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Sample records for age-matched comparison group

  1. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  2. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  3. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  4. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  5. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  6. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  7. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  8. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  9. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  10. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  11. Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark

    2008-01-01

    With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many of the issues raised apply to other group designs as well. PMID:18846241

  12. Comparison of suicide rates among industrial groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Waterbor, J W

    1994-02-01

    Suicide rates among industrial groups were examined systematically using death certificate data from 1984 through 1989 in Alabama. Poisson log-linear modelling was used to estimate the rate ratios (RR) of industries compared to a referent and to adjust for confounding. Marked differences in suicide rates were found among industrial groups. The rates ranged from 5.31 to 62.36 per 100,000 population per year. People employed in public administration had the lowest rate. In comparison with public administration, the construction industry had the highest risk (adjusted RR = 11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.6-14.6). Employees of the mining industry experienced a similarly high risk (adjusted RR = 11.5, 95% CI: 8.2-16.3). Persons employed in farming, agriculture services, forestry, and fisheries, manufacturing, and transportation, communications, and other public utilities industries had intermediate risks. Smaller elevations of suicide rates compared to public administration were observed in the wholesale trade, retail trade, finance, insurance, and real estate, and services industries. The differences of suicide rates may be related to sociodemographic differences, self-selection for occupation, ease of access to lethal agents, or job stress. PMID:8147392

  13. Learning in Groups: A Comparison of Study Groups and T Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edward B.; Astrachan, Boris M.

    1971-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison of two models, with special attention to the ways in which authority and peer relations are viewed. The need for theoretical and technical amalgamation to advance our understanding of group phenomena is stressed. A comment by James Crowfoot, University of Michigan follows. (Author)

  14. A Comparison of Workplace Groups with Groups in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; James, Joyce E.

    The use of groups in both the workplace and schools has been increasing. In the workplace, groups reflective of a growing trend toward worker participation in management have been variously referred to as self-managing work teams, self-directed work groups, quality circles, autonomous work groups, and cross-functional teams. Schools have used many…

  15. A Comparison of Approaches to Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.; And Others

    This panel is based on the assumptions that: (1) group counseling has a valuable contribution to make, (2) group counseling is feasible in terms of time and space at local institutions, (3) group counseling is particularly concerned with affective material, and (4) group counseling probably cannot be conducted effectively in groups as large as 30.…

  16. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  17. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  18. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  19. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  20. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  1. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  2. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  3. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  4. On the Comparison of Group Performance with Categorical Data

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Carmen; Villar, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are many different evaluation problems that involve several groups (societies, firms or institutions) whose members can be classified into ordered categories, pursuant to their characteristics or their achievements. This paper addresses these types of problems and provides an evaluation criterion based on the distribution of the agents across categories. The starting point is that of dominance relations in pair-wise comparisons. We say that group i dominates group j when the expected category of a member of i is higher than the expected category of a member of j. We introduce the notion of relative advantage of a group to extend this principle to multi-group comparisons and show that there is a unique evaluation function that ranks all groups consistently in terms of this criterion. This function associates to each evaluation problem the (unique) dominant eigenvector of a matrix whose entries describe the dominance relations between groups in pair-wise comparisons. The working of the model is illustrated by means of three different applications. PMID:24391974

  5. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  6. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  7. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  8. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  9. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  10. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  11. Biases and Power for Groups Comparison on Subjective Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Jean-François; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Roquelaure, Yves; Sébille, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Subjective health measurements are increasingly used in clinical research, particularly for patient groups comparisons. Two main types of analytical strategies can be used for such data: so-called classical test theory (CTT), relying on observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT) relying on a response model relating the items responses to a latent parameter, often called latent trait. Whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to compare two independent groups of patients on a patient reported outcomes measurement remains unknown and was investigated using simulations. For CTT-based analyses, groups comparison was performed using t-test on the scores. For IRT-based analyses, several methods were compared, according to whether the Rasch model was considered with random effects or with fixed effects, and the group effect was included as a covariate or not. Individual latent traits values were estimated using either a deterministic method or by stochastic approaches. Latent traits were then compared with a t-test. Finally, a two-steps method was performed to compare the latent trait distributions, and a Wald test was performed to test the group effect in the Rasch model including group covariates. The only unbiased IRT-based method was the group covariate Wald’s test, performed on the random effects Rasch model. This model displayed the highest observed power, which was similar to the power using the score t-test. These results need to be extended to the case frequently encountered in practice where data are missing and possibly informative. PMID:23115620

