diagnosed as having an attentional deficit disorder with hyperactivity, Several dosages of Ritalin (5 to 20 mg/day) were evaluated with the results indicating varying effects of the drug for both children. Response cost (with free-time as the reinforcer) was superior to Ritalin in raising levels of on-task behavior and in improving academic performance.

  14. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  15. Exploratory Procedures of Tactile Images in Visually Impaired and Blindfolded Sighted Children: How They Relate to Their Consequent Performance in Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Annie; Fernandes, Viviane; Orlandi, Oriana; Morgan, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the types of exploratory procedures employed by children when exploring bidimensional tactile patterns and correlate the use of these procedures with the children's shape drawing performance. 18 early blind children, 20 children with low vision and 24 age-matched blindfolded sighted children aged…

  16. The development of numerical magnitude processing and its association with working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2013-10-01

    The present research examined numerical magnitude processing and its association with working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). We investigated the performance of 8-year-old children with MID on a symbolic (Arabic digits) and non-symbolic (dot patterns) magnitude comparison task by means of a chronological-age/ability-level-match design. We also examined whether the predicted problems with numerical magnitude comparison could be explained by working memory by using three working memory tasks. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks, suggesting impairments in these children's ability to represent numerical magnitudes. They also performed more poorly on working memory compared to their typically developing age- and ability-matched peers, but when these differences in working memory performance were additionally controlled for, the group differences on the numerical magnitude comparison tasks remained. Both symbolic numerical magnitude processing and central executive functioning predicted addition performance in children with MID.

  17. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  18. Comparison of the China growth charts with the WHO growth standards in assessing malnutrition of children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenyu; Duan, Yifan; Ma, Guansheng; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yin, Shian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the difference between the China growth reference and the WHO growth standards in assessing malnutrition of children under 5 years. Settings The households selected from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China (except Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao). Participants Households were selected by using a stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling. Children under 5 years of age in the selected households were recruited (n=15 886). Primary and secondary outcome measures Underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity. Results According to the China growth reference, the prevalence of underweight (8.7% vs 4.8%), stunting (17.2% vs 16.1%) and wasting (4.4% vs 3%) was significantly higher than that based on the WHO growth standards, respectively (p<0.001); the prevalence of overweight was lower than that based on the WHO growth standards (9.4% vs 10.2%, p<0.001). In most cases, the prevalence of undernutrition assessed by using the China growth reference was significantly higher. However, the prevalence of overweight was significantly lower by using China charts for boys aged 3–4, 6, 8, 10, 12–18 and 24 months. Conclusions The WHO growth standards could be more conservative in undernutrition estimation and more applicable for international comparison for Chinese children. Future researches are warranted for using the WHO growth standards within those countries with local growth charts when there are distinct differences between the two. PMID:25716173

  19. Lateral preferences in children with intellectual deficiency of idiopathic origin.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Pascale; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate lateral preferences in a population of children with intellectual deficiency of idiopathic origin, compared with those of typically developing (TD) children. Two groups of children with mild or moderate intellectual deficiency were observed. Handedness (using a 10-item test and Bishop's card-reaching task), eyedness and footedness were studied. The younger group consisted of sixteen 10- to 11-year olds; the older group comprised fourteen 12- to 14-year olds. A control group of fifteen TD children was matched for age with the younger group of intellectually deficient (ID) children. The results show that the occurrence of left-handedness is not higher in children with ID of unknown origin than in age-matched TD children. However, we observed a marginally reduced tendency toward right-handedness in ID than in TD children: more mixed-handers among ID than TD children; test-retest consistency of hand preference significantly lower in the 10- to 11-year-old ID children than in the age-matched TD children; greater tendency of ID children to use their nonpreferred left hand when the card was presented to the left, as compared with TD children. Left-eyedness and crossed hand-eye preference were also more frequent in ID than in age-matched TD children. No age-related difference in laterality was found in ID children. These results partially support other studies indicating that less rightward asymmetry is associated with intellectual deficiency in children.

  20. Speech-Associated Labiomandibular Movement in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Kinematic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Yang, Fan-pei Gloria; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wong, Alice May-kuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the speech-associated labiomandibular movement during articulation production in Mandarin-speaking children with spastic quadriplegic (SQ) cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with SQ CP (aged 7-11 years) and 12 age-matched healthy children as controls were enrolled for the study. All children underwent…

  1. Sensitivity of Four Subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention For Children (TEA-Ch) to Stimulant Medication in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Paul A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined on four subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) when on and off stimulant medication. Performance was assessed relative to 18 individually age-matched controls. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse on TEA-Ch measures when off compared…

  2. A Comparison of Coping Strategies Used by Parents of Children with Disabilities and Parents of Children without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategies…

  3. Subtypes of Aggression in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Medication Effects and Comparison with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Corkum, Penny V.; Jacques, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    We examined aggressive behavior in 6- to 12-year-old children, including 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication, 19 children with ADHD on placebo (n = 19), and 32 controls. Children completed a laboratory provocation task designed to measure hostile, instrumental, reactive, and proactive…

  4. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  5. Gesture production in school vs. clinical samples of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Sinani, Charikleia; Sugden, David A; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2011-01-01

    Dyspraxia, a difficulty in executing an operationalised act, has been associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). However, issues relating to the area such as comparisons across modalities, comparisons of school vs. clinical populations, and developmental delay vs. pathology have not been addressed in the same, comprehensive study. In the current study, therefore, familiar gesture production in DCD was addressed in a comprehensive manner to follow-up outstanding issues from previous studies: The production of familiar gestures and praxis imagery in a school (n=26) vs. clinic sample (n=19) of children with DCD was examined in relation to typically developing age matched (n=24) all aged from 9 to 11 years, and two groups of younger children within the age ranges of 5-6 (n=23) and 4-5 (n=26) years. Overall, children with Developmental Coordination Disorder showed an impaired ability to produce familiar gestures compared to their typical peers, and this was dependant on the type of gesture and presentation modality. Differences were found between school and clinic samples of children with DCD, suggestive of the recruitment of different underlying mechanisms in the two samples. The results have a bearing on our understanding of the relationship of developmental dyspraxia to DCD, as well as of the issue of developmental delay vs. pathology. PMID:21353461

  6. Young children's learning of relational categories: multiple comparisons and their cognitive constraints

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Witt, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Relational categories are notoriously difficult to learn because they are not defined by intrinsic stable properties. We studied the impact of comparisons on relational concept learning with a novel word learning task in 42-month-old children. Capitalizing on Gentner et al. (2011), two, three or four pairs of stimuli were introduced with a novel relational word. In a given trial, the set of pairs was composed of either close or far pairs (e.g., close pair: knife1-watermelon, knife2-orange, knife3-slice of bread and knife4-meat; far pair: ax-evergreen tree, saw-log, cutter-cardboard, and knife-slice of bread, for the “cutter for” relation). Close pairs (2 vs. 3 vs. 4 pairs) led to random generalizations whereas comparisons with far pairs gave the expected relational generalization. The 3 pair case gave the best results. It is argued that far pairs promote deeper comparisons than close pairs. As shown by a control experiment, this was the case only when far pairs display well known associations. PMID:26042072

  7. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  8. Immaturity of the Oculomotor Saccade and Vergence Interaction in Dyslexic Children: Evidence from a Reading and Visual Search Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:22438934

  9. Immaturity of the oculomotor saccade and vergence interaction in dyslexic children: evidence from a reading and visual search study.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction.

  10. Executive functioning deficits in preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Anita J.; Whitley, Marisa L.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Boys, Christopher J.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Fink, Birgit A.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficit is a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but the vast majority of available evidence comes from school-age children and adolescents. Very little is known about EF during the critical developmental period prior to 6 years of age in FASD. We evaluated EF in 39 children with FASD (3.0 – 5.5 years) and a comparison group of 50 age-matched, non-exposed controls. Measures included the EF Scale for Early Childhood and a Delay of Gratification task. Compared to age-matched controls, pre-school children with FASD had impairments on the EF Scale and showed more impulsivity on the Delay of Gratification task. To confirm the EF Scale finding, FASD group performance was compared to a separate normative dataset (N=1,400). Those with FASD performed below normal (M= −0.57, SD=0.92). Within the FASD group, IQ was correlated with the EF Scale (partial r=.60, p=.001) and Delay of Gratification (partial r=.58, p=.005). EF Scale performance did not differ significantly across levels of FASD severity [fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS, or alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder (ARND)]. However, compared to normative data, those with FAS had the largest deficits (M= −0.91 SD, SE=0.23), followed by partial FAS (M= −0.66 SD, SE=0.26), then ARND (M= −0.36 SD, SE=0.20). These novel data show that EF deficits manifest well before the age of 6 years in children with FASD, that they occur across the spectrum, and that EF may be most impaired in children with more severe forms of FASD and/or lower IQs. PMID:25011516

  11. Executive functioning deficits in preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Whitley, Marisa L; Carlson, Stephanie M; Boys, Christopher J; Eckerle, Judith K; Fink, Birgit A; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficit is a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but the vast majority of available evidence comes from school-age children and adolescents. Very little is known about EF during the critical developmental period prior to 6 years of age in FASD. We evaluated EF in 39 children with FASD (3.0-5.5 years) and a comparison group of 50 age-matched, nonexposed controls. Measures included the EF Scale for Early Childhood and a Delay of Gratification task. Compared to age-matched controls, preschool children with FASD had impairments on the EF Scale and showed more impulsivity on the Delay of Gratification task. To confirm the EF Scale finding, FASD group performance was compared to a separate normative dataset (N = 1,400). Those with FASD performed below normal (M = -0.57, SD = 0.92). Within the FASD group, IQ was correlated with the EF Scale (partial r = .60, p = .001) and Delay of Gratification (partial r = .58, p = .005). EF Scale performance did not differ significantly across levels of FASD severity (fetal alcohol syndrome [FAS], partial FAS, or alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder [ARND]). However, compared to normative data, those with FAS had the largest deficits (M = -0.91 SD from the mean, SE = 0.23), followed by partial FAS (M = -0.66 SD from the mean, SE = 0.26), then ARND (M = -0.36 SD from the mean, SE = 0.20). These novel data show that EF deficits manifest well before the age of 6 years in children with FASD, that they occur across the spectrum, and that EF may be most impaired in children with more severe forms of FASD and/or lower IQs.

  12. Executive functioning deficits in preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Whitley, Marisa L; Carlson, Stephanie M; Boys, Christopher J; Eckerle, Judith K; Fink, Birgit A; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficit is a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but the vast majority of available evidence comes from school-age children and adolescents. Very little is known about EF during the critical developmental period prior to 6 years of age in FASD. We evaluated EF in 39 children with FASD (3.0-5.5 years) and a comparison group of 50 age-matched, nonexposed controls. Measures included the EF Scale for Early Childhood and a Delay of Gratification task. Compared to age-matched controls, preschool children with FASD had impairments on the EF Scale and showed more impulsivity on the Delay of Gratification task. To confirm the EF Scale finding, FASD group performance was compared to a separate normative dataset (N = 1,400). Those with FASD performed below normal (M = -0.57, SD = 0.92). Within the FASD group, IQ was correlated with the EF Scale (partial r = .60, p = .001) and Delay of Gratification (partial r = .58, p = .005). EF Scale performance did not differ significantly across levels of FASD severity (fetal alcohol syndrome [FAS], partial FAS, or alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder [ARND]). However, compared to normative data, those with FAS had the largest deficits (M = -0.91 SD from the mean, SE = 0.23), followed by partial FAS (M = -0.66 SD from the mean, SE = 0.26), then ARND (M = -0.36 SD from the mean, SE = 0.20). These novel data show that EF deficits manifest well before the age of 6 years in children with FASD, that they occur across the spectrum, and that EF may be most impaired in children with more severe forms of FASD and/or lower IQs. PMID:25011516

  13. Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

  14. Relation of Melatonin to Sleep Architecture in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Roberta M.; Beyderman, Liya; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Surdyka, Kyla; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often suffer from sleep disturbances, and compared to age-matched controls, have decreased melatonin levels, as indicated by urine levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SM). We therefore investigated the relationship between 6-SM levels and sleep architecture in children with autism spectrum…

  15. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  16. Intermodal Matching of Emotional Expressions in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…

  17. Exploring Working Memory in Children with Low Arithmetical Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, A.; Guarnera, M.

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed at exploring the working memory functions in children with low arithmetical achievement and normal reading, compared to age matched controls (mean age 9 years). All the children completed a series of working memory tasks, involving the central executive functions (using both linguistic and numerical material), the phonological…

  18. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  19. Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children (ages 2-11) with pervasive developmental disorders. Slightly more than half of parents reported a sleep problem in their child. All of the children exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. (Contains references.)…

  20. Effects of Social Context and Mothers' Requesting Strategies on Down's Syndrome Children's Social Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Social context and maternal style of requesting and responsiveness were examined in teaching and social interactions in relation to 28 Down's Syndrome (DS) and 28 mental-age matched normal children's cooperation and social initiative. Compliance for DS children was similar to that of normal children for child-initiated exchanges but decreased…

  1. Memory of Specific Learning Disabled Readers Using the California Verbal Learning Test for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knee, Kathleen; And Others

    A group of 73 normal children (ages 8 to 10) was compared to 49 age-matched developmentally dyslexic children of average intelligence on the California Verbal Learning Test for Children (CVLT-C), to determine if reading disability was associated with impaired verbal memory. Dyslexics differed significantly from controls on 9 of the 12 CVLT-C…

  2. Sequence-Specific Procedural Learning Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children's performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger…

  3. Imitation of Body Postures and Hand Movements in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Within the domain-general theory of language impairment, this study examined body posture and hand movement imitation in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers. Participants included 40 children with SLI (5 years 3 months to 6 years 10 months of age) and 40 children with typical language development (5…

  4. Evidence of a Faster Posterior Dominant EEG Rhythm in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Michael D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with autism. In the course of clinical work, we have observed a posterior dominant EEG rhythm at higher frequency in children with autism. To test this observation, 56 EEG tracings of children with autism were compared to the EEGs of age-matched controls. Children with autism…

  5. Production and Processing Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Tense Morphology by Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Marinis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the production and online processing of English tense morphemes by sequential bilingual (L2) Turkish-speaking children with more than three years of exposure to English. Thirty-nine six- to nine-year-old L2 children and twenty-eight typically developing age-matched monolingual (L1) children were administered the production…

  6. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  7. The Perception of Lexical Tone Contrasts in Cantonese Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ciocca, Valter; Yung, Sun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the perception of fundamental frequency (f0) patterns by Cantonese children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants were 14 five-year-old children with SLI, and 14 age-matched (AM) and 13 four-year-old vocabulary-matched (VM) controls. The children identified a word from familiar word…

  8. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  9. Cross-Language Comparisons of Maze Use in Spanish and English in Functionally Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Nagy, Vanessa J.

    2006-01-01

    Maze use appears to be higher in bilingual speakers than in their functionally monolingual peers. One question is whether this is due to the speaker's bilingual status or to the characteristics of the bilingual's language(s). Narratives for 22 Spanish-English bilingual 4-6-year-olds and their functionally monolingual age-matched peers were…

  10. Gender typicality in children's speech: A comparison of boys with and without gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired.

  11. Comparison of Bilingual Children on the WISC-R and the Escala De Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplesch, Marie; Genshaft, Judy

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of bilingual Puerto Rican students' scores showed no significant differences between the Full Scale and the Verbal Scale scores on both tests, but significant differences between the Verbal and Performance Scale scores on both tests. Caution in testing bilingual children before determination of bilinguality is recommended. (Author)

  12. The Comparison of American and Taiwanese Parents' Expectations of Their Children Learning a Second/Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Chih-Chin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the comparison between American and Taiwanese parents' views on their young children learning a second/foreign language, the ideal language and learning age, and parents' perceptions regarding language. There were 24 U.S. and 44 Taiwanese participants who had at least one child studying in the day-care…

  13. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children With Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia, mean age 9 years, were compared to typically developing groups of children: the first matched by age, the second by spelling ability. Oral vocabulary was measured and children completed a written and verbal compositional task. Lexical diversity comparisons were made across written and verbal compositions to highlight the constraint of having to select and spell words. A digital writing tablet recorded the writing. Children with dyslexia and the spelling-ability group made a high proportion of spelling errors and within-word pauses, and had a lower lexical diversity within their written compositions compared to their verbal compositions. The age-matched peers demonstrated the opposite pattern. Spelling ability and pausing predicted 53% of the variance in written lexical diversity of children with dyslexia, demonstrating the link between spelling and vocabulary when writing. Oral language skills had no effect. Lexical diversity correlated with written and verbal text quality for all groups. Practical implications are discussed and related to writing models.

  14. Perceptions of Distress in Young Children with Autism Compared to Typically Developing Children: A Cultural Comparison between Japan and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Nakazawa, J.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how adults in two contrasting cultures (Italian and Japanese) perceive episodes of crying of typically developing (TD) children and children with Autism Disorder (AD). Although cries of children with AD have been reported to elicit more distress in Western cultures, it is not known whether similar findings hold in Eastern…

  15. A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

  16. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  17. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Hatice Hilal; Kırkgöz, Tarık; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48 ± 0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics. PMID:27648079

  18. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Hatice Hilal; Kırkgöz, Tarık; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48 ± 0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics.