  12. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  13. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. PMID:21349236

  14. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  15. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  16. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  17. European bioclimatic affinity groups: Data-model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, J.-M.; François, L.; Bar-Hen, A.; Bel, L.; Cheddadi, R.

    2008-03-01

    Global vegetation models are remarkably effective when considering large areas such as Europe. However, their accuracy at finer scales remains to be tested. In this paper, we validate the simulation of modern potential vegetation by the CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere (CARAIB) model in Europe. Then, in order to evaluate the simulation of tree group distributions at a finer scale, in France, we present a comparison between observed distributions, distributions reconstructed from palynological data, and model simulated ranges. The results will help to validate past vegetation simulations. For this analysis, we use Bioclimatic Affinity Groups (BAGs), based on vegetation groups' climatic tolerances and requirements. The CARAIB model was adapted to simulate the net primary productivity (NPP), biomass and range of the arboreal BAGs. In Europe, at a 30' latitude/longitude grid scale, simulated NPP of BAGs are used to define classes of vegetation as being present or absent, with a classification rule, based on Kappa statistics. In France, at a 10' lat./long. scale, a second discriminant analysis, based on Classification And Regression Tree (CART), allows for a similar classification with BAG pollen percentages. At each palynological sampling site, we then compared the simulation to the reconstruction from pollen data. With 30' lat./long. resolution, most thresholds that discriminate NPP into absence or presence classes are low, ranging from 1 to 77 g/m 2. Agreement indices between observed and simulated distributions range from 0.4 to 0.83, with broad scale BAG potential patterns and boundaries being accurately simulated by CARAIB. In France, on the 10' lat./long. scale, pollen percentages correctly account for BAG presence/absence despite non-linear pollen-vegetation relationships. Agreement ratios between observed and reconstructed patterns range from 0.53 to 0.95. At the 10' lat./long. scale, the validation of simulated ranges with pollen data is reliable for 9 of

  18. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  19. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  20. Social Climate Comparison of Mutual Help and Psychotherapy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian

    In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…

  1. Cheiloscopy and its patterns in comparison with ABO blood groups

    PubMed Central

    Telagi, Neethu; Mujib, Ahmed; Spoorthi, BR; Naik, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups and to determine the correlation between their characters and blood groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 150 individuals who were randomly selected and blood groups of these subjects were analyzed. Results: The results revealed no association between distribution of lip print (cheiloscopy) pattern and blood groups. Conclusion: Lip print pattern does not show any correlation between blood groups. PMID:22408325

  2. Career Choices: A Comparison of Two Occupational Therapy Practice Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Seanne; Rosenthal, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of 20 occupational therapists in gerontology with 20 in pediatrics found that societal and personal values, opportunity structures, attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and the context of work influenced choice of practice setting. Academic and clinical experiences were very influential for those in pediatrics. Those in gerontology felt…

  3. The development and description of the comparison group in the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite more lifestyle intervention trials, there is little published information on the development of the comparison group intervention. This article describes the comparison group intervention, termed Diabetes Support and Education Intervention and its development for the Action for HEAlth in Dia...

  4. Anticipated Group versus Individual Examinations: A Classroom Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, William Douglas; Woody, Lisa K.; Bromley, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Instructors across disciplines continue to seek methods to improve students' retention of class material. One potential method for increasing retention is the use of collaborative, or group, testing. We tested the hypothesis that group testing would lead to greater retention than individual testing. Two instructors, teaching 2 sections of their…

  5. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  6. A Comparison of Two-Group Classification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Jocelyn E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The statistical classification of "N" individuals into "G" mutually exclusive groups when the actual group membership is unknown is common in the social and behavioral sciences. The results of such classification methods often have important consequences. Among the most common methods of statistical classification are linear discriminant analysis,…

  7. Comparison of the pathogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 group 1 and group 2 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Introduction and Objectives Phylogenetically, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be divided into two major genotypic groups, PCV2-group 1 and PCV2-group 2 .1 It was noted that PCV2 group designations have no apparent association with disease status or geographic area. Interestingly, all of t...

  8. [A comparison of dynamic psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and analytic group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Dührssen, A

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of patients (N = 30) distributed as well as possible according to indication among standard psychoanalytic therapy, analytic group therapy and dynamic psychotherapy were submitted to testing in order to investigate the risk indices for stress factors (Dührssen) and to factor analysis with the aid of the Freiburg Personality Inventory, the Giessen-Test, and the Extended Giessen Complaint Sheet. A fourth group of Patients (N = 30), originally assigned to group therapy but having discontinued treatment, was used as control group. It was found that among patients assigned to any of these types of therapy the stress index was significantly higher than among patients seeing the physician for merely an initial examination and the taking of their case histories. Furthermore, the different groups showed different indices for stress factors: Patients in dynamic psychotherapy had by far the highest index of stress, followed by the patients who had discontinued group therapy. Group therapy patients who completed their treatment had again a slightly higher risk index than those who had been assigned to standard psychoanalytic therapy. Application of the above mentioned tests or complaint sheets revealed significant differences between the specific groups. But therapy also resulted in significant improvement of isolated aspects. An investigation concerned with the number of days of hospitalization and the number of days of disablement in a randomly selected group of patients in 1977 showed a statistically significant reduction of these numbers in the five-year period following therapy when compared to the last five years prior to therapy. On the whole the investigation has made it apparent that any comparative psychotherapy study is more or less futile when the patients under observation are parallelized merely according to age, sex, and symptoms while the respective risk indices with the accompanying stress factors in childhood and adolescence are being neglected

  9. Comparison of dental maturity between two ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Stefanac-Papić, J; Alkadri, K Z; Legović, M; Galić, N

    1998-12-01

    Dental maturity is one of the indicators of the craniofacial region growth and development. The aim of the study was to identify and compare dental growth and development in two ethnic groups. The material consisted of 480 orthopantomograms; 240 selected from orthodontic and dental patients from Zagreb (Croatia) and Damascus (Syria) each. Each ethnic group included 120 boys and 120 girls, while the radiographs were classified into 6 groups of 20 each, according to sex and chronologic age (8-13 years). Dental maturity was evaluated by the method of Nolla. The results were statistically analyzed and presented in tables. The subjects from Damascus showed a delay in dental maturity by 1 (girls) to 2 (boys) years compared to the homologous group from Zagreb. The reference values determined in the study may serve as a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic tool in the orthodontics and pedodontics of the respective cities. PMID:9951152

  10. Abstruse comparisons: the problems of numerical contrasts of two groups.

    PubMed

    Yueh, B; Feinstein, A R

    1999-01-01

    The most common quantitative comparison in medical literature is a contrast of two numbers, such as two means or two rates. The two numbers, A and B, can be compared as a direct increment (A-B), ratio (A/B), relative change ([A-B]/B), or other index of contrast. To appreciate the quantitative distinction, a reader must know the "setting" reflected by the basic values of A and B. For example, a ratio of 2.0 does not distinguish comparisons between rates of 60% versus 30% and 0.006% versus 0.003%. Despite the frequency of published comparisons, they can be expressed with two types of abstrusity: quantitatives, if the basic values for A and B are not readily evident; and qualitative, if the component underlying variables are unfamiliar and not suitably explained. Among the published articles during the first six months of 1995 for JAMA and New England Journal of Medicine, 57 that satisfied inclusion criteria were reviewed for compliance with standards for avoiding the two types of abstrusity. The standards for quantitative abstrusity were applied to the published abstract-summary, because it is often the only "sound bite" that is read and remembered by most readers. The standards for qualitative abstrusity, however, could be fulfilled in the text, not just in the abstract-summaries of each article. Among the 57 abstract-summaries, 30% were abstruse quantitatively, and 11 (48%) of 23 pertinent papers were qualitatively abstruse. Abstrusity can be eliminated if authors and editors insist that quantitative contrasts cite the basic numbers being compared and the meaning of the associated variables and their rating scales. PMID:9973069