  19. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Hatice Hilal; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Kırkgöz, Tarık; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48 ± 0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics. PMID:27648079

  20. A comparison of motor delays in young children: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and developmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns without motor delay. Descriptive analysis showed all children with ASD had delays in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, or both. Children with ASD and children with DD showed significant impairments in motor development compared to children who had developmental concerns without motor delay. Motor scores of young children with ASD did not differ significantly on motor skill measures when compared to young children with DD.

  1. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anxiety Symptoms in Colombian and Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Andrea Crane; Campbell, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This cross-cultural study compared both the symptoms of anxiety and their severity in a community sample of children from Colombia and Australia. Method: The sample comprised 516 children (253 Australian children and 263 Colombian children), aged 8 to 12-years-old. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) was used to measure both…

  2. Children's Emotion Regulation across and within Nations: A Comparison of Ghanaian, Kenyan, and American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelen, Diana; Zeman, Janice; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Anderson, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This research examined national, regional, developmental, and gender differences in children's reported management of anger and sadness. Participants (8-15 years) were 103 Ghanaian children from a village setting, 142 Ghanaian children from a middle-class urban context, 106 Kenyan children from an impoverished urban context, and 170 children from…

  3. Autistic children's use of semantic common sense and theory of mind: a comparison with typical and mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mika; Nagayama, Kikuo

    2004-10-01

    To compare Japanese autistic children's use of semantic knowledge and theory of mind with mentally retarded and typically developing children's, they were tested on their comprehension of active and passive sentences and false belief understanding. Autistic children were sensitive to plausibility levels of semantic bias as were 4-year-olds with typical development when comprehending sentences, although impaired in belief understanding as compared with mentally retarded children and typically developing 5-year-olds. Children's sentence comprehension had no association with belief understanding. Results suggest that autistic children with certain verbal intelligence can utilize semantic common sense to comprehend sentences as can typically developing children and that the ability to comprehend sentences is relatively independent of theory of mind.

  4. Autistic children's use of semantic common sense and theory of mind: a comparison with typical and mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mika; Nagayama, Kikuo

    2004-10-01

    To compare Japanese autistic children's use of semantic knowledge and theory of mind with mentally retarded and typically developing children's, they were tested on their comprehension of active and passive sentences and false belief understanding. Autistic children were sensitive to plausibility levels of semantic bias as were 4-year-olds with typical development when comprehending sentences, although impaired in belief understanding as compared with mentally retarded children and typically developing 5-year-olds. Children's sentence comprehension had no association with belief understanding. Results suggest that autistic children with certain verbal intelligence can utilize semantic common sense to comprehend sentences as can typically developing children and that the ability to comprehend sentences is relatively independent of theory of mind. PMID:15628605

  5. Spouses, Adult Children, and Children-in-Law as Caregivers of Older Adults: A Meta-Analytic Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Pinquart, Martin; Sörensen, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates the results from 168 empirical studies on differences between caregiving spouses, adult children, and children-in-law. Spouses differ from children and children-in-law significantly with regard to sociodemographic variables; also, they provide more support but report fewer care recipient behavior problems. Spouse caregivers report more depression symptoms, greater financial and physical burden, and lower levels of psychological well-being. Higher levels of psychological distress among spouses are explained mostly—but not completely—by higher levels of care provision. Few differences emerge between children and children-in-law, but children-in-law perceive the relationship with the care recipient as less positive and they report fewer uplifts of caregiving. PMID:21417538

  6. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  7. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  8. Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment, and their children's attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Springer, Lydia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children's attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (n = 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers' biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (n = 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers' experience than the comparison group mothers. Children's (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status. PMID:24931835

  9. Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment, and their children's attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Springer, Lydia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children's attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (n = 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers' biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (n = 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers' experience than the comparison group mothers. Children's (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status.

  10. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  11. Preserving the Past: An Early Interview Improves Delayed Event Memory in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Deirdre A; Lewis, Charlie N; Lamb, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of an early interview on children's (N = 194) later recall of an experienced event was examined in children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (CWID; 7–12 years) and typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological (7–12 years) or mental (4–9 years) age. Children previously interviewed were more informative, more accurate, and less suggestible. CWID (mild) recalled as much information as TD mental age matches, and were as accurate as TD chronological age matches. CWID (moderate) recalled less than TD mental age matches but were as accurate. Interviewers should elicit CWID's recall as early as possible and consider developmental level and severity of impairments when evaluating eyewitness testimony. PMID:25876042

  12. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  13. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  14. Assessment of the Prerequisite Skills for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickel, Athena; MacLean, William E., Jr.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7-12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ,…

  15. Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

  16. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with…

  17. I Hear What You Say but I See What You Mean: The Role of Gestures in Children's Pragmatic Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Elizabeth; Pine, Karen J.; Ryder, Nuala

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether gesture can enhance the pragmatic comprehension of language impaired children. Language impaired children (N = 21) and age matched typically developing children (N = 26) were presented verbal scenarios in two conditions: speech only and speech+gesture. In the speech+gesture condition, speech was accompanied by…

  18. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  19. A Comparison of Two Phonological Assessment Tools for Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hase, Maria; Ingram, David; Bunta, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two phonological assessment tools for use with young Spanish-speaking children in the American Southwest, FON and STAR. Each was administered to 27 1-, 2- and 3-year-old monolingual Spanish-speaking children in the greater Phoenix area. Analyses compared the children's rate of response, complexity of the children's productions,…

  20. A Comparison between Homeschooled and Formally Schooled Kindergartners: Children's Early Literacy, Mothers' Beliefs, and Writing Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Meidan, Inbal Cohen; Deitcher, Deborah Bergman

    2016-01-01

    The study characterized children's literacy, mothers' beliefs, and writing mediation of homeschooled compared to formally schooled kindergartners. Participants were 60 children (ages 4-6) and their mothers (30 in homeschooling). At the children's home, we assessed children's literacy, maternal beliefs, and video-recorded mother-child joint writing…

  1. The Comparison of Play Skills of Autistic Mentally Retarded and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazlioglu, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    While the typical developing children show signs of symbolic play in the first two years of life, children with autism may never develop this skill. This deficit in play has implication for other areas of development. What is more? Play is correlated with language ability in both typically developing children and children with ASD. Play in…

  2. Frequency and Latency of Social Interaction in an Inclusive Kindergarten Setting: A Comparison between Typical Children and Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Eldevik, Sigmund; Aase, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency and latency of naturally occurring social interaction with typically developing children and those with autism in inclusive kindergarten settings. The children with autism were also subdivided into two groups according to intellectual functioning in order to analyze frequency and latency of social interaction…

  3. A Comparison of the Speech and Language Skills of Children with Cochlear Implants and Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Efrat A.; Roth, Froma P.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the language skills of children with cochlear implants (CIs) compared to normal hearing (NH) peers. Standardized speech and language measures, including speech articulation, receptive and expressive vocabulary, syntax and morphology, and metalinguistics, were administered to 39 congenitally deaf children, ages 5 to 14, and a…

  4. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  5. Twenty-four-hour osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen rhythms in normal and growth-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, S; Cinquanta, L; DiNero, G

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between spontaneous variations in serum 24-h osteocalcin (OC), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentrations and GH secretion, measured as GH response to provocative pharmacologic stimuli and spontaneous GH secretion during 24 h, were evaluated in prepubertal normal children and in GH-deficient and GH-secreting short normal children (SNC). All the subjects showed a circadian rhythm in smoothed 24-h OC and PICP mean data with higher nocturnal values in comparison with diurnal values. Conversely, serum PIINP concentrations did not vary throughout the day. In children with classic GH deficiency and nonclassic GH deficiency, mean 24-h serum levels and smoothed 24-h mean data for OC, PICP, and PIIINP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with respect to age-matched controls. SNC showed mean 24-h OC concentrations similar (p = NS) to those we found in age-matched controls, but they had significantly lower (p < 0.001) diurnal 12-h mean data in comparison with controls. SNC also showed both 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data and smoothed 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data significantly lower (from p < 0.02 to p < 0.001) at all the time points of measurement in comparison with controls. Twenty-four-hour PICP and PIIINP mean data were positively related to spontaneous 24-h GH concentrations (r = 0.77, p < 0.005 and r = 0.69, p < 0.005, respectively) and growth velocity (r = 0.85, p < 0.005, and r = 0.70, p < 0.005, respectively), whereas 24-h OC mean data were not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047377

  6. Past Tense Production in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment Across Germanic Languages: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the extent to which children with specific language impairment (SLI) across Germanic languages differ from their typically developing (TD) peers in the use of past tense morphology. Method A systematic literature search identified empirical studies examining regular and/or irregular past tense production by English and non-English Germanic-speaking children with SLI and their TD peers. Data from qualifying studies were extracted and converted to Hedges's g effect sizes. Results Seventeen English and 8 non-English Germanic studies met inclusionary criteria. Comparing children with SLI and their TD age-matched (TDA) peers resulted in large combined effect sizes for English and non-English Germanic regular and irregular past tense production. Comparisons between children with SLI and their TD younger (TDY) peers also revealed large combined effect sizes for English and non-English Germanic regular past tense production. Effect sizes for studies comparing SLI and TDY irregular past tense production were large for non-English Germanic-speaking children and moderate for English-speaking children. Conclusions Results suggest that children with SLI across Germanic languages do indeed have more difficulty marking verbs for past tense than TDA and TDY peers. The findings suggest that the potential value of past tense production as a clinical marker of SLI may well extend beyond English. PMID:26049065

  7. A Comparison of Open Space and Traditional Classroom Structures According to Independence Measures in Children, Teachers' Awareness of Children's Personality Variables, and Children's Academic Progress. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grapko, Michael F.

    The project attempted to discern the possible resulting effects on children and teachers from major structural changes in the design of classroom space. Three assumptions were tested: (1) children will assume greater initiative in resource use, (2) teachers get to know the children better, and (3) team teaching in open space classrooms contributes…

  8. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  9. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Santosh; Karande, Sunil; Saxena, Akriti A.; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls) using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction) were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests. PMID:25579146

  10. The Comparison of Participation in School-Aged Cerebral Palsy Children and Normal Peers: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Hasani, Madineh; Amini, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Background Participation in daily activities during childhood is an important aspect for health and social development. Objectives This study was designed to investigate the participation of children with cerebral palsy aged 8 to 14 years, and their normal peers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 30 children with cerebral palsy, and 30 normal children were selected via the non-probability convenience sampling. Their participation was evaluated with children’s assessment of participation and enjoyment (CAPE) through interviews. Results Significant differences were found between the means of the two groups regarding the diversity, intensity, overall participation (P = 0.000) and all types of the activities except the recreational activities. The children with cerebral palsy took part in the skill-based activities and overall activities individually compared to the normal peers. The children with cerebral palsy, in comparison with their normal peers, often performed most of the activities inside the house. The main effect of gender and the interaction between gender and groups were not statistically significant in any of the variables of the CAPE test. Conclusions Physical disability can influence the children’s daily activities and socialization. Understanding the participation of physically disabled children can help health care professionals in designing and introducing appropriate treatment according to their needs. PMID:27617075

  11. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  12. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD.

  13. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars.

  14. Are Children with ‘Pure’ Generalized Anxiety Disorder Impaired? A Comparison with Comorbid and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Candice A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the approach of DSM-5, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) of childhood continues to face question as to whether it should be considered a distinct clinical disorder. A potentially critical question embedded in this debate involves the role of functional impairment which has yet to be demonstrated in children with ‘pure’ GAD. Methods Participants included 41 children between the ages of 6 and 11 years who met diagnostic criteria for primary GAD. Children with pure GAD (n=17) were compared to children with comorbid GAD (n=24) as well as a healthy control group (n=20) in terms of clinician-rated severity and impairment and child-reported adaptive functioning across four domains. Results On average, children with pure GAD were more likely to be male and younger than children with comorbid GAD. Based on traditional significance testing, global impairment was greater in the comorbid compared to pure GAD group, although functioning in both groups was in the ‘variable’ range. Both clinical groups reported less adaptive family relationships than controls, while only the comorbid group reported lower levels of home-based functioning. Equivalence testing nonetheless indicated a lack of comparability (i.e., non-equivalence) across the three groups for each of the functional domains examined. Conclusions Findings indicate children with pure GAD to be functionally impaired compared to their healthy peers, though not to the same extent as children with secondary psychiatric diagnoses. Child functioning within the family specifically may be among the most vulnerable. Results support consideration of childhood GAD as a distinct clinical disorder. PMID:22963176

  15. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mariana M.; Corsi, Carolina; Marques, Luisa A. P.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. Objective Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. Method Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children) and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children). All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. Results Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. Conclusion The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers. PMID:24346293

  16. Noise on, Voicing off: Speech Perception Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Lorenzi, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Speech perception of four phonetic categories (voicing, place, manner, and nasality) was investigated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19) in quiet and various noise conditions using an AXB two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Children with SLI exhibited robust speech perception deficits in…

  17. Categorical Speech Perception Deficits Distinguish Language and Reading Impairments in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Ng, Stella

    2009-01-01

    We examined categorical speech perception in school-age children with developmental dyslexia or Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to age-matched and younger controls. Stimuli consisted of synthetic speech tokens in which place of articulation varied from "b" to "d". Children were tested on categorization, categorization in noise, and…

  18. The Impact of Dual Tasking on Sentence Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve; Prigent, Gaid; Maillart, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the hypothesis of a limitation in attentional allocation capacity as underlying poor sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age-matched controls, and 15 grammar-matched controls participated in the study. Sixty sentences were…

  19. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  20. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  1. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Children with Autism: Relationship with Sensory Processing Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Fu, Chung-Pei; Cermak, Sharon A.; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sensory processing (SP) dysfunction and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children with autism and then examine the relationship between the SP dysfunction and emotional and behavioral problems. The parents of 112 children aged 48-84 months (67 with autism; 45 age-matched typically developing)…

  2. Early Language Development of Children at Familial Risk of Dyslexia: Speech Perception and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Ellen; de Bree, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Speech perception and speech production were examined in 3-year-old Dutch children at familial risk of developing dyslexia. Their performance in speech sound categorisation and their production of words was compared to that of age-matched children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls. We found that speech…

  3. Deficient Orthographic and Phonological Representations in Children with Dyslexia Revealed by Brain Activation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Bitan, Tali; Chou, Tai-Li; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The current study examined the neuro-cognitive network of visual word rhyming judgment in 14 children with dyslexia and 14 age-matched control children (8- to 14-year-olds) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: In order to manipulate the difficulty of mapping orthography to phonology, we used conflicting and…

  4. Metabolic Imbalance Associated with Methylation Dysregulation and Oxidative Damage in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George J.; Schulz, Eldon; Lopez, Maya; Kahler, Stephen G.; Fussell, Jill J.; Bellando, Jayne; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Rose, Shannon; Seidel, Lisa; Gaylor, David W.; James, S. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and abnormal DNA methylation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autism. We investigated the dynamics of an integrated metabolic pathway essential for cellular antioxidant and methylation capacity in 68 children with autism, 54 age-matched control children and 40 unaffected siblings. The metabolic profile of unaffected…

  5. Rhythmic Bimanual Coordination Is Impaired in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenhower, Robert W.; Marsh, Kerry L.; Richardson, Michael J.; Helt, Molly; Schmidt, R. C.; Fein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in motor coordination are a common behavioral manifestation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We, therefore, used a drumming methodology to examine rhythmic bimanual coordination in children diagnosed with ASD (M = 47.3 months) and age-matched typically developing (TD) children (M = 42.6 months). Both groups were instructed to drum on…

  6. Knowledge of Mathematical Equivalence in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Insights from Gesture and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W.; Ryan, Kristin; Evans, Julia L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated understanding of mathematical equivalence in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children (ages 8;1 [years;months] to 11;7), including 9 with expressive SLI (E-SLI), 8 with expressive and receptive SLI (ER-SLI), and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children…

  7. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  8. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  9. Perception of Stop Onset Spectra in Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra…

  10. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  11. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  12. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children.…

  13. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  14. Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC Correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorale, Ann M.; Brown, Fred

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated whether a positive relationship between Bender-Gestalt performance and intelligence test scores would be found for Puerto Rican children and, as well, the generalizability of previous results obtained with Negro children. (Author/RK)

  15. Urban Working Children: A Comparison of Four Surveys from South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The results of four field surveys of urban working children in Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru are compared. The article focuses on children working in the streets, discussing their occupations, earnings, family situation, education, aspirations, and needs. (SK)

  16. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  17. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  18. Scaffolding Preschool Children's Problem Solving: A Comparison between Chinese Mothers and Teachers across Multiple Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study compared Chinese mothers' and teachers' scaffolding of preschool children in different problem solving tasks. Participants were 57 children (including 29 girls) from seven kindergartens in Beijing, their mothers and teachers. Mothers varied in educational levels while all teachers were professionally qualified. Children solved four…

  19. International BMI Comparison of Children and Youth with Intellectual Disabilities Participating in Special Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A.; Foley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year…

  20. An Epidemiological Comparison of Parasitic Infection among Preschool Children in Four Areas in Lagos, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.