  11. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  12. Comparison of PCA approaches for very large group ICA

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Vince D.; Silva, Rogers F.; Adalı, Tülay; Rachakonda, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Large data sets are becoming more common in fMRI and, with the advent of faster pulse sequences, memory efficient strategies for data reduction via principal component analysis (PCA) turn out to be extremely useful, especially for widely used approaches like group independent component analysis (ICA). In this commentary, we discuss results and limitations from a recent paper on the topic and attempt to provide a more complete perspective on available approaches as well as discussing various issues to consider related to large group PCA for group ICA. We also provide an analysis of computation time, memory use, and number of dataloads for a variety of approaches under multiple scenarios of small and extremely large data sets. PMID:26021216

  13. Giftedness and Underachievement: A Comparison of Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared school attitudes, including academic self-perceptions, attitudes toward teachers, attitudes toward school, goal valuation, and motivation/self-regulation, using the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) in groups of students who varied in their potential for academic achievement and their actual…

  14. A Comparison of Preferred Urban Administrative Dispositions between Constituency Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pregot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This research study analyzes preferred leadership dispositions for teachers, parents, and school leaders. Respondents selected their most preferred dispositions from a list of 20 (Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium) leadership standards. Similarities and differences were discerned among the constituent groups. School leaders, teachers,…

  15. The Hungaria population: A comparison between sub-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañada-Assandri, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Ribeiro, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if the two sub-groups in proper inclination found in the Hungaria region by Milani et al. (2010) could be characterized by physical parameters of the objects, we analyze two surfaces properties of the asteroids in the zone: the taxonomical distribution, obtained from the SDSS-MOC4, and the albedo distribution, taken from the WISE data. Our analysis suggests that both sub-groups are different. The asteroids with sinip < 0.4 exhibit a majority of X-types objects and an excess of high albedo objects. In contrast, the objects with sinip > 0.4 show a taxonomical distribution dominated by S-types asteroids and an albedo distribution without high albedo excess. Based on these results we propose that the sub-group in high proper inclination and dominated by S-types could be the primordial population while the high albedo excess observed in the other sub-group could be the consequence of a contamination in this region with a medium-belt object(s) that filled the Hungaria region with fresh X-types after suffering a catastrophic collision.

  16. Peer Assessment in Small Groups: A Comparison of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates several peer evaluation tools used to assess student behavior in small groups. The two most common methods of peer assessment found in the literature are rating scales and single score methods. Three peer evaluation instruments, two using a rating scale and one using a single score method, are tested in several…

  17. Comparing time use in individuals at different stages of psychosis and a non-clinical comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Birchwood, Max; Mugford, Miranda; Christopher, Rose; Marshall, Max; Everard, Linda; Lester, Helen; Jones, Peter; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Morrison, Anthony P; Fowler, David

    2015-02-01

    Social functioning difficulties are a common and disabling feature of psychosis and have also been identified in the prodromal phase. However, debate exists about how such difficulties should be defined and measured. Time spent in structured activity has previously been linked to increased psychological wellbeing in non-clinical samples and may provide a useful way of assessing social functioning in clinical settings. The current study compared hours in structured activity, assessed with the Time Use Survey, in three clinical groups at different stages of psychosis: individuals with at-risk mental states (N=199), individuals with first-episode psychosis (N=878), and individuals with delayed social recovery following the remission of psychotic symptoms (N=77). Time use in the three clinical groups was also compared with norms from an age-matched non-clinical group (N=5686) recruited for the Office for National Statistics UK 2000 Time Use Survey. Cutoff scores for defining social disability and recovery were examined. All three clinical groups spent significantly fewer hours per week in structured activity than individuals in the non-clinical group. Reduced activity levels were observed before the onset of psychosis in individuals with at-risk mental states. Additional reductions in activity were observed in the first-episode psychosis and delayed recovery groups compared to the at-risk mental state group. Assessing time spent in structured activity provides a useful way to assess social disability and recovery across the spectrum of psychosis. PMID:25541138