    1995-01-01

    Examined incidence of parasitic infections in school children in four contrasting areas of Lagos, Nigeria. Found that almost 40% of the infections identified were of the low socioeconomic status children. The 20 children from the higher socioeconomic status area, with the highest environmental sanitation, were without parasites. Twelve percent of…

  1. Maternal Functional Speech to Children: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Zaninelli, M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities benefit from their language environment as much as, or even more than, typically developing (TD) children, but maternal language directed to developmentally delayed children is an underinvestigated topic. The purposes of the present study were to compare maternal functional language directed to children…

  2. Productive Vocabulary among Three Groups of Bilingual American Children: Comparison and Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of input factors for bilingual children's vocabulary development was investigated. Forty-seven Argentine, 42 South Korean, 51 European American, 29 Latino immigrant, 26 Japanese immigrant, and 35 Korean immigrant mothers completed checklists of their 20-month-old children's productive vocabularies. Bilingual children's vocabulary…

  3. The Relationship between Parent's Comparisons of Nouns and Children's Noun Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brojde, Chandra Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Previous literature shows that language input is related to the language that children produce. Less is known about how the input provided to children relates to the way that they process language. In this study, this question was explored by looking at the relationships between children's word learning ability and the kinds of names provided by…

  4. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  5. Delay of Gratification in Native and White Children: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Mayer, Elaine V.

    1990-01-01

    Findings revealed that Ojibwa and Caucasian Canadian children acquired delay of gratification with age at about the same rate, supporting the conclusion that the development of the delay of gratification is a cross-cultural phenomenon. Native children tended to show less delay of gratification than White children. (RH)

  6. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  7. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  8. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  9. A Comparison of Eating Behaviors between Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith; Smith, Angela F.

    2004-01-01

    Although clinicians typically assume that feeding problems co-exist with a diagnosis of autism, no previous research has compared the eating behavior of children with autism to typically developing children. This study compared caregiver report of eating problems of children with and without autism on a standardized questionnaire. The…

  10. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: A Comparison of Risks for Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigates differences between inmate mothers' and fathers' reported rates of incarceration for family members, adult children, predictors of adult children's incarceration, and living situations of minor children. Participants included 6,146 inmates who participated in the U.S. Department of Justice Survey of Inmates in State…

  11. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by…

  12. A Comparison of Patterns of Sensory Processing in Children with and without Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Phoebe P. P.; Siu, Andrew M. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the patterns of sensory processing among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and children without disabilities. Parents reported on the frequency of sensory processing issues by completing the Chinese Sensory Profile (CSP). Children with disabilities (ASD or ADHD)…

  13. Psychological and Neurobehavioral Comparisons of Children with Asperger's Disorder versus High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thede, Linda L.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated personality and neurobehavioral differences between 16 children with Asperger's Disorder, 15 children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA), and 31 controls, all ranging in age from 5-17 years, M age = 10.7 years, SD = 3.0. Parents rated their children's behaviors on a 44-item autistic symptoms survey and on the 200-item…

  14. A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Beliefs about Having Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenrick S.

    1980-01-01

    Compared beliefs, perceptions, and decisions of Black and White adolescents on having children. Both Black males and females expressed stronger beliefs than White respondents that having children promotes greater marital success, personal security, and approval. Blacks expressed stronger beliefs that couples should have as many children as they…

  15. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  16. Young Children's Measurement Knowledge: Understandings about Comparison at the Commencement of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered during a three-year study that explored the experiences with measurement that children have in prior-to-school and out-of-school contexts, and the ways in which children are able to represent these experiences. In this present investigation, examples of the children's responses to an open-ended drawing task,…

  17. A Comparison of the Oral Language Patterns of Mature and Immature First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Elizabeth Foster

    To ascertain if there are significant differences in the frequency of use of movables and connectors in the oral speech patterns of mature and immature children from middle and low socioeconomic levels, 60 beginning first grade children were studied. The Warner-Meeker-Eells Index of Status Characteristics classified children into middle and low…

  18. "Plyo Play": A Novel Program of Short Bouts of Moderate and High Intensity Exercise Improves Physical Fitness in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Farrell, Anne C.; Radler, Tracy; Zbojovsky, Dan; Chu, Donald A.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kang, Jie; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a school-based plyometric training program (i.e., Plyo Play) on children's fitness performance. Forty children (8 to 11 yrs) participated in the program and 34 age-matched children served as controls. Performance of the long jump, sit and reach flexibility, abdominal curl, push-up, shuttle…

  19. Children's Well-Being: An International Comparison. A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session together with Additional Minority Views. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Frank; Lippman, Laura

    This report presents international statistics on the status of children and families, and thus updates a 1988 fact sheet containing international comparisons of public policies promoting the well-being of children and families. Included in the report are data on basic demographic trends, family composition and marital dissolution, the economic…

  20. A Comparison of the Motor Ability of 8 and 9 Year Old Primary School Children in Hamburg, Melbourne and Cape Town--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Jurgen; Saunders, John; Bressan, Liz; Erhorn, Jan; Wirszing, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An increasing worldwide concern about a decline in the quality of the motor ability of children was the motivation for this exploratory comparative study. It involves a comparison of the motor ability of children aged 8 and 9 years from Hamburg (n = 774), Melbourne (n = 141) and Cape Town (n = 81). Since each of these global cities represents a…

  1. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  2. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  3. A comparison of physical activity in Gambian and UK children aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M; Lawrence, F; Durnin, J V; Whitehead, R G

    1991-05-01

    The activity patterns of 81 Gambian and 53 UK children aged six, 12 or 18 months were compared by means of an activity diary technique. Major differences between communities were observed in the duration of play (2-3 times longer in UK compared to Gambian children) and in the duration of vigorous activities such as crawling, walking and running (2-4 times longer duration in the UK compared to the The Gambia). To investigate whether the lower activity of Gambian children could be explained by differences in nutritional or health status, subgroups of Gambian children were compared. Only small differences in activity pattern were found between Gambian children above and below 80% weight for age and between Gambian children who were or were not diagnosed ill within 10 days of study, suggesting that other factors (e.g. socio-cultural differences or the absence of conventional toys) may explain the lower activity of Gambian compared to UK children. PMID:1915195

  4. Oral penicillin prescribing for children in the UK: a comparison with BNF for Children age-band recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sonia; Ismael, Zareen; Murray, Macey L; Barker, Charlotte; Wong, Ian CK; Sharland, Mike; Long, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Background The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) recommends dosing oral penicillins according to age-bands, weight-bands, or weight-based calculations. Because of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity, age-band-based prescribing could lead to subtherapeutic dosing. Aim To investigate actual oral penicillin prescribing by GPs in the UK with reference to the current BNFC age-band recommendations. Design and setting Descriptive analysis of UK prescriptions in the 2010 IMS Disease-Analyzer database (IMS-DA). Method A detailed database analysis was undertaken of oral penicillin prescriptions for 0–18 year olds from the 2010 IMS-DA. The prescription analysis included all available data on formulation, strength (mg), prescription quantity unit, package size, prescribed quantity, and volume. Results Considering amoxicillin alone, no infants (aged <1 year) were prescribed the BNFC 2011 edition recommended unit dose (62.5 mg), while the majority received double the dose (125 mg); among children aged 1–5 years, 96% were prescribed the recommended unit dose (125 mg), but 40% of 6–12 year olds and 70% of 12–18 year olds were prescribed unit doses below the BNFC recommendations. For otitis media, only those children aged <1 year received the recommended dose of amoxicillin (40–90 mg/kg/day). Similar variations in dosing across age-bands were observed for phenoxymethylpenicillin and flucloxacillin. Conclusion There is wide variation in the dosing of penicillins for children in UK primary care, with very few children being prescribed the current national recommended doses. There is an urgent need to review dosing guidelines, in relation to the weights of children today. PMID:24686886

  5. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  6. Parenting Young Children with and without Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used…

  7. Discourse Formulation in Children with Closed Head Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Emma; Moran, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In this study, narrative and expository discourse-retelling abilities were compared in 9 children with closed head injury (CHI) age 9;5-15;3 (years;months) and 9 typically developing age-matched peers. Narrative and expository retellings were analyzed according to language variables (i.e., number of words, number of T-units, and sentential…

  8. Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

  9. Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    PahlavanNezhad, Mohammad Reza; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender. Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=−2/90, P<0/05) and “grammatical completion” (t=−3/39, P<0/05) subtests, with no significant difference in the “grammatical understanding” subtest (t=1/67, P>0/05). Moreover, there was no significant difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in terms of syntactic skills development. Conclusion: With early diagnosis and timely rehabilitating intervention, children with hearing loss can perform in a similar way to children of their age with normal hearing in some syntactical areas. Furthermore, the gender factor in the present study had no effect on the development of syntactical skills of children with hearing loss. PMID:24744994

  10. Comparison of Health-Related Quality of Life between children with cerebral palsy and spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Sezen; Simsek, Tülay Tarsuslu

    2013-09-01

    This study has two aims-the first is to compare the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) between children with cerebral palsy (CP) and children with spina bifida (SB); the second is to investigate the relationship between HRQoL and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), level of ambulation, cooperation, family income and the mother's education level in both groups of children. The study included 96 children with CP and 70 children with SB (aged 5-18) who attended a physiotherapy and rehabilitation program at an institute of special training and rehabilitation. Socio-demographic information was obtained within the study. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) was used to evaluate HRQoL. A significant difference was found in terms of age and BMI between children with CP and SB (p<0.05). HRQoL was lower for children with CP. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of role/social limitations - emotional behavioral, behavior, global behavior, parental impact-emotional and parental impact-time (p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between BMI and self-esteem in children with SB, unlike children with CP. The HRQoL of children with CP was lower than children with SB. The parameters of behavior and parental impact were particularly affected in the children with CP. Minimizing behavioral problems (which can improve with advancing age) of the children with CP and reducing parental impact are important for improving the HRQoL of both the child and parents. There is a need for further studies on this issue. PMID:23787116

  11. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  12. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  13. A Comparison of the Oral Health Status of Children Who Are Blind and Children Who Are Sighted in Istanbul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Sungurtekin, Elif; Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining oral health is central to a high quality of life because it limits the risks of disease. The oral health status of children with visual impairments should be investigated so their health care needs can be determined and preventive dental procedures can be implemented. This paper presents a study that aimed to evaluate the oral health…

  14. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population. PMID:25810598

  15. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  16. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  17. Behaviors and blood lead levels of children in a lead-mining area and a comparison community

    SciTech Connect

    Murgueytio, A.M.; Evans, R.G.; Sterling, D.; Serrano, F.; Roberts, D.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between behavioral and other modifiable factors and blood lead levels in children living in a lead-mining community and in a comparison group of children. Children six to 71 months of age were selected from a community that was heavily contaminated with lead-mining waste and from a comparison community. Participants were interviewed, and venous blood was collected for lead analysis. Environmental measurements of soil, dust, and paint were made. Study results indicate that average blood lead levels and environmental measurements were significantly higher in the mining community. Factors that were related to blood lead levels included income, education, home ownership, age of home, playing in grassy areas rather than dirt, putting nonfood items in mouth, bathing and washing practices, number of hours playing outside, taking nonfood items outside, swallowing nonfood items, and putting paint chips in mouth. These factors explained more of the variation in blood lead levels in the control group than in the mining group. Lead intervention strategies that consist only of education designed to modify behavior might be less effective in high-exposure areas such as those where lead-mining and smelting operations occur. Interventions that combine education with remedial activities are more effective in prevention of lead exposure.

  18. Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

    2014-11-01

    A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed. PMID:25462488

  19. Comparison between diagnostic instruments for identifying high-functioning children with autism.

    PubMed

    Yirmiya, N; Sigman, M; Freeman, B J

    1994-06-01

    Two instruments for identifying autism in children and adolescents with intellectual abilities in the normal range were compared. Diagnostic tools consisted of the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI). The sample was composed of 18 children who were all diagnosed as having either infantile autism or infantile autism, residual state based on DSM-III criteria by a clinical team using observations, parental interviews, and interactions with the children. Only 4 of the children met diagnostic cutoffs for autism on the current ABC but all met criteria for diagnosis on the ABC using parental recall of the child's behavior at 3-5 years of age. The ADI had somewhat greater specificity in that 3 children did not meet criteria for diagnosis although 2 of these children also received ABC scores based on parental recollection that were in the borderline range. PMID:8050982

  20. Children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'before': a comparison of English and Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny'. English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ('The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny'). This interpretation conforms with classical logic. Mandarin disjunction ('huozhe') can take scope over 'before' ('zai … zhiqian'), so the same sentence can mean 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or before the bunny (I don't know which)'. If children are guided by adult input in the acquisition of sentence meanings, English- and Mandarin-speaking children should assign different interpretations to such sentences. If children are guided by logical principles, then children acquiring either language should initially assign the conjunctive interpretation of disjunction. A truth-value judgment task was used to test this prediction and English- and Mandarin-speaking children were found to behave similarly.

  1. A comparison of rural and urban Indian children's visual detection of threatening and nonthreatening animals.

    PubMed

    Penkunas, Michael J; Coss, Richard G

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that young children preferentially attend to snakes, spiders, and lions compared with nondangerous species, but these results have yet to be replicated in populations that actually experience dangerous animals in nature. This multi-site study investigated the visual-detection biases of southern Indian children towards two potentially dangerous taxa, snakes and lions, that constituted major threats during human evolution. Three- to 8-year-old children from two distinct populations were presented with visual-search tasks containing one target image embedded in matrices of eight distractor images. Children living in Bangalore city, an urban setting in which exposure to dangerous animals would only occur occasionally during family outings to zoos and forest areas, were compared with children living in and around National Parks where exposure to dangerous species is frequent. In the first two experiments, children from both locations detected snake and lion images more rapidly than nonthreatening lizard and antelope images, respectively. Neither urban nor rural children displayed a bias for detecting horses versus cows, the latter constituting a familiar animal with strong religious significance. For all three experiments, the reaction times of urban and rural children were very similar, indicating that periodic exposure to dangerous animals early in life, coupled with adult cautioning, did not facilitate better snake and lion detection. This consistency of urban and rural children with different exposure to dangerous animals suggests that detection of some dangerous species may reflect both experience in nature and visual biases shaped by natural selection.

  2. Comparison of Auditory Perception in Cochlear Implanted Children with and without Additional Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Monshizadeh, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number of children with cochlear implants who have other difficulties such as attention deficiency and cerebral palsy has increased dramatically. Despite the need for information on the results of cochlear implantation in this group, the available literature is extremely limited. We, therefore, sought to compare the levels of auditory perception in children with cochlear implants with and without additional disabilities. Methods: A spondee test comprising 20 two-syllable words was performed. The data analysis was done using SPSS, version 19. Results: Thirty-one children who had received cochlear implants 2 years previously and were at an average age of 7.5 years were compared via the spondee test. From the 31 children, 15 had one or more additional disabilities. The data analysis indicated that the mean score of auditory perception in this group was approximately 30 scores below that of the children with cochlear implants who had no additional disabilities. Conclusion: Although there was an improvement in the auditory perception of all the children with cochlear implants, there was a noticeable difference in the level of auditory perception between those with and without additional disabilities. Deafness and additional disabilities depended the children on lip reading alongside the auditory ways of communication. In addition, the level of auditory perception in the children with cochlear implants who had more than one additional disability was significantly less than that of the other children with cochlear implants who had one additional disability. PMID:27217602

  3. Cross-cultural comparison of motor competence in children from Australia and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bardid, Farid; Rudd, James R; Lenoir, Matthieu; Polman, Remco; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence in childhood is an important determinant of physical activity and physical fitness in later life. However, childhood competence levels in many countries are lower than desired. Due to the many different motor skill instruments in use, children's motor competence across countries is rarely compared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the motor competence of children from Australia and Belgium using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). The sample consisted of 244 (43.4% boys) Belgian children and 252 (50.0% boys) Australian children, aged 6-8 years. A MANCOVA for the motor scores showed a significant country effect. Belgian children scored higher on jumping sideways, moving sideways and hopping for height but not for balancing backwards. Moreover, a Chi squared test revealed significant differences between the Belgian and Australian score distribution with 21.3% Belgian and 39.3% Australian children scoring "below average." The very low levels reported by Australian children may be the result of cultural differences in physical activity contexts such as physical education and active transport. When compared to normed scores, both samples scored significantly worse than children 40 years ago. The decline in children's motor competence is a global issue, largely influenced by increasing sedentary behavior and a decline in physical activity.