  18. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group. PMID:27582723

  19. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group. PMID:27582723

  20. Group Coping Skills Instruction and Supportive Group Therapy for Cancer Patients: A Comparison of Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telch, Christy F.; Telch, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Compared relative efficacy of comprehensive group coping skills training and supportive group therapy for enhancing cancer patients' adjustment to their disease. Subjects were 41 cancer patients exhibiting a marked degree of psychosocial distress. Results demonstrated a consistent superiority of coping skills intervention over supportive group…

  1. Group membership prediction when known groups consist of unknown subgroups: a Monte Carlo comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Finch, W Holmes; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Classification using standard statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or logistic regression (LR) presume knowledge of group membership prior to the development of an algorithm for prediction. However, in many real world applications members of the same nominal group, might in fact come from different subpopulations on the underlying construct. For example, individuals diagnosed with depression will not all have the same levels of this disorder, though for the purposes of LDA or LR they will be treated in the same manner. The goal of this simulation study was to examine the performance of several methods for group classification in the case where within group membership was not homogeneous. For example, suppose there are 3 known groups but within each group two unknown classes. Several approaches were compared, including LDA, LR, classification and regression trees (CART), generalized additive models (GAM), and mixture discriminant analysis (MIXDA). Results of the study indicated that CART and mixture discriminant analysis were the most effective tools for situations in which known groups were not homogeneous, whereas LDA, LR, and GAM had the highest rates of misclassification. Implications of these results for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24904445

  2. Basal Murphy belt and Chilhowee Group -- Sequence stratigraphic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Aylor, J.G. Jr. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The lower Murphy belt in the central western Blue Ridge is interpreted to be correlative to the Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the westernmost Blue Ridge and Appalachian fold and thrust belt. Basal Murphy belt depositional sequence stratigraphy represents a second-order, type-2 transgressive systems tract initiated with deposition of lowstand turbidites of the Dean Formation. These transgressive deposits of the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations are interpreted as middle to outer continental shelf deposits. Cyclic and stacked third-order regressive, coarsening upwards sequences of the Nantahala Formation display an overall increase in feldspar content stratigraphically upsection. These transgressive siliciclastic deposits are interpreted to be conformably overlain by a carbonate highstand systems tract of the Murphy Marble. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations possibly represent a basinward extension of up to 3 km thick siliciclastic wedge. The wedge tapers to the southwest along the strike of the Murphy belt at 10[degree] and thins northwestward to 2 km in the Tennessee depocenter where it is represented by the Chilhowee Group. The Murphy belt basin is believed to represent a transitional rift-to-drift facies deposited on the lower plate of the southern Blue Ridge rift zone.

  3. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  4. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  5. Group Therapy Goals: A Comparison of Group Therapy Providers and Male Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert D.; Garland, J. Travis; Rozycki, Alicia T.; Reich, Darcy A.; Wilson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify important process and content goals from the perspective of inmates and compare these goals to the goals identified by group therapists in a previous study conducted by Winterowd, Morgan, and Ferrell (2001). Utilizing survey data from 156 incarcerated adult males, an initial confirmatory factor analysis…

  6. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities. PMID:23829419

  7. Life of Pizza Pie: The Implications of Sub-Group Comparisons in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tara N.

    2013-01-01

    Current educational statistics have pitted subgroups against one another without consideration of the actual population sizes of each group. This paper is intended to provided a clearer understanding of the current usage of sub-group comparisons in American education. (Contains 4 figures.)