  4. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  5. Productive Use of the English Past Tense in Children with Focal Brain Injury and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Saccuman, Cristina; Wulfeck, Beverly

    2004-01-01

    In this study, 22 children with early left hemisphere (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) focal brain lesions (FL, n=14 LHD, n=8 RHD) were administered an English past tense elicitation test (M=6.5 years). Proportion correct and frequency of overregularization and zero-marking errors were compared to age-matched samples of children with specific…

  6. Oral and Written Discourse Skills in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: The Role of Reading and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the discourse skills of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children by comparing their oral and written narratives produced for the wordless picture book, "Frog, Where Are You?" (Mayer, 1969), with those of school-age-matched hearing peers. The written stories produced by 42 Italian 7- to 15-year-old children with…

  7. Information Processing by School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from a Modality Effect Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Cowan, Nelson; Marler, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched controls were tested for immediate recall of digits presented visually, auditorily, or audiovisually. Recall tasks compared speaking and pointing response modalities. SLI children showed small recency effects as well as an unusually poor recall when visually…

  8. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  9. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brainstem in children with achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    BOSEMANI, THANGAMADHAN; ORMAN, GUNES; CARSON, KATHRYN A; MEODED, AVNER; HUISMAN, THIERRY A G M; PORETTI, ANDREA

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aims of this study were to compare, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brainstem, microstructural integrity of the white matter in children with achondroplasia and age-matched participants and to correlate the severity of craniocervical junction (CCJ) narrowing and neurological findings with DTI scalars in children with achondroplasia. This study also aimed to assess the potential role of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 on white matter microstructure. Method Diffusion tensor imaging was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance scanner and balanced pairs of diffusion gradients along 20 non-collinear directions. Measurements were obtained from regions of interest, sampled in each pontine corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus, and middle cerebellar peduncle, as well as in the lower brainstem and centrum semiovale, for fractional anisotropy and for mean, axial and radial diffusivity. In addition, a severity score for achondroplasia was assessed by measuring CCJ narrowing. Result Eight patients with achondroplasia (seven males, one female; mean age 5y 6mo, range 1y 1mo–15y 1mo) and eight age- and sex-matched comparison participants (mean age 5y 2mo, range 1y 1mo–14y 11mo) were included in this study. Fractional anisotropy was lower and mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were higher in the lower brainstem of patients with achondroplasia than in age-matched comparison participants. The CST and middle cerebellar peduncle of the participants showed increases in mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy in the lower brainstem was negatively correlated with the degree of CCJ narrowing. No differences in the DTI metrics of the centrum semiovale were observed between the two groups. Interpretation The reduction in fractional anisotropy and increase in diffusivities in the lower brainstem of participants with achondroplasia may reflect secondary encephalomalacic degeneration and cavitation of the affected white matter

  11. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Children's Version in Japan: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Kuroda, Miho; Wheelwright, Sally

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, the child AQ was administered in Japan, to examine whether the UK results for reliability and validity generalize to a different culture. Assessment groups were: Group 1: n = 81 children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: n = 22 children diagnosed PDD-NOS with average IQ; and Group 3: n =…

  12. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  13. Cross Syndrome Comparison of Sleep Problems in Children with Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous findings of frequent sleep problems in children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS), the present study aimed to expand our knowledge by using parent report and actigraphy to define sleep problems more precisely in these groups. Twenty-two school-aged children with DS, 24 with WS and 52 typically developing (TD)…

  14. Dose Frequency: Comparison of Language Outcomes in Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding treatment intensity provide evidence for service delivery decision-making in schools. In this pilot study, dose frequency effects (i.e. number of therapy sessions per week) on semantic and morphologic abilities in preschool children, ages 4;0 to 5;3 years of age, with language impairment were examined. Children enrolled in a…

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  16. Comparisons of Social Competence in Young Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Dynamic Systems Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that,…

  17. Play Therapy Applied by Parents for Children with Darkness Phobia: Comparison of Two Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santacruz, Isabel; Mendez, Francisco J.; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Two play therapies applied by parents for darkness phobia in young children are compared. Seventy-eight children between the ages of 4 and 8 were recruited from twenty-seven schools. The participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: bibliotherapy and games, emotive performances, and no treatment. The treatments were applied…

  18. When Kids Act Out: A Comparison of Embodied Methods to Improve Children's Memory for a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenhaus, Molly; Oakhill, Jane; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, embodied cognition, the idea that sensorimotor processes facilitate higher cognitive processes, has proven useful for improving children's memory for a story. In order to compare the benefits of two embodiment techniques, active experiencing (AE) and indexing, for children's memory for a story, we compared the immediate…

  19. Families of Children with and without Special Needs: A Comparison of Family Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Bigsby, Kathleen

    The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 increased the numbers of families eligible for special needs assistance, yet information concerning these families is minimal. This study explored the needs of families of preschool children with disabilities by comparing their family processes, parenting style, and children's social and…

  20. Mealtime Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Siblings: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadon, Genevieve; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated…

  1. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  2. Teaching Skills to Second and Third Grade Children to Prevent Gun Play: A Comparison of Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Pamela D.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Waters, Marit A.; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Bagne, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    A posttest only control group design was used to investigate the effects of two programs to teach firearm injury prevention skills to second and third grade children. Children were taught the safety skills "Stop. Don't touch. Leave the area. Tell an adult." should they ever find a firearm. The effectiveness of the National Rifle Association's…

  3. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  4. Assessing Young Children's Number Magnitude Representation: A Comparison between Novel and Conventional Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Baroody, Arthur J.; Purpura, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, researchers have relied on asking young children to plot a given number on a 0-to-10 number line to assess their mental representation of numbers 1 to 9. However, such a ("conventional") number-to-position (N-P) task may underestimate the accuracy of young children's magnitude estimates and misrepresent the nature of their…

  5. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  6. Kid Categories: A Comparison of the Category Productions of LSES and MSES Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rihana S.; Terry, Nicole Patton; Metzger, Isha

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the productivity (number of responses) and the typical responses to taxonomic and slot-filler prompts in 39 African American children from low-income backgrounds and a diverse group of 21 children from middle-income backgrounds. The authors tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic status would exert a global influence on…

  7. Attitudes to Animal Dilemmas: An Exploratory Comparison between Mexican and English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraza, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This research explores some of the factors that influence the relations about empathy and/or rejection that children establish towards some animal species. The role that school has within the social context in these dynamics was considered. Attitudes of young children (aged 7 to 9) from Mexico and England towards specific animal species, examining…

  8. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  9. A Comparison of Parents' Attitudes Toward AEL's "Around the Bend" and Other Children's Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.

    This study compared the parental appeal of the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's television program, "Around the Bend," with "Captain Kangaroo" and "Romper Room." Data was solitited from 150 parents of children in each of the three treatment groups of the Early Childhood Education Program: (1) children who observed the television program only;…

  10. Early School Outcomes for Children of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Comparison with a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten-Alvarez, Laura E.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Smeekens, Sanny; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of the long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on child development have mostly focused on a limited set of outcomes, and have often not controlled for risk factors associated with maternal depression. The present study compared children of postpartum depressed mothers (n = 29) with children from a community…

  11. Children's Recall of Television and Print News: A Media Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma; van der Voort, Tom H. A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a cued-recall test taken by 152 Dutch fourth and sixth graders indicate that children who watch a children's news show on television recall more than those who read the same news in print regardless of reading proficiency or expectation of a memory test. (SLD)

  12. Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: An Exploratory Comparison of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some children with severe learning difficulties fail to begin word recognition. For these children there is a need for an effective and appropriate pedagogy. However, conflicting advice can be found regarding this derived from teaching approaches that are not based on a shared understanding of how reading develops or the skills that…

  13. Comparison of nasal swabs with nose blowing for community-based pneumococcal surveillance of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Leach, Amanda Jane; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Hare, Kim; Beissbarth, Jemima; Morris, Peter Stanley

    2008-06-01

    The nasopharynx (NP) is the preferred site for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in young children, but NP sampling is not well tolerated. We compared nose blowing with paired nasal swabs. The sensitivity of nose blowing was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI] 38 to 56%), which increased to 94% (95% CI, 85 to 98%) for children with visible secretions.

  14. Quantity Processing in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Evidence from Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf Children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic…

  15. COMPARISON OF TWO PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING READING TO PRIMARY CHILDREN WITH VISUAL PERCEPTION DIFFICULTIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAPRAY, MARGARET; ROSS, RAMON

    READING ABILITIES OF PRIMARY CHILDREN WITH VISUAL PERCEPTION PROBLEMS WHO WERE TAUGHT BY CONVENTIONAL METHODS WERE COMPARED TO THE ABILITIES OF CHILDREN GIVEN SPECIAL TRAINING DESIGNED TO IMPROVE FAULTY OR IMMATURE VISUAL PERCEPTION. ONE CONTROL GROUP PARTICIPATED IN SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUCH AS PICTURE COLORING AND THE OTHER CONTROL GROUP RECEIVED…

  16. Comparison of Egyptian and Canadian Children on a Picture Apperception Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbopoulos, Anastasia; Fisharah, Fatmah; Clark, James M.; El-Khatib, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism theory predicted that Egyptian and Canadian children's performance would differ on relevant scales of the Robert Apperception Test for Children (RATC). Findings validated cross-cultural use of the RATC and demonstrated that the increasingly general theory of collectivism allowed meaningful predictions about personality…

  17. Social Comparisons by Young Children in Preschool: Naturalistic Instructions and Teaching Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Assumes a process-in-action approach to studying young children's concept of self. Conceptualizes self-concept as spontaneously emerging from social interaction. Pedagogical implications are provided to suggest that teachers can take a number of positive steps toward respecting and enhancing children's attempts to achieve self-other knowledge.…

  18. A Comparison of General and Descriptive Praise in Teaching Intraverbal Behavior to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polick, Amy S.; Carr, James E.; Hanney, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive praise has been recommended widely as an important teaching tactic for children with autism, despite the absence of published supporting evidence. We compared the effects of descriptive and general praise on the acquisition and maintenance of intraverbal skills with 2 children with autism. The results showed slight advantages of…

  19. A Comparison of Two Phonological Awareness Techniques between Samples of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslanka, Phyllis; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differential effects of sound boxes and sound sort phonological awareness instructional techniques on preschoolers' phonological awareness performance. Finds that children in the sound box group significantly outperformed children in the sound sort group on isolating medial sounds and segmenting phonemes. Reveals that preschool…

  20. Writing with Young Children: A Comparison of Paternal and Maternal Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    The increasing involvement of fathers in active parenthood raises questions concerning their parenting style. This study compared mothers and fathers in their writing interactions with their young children, exploring how parents' writing guidance related to children's early literacy. Mothers and fathers of 51 kindergarteners were videotaped…

  1. Comparison of Video and Live Modeling in Teaching Response Chains to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…

  2. Comparison of Social Engagement of Children Having Disabilities with Their Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaaslan, Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences between mothers' and fathers' style of interaction and engagement with their preschool-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism. Data was collected from a sample of 27 mother-child and 27 father-child dyads in which all the children were diagnosed with DS or autism. Participants were both parents and their…

  3. Physical Activity of Malaysian Primary School Children: Comparison by Sociodemographic Variables and Activity Domains.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Parikh, Panam; Poh, Bee Koon; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the physical activity of primary school children according to sociodemographic characteristics and activity domains. Using the Malaysian South East Asian Nutrition Surveys data, 1702 children aged 7 to 12 years were included in the analysis. Physical activity was reported as a total score and categorized into low, medium, and high levels based on Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Higher overall activity scores were found in boys, younger age, non-Chinese ethnicity, and normal body mass index category. Sex, age, and ethnicity differences were found in structured or organized, physical education, and outside-of-school domain scores. Transport-related scores differed by age group, ethnicity, household income, and residential areas but not among the three physical activity levels. Participation of girls, Chinese, and older children were low in overall and almost all activity domains. Sociodemographic characteristics are important factors to consider in increasing the different domains of physical activity among Malaysian children. PMID:27257293

  4. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  5. Teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism: a comparison of textual and echoic prompts.

    PubMed

    Vedora, Joseph; Meunier, Laura; Mackay, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Although echoic prompts may be effective for teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism, the performance of some children may become dependent on such prompts (i.e., the prompts cannot be eliminated). Recent research suggests that visual rather than echoic prompts may be used to teach children with autism a variety of skills and may facilitate independent performance. In the present study, an adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of using visual (textual) and echoic prompts on acquisition of intraverbal responses (answering questions) by 2 children with autism. The results indicated that the textual prompts were more effective than the echoic prompts. Implications for the use of visual prompts during instruction with children with autism are discussed.

  6. Comparison of cardiorespiratory and EEG abnormalities with seizures in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Milena; Singh, Kanwaljit; Abdennadher, Myriam; Katz, Eliot S; Dworetzky, Barbara A; White, David P; Llewellyn, Nichelle; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) are proposed as possible risk factors for the occurrence of SUDEP. The evolution of cardiorespiratory abnormalities with seizures has not been systematically studied for any age-related findings. Additionally, not many studies have looked into the possible effect of age-related brain maturation on PGES. The purpose of this study was to compare these SUDEP risk factors in adults versus children. We prospectively recorded cardiopulmonary abnormalities during seizures using pulse oximetry, EKG, and respiratory inductance plethysmography. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for multiple seizures in a single patient were used to compare the cardiorespiratory and EEG findings between adults and children. We recorded 101 seizures in 26 children and 55 seizures in 22 adults. Ictal central apnea and bradycardia occurred more often in children than in adults (p=0.02 and p=0.008, respectively), while ictal tachycardia occurred more often in adults (p=0.001) than in children. Postictal generalized EEG suppression of longer duration occurred more often in adults (p=0.003) than in children. Minimum O2 saturation and seizure duration/generalization/lateralization did not significantly differ between adults and children (p>0.1). Children had more frontal lobe seizures, and adults had more temporal lobe seizures recorded (p=0.01). There may be an age-related effect on cardiorespiratory and EEG abnormalities associated with seizures, with higher rates of apnea and bradycardia in children and a much higher prevalence of PGES of longer duration in adults. This may indicate why, despite lower rates of cardiopulmonary dysfunction, adults die more frequently from SUDEP than children.

  7. A Comparison of PBDE Serum Concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American Children Living in California

    PubMed Central

    Fenster, Laura; Castorina, Rosemary; Marks, Amy R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Holland, Nina; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Lopez-Carillo, Lizbeth; Bradman, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are used as flame retardants, have been found to be higher in residents of California than of other parts of the United States. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the role of immigration to California on PBDE levels in Latino children. Methods: We compared serum PBDE concentrations in a population of first-generation Mexican-American 7-year-old children (n = 264), who were born and raised in California [Center for Health Analysis of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study], with 5-year-old Mexican children (n = 283), who were raised in the states in Mexico where most CHAMACOS mothers had originated (Proyecto Mariposa). Results: On average, PBDE serum concentrations in the California Mexican-American children were three times higher than their mothers’ levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than concentrations in the children living in Mexico. The PBDE serum concentrations were higher in the Mexican-American children regardless of length of time their mother had resided in California or the duration of the child’s breast-feeding. These data suggest that PBDE serum concentrations in these children resulted primarily from postnatal exposure. Conclusions: Latino children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels than their Mexican counterparts. Given the growing evidence documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels in young children noted in this study potentially present a major public health challenge, especially in California. In addition, as PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety benefits. PMID:21498147

  8. Comparison of indium-111 scintigraphy and colonoscopy with histologic study in children for evaluation of colonic chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tolia, V.; Kuhns, L.R.; Chang, C.H.; Slovis, T.L. )

    1991-04-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and colonoscopy were performed in 19 children and adolescents with chronic inflammatory bowel disease to study the correlation of evaluation between these two diagnostic modalities in comparison to histologic study for colonic disease. Seven patients had ulcerative colitis, 10 had Crohn's disease, and two patients had no specific diagnosis after evaluation. The sensitivity of indium-111 scan was 18%, specificity was 62.5%, and accuracy for diagnosing colonic disease was only 37%. In comparison, sensitivity and specificity for colonoscopy were 100 and 57%, respectively. Furthermore, accuracy with colonoscopy was 84%. The authors data suggest that the usefulness of scans is limited to patients in whom standard diagnostic procedures are contraindicated. In addition, it is essential to confirm the visual diagnostic impression on colonoscopy with histologic study.

  9. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language.

    PubMed

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K; Barker, David H

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  10. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K.; Barker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  11. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    PubMed

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001), glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001). Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury. PMID:26208104

  12. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    PubMed

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001), glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001). Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  13. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. PMID:23286454

  14. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  15. Are Horses Like Zebras, or Vice Versa? Children's Sensitivity to the Asymmetries of Directional Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Chestnut, Eleanor K; Markman, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    Adults exhibit strong preferences when framing symmetrical relations. Adults prefer, for example, "A zebra is like a horse" to "A horse is like a zebra," and "The bicycle is near the building" to "The building is near the bicycle." This is because directional syntax requires more typical or prominent items (i.e., reference points) to be placed in the complement position. Three experiments with children ages 4-8 (N = 181) explored whether children share this sensitivity to directional syntax. Children of this age showed an incipient preference for framing reference points as complements. Stating, "Girls do math as well as boys," which frames boys as the reference point for girls, may therefore actually teach children that boys set the standard.

  16. Comparison of behavior analytic and eclectic early interventions for young children with autism after three years.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jane S; Stanislaw, Harold; Green, Gina; Sparkman, Coleen R; Cohen, Howard G

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study, we compared the effects of just over one year of intensive behavior analytic intervention (IBT) provided to 29 young children diagnosed with autism with two eclectic (i.e., mixed-method) interventions (Howard, Sparkman, Cohen, Green, & Stanislaw, 2005). One eclectic intervention (autism programming; AP) was designed specifically for children with autism and was intensive in that it was delivered for an average of 25-30 h per week (n = 16). The other eclectic intervention (generic programming; GP) was delivered to 16 children with a variety of diagnoses and needs for an average of 15-17 h per week. This paper reports outcomes for children in all three groups after two additional years of intervention. With few exceptions, the benefits of IBT documented in our first study were sustained throughout Years 2 and 3. At their final assessment, children who received IBT were more than twice as likely to score in the normal range on measures of cognitive, language, and adaptive functioning than were children who received either form of eclectic intervention. Significantly more children in the IBT group than in the other two groups had IQ, language, and adaptive behavior test scores that increased by at least one standard deviation from intake to final assessment. Although the largest improvements for children in the IBT group generally occurred during Year 1, many children in that group whose scores were below the normal range after the first year of intervention attained scores in the normal range of functioning with one or two years of additional intervention. In contrast, children in the two eclectic treatment groups were unlikely to attain scores in the normal range after the first year of intervention, and many of those who had scores in the normal range in the first year fell out of the normal range in subsequent years. There were no consistent differences in outcomes at Years 2 and 3 between the two groups who received eclectic interventions

  17. Comparison of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urolithiasis Between Children and Adults: A Single Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Assad, Salman; Rahat Aleman Bhatti, Joshua; Hasan, Aisha; Shabbir, Muhammad Usman; Akhter, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urolithiasis and compare the results between children and adults. Materials and methods From January 2011 to January 2015 (four years), ESWL was performed in 104 children and 300 adults for urolithiasis. MODULITH® SLX-F2 lithotripter (Storz Medical AG, Tägerwilen, Switzerland) equipment was used for ESWL. The stone-free rates, the number of ESWL sessions required, complication rates and ancillary procedures used were evaluated in a comparative manner. Results The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of children was 7.84±4.22 years and of adults was a 40.22±1.57 years. Mean ± SD of the stone size was 1.28±61 cm in the adults while 1.08 ± 0.59 cm in the children. In adults, the complications included steinstrasse in six (1.98%) patients, fever in 15 (4.95%), hematuria in 19 (6.28%) and sepsis in six (1.98%) patients. In children, steinstrasse was observed in two (1.9%), mild fever in two (1.9%), hematuria in six (5.7%) and sepsis was seen in four (3.8%) patients. The overall complication rate in the adults and in the children, it was found to be 46/300 (15%) and in the children, it was seen to be 14/104 (13%). No statistical difference was found in post-ESWL complications between children and adults (P>0.05). Ancillary procedures including double J (DJ) stent were used in 13 (12.5%) children and 87 (29%) adults. There was a better stone clearance rate in children i.e. 79% as compared to 68% in adults (X2: P=0.036). Conclusion Children can achieve high stone-free rates after ESWL with a lower need for repeat ancillary procedures as compared to adults. However, there is a difference in the post-ESWL complications between these groups. PMID:27800291

  18. A comparison of salivary IgA in children with Down syndrome and their family members.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karthika; Milne, Trudy J; Drummond, Bernadette K; Cullinan, Mary P; Coates, Dawn E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in saliva (μg/ml) and also adjusted for salivary flow rate (SFR; μg/min). Twenty children with Down syndrome, ten siblings and twenty parents were recruited. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from the participants and SFR calculated. The measurement of salivary IgA (sIgA) was carried out using an indirect competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The difference in the mean SFR between children with Down syndrome, parents and siblings were not statistically significant. The mean salivary concentration of IgA was higher in children with Down syndrome (95.1 μg/ml) compared with siblings (48.3 μg/ml; p=0.004). When adjusted for SFR children with Down syndrome had mean sIgA levels of 98.8 μg/min and the siblings 48.6 μg/min (p=0.008). The children with Down syndrome had sIgA levels similar to those of the parents (92.5 μg/ml; 93.2 μg/min). There was a positive correlation between age and sIgA concentration in the siblings (p=0.008) but not for children with Down syndrome (p=0.363). This suggests that under similar environmental influences, the levels of sIgA in children with Down syndrome are higher than in the siblings, from a very young age.

  19. A comparison of seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among children from geographic regions with different climates

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Julia A.; McLaughlin, Anne P.; Stenger, Philip J.; Patrie, James; Brown, Mark A.; El-Dahr, Jane M.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Byrd, Nora J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fall peak in childhood asthma exacerbations is thought to be related to an increase in viral infections and allergen exposure when children return to school. Whether the seasonality of asthma attacks among children from different geographic regions follows similar trends is unclear. Objective: To compare seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among school-age children who lived in different geographic locations, with different climates, within the United States. Methods: Hospital billing data bases were examined to determine the monthly number of school-age children who were hospitalized or treated in the emergency department (ED) for asthma exacerbations. Data from four cities within three states were compared. Climate data were obtained from archives of the National Climate Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce. Results: An annual peak in asthma exacerbations was observed during the fall months (September through November) among children who lived in Charlottesville, Virginia, as well as throughout the state of Virginia. An increase in exacerbations, which peaked in November, was observed for exacerbations among children who lived in Tucson, Arizona, and Yuma, Arizona. In contrast, exacerbations among children from New Orleans, Louisiana, increased in September but remained elevated throughout the school year. Although there was annual variation in the frequency of exacerbations over time, the seasonal patterns observed remained similar within the locations from year to year. A nadir in the frequency of attacks was observed during the summer months in all the locations. Conclusion: Seasonal peaks for asthma exacerbations varied among the children who lived in geographic locations with different climates, and were not restricted to the beginning of the school year.

  20. Comparison of tangibly reinforced speech-reception and pure-tone thresholds of mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Weaver, N J; Wardell, F N; Martin, F N

    1979-03-01

    Sixteen mentally retarded children who had normal hearing were examined with two tests of auditory sensitivity. One procedure employed a tangibly reinforced operant-conditioning paradigm for pure tones, and the other test was based on a modification of operant conditioning for obtaining speech-reception thresholds. The speech procedure, utilizing an attractive mechanical device in the form of a clown, proved to be effective and efficient for use with retarded children. PMID:426010

  1. Comparison of tangibly reinforced speech-reception and pure-tone thresholds of mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Weaver, N J; Wardell, F N; Martin, F N

    1979-03-01

    Sixteen mentally retarded children who had normal hearing were examined with two tests of auditory sensitivity. One procedure employed a tangibly reinforced operant-conditioning paradigm for pure tones, and the other test was based on a modification of operant conditioning for obtaining speech-reception thresholds. The speech procedure, utilizing an attractive mechanical device in the form of a clown, proved to be effective and efficient for use with retarded children.

  2. Emotion displays in media: a comparison between American, Romanian, and Turkish children's storybooks

    PubMed Central

    Wege, Briana Vander; Sánchez González, Mayra L.; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Mihalca, Linda M.; Goodrich, Erica; Corapci, Feyza

    2014-01-01

    Children's books may provide an important resource of culturally appropriate emotions. This study investigates emotion displays in children's storybooks for preschoolers from Romania, Turkey, and the US in order to analyze cultural norms of emotions. We derived some hypotheses by referring to cross-cultural studies about emotion and emotion socialization. For such media analyses, the frequency rate of certain emotion displays can be seen as an indicator for the salience of the specific emotion. We expected that all children's storybooks would highlight dominantly positive emotions and that US children's storybooks would display negative powerful emotions (e.g., anger) more often and negative powerless emotions (e.g., sadness) less often than Turkish and Romanian storybooks. We also predicted that the positive and negative powerful emotion expressions would be more intense in the US storybooks compared to the other storybooks. Finally, we expected that social context (ingroup/outgroup) may affect the intensity emotion displays more in Turkish and Romanian storybooks compared to US storybooks. Illustrations in 30 popular children's storybooks (10 for each cultural group) were coded. Results mostly confirmed the hypotheses but also pointed to differences between Romanian and Turkish storybooks. Overall, the study supports the conclusion that culture-specific emotion norms are reflected in media to which young children are exposed. PMID:24987384

  3. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bradley S; Spratt, Eve G; Himes, John H; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p<0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p<0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p<0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.

  4. Comparisons of Social Competence in Young Children With and Without Hearing Loss: A Dynamic Systems Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5–5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that, due to deficits in oral language, children who were deaf would display lower levels of social competence than their hearing peers. Furthermore, language age would predict social competence scores. Social competence was measured with a general and deaf-specific measure. Results showed that children with hearing loss performed significantly worse than hearing peers on the general measure but better than the norms on the deaf-specific measure. Controlling for maternal education and income, regression analyses indicated that hearing status and language age predicted social competence in both groups. Among children with hearing loss, correlations were also found between age at diagnosis, age at amplification, and two of the general social competence measures. Results supported our hypothesis that deficits in language would have cascading negative effects on the development of social competence in young deaf children. Development of early intervention programs that target both language and social skills are needed for this population. PMID:25583707

  5. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  6. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bradley S.; Spratt, Eve G.; Himes, John H.; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3–10 years old, were recruited (n = 60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n = 15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n = 17), and controls (n = 28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p < 0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p < 0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system. PMID:25153568

  7. The effect of a Stroop-like task on postural control in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a secondary task on concurrent postural control was explored in twenty-one dyslexic children (mean age: 10.4 ± 0.3 years). Data were compared with twenty age-matched non-dyslexic children. As a secondary task, a modified Stroop test was used, in which words were replaced with pictures of fruits. The postural control of children was recorded in standard Romberg condition as the children were asked to name the colour of fruits appearing consecutively on a computer screen. Two conditions were tested: a congruent condition, in which the fruit was drawn in its natural ripe colour, and a non-congruent colour condition (NC), in which the fruit was drawn in three abnormal colours. A fixating condition was used as baseline. We analyzed the surface, length and mean speed of the center of pressure and measured the number of correct responses in the Stroop-like tasks. Dyslexic children were seen to be significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic ones. For both groups of children, the secondary task significantly increased postural instability in comparison with the fixating condition. The number of correct responses in the modified Stroop task was significantly higher in the non-dyslexic than in the dyslexic group. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children is in line with the cerebellar hypothesis and supports the idea of a deficit in automatic performance in such children. Furthermore, in accordance with cross domain competition model, our findings show that attentional resources are used to a greater extent by the secondary task than in controlling body stability.

  8. Comparison between a laser fluorescence device and visual examination in the detection of occlusal caries in children

    PubMed Central

    Kouchaji, Chaza

    2012-01-01

    Occlusal surfaces of molars are especially susceptible to the development of caries due to the features, such as pits and deep fissures, of their anatomical structure. Aim To evaluate the efficiency of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence measurements in comparison with visual examination for occlusal caries detection for first permanent molars in children. Methods The study involved 156 permanent molar teeth in 40 children aged 7–12 years. A relatively new technology, the fluorescence laser DIAGNOdent pen, was used for detecting and diagnosing caries on the occlusal surfaces of molars. The visual examination of fissures was based on the Ekstrand classification system. Results The results showed a strong relationship between examination with the DIAGNOdent and visual inspection. DIAGNOdent’s sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 52%, respectively, indicating that the laser fluorescence DIAGNOdent pen is a reproducible and accurate diagnostic tool that may be very helpful in conjunction with visual examination in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars in children. PMID:23960547

  9. Comparison among Children with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Nonverbal Learning Disorder and Typically Developing Children on Measures of Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) or Asperger's Syndrome (AS) may show difficulties with executive functioning. There were 3 groups in this study who completed a neuropsychological battery of visual-spatial, executive functioning, and reasoning tasks; AS (n = 37), NLD (n = 31), and controls…

  10. Phonological skills of children with specific expressive language impairment (SLI-E): outcome at age 3.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Rescorla, L; Giroux, J; Stevens, L

    1998-04-01

    Naturalistic speech samples of 29 3-year-olds diagnosed with specific expressive language delay (SU-E) were compared to those produced by 19 age-matched normally developing peers in order to determine their improvement in phonological skills since age 2, when Rescorla and Ratner (1996) studied them. Specifically, the groups were compared with regard to vocalization rate, verbalizations, fully intelligible utterances, phonetic inventories, percentages of consonants correct (PCC), phonological processes, and mean length of utterance (MLU). Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups in their numbers of vocalizations (as there had been at age 2), although there continued to be differences in their phonetic inventories, PCC scores, and overall intelligibility. These findings suggest that at age 2 the children with SU-E were not only less phonologically skilled but less talkative, whereas by age 3 they were equally vocal. Analysis of the phonetic inventories of the children demonstrated that for most consonants, the SLI-E group followed the some pattern of development as the comparison children, but more of the normally developing group had productive control of each consonant, consistent with findings of Rescorla and Ratner. There continued to be differences in intelligibility as measured by rates of verbalization (those utterances with at least one intelligible word) and fully intelligible utterances. Using these measures, we found that approximately half the SU-E children had caught up with their normally developing peers in terms of articulation, whereas half of them continued to be significantly delayed. Finally, although some of the late-bloomer group had caught up to the comparison children in language skills, as measured by MLU, many had not, suggesting that there was a tendency for the children to catch up in some articulation skills before catching up in language abilities. PMID:9570589

  11. Characteristics of single and double obstacle avoidance strategies: a comparison between adults and children.

    PubMed

    Berard, Jessica R; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2006-10-01

    Activities of daily living often require us to negotiate several obstacles in the travel path. To date, there is little work investigating how adults accomplish such tasks, and there is even less known about multiple obstacle avoidance strategies used by children. The current work will expand our knowledge about the role of vision in adults and children when avoiding two obstacles placed in their travel path under altered ambient lighting. Healthy 7-year old children (n=10; aged 7.51+/-0.2 years) and adults (n=10; aged 22.76+/-1.7 years) were instrumented with infrared markers (Optotrak, NDI) placed on anatomical landmarks and asked to walk along a ten meter path under three conditions: unobstructed, single obstacle, or double obstacle. These trials were performed under two lighting conditions: Full (simulating standard office lighting) and Low (simulating a dark hallway lit by nightlights). Data analyses included lead and trail clearance values, step length, step width and step velocity, take-off distance and Horizontal toe Displacement at Apex (HDA) which was defined as the distance between the horizontal position of the toe to the leading edge of the obstacle when the toe reaches its peak height. Adults were able to maintain consistent behaviour regardless of the number of obstacles in the travel path. Children, however, adjusted their foot placement for the second obstacle. This indicates that having multiple obstacles in the travel path is a more challenging task for 7-year old, and suggests that children at this age may not have fully developed anticipatory locomotor strategies. Children had larger clearance values than adults for the lead foot crossing the obstacle under all obstacle and lighting conditions, and consistently used larger HDA values than adults. Together, these findings suggest that children adopt more cautious strategies than adults in complex environments. Additionally, children decreased walking velocity, increased step width and decreased

  12. Acoustic and Perceptual Measurements of Prosody Production on the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems in Children by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Joshua John; Paul, Rhea

    2013-01-01

    Prosody production atypicalities are a feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but behavioral measures of performance have failed to provide detail on the properties of these deficits. We used acoustic measures of prosody to compare children with ASDs to age-matched groups with learning disabilities and typically developing peers. Overall,…

  13. Kinetic comparison of walking on a treadmill versus over ground in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Sloot, Lizeth H; Buizer, Annemieke I; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-10-15

    Kinetic outcomes are an essential part of clinical gait analysis, and can be collected for many consecutive strides using instrumented treadmills. However, the validity of treadmill kinetic outcomes has not been demonstrated for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study we compared ground reaction forces (GRF), center of pressure, and hip, knee and ankle moments, powers and work, between overground (OG) and self-paced treadmill (TM) walking for 11 typically developing (TD) children and 9 children with spastic CP. Considerable differences were found in several outcome parameters. In TM, subjects demonstrated lower ankle power generation and more absorption, and increased hip moments and work. This shift from ankle to hip strategy was likely due to a more backward positioning of the hip and a slightly more forward trunk lean. In mediolateral direction, GRF and hip and knee joint moments were increased in TM due to wider step width. These findings indicate that kinetic data collected on a TM cannot be readily compared with OG data in TD children and children with CP, and that treadmill-specific normative data sets should be used when performing kinetic gait analysis on a treadmill.

  14. Understanding linear measurement: A comparison of filipino and new zealand children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Kathryn C.; Ell, Fiona R.; Vistro-Yu, Catherine P.

    2004-06-01

    An understanding of linear measurement depends on principles that include standard unit size, iteration of units, numbering of a unit at its end, and partial units for measuring continuous length. Children may learn these principles at school, for example through experience with informal measurement, or they may learn them through use of measurement in society. This study compared the application of these principles by children aged 8 and 9 from the Philippines and New Zealand. These countries were selected because they have quite different curricula, societal influences and economies. Ninety-one children were interviewed individually on a common set of unusual tasks that were designed to tap underlying principles. Results showed many similarities and some differences between countries. Most tasks requiring visualisation and informal units were done more accurately by New Zealand children. Some tasks involving the use of a conventional ruler were done more accurately by Filipino children. These differences appear to be related to differences in curricula and possibly to differences in societal use of measurement. We suggest that these results, like those of other writers cited, demonstrate the need for extensive work on the underlying concepts in measurement through work on informal measurement and a careful transition between informal and formal measurement.

  15. Association between occlusal force and physical functions in preschool children: a comparison of males and females.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Aya; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Mitsumaru, Nozomi; Asami, Toyoko

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To determine and compare changes over time in the physical strength of male and female children aged 4-5 years by measuring physical functions such as occlusal forces. [Subjects and Methods] The occlusal force, weight, height, grip strength, standing long jump, ball throwing, timed up and go (TUG), and the 25-m run time were measured of 331 children to determine their physical strength. All the children understood and were capable of completing all tests. [Results] Occlusal force among male infants significantly correlated with all items except ball throwing. Stepwise multiple regression analysis independently associated occlusal force with grip strength. In contrast, occlusal force of female infants significantly correlated with all the tested items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis also independently associated occlusal force with grip strength and TUG in females. [Conclusion] Grip strength indicating upper-limb muscle strength correlated with occlusal forces in both male and female children, whereas TUG, balance and walking ability indicating muscle strength of the lower limbs, correlated with items relevant to everyday functions in female infants. These findings show that different factors are involved in the occlusal forces of male and female children. PMID:26834340

  16. A multimodal examination of sexual interest in children: a comparison of sex offenders and nonsex offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity.

  17. Comparison of the Source of Introduction to Cariogenic Food Substance and Caries Prevalence in Children

    PubMed Central

    Rangeeth, B.N.; Moses, Joyson; Sivakumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries being a multi-factorial disease depends on lot of factors. Since awareness and exposure seems to have increased, in the present scenario it is difficult to assume that one particular source would increase the occurrence of dental caries. Children are exposed to different media sources and spend most of their free time watching them. They are attracted by messages of advertisers’ and susceptible to stylish advertisements of foods often harmful to oral and general health. Aim: To compare the effects of three different sources of introduction to cariogenic food substance among school children and their role in caries prevalence. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 school children were selected for the study and a questionnaire was prepared keeping in mind the various sources introducing cariogenic foods to children namely television advertisement, magazines/news paper, posters/banners. Following which oral examination will be done to determine the number of carious lesions in the subjects. The data will be acquired, computed and statistically analysed to compare the correlation between these sources and caries prevalence. Results: Children who watched television advertisements and asked for food items and soft drinks were found to have more caries and DMFT/dmft index. Conclusion: A total ban on advertisements would not be practically possible. A more realistic approach would be to limit the number of advertisements that feature potentially cariogenic and unhealthy food products, and also ensure that they ideally carry statutory warnings. PMID:25584307

  18. Behavioral Assessment Of Impulsivity: A Comparison Of Children With And Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Marckel, Julie; Ferreri, Summer J; Bicard, David F; Endo, Sayaka; Aman, Michael G; Miller, Kelly M; Jung, Sunhwa; Nist, Lindsay; Armstrong, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a brief computer-based assessment involving choices of concurrently presented arithmetic problems associated with competing reinforcer dimensions to assess impulsivity (choices controlled primarily by reinforcer immediacy) as well as the relative influence of other dimensions (reinforcer rate, quality, and response effort), with 58 children. Results were compared for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were and were not receiving medication, and with typically developing children without ADHD. Within-subject and between-groups analyses of the ordinal influence of each of the reinforcer dimensions were conducted using both time- and response-allocation measures. In general, the choices of children with ADHD were most influenced by reinforcer immediacy and quality and least by rate and effort, suggesting impulsivity. The choices of children in the non-ADHD group were most influenced by reinforcer quality, and the influence of immediacy relative to the other dimensions was not statistically significant. Results are discussed with respect to the implications for assessment and treatment of ADHD. PMID:15898472

  19. A comparison of three therapy methods for children with different types of developmental phonological disorder.

    PubMed

    Dodd, B; Bradford, A

    2000-01-01

    Treatment case studies of three children whose speech was characterized by non-developmental errors are described. Three therapy methods were trialed with each child: phonological contrast; core vocabulary and PROMPT. The accuracy and intelligibility of the children's connected speech improved throughout the course of the programme. Intervention that focused on teaching a rule about the contrastive use of phonemes was most successful for a child who consistently made non-developmental errors. Children making inconsistent errors received most benefit from the core vocabulary approach that markedly enhanced consistency of production. However, once consistency was established, one child benefited from phonological contrast therapy. While the results of the study should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the cumulative effects of intervention, the findings suggest that different parts of a child's phonological and phonetic system may respond to various types of treatment approaches that target different aspects of speech production. The implication drawn is that just as no single treatment approach is appropriate for all children with disordered phonology, management of some children may involve selecting and sequencing a range of different approaches. PMID:10912251

  20. Magnitude comparisons by children with specific language impairments: evidence of unimpaired symbolic processing.

    PubMed

    Donlan, C; Bishop, D V; Hitch, G J

    1998-01-01

    A size judgement task was used to investigate number processing skills in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work with unimpaired adults and children has shown that when comparing the size of written numbers and other ordinal stimuli, there is a symbolic distance effect (SDE) such that decision time decreases with the size distance between items. This study examined the ability of children to judge stimulus pairs which were varied to contrast the processing of symbolic material against direct perceptual judgement and to test processing of numeric versus non-numeric material. Children with SLI were compared with a control group matched on verbal comprehension level. The children with SLI responded faster than the control subjects. The SLI and control groups showed similar SDE and a similar pattern of response across materials. No indication was found in the SLI data of any selective deficit in processing symbolic information. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of numeracy acquisition which acknowledge the importance of non-verbal representation of number meanings. PMID:9709434

  1. International BMI comparison of children and youth with intellectual disabilities participating in Special Olympics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A; Foley, John T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year olds (n=2035), and youth were defined as 12-18 year olds (n=7643). BMI prevalence rates were computed using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-points, and logistic regression was used to determine if either age or gender was associated with being overweight or obese. Approximately 30% of the sample was overweight or obese; however, the prevalence rates in North America were much higher, particularly among girls. Fifty-four percent of girls (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.4-57.2%) were overweight or obese. Logistic regression revealed that both age and gender were significant predictors in North America; however this pattern was not consistent throughout the world regions. BMI status is a significant indicator of health, and these findings suggest that overweight and obesity are significant health concerns for children and youth with intellectual disabilities around the world. Obesity rates in this population are particularly high in North America, and the odds of becoming overweight or obese increased with age in North America. It is critical that health professionals increase Health Promotion efforts, including physical activity and healthy eating behaviors for children and youth with intellectual disabilities.

  2. International BMI comparison of children and youth with intellectual disabilities participating in Special Olympics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A; Foley, John T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year olds (n=2035), and youth were defined as 12-18 year olds (n=7643). BMI prevalence rates were computed using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-points, and logistic regression was used to determine if either age or gender was associated with being overweight or obese. Approximately 30% of the sample was overweight or obese; however, the prevalence rates in North America were much higher, particularly among girls. Fifty-four percent of girls (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.4-57.2%) were overweight or obese. Logistic regression revealed that both age and gender were significant predictors in North America; however this pattern was not consistent throughout the world regions. BMI status is a significant indicator of health, and these findings suggest that overweight and obesity are significant health concerns for children and youth with intellectual disabilities around the world. Obesity rates in this population are particularly high in North America, and the odds of becoming overweight or obese increased with age in North America. It is critical that health professionals increase Health Promotion efforts, including physical activity and healthy eating behaviors for children and youth with intellectual disabilities. PMID:22699244

  3. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  4. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  5. A Comparison of Two Pain Scales in the Assessment of Dental Pain in East Delhi Children

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Amit; Kalra, Namita

    2012-01-01

    Pain is the most common symptom of oral diseases. Pain perception in children is highly variable and unreliable due to poor communication. Therefore we designed a study to compare pain measurement techniques, that is, visual analogue scale (VAS) and Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) among Delhi children aged 3 to 14 years undergoing dental extraction. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 patients aged 3 to 14 years who had undergone dental extraction. Children were assessed for their pain sensitivity using visual analogue scale (VAS) and Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS ). Result and Conclusion. Pain threshold tends to decline, and the self-management of pain becomes more effective with increasing age. Genderwise result shows that communication ability of boys and girls is similar in all age groups. PMID:22461986

  6. Vocabulary development in Greek children: a cross-linguistic comparison using the Language Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1;6 to 2;11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the instrument's normative sample (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Vocabulary size increased markedly with age, but Greek toddlers appeared to get off to a slower start in early word learning than US children. The correlation between percentage word use scores in Greek and US samples was moderate in size, indicating considerable overlap but some differences. Common nouns were the largest category among the fifty most frequent words in both samples. Numbers of adjectives and verbs were comparable across languages, but people and closed-class words were more numerous in the Greek sample. Finally, Greek late talkers showed similar patterns of vocabulary composition to those observed in typically developing Greek children.

  7. The characteristic features of moral socialization: A comparison of Japanese and Australian children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Tsunenobu

    1995-01-01

    The object of this study, based on surveys conducted in Japan and Australia, is to examine how certain factors in family and school affect the socialmoral behaviour of pupils. Such factors include relations with teachers, after-school activities, friendships, and time spent helping parents with the housework. To measure the effect of these factors, the study used three indices of social-moral behaviour, showing: (1) the degree to which children conformed to social norms; (2) their behaviour in relation to teachers, family and friends; (3) their ability to find appropriate moral responses in different situations. A number of interesting contrasts were revealed between Australian and Japanese schools. The results showed that the moral education received by Japanese children is not translated into their own behaviour. The author concludes that there is an urgent need to establish moral education based on investigations into the real experiences of children.

  8. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  9. Where children sit in motor vehicles: a comparison of selected European and American cities

    PubMed Central

    Segui-Gomez, M.; Glass, R.; Graham, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To ascertain whether there are differences in child seating location between selected cities in the US and continental Europe, and if differences exist, to ascertain what factors predict them. Setting—Boston and New Orleans, which have no laws regarding child seating location, and Paris, Frankfurt, and Brussels, which for approximately 20 years have had laws requiring children under the ages of 10 or 12 to sit in the rear. Methods—Observations were made in the first quarter of 1997 at several locations in or near each city. The vehicle seating capacity, total number of occupants, the seating location of adults and children, and driver shoulder belt use were recorded for each vehicle with at least one child. The predictors of a vehicle having a child in the front were estimated using logistic regression. Results—Data on 5501 children riding in 3778 vehicles were collected. Adjusting for differences in vehicle seating capacity, occupant mix, and driver shoulder belt use, vehicles in the European cities are significantly less likely to have a child in the front seat than vehicles in the American cities. Conclusions—Cities with no history of laws prohibiting children from sitting in the front, vehicles with low seating capacity, vehicles with no adult (other than the driver) or many child passengers, and unbelted drivers were associated with a higher likelihood of children riding in the front seat. It is feasible for a society to insist, through custom and/or law, that children sit in the back seat. PMID:9666361

  10. Prevention of sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Monaz Abdulrahman; Abdellatif, Ashraf Abualhasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have been used for prophylactic treatment with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a single dose of propofol or dexmedetomidine prior to termination of sevoflurane-based anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in children. Methods: One hundred and twenty children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, 2-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane based anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to one of the three equal groups: (Group C) received 10 ml saline 0.9%, (Group P) received propofol 1 mg/kg or (group D) received dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg-1. The study drugs were administered 5 min before the end of surgery. In post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after 5 min (T5), 15 min (T15) and 30 min (T30). Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay and pain were assessed. Results: The incidence and severity of EA were lower in group P and group D compared to group C at T0, T5 and T15. The incidence and severity of EA in group P were significantly higher than group D at the same times. The incidence and severity of EA decreased significantly over time in all groups. The modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was significantly lower in group D compared to group C and group P. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg1 was more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 5 min before the end of surgery in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:24015133

  11. Dosing variability in prescriptions of acetaminophen to children: comparisons between pediatricians, family physicians and otolaryngologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To estimate the extents of dosing variability in prescriptions of acetaminophen to children among pediatricians, family physicians and otolaryngologists. Methods The acetaminophen prescriptions in the systematic sampling datasets from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan were analyzed. The distribution of dosages was measured and expressed in terms of coefficient of variation (CV). The analyses were stratified by patient’s age, prescriber’s specialty and preparation form. Results From 13,868 prescribed items of acetaminophen in 2009, liquids accounted only for 11.1% (n = 1544). More than half (56.9%) of liquids were prescribed by pediatricians. The median dose (83.3 mg, n = 1683) of acetaminophen prescriptions in infants is around half of that in preschool children (166.7 mg, n = 3921), one-third in children (250.0 mg, n = 4926) and one-sixth in adolescents (500.0 mg, n = 3338). In infants, the prescriptions by pediatricians had the highest CV (86.7%), followed by family physicians (82.3%) and otolaryngologists (70.3%). The patterns were similar in preschool children and children, but the difference of CV among specialties narrowed down with the patient’s age. Conclusions In acetaminophen prescriptions to children, pediatricians had a wider variability of dosages and a higher ratio of liquid preparations than family physicians and otolaryngologists. Further investigations can be undertaken to estimate the accuracy of dosing variability as an indicator of prescribing quality. Besides, child-suitable drug preparations should be promoted to ensure patient safety. PMID:23617266

  12. Low-frequency pitch perception in children with cochlear implants in comparison to normal hearing peers.

    PubMed

    Dincer D'Alessandro, Hilal; Filipo, Roberto; Ballantyne, Deborah; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Bosco, Ersilia; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the application of two new pitch perception tests in children with cochlear implants (CI) and to compare CI outcomes to normal hearing (NH) children, as well as investigating the effect of chronological age on performance. The tests were believed to be linked to the availability of Temporal Fine Structure (TFS) cues. 20 profoundly deaf children with CI (5-17 years) and 31 NH peers participated in the study. Harmonic Intonation (HI) and Disharmonic Intonation (DI) tests were used to measure low-frequency pitch perception. HI/DI outcomes were found poorer in children with CI. CI and NH groups showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). HI scores were better than those of DI test (p < 0.001). Chronological age had a significant effect on DI performance in NH group (p < 0.05); children under the age of 8.5 years showed larger inter-subject-variability; however, the majority of NH children showed outcomes that were considered normal at adult-level. For the DI test, bimodal listeners had better performance than when listening with CI alone. HI/DI tests were applicable as clinical tools in the pediatric population. The majority of CI users showed abnormal outcomes on both tests confirming poor TFS processing in the hearing-impaired population. Findings indicated that the DI test provided more differential low-frequency pitch perception outcomes in that it reflected phase locking and TFS processing capacities of the ear, whereas HI test provided information of its place coding capacity as well. PMID:25266941

  13. Personality comparison between children of hidden Holocaust survivors and American Jewish parents.

    PubMed

    Magids, D M

    1998-05-01

    The possibility that the experiences of the "hidden" child survivors of the Holocaust (those who survived outside of the concentration camps during the Nazi occupation) had a pathological effect on their offspring was examined by comparing volunteer, matched samples of adult children of "hidden" child survivors of the Holocaust with adult children of nontraumatized U.S.-born Jewish parents on personality variables measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970). The MANOVA results indicated that there were no differences in the personality characteristics of the two groups.

  14. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  15. Lexical Priming in Picture Naming of Young Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellowski, Mark W.; Conture, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of lexical/semantic priming on the speech reaction time of young children who do and do not stutter during a picture-naming task. Participants were 23 children who stutter, age-matched ([+ or -] 4 months) to 23 children who do not stutter, ranging in age from 3;0 (years;months) to 5;11.…

  16. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  17. Comparison of Commercial Wrist-Based and Smartphone Accelerometers, Actigraphy, and PSG in a Clinical Cohort of Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toon, Elicia; Davey, Margot J.; Hollis, Samantha L.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Biggs, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare two commercial sleep devices, an accelerometer worn as a wristband (UP by Jawbone) and a smartphone application (MotionX 24/7), against polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy (Actiwatch2) in a clinical pediatric sample. Methods: Children and adolescents (n = 78, 65% male, mean age 8.4 ± 4.0 y) with suspected sleep disordered breathing (SDB), simultaneously wore an actiwatch, a commercial wrist-based device and had a smartphone with a sleep application activated placed near their right shoulder, during their diagnostic PSG. Outcome variables were sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE). Paired comparisons were made between PSG, actigraphy, UP, and MotionX 24/7. Epoch-by-epoch comparisons determined sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy between PSG, actigraphy, and UP. Bland-Altman plots determined level of agreement. Differences in bias between SDB severity and developmental age were assessed. Results: No differences in mean TST, WASO, or SE between PSG and actigraphy or PSG and UP were found. Actigraphy overestimated SOL (21 min). MotionX 24/7 underestimated SOL (12 min) and WASO (63 min), and overestimated TST (106 min) and SE (17%). UP showed good sensitivity (0.92) and accuracy (0.86) but poor specificity (0.66) when compared to PSG. Bland-Altman plots showed similar levels of bias in both actigraphy and UP. Bias did not differ by SDB severity, however was affected by age. Conclusions: When compared to PSG, UP was analogous to Actiwatch2 and may have some clinical utility in children with sleep disordered breathing. MotionX 24/7 did not accurately reflect sleep or wake and should be used with caution. Citation: Toon E, Davey MJ, Hollis SL, Nixon GM, Horne RS, Biggs SN. Comparison of commercial wrist-based and smartphone accelerometers, actigraphy, and PSG in a clinical cohort of children and adolescents. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):343–350. PMID:26446248

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms in Preschool Children with PDD and Clinic and Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Pomeroy, John; Azizian, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study describes and compares the severity of DSM-IV symptoms in preschool children with diagnosed pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), clinic controls, and two community-based samples. Method: Parents (/and teachers) completed the early child inventory-4 (ECI-4), a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for four samples: PDD (n =…

  19. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  20. A Comparison of Intraverbal and Listener Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Paden, Amber R.

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation compared acquisition of intraverbals and listener behavior by function, feature, and class (FFC) for two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We also measured tacts during listener training to evaluate whether higher levels of tacts predicted the emergence of intraverbal behavior following training. The results…

  1. Fear-related confirmation bias in children: a comparison between neutral- and dangerous-looking animals.

    PubMed

    Dibbets, Pauline; Fliek, Lorraine; Meesters, Cor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine confirmation bias in children without explicitly inducing fear. Eighty non-clinical children (7-13 years) were shown pictures of a neutral animal (quokka) and two dangerous-looking animals (aye aye and possum). For each animal, levels of perceived fear, threat and request for additional threatening or non-threatening information were obtained. A behavioral approach test (BAT) was included as behavioral measure of fear. The results indicated that the aye aye and possum were rated as more threatening and fearful than the quokka. For the aye aye and possum higher fear levels coincided with search for more threatening than non-threatening information. This pattern was absent in non-fearful children and for the non-threatening quokka. During the BAT the quokka was more often approached first compared to the aye aye and possum. Our findings suggest that confirmation bias in children can be observed without using verbal fear induction.

  2. Emotional Representation in Facial Expression and Script: A Comparison between Normal and Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balconi, Michela; Carrera, Alba

    2007-01-01

    The paper explored conceptual and lexical skills with regard to emotional correlates of facial stimuli and scripts. In two different experimental phases normal and autistic children observed six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). In…

  3. Comparison of Meaning and Graphophonemic Feedback Strategies for Guided Reading Instruction of Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouri, Theresa A.; Selle, Carrie A.; Riley, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Guided reading is a common practice recommended for children in the early stages of literacy development. While experts agree that oral reading facilitates literacy skills, controversy exists concerning which corrective feedback strategies are most effective. The purpose of this study was to compare feedback procedures stemming from 2…

  4. Positive Psychological Interventions for Children: A Comparison of Gratitude and Best Possible Selves Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Rhea L.; Patterson, Meagan M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have found benefits of positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude promotion or thinking about best possible selves, for adolescents and adults. Almost no research, however, has been conducted on the efficacy of such interventions for children. The authors' primary goal was to compare the outcomes of gratitude promotion…

  5. A Comparison of Phonological Awareness Skills in Early French Immersion and English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingley, Patricia A.; Dore, Katherine A.; Lopez, Anita; Parsons, Heather; Campbell, Elizabeth; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    This 2-year study examined the effects of early second language exposure on phonological awareness skills. Syllable, onset-rime and phoneme awareness skills of 72 anglophone children attending English or French immersion programs in primary and grade 1 were investigated. Three-way mixed ANOVAS revealed the following effects and interactions. In…

  6. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  7. Comparison of Observational Methods and Their Relation to Ratings of Engagement in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Laracy, Seth D.; Olson, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Although, collectively, results of earlier direct observation studies suggest momentary time sampling (MTS) may offer certain technical advantages over whole-interval (WIR) and partial-interval (PIR) recording, no study has compared these methods for measuring engagement in young children in naturalistic environments. This study compared direct…

  8. Is Children's Naive Knowledge Consistent?: A Comparison of the Concepts of Sound and Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautrey, Jacques; Mazens, Karine

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed some light on the organization of naive knowledge, and on the process of conceptual change in everyday physics, more specifically regarding the concepts of sound and heat. Eighty-three 8-year-old children were interviewed individually in order to see if they attributed the properties of objects (such as…

  9. Comparison of Operant and Conventional Audiometric Procedures with Multihandicapped (Deaf-Blind) Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnall, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of operant audiometry was investigated with six normal, six hearing impaired, six severely retarded, and six multihandicapped (deaf-blind) children. The operant procedures allowed the unilateral testing of some Ss under earphones who could not be tested using conventional audiometric methods. (Author/SEW)

  10. Does Language about Similarity Play a Role in Fostering Similarity Comparison in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Gentner, Dedre; Mylander, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Commenting on perceptual similarities between objects stands out as an important linguistic achievement, one that may pave the way towards noticing and commenting on more abstract relational commonalities between objects. To explore whether having a conventional linguistic system is necessary for children to comment on different types of…

  11. Intervention for Children with Severe Speech Disorder: A Comparison of Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with speech disorder are a heterogeneous group (e.g. in terms of severity, types of errors and underlying causal factors). Much research has ignored this heterogeneity, giving rise to contradictory intervention study findings. This situation provides clinical motivation to identify the deficits in the speech-processing chain…

  12. A Comparison of Types of Attorney Representation for Children in California Juvenile Court Dependency Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gail S.; Edelstein, Robin S.; Mitchell, Emilie B.; Myers, John E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study concerns types of attorney representation for maltreated children involved in juvenile court actions in the state of California. The aims of the research were to document the different types of representation used in dependency cases in 2000 (e.g., public defender, District Attorney, private firms) and to evaluate…

  13. A Comparison of Vocal Mand Training Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Vitale, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Skinner's classification of verbal behavior, the mand is the first and most advantageous verbal operant to develop. Deficits in vocal mand repertoires are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can lead to decreased social interaction and increased problem behavior. The present investigation compared the effects of…

  14. Development of reference assignment in children: a direct comparison to the performance of cognitive shift.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami and Hashiya, in preparation) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in 3- and 5-years-old children. The results indicated that the 3-years-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-years-old, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course.

  15. Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…

  16. Patterns of Young Children's Development: An International Comparison of Development as Assessed by Who Am I?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lemos. Molly

    2002-01-01

    There has, in recent years, been a reemergence of interest in the early years and a renewed emphasis on the importance of early education programs to ensure that all children start school ready to learn. At the same time, the move toward evidence-based policy development has led to the need to demonstrate the effectiveness of early education…

  17. A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Reinforcement Treatment with Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Jerry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Collected data from parents and school counselors of 22 sexually molested children involved in either psychodynamic or reinforcement theory treatment groups. Psychodynamic group reported slow, steady improvement in child behavior. Reinforcement theory results were more positive in terms of immediate behavior change and maintenance of change.…

  18. Written Language Environments of Young Children: Comparison of Scandinavian, British, and American Kindergartens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurss, Joanne R.

    1988-01-01

    Compares and describes written language environments of kindergarten children in Scandinavia, Great Britain, and the United States. Finds a lack of written language in Scandinavian kindergartens, writing in the context of interactive play in Great Britain, and either academic writing instruction or developmentally appropriate print-rich…

  19. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  20. Comparison of the Efficiency of Two Flashcard Drill Methods on Children's Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice; Eveleigh, Elisha; Konrad, Moira; Neef, Nancy; Volpe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend prior flashcard drill and practice research by holding instructional time constant and allowing learning trials to vary. Specifically, the authors aimed to determine whether an incremental rehearsal method or a traditional drill and practice method was most efficient in helping 5 first-grade children read,…

  1. Comparison of Performance of Eight-Year-Old Children on Three Auditory Sequential Memory Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chermak, Gail D.; O'Connell, Vickie I.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty normal children were administered three tests of auditory sequential memory. A Pearson product-moment correlation of .50 and coefficients of determination showed all but one relationship to be nonsignificant and predictability between pairs of scores to be poor. (Author)

  2. Young Children's Concept of Family: Cognitive Development Level, Gender, and Ethnic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Rosalind; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the development of the concept of family in young children. An equivalent number of males, females, Whites, Blacks, kindergarten and first graders participated in the experiment. The concept of family was assessed by using a family configuration task. Results confirmed a positive relationship between number of different ly…

  3. A Comparison of Children's Spatial Reasoning: Rural Appalachia, Suburban and Urban New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Dennis K.

    This study compared the developmental levels of spatial concepts in children from three different environments in the United States. Matched groups of twenty 10-year-olds were selected from a rural Appalachian community, a middle-class suburban community, and a lower-middle-class urban community, and administered a Piaget-based map drawing task.…

  4. Self-Concept in American Indian and White Children: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Cranwell, Ford R.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of 71 American Indian and 149 White children from grades three through six on an open self-description measure and a transformational measure of self-concept reveals differences between the groups on specific external, behavioral, and internal attributes of self-concept. (Author/BJV)

  5. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

  6. Disaster preparedness and families of children with special needs: a geographic comparison.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lisa R; Cormier, Loretta A

    2013-02-01

    Over eleven million children in the United States have special health care needs. These unique needs can burden community and emergency responders after a disaster, complicating rescue and recovery efforts and generating reunification needs. Family disaster preparedness can help to moderate the extent that community resources are utilized by preparing families to be self-sustaining after a disaster and streamline access to medical care when needed. This study explored differences in two populations of families of children with special health care needs to determine if geographic differences exist in preparedness levels and whether a brief education intervention would prove successful in increasing baseline preparedness levels across both populations. A brief education intervention was delivered by trained community health educators to 210 families of children with special health care needs. A quasiexperimental pre-posttest design was used to compare baseline preparedness levels and 1 month follow-up levels. Although there was no difference in preparedness levels based on geographic location, both populations demonstrated a statistically significant increase in preparedness levels post-intervention. This study provides additional evidence that a brief education intervention helps to increase preparedness levels among families of children with special health care needs.

  7. Self-Esteem of American and Chinese Children: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    The construct of self-esteem has received considerable attention in recent years. Self-esteem is defined as a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in attitudes that individuals hold for themselves. This study compared self-esteem of American and Chinese children. Subjects included 446 American elementary school students from the…

  8. The Comparison of Two Methods of Instruction in Teaching the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    The purpose of the study was to determine if there were any differences in learning between graduate students taught to understand, administer, and score the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) by an independent study method as compared to those taught by a more traditional instructional procedure. The subjects were those students…

  9. The Development of Global and Local Processing: A Comparison of Children to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Eric; Peterson, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    In light of the adult model of a hemispheric asymmetry of global and local processing, we compared children (M [subscript age] = 8.4 years) to adults in a global-local reaction time (RT) paradigm. Hierarchical designs (large shapes made of small shapes) were presented randomly to each visual field, and participants were instructed to identify…

  10. Children's Eyewitness Memory: A Comparison of Two Interviewing Strategies as Realized by Forensic Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinder, Annika; Alexander, Kristen; Cho, Il Cho; Goodman, Gail S.; Thoresen, Christian; Lonnum, Kyrre; Magnussen, Svein

    2010-01-01

    A critical issue for developmental psychology is how to obtain accurate and complete eyewitness memory reports from preschoolers without offering suggestions that might result in false allegations. We examined effects of two interviewing strategies (police/verbal interviews and clinician/prop-assisted interviews) on young children's reports about…

  11. An Alternating Treatments Comparison of Oral and Total Communication Training with Minimally Verbal Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Lori A.; Barrett, Rowland P.

    1984-01-01

    The study compared effects of oral speech with total communication (speech plus sign language) training on the ability of mild mentally retarded children (four-eight years old) to repeat four-word sentences. Results pointed to the superiority of the total communication approach in facilitating sentence repetition. (Author)

  12. A Comparison between Locus of Control in Inpatient Alcoholics and Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon K.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Internal-External Control Scale to 22 male alcoholics in residential treatment and 8 adult male children of alcoholics (COAs) in outpatient counseling. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics demonstrated external control orientation. COAs also exhibited external locus of control. Alcoholics in first residential treatment demonstrated more…

  13. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  14. Children's Conceptions of the Seasons: A Comparison of Three Interview Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuness, Linda Bishop; Cohen, Michael R.

    A great deal of work has been accomplished over the past several years on children's conceptualizations of various scientific phenomena. A problem, however, is determining whether one's collection techniques provide a complete picture. In this study three techniques (the repertory grid, draw and describe, and the interview about events) were used…

  15. Improving Health among Elementary School Children: A Comparison of Aerobic and Mind-Body Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chunyun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Children today are under much more stress than a few decades ago due to academic pressure, family financial hardship, competition with peers, and stressed parents. Consequently, stress-related health issues and behavioral problems, such as cardiovascular diseases, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, depression, violent or withdrawal…

  16. A Comparison of Upper Elementary School Children's Attitudes toward Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.

    This study was conducted to compare upper elementary school children's attitudes toward physical activity, by grade level and gender across six attitude scale subdomains in order to assist physical education teachers in planning programs designed to foster positive attitudes toward physical activity. Subjects (N=429) were 243 girls and 186 boys in…

  17. Children's Interpretation of Disjunction in the Scope of "before": A Comparison of English and Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like "The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny". English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ("The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny"). This interpretation conforms…

  18. A Comparison of Linguistic Profiles in Subgroups of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskill, Allison M.; Tyler, Ann A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare morphosyntactic skills of preschoolers in different subgroups of language impairment. Method: Eighty-three children participated in this study. They represented 4 groups: (a) language impairment-only, (b) speech-language impairment with minimal or no final cluster reduction/consonant deletion, (c) speech-language impairment…

  19. Comparisons of magnitude estimation scaling of rock music by children, young adults, and older people.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Kabler, H; Webster, D; McColl, D

    1999-12-01

    The present study concerned the perceptual processing of complex auditory stimuli in 10 children (M age = 8.1) as compared to 10 young adults (M age = 19.3) and 10 older adult subjects (M age = 54.2). The auditory stimulus used was 10 sec. of rock music (Led Zeppelin, 1969). All three groups provided numerical responses to nine intensities of the rock music stimulus (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 dB above threshold). Analysis showed that the children reported a wider range of numerical responses than both adult groups. The mean numerical responses for the children ranged from .54 to 54.24. For the young adults the range was .76 to 11.37, and for the older subjects it was 1.6 to 23.31. Results suggest that the children were not bound by the same set of rules as the adults with regard to magnitude estimation scaling of the loudness of the rock music stimulus. Their internal scaling mechanisms appeared to be more flexible and broader based than those of the adults who participated in this study.

  20. Perfectionism, Achievement, and Affect in Children: A Comparison of Students from Gifted, Arts, and Regular Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornelli, Deborah; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the association between dimensions of perfectionism and levels of academic achievement and affect in school-aged children. A sample of 223 students (90 boys, 133 girls) from regular, gifted, and arts programs completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, perceived academic competence, and…

  1. Comparisons of levels and predictors of mothers’ and fathers’ engagement with their preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers’ and fathers’ engagement with their preschool aged children: socialization, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialization, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved than mothers in physical play. Mothers’ greatest engagement was in caregiving, whereas fathers were about equally engaged in didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers who contributed more to family income were less engaged in socialization and caregiving, whereas fathers with nontraditional beliefs about their roles were more engaged in didactic and caregiving. Children with greater temperamental effortful control received more didactic and physical play engagement from mothers. Fathers were more likely to engage in socialization activities with earlier-born children, whereas mothers were more likely to engage in socialization with girls high in effortful control. Mothers were more likely to engage in physical play with boys and with later-born children. PMID:23645966

  2. Categorical Effects in Children's Colour Search: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoutis, Christine A.; Franklin, Anna; Riddett, Amy; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2006-01-01

    In adults, visual search for a colour target is facilitated if the target and distractors fall in different colour categories (e.g. Daoutis, Pilling, & Davies, in press). The present study explored category effects in children's colour search. The relationship between linguistic colour categories and perceptual categories was addressed by…

  3. Scaffolding Interactions with Preschool Children: Comparisons between Chinese Mothers and Teachers across Different Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese adults adjusted their scaffolding in interactions with children during problem-solving tasks. Fifty-seven 5-year-olds (from low and high socioeconomic status [SES] backgrounds) completed a playlike task (puzzle) and a school-like task (worksheet) with their mothers and teachers, respectively. Adult-child…

  4. Understanding Linear Measurement: A Comparison of Filipino and New Zealand Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kathryn C.; Vistro-Yu, Catherine P.; Ell, Fiona R.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of linear measurement depends on principles that include standard unit size, iteration of units, numbering of a unit at its end, and partial units for measuring continuous length. Children may learn these principles at school, for example through experience with informal measurement, or they may learn them through use of…

  5. Children-Adult Comparisons of VO2 and HR Kinetics during Submaximum Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sady, Stanley P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen uptake and heart rate kinetics for submaximum exercise (bicycle riding) were compared in prepubescent boys and adult men. Resulting data suggest that children and adults do not differ significantly in cardiorespiratory adjustments during low-intensity exercise. (Authors/PP)

  6. Teaching Children's Songs: A Taiwan-US Comparison of Approaches by Kindergarten Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare differences in approaches to teaching children's song by kindergarten teachers in Taiwan and the USA. Five public school kindergarten teachers in Taipei, Taiwan, and five public kindergarten teachers in Seattle, USA, were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. They were asked to teach six…

  7. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  8. Subjective - Objective Sleep Comparisons and Discrepancies Among Clinically-Anxious and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Candice A; Patriquin, Michelle A; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-10-01

    We compared subjective and objective sleep patterns and problems, and examined cross-method correspondence across parent reports, child reports, and actigraphy-derived sleep variables in clinically-anxious children and healthy controls. In a multi-site, cross-sectional study, 75 pre-adolescent children (6 to 11 years; M = 8.7 years; SD = 1.4; n = 39/52 % female) were examined including 39 with a diagnosis of primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 36 controls recruited from university-based clinics in Houston, TX and Washington, DC. Structured interviews, validated sleep questionnaires, and 1 week of actigraphy data were utilized. Despite subjective reports of significantly greater sleep problems among anxious children, actigraphy data revealed no significant differences between the groups. All parents estimated earlier bedtimes and greater total sleep duration relative to actigraphy, and all children endorsed more sleep problems than parents. With few exceptions, subjective reports exhibited low and non-significant correspondence with actigraphy-based sleep patterns and problems. Our findings suggest that high rates of sleep complaints found among children with GAD (and their parents) are not corroborated by objective sleep abnormalities, with the exception of marginally prolonged sleep onset latency compared to controls. Objective-subjective sleep discrepancies were observed in both groups but more apparent overall in the GAD group. Frequent complaints of sleep problems and daytime tiredness among anxious youth might more accurately reflect difficulties prior to the actual sleep period, cognitive-affective biases associated with sleep, and/or poor sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering sleep from multiple perspectives.

  9. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples. PMID:21720425

  10. Comparison of various urine collection intervals for caffeine and dextromethorphan phenotyping in children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Kashuba, Angela D M; Leeder, J Steven

    2004-07-01

    Caffeine and dextromethorphan have been used successfully both alone and in combination to assess phenotype and enzyme activity in children of various ages. Previous pediatric phenotyping studies with these agents have used varying durations of urine collection. However, the minimum duration required for accurate phenotypic assessment with these compounds in children remains unknown. We calculated the cumulative metabolite recoveries and molar ratios in urine collected from children for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after caffeine and dextromethorphan administration to determine when respective urinary molar ratios stabilize and thus likely accurately reflect enzyme activity. Subjects (n = 24, ages 3-8 years) were given 4 oz of Coca-Cola(R) ( approximately 11.5 mg caffeine) and a single oral dose of dextromethorphan (0.5 mg/kg). Urine was collected at discrete intervals (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 h) during an 8-hour period, and the cumulative metabolite recoveries and urinary molar ratios were calculated. CYP2D6 genotyping was also performed in 21 of 24 subjects. In CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, the extent of recovery for relevant metabolites was equivalent by 4 hours and represented 45% to 60% of the total amount recovered in the 8-hour period. The 2-hour CYP1A2 ratio was significantly different from those of longer collection intervals. Metabolite ratios for all other enzymes (i.e., NAT-2, XO, and CYP2D6) were independent of the duration of urine collection. These data suggest that a 4-hour urine collection is adequate for the concurrent assessment of hepatic CYP1A2, NAT-2, XO, and CYP2D6 activity in children ages 3 to 8 years who are CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, using standard caffeine and dextromethorphan phenotyping methods. Longer collection periods may be required, however, in younger children or CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. PMID:15199075

  11. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  12. Brief report: atypical neuromagnetic responses to illusory auditory pitch in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Brock, Jon; Bzishvili, Samantha; Reid, Melanie; Hautus, Michael; Johnson, Blake W

    2013-11-01

    Atypical auditory perception is a widely recognised but poorly understood feature of autism. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography to measure the brain responses of 10 autistic children as they listened passively to dichotic pitch stimuli, in which an illusory tone is generated by sub-millisecond inter-aural timing differences in white noise. Relative to control stimuli that contain no inter-aural timing differences, dichotic pitch stimuli typically elicit an object related negativity (ORN) response, associated with the perceptual segregation of the tone and the carrier noise into distinct auditory objects. Autistic children failed to demonstrate an ORN, suggesting a failure of segregation; however, comparison with the ORNs of age-matched typically developing controls narrowly failed to attain significance. More striking, the autistic children demonstrated a significant differential response to the pitch stimulus, peaking at around 50 ms. This was not present in the control group, nor has it been found in other groups tested using similar stimuli. This response may be a neural signature of atypical processing of pitch in at least some autistic individuals.

  13. Effects of three interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in grade 2.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Stefan; Fälth, Linda; Svensson, Idor; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, the effects of three intervention strategies on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2 were analyzed. The interventions consisted of computerized training programs: One bottom-up intervention aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second intervention focused on top-down processing on the word and sentence levels, and the third was a combination of these two training programs (n = 25 in each group). In addition, there were two comparison groups, 25 children with reading disabilities who received ordinary special instruction and 30 age-matched typical readers. All reading disabled participants completed 25 training sessions with special education teachers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group who received combined training showed higher improvements than the ordinary special instruction group and the typical readers. Different cognitive variables were related to treatment gains for different groups. Thus, a treatment combining bottom-up and top-down aspects of reading was the most effective in general, but individual differences among children need to be considered.

  14. Is There a Relationship between Speech and Nonspeech Auditory Processing in Children with Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Stuart; Manganari, Eva

    2001-01-01

    In this study, eight young adolescents with dyslexia were compared to age-matched controls on a number of speech and non-speech auditory tasks. Children with dyslexia had significantly higher thresholds in backward masking for bandpass noise than did control participants, but differed in no other way. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  16. Superior Nonverbal Intelligence in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Some early studies showed discordance in cognitive strengths and weaknesses in individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger's syndrome (AS). The present study administered the French version of Colored Raven's Progressive Matrices in 14 children with HFA/AS and in 26 chronological age matched peers with typical development. We found…

  17. Comprehending Psychological Defenses: Developmental Differences between Normal and Disturbed Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Andrew; Rybash, John

    Investigated were similarities and differences in the ability of 26 normally developing and 26 conduct-disordered children and adolescents to comprehend psychologically defensive behavior and the cognitive processes underlying differences due to age. Matched by cognitive level, subjects viewed vignettes depicting another child behaving…

  18. Brief Report: Does Eye Contact Induce Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically…

  19. The Locus of Naming Difficulties in Children with Dyslexia: Evidence of Inefficient Phonological Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Amanda; Hennessey, Neville W.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-four children with dyslexia (aged 7;7 to 12;1) and twenty-four age-matched controls named pictures aloud while hearing nonsense syllables either phonologically related (i.e., part of) or unrelated to the target picture name. Compared with controls, dyslexics had slower reaction times overall and, for low frequency items, the degree of…

  20. The Perception of Social and Mechanical Causality in Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Elizabeth; Schlottmann, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated perceptual causality in launch and reaction events in children with ASD (CA = 8.4, VMA = 5.1) and mental age matched controls with typical development and learning difficulties. This is of interest because difficulties with global processing in autism suggest that individuals with ASD may not "see" causal Gestalts in…

  1. Soviet children and the threat of nuclear war: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Chivian, E.; Mack, J.E.; Waletzky, J.P.; Lazaroff, C.; Doctor, R.; Goldenring, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    This study, the first undertaken by Western researchers with Soviet children on the subject of nuclear weapons, compared the questionnaire responses of 293 Soviet youngsters with those of 201 age-matched Californians. Interviews were conducted to supplement the questionnaire findings. Similarities and differences between the two samples are discussed in the context of how young people today perceive the threat of nuclear war.

  2. Sensory Responsiveness as a Predictor of Social Severity in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Harper, Jacquelyn D.; Kueker, Rachel Holmes; Lang, Andrea Runzi; Abbacchi, Anna M.; Todorov, Alexandre; LaVesser, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sensory responsiveness and social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD; N = 36) and age-matched controls (N = 26) between 6 and 10 years old. Significant relationships were found between social responsiveness scale scores and each of the six sensory profile sensory…

  3. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  4. Reading and Visual Processing in Greek Dyslexic Children: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Gianneli, Maria; Petrakis, Eftichis; Makaronas, Nikolaos; Aslanides, Ioannis M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of the effects of dyslexia on various processing and cognitive components (e.g., reading speed and accuracy) in a language with high phonological and orthographic consistency. Greek dyslexic children were compared with a chronological age-matched group on tasks that tested participants' phonological and orthographic…

  5. Growth parameters and endocrine function in relation to echocardiographic parameters in children and adolescents with compensated rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A T; el Nawawy, A; el Azzoni, O; el Ashmawy, H; Marzook, S; Amer, E S

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of left ventricular and endocrine functions on linear growth in children with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) we studied 100 children and adolescents with RHD over a period of 1 year. The mean +/- SD for age of onset and duration of RHD were 7.3 +/- 3.8 years and 4.4 +/- 2.8, respectively. The cardiac lesions were mitral incompetence (n = 31), combined mitral and aortic incompetence (n = 64), and mitral stenosis (n = 5). Growth was assessed by determining both height standard deviation scores (HtSDS) and growth velocity standard deviation score (GVSDS) every 4 months, and sexual maturity was assessed according to Tanner's criteria. Two-hundred age-matched normal children served as controls for the growth data. Endocrine evaluation was performed in the 30 children with RHD who had age above 14 years (mean age 15.4 +/- 1.5 years), 20 age- and sex-matched normal children, and 20 age-matched children with constitutional delay of growth (normal variant short stature) (NVSS). Circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) in girls, testosterone (T) in boys, and free T4 (FT4) were measured. Growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine provocation, LH and FSH response to LHRH stimulation, and in boys testosterone (T) response to HCG were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluation of the left ventricular parameters was performed using a colour-coded echodoppler. The HtSDS and GVSDS of children with RHD were significantly lower than those for the normal control group. Delayed onset of puberty was evident in 16/30 of the children with RHD, and 6/ 30 more had sexual maturity score below 10th percentile for age and gender. In comparison with the age-matched normal group, those with RHD had significantly lower sexual maturity score (1.8 +/- 0.4 v. 3.25 +/- 0.8). All the children had normal GH response to clonidine provocation and normal FT4 concentrations. Basal and HCG stimulated T concentrations were significantly low in adolescents with RHD and E2 levels were

  6. Non-polio enteroviruses and their association with acute diarrhea in children in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Durga C; Ananda Babu, M; Raghavendra, A; Dhananjaya, D; Kumar, Sudheendra; Maiya, P P

    2013-07-01

    A causative agent in approximately 40% of diarrheal cases still remains unidentified. Though many enteroviruses (EVs) are transmitted through fecal-oral route and replicate in the intestinal cells, their association with acute diarrhea has not so far been recognized due to lack of detailed epidemiological investigations. This long-term, detailed molecular epidemiological study aims to conclusively determine the association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in comparison with rotavirus (RV) in children. Diarrheal stool specimens from 2161 children aged 0-2 years and 169 children between 2 and 9 years, and 1800 normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs). Enterovirus serotypes were identified by complete VP1 gene sequence analysis. Enterovirus and rotavirus were detected in 19.01% (380/2330) and 13.82% (322/2330) diarrheal stools. During the study period, annual prevalence of EV- and RV-associated diarrhea ranged between 8% and 22%, but with contrasting seasonal prevalence with RV predominating during winter months and NPEV prevailing in other seasons. NPEVs are associated with epidemics-like outbreaks during which they are detected in up to 50% of diarrheic children, and in non-epidemic seasons in 0-10% of the patients. After subtraction of OPV-positive diarrheal cases (1.81%), while NPEVs are associated with about 17% of acute diarrhea, about 6% of healthy children showed asymptomatic NPEV excretion. Of 37 NPEV serotypes detected in diarrheal children, seven echovirus types 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 30 and 33 are frequently observed, with E11 being more prevalent followed by E30. In conclusion, NPEVs are significantly associated with acute diarrhea, and NPEVs and rotavirus exhibit contrasting seasonal predominance. This study signifies the need for a new direction of research on enteroviruses involving systematic analysis of

  7. Staying and shifting patterns across IGT trials distinguish children with externalizing disorders from controls

    PubMed Central

    Sallum, Isabela; Mata, Fernanda; Miranda, Débora M.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is the most widely instrument used in the assessment of affective decision-making in several populations with frontal impairment. The standard performance measure on the IGT is obtained by calculating the difference between the advantageous and the disadvantageous choices. This standard score does not allows the assessment of the use of different strategies to deal with contingencies of gain and losses across the task. This study aims to compare the standard score method used in IGT with a method that analyses the patterns of staying and shifting among different decks across the 100 choices, considering contingencies of choices with and without losses. We compared the IGT performance of 24 children with externalizing disorders (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) and 24 healthy age-matched children. The analyses of the standard score across all blocks failed to show differences among children with externalizing disorders and control children. However, healthy children showed a pattern of shifting more from disadvantageous decks to advantageous decks and choosing more consecutive cards from the advantageous decks across all blocks, independently of the contingency of losses. On the other hand, children with externalizing disorders presented a pattern of shifting more from advantageous decks to disadvantageous ones in comparison to healthy children and repeatedly chose cards from the B deck across all blocks. This findings show that even though differences among groups might not be found when using the standard analyses, a different type of analysis might be able to show distinct strategies on the execution of the test. PMID:24348449

  8. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. Methods A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Results Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p < 0.001). When observed by the examiner, the frequencies of dentifrice dispersed on all bristles (35.9%), children who brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits

  9. A Comparison of the Effects of Two Prompt-Fading Strategies on Skill Acquisition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cengher, Mirela; Shamoun, Kimberly; Moss, Patricia; Roll, David; Feliciano, Gina; Fienup, Daniel M

    2016-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompting are effective in helping children with Autism Spectrum Disorders acquire a variety of new skills. However, when directly compared to one another, the efficiency and efficacy of the prompting procedures have been variable. The inconsistencies in the literature could be due to selecting prompt topographies that do not promote correct responding. To address this, the present study began by assessing different prompt topographies and then compared most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompt-fading with only prompt topographies that were potent enough to promote correct responding. The subsequent comparison of prompt-fading procedures revealed that MTL prompting was more effective and efficient than LTM prompting for all three participants. Further implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:27606243

  10. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  11. Symposium Overview: Preliminary Report on the Longitudinal Comparison Study of the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, E. Wayne; Osher, Trina W.; Santiago, Rolando L.; Hernandez, Mario; Brannan, Ana Maria

    This brief paper summarizes three papers and a response presented at a symposium examining longitudinal comparison studies of federally funded community mental health services (CMHS) for children and their families. Emphasis was on comparing the system of care approach to a more traditional approach. The symposium provided an update on the status…

  12. A Comparison of Phonemic and Phonological Awareness in Educators Working with Children Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2013-01-01

    The Researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both…

  13. The Enjoyment of Formal and Informal Recreation and Leisure Activities: A Comparison of School-Aged Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Law, Mary; Hurley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fairly extensive literature on the developmental benefits of youth's participation in organised, out-of-school activities, little is known about the participation of school-aged children with physical disabilities in formal recreation and leisure activities, both in comparison with their participation in informal activities and with…

  14. Domain-Specific and Domain-General Changes in Children's Development of Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian D.; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The numerical distance effect (inverse relationship between numerical distance and reaction time in relative number comparison tasks) has frequently been used to characterize the mental representation of number. The size of the distance effect decreases over developmental time. However, it is unclear whether this reduction simply reflects…

  15. Relation between Perceived Scholastic Competence and Social Comparison Mechanisms among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boissicat, Natacha; Pansu, Pascal; Bouffard, Therese; Cottin, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, among social comparison mechanisms, identification with an upward target would be the most frequent mechanism that students report to use. However, it remains unclear how the identification and the contrast mechanisms contribute to the construction of pupils' scholastic perceived competence. The aim of this study was…

  16. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  17. Ritalin vs. Response Cost in the Control of Hyperactive Children: A Within-Subject Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) and response cost in reducing the offtask behavior of two boys (7 and 8 years old) with attentional deficit disorders and hyperactivity revealed that response cost (with free time as the reinforcer) was superior to Ritalin in increasing ontask behavior and improving academic performance.…

  18. A Comparison of Clinical and Empirical Literature on Children in Stepfamilies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on stepchildren and compared clinical to empirical research. Comparisons were made on theoretical approaches, methodology, types of stepfamilies, issues and dependent variables examined, other variables considered, and conclusions drawn. There was little congruence in the foci of studies by researchers and clinicians.…

  19. Stereoscopic 3D entertainment and its effect on viewing comfort: comparison of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Pölönen, Monika; Järvenpää, Toni; Bilcu, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Children's and adults' viewing comfort during stereoscopic three-dimensional film viewing and computer game playing was studied. Certain mild changes in visual function, heterophoria and near point of accommodation values, as well as eyestrain and visually induced motion sickness levels were found when single setups were compared. The viewing system had an influence on viewing comfort, in particular for eyestrain levels, but no clear difference between two- and three-dimensional systems was found. Additionally, certain mild changes in visual functions and visually induced motion sickness levels between adults and children were found. In general, all of the system-task combinations caused mild eyestrain and possible changes in visual functions, but these changes in magnitude were small. According to subjective opinions that further support these measurements, using a stereoscopic three-dimensional system for up to 2 h was acceptable for most of the users regardless of their age.

  20. Prospective randomized comparison of cefepime and cefotaxime for treatment of bacterial meningitis in infants and children.

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-Llorens, X; Castaño, E; García, R; Báez, C; Pérez, M; Tejeira, F; McCracken, G H

    1995-01-01

    Ninety infants and children were prospectively randomized to receive cefepime (n = 43) or cefotaxime (n = 47) for therapy of bacterial meningitis. The two treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, duration of illness before enrollment, history of seizures, clinical status on admission, and etiology. Six (7%) patients died--two treated with cefepime and four treated with cefotaxime. Clinical response, cerebrospinal fluid sterilization, development of complications, antibiotic toxicity, and hospital stay were similar for the two treatment regimens. Concentrations of cefepime in cerebrospinal fluid varied from 55 to 95 times greater than the maximal MIC required by the causative pathogens. Audiologic and/or neurologic sequelae were found in 16% of the cefepime-treated patients and 15% of the cefotaxime-treated patients examined 2 to 6 months after discharge. We conclude that cefepime is safe and therapeutically equivalent to cefotaxime for management of bacterial meningitis in infants and children. PMID:7785999