  8. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  9. A comparison group analysis of DOE`s Energy-Related Inventions Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Curlee, T.R.; Elliott, S.R.; Franchuk, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted four evaluations of the economic impacts of the US DOE`s Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). None of these evaluations has involved the use of a comparison group. Instead, statistics on the innovation process have been compiled from a review of the literature. Unfortunately, the types of technologies and inventors documents by previous studies do not match those supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program. ERIP-supported technologies are diverse in both application and technical complexity. ERIP-supported inventors are a particular subset of inventors: the Program targets inventors who are either independently employed or are employees of a small business. The purpose of this task is to identify and characterize a matched comparison group of inventors whose progress can be compared with the progress of ERIP inventors. With this comparison group, we will be able to assess more accurately the impact of the ERIP support and thereby strengthen the program`s impact evaluations. This report is divided into six sections. As background to understanding the comparison group design and the results provided in this report, section 1.3 provides an overview of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Section 2 describes the research design used to define and characterize a suitable comparison group. Section 3 presents comparative statistics describing both the comparison group and the ERIP technologies. Section 4 is more qualitative in nature; it describes four technologies in the comparison group that were commercially successful, focusing on how they succeeded in the absence of DOE/ERIP support. The report ends with a summary of its findings (section 5) and a list of references (section 6).

  10. A comparison group analysis of DOE's Energy-Related Inventions Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Curlee, T.R.; Elliott, S.R.; Franchuk, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted four evaluations of the economic impacts of the US DOE's Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). None of these evaluations has involved the use of a comparison group. Instead, statistics on the innovation process have been compiled from a review of the literature. Unfortunately, the types of technologies and inventors documents by previous studies do not match those supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program. ERIP-supported technologies are diverse in both application and technical complexity. ERIP-supported inventors are a particular subset of inventors: the Program targets inventors who are either independently employed or are employees of a small business. The purpose of this task is to identify and characterize a matched comparison group of inventors whose progress can be compared with the progress of ERIP inventors. With this comparison group, we will be able to assess more accurately the impact of the ERIP support and thereby strengthen the program's impact evaluations. This report is divided into six sections. As background to understanding the comparison group design and the results provided in this report, section 1.3 provides an overview of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Section 2 describes the research design used to define and characterize a suitable comparison group. Section 3 presents comparative statistics describing both the comparison group and the ERIP technologies. Section 4 is more qualitative in nature; it describes four technologies in the comparison group that were commercially successful, focusing on how they succeeded in the absence of DOE/ERIP support. The report ends with a summary of its findings (section 5) and a list of references (section 6).

  11. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  12. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  13. Comparison of Focus Groups on Cancer and Employment Conducted Face to Face or by Telephone

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Linda M.; Miller, Virginia A.; Horbelt, Douglas V.; Delmore, James E.; Miller, Brigitte E.; Paschal, Angelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Findings from telephone focus groups have not been compared previously to findings from face-to-face focus groups. We conducted four telephone focus groups and five face-to-face focus groups in which a single moderator used the same open-ended questions and discussion facilitation techniques. This comparison was part of a larger study to gain a better understanding of employment experiences after diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Offering the telephone option made it easier to recruit women from rural areas and geographically distant cities. Interaction between participants occurred in both types of focus group. Content analysis revealed that similar elements of the employment experience after cancer diagnosis were described by telephone and face-to-face participants. Participants disclosed certain emotionally sensitive experiences only in the telephone focus groups. Telephone focus groups provide useful data and can reduce logistical barriers to research participation. Visual anonymity might help some participants feel more comfortable discussing certain personal issues. PMID:20142606

  14. Questionnaire Design in Broad-Based Evaluation Studies: Letting Someone Else Collect Comparison Group Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    A context in which existing items may provide a convenient source of questions for questionnaires was explored through a case study making use of existing comparison groups. Two programs at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), the Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) and the Laboratory Graduate Research Participation (Lab Grad)…

  15. Why an Active Comparison Group Makes a Difference and What to Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2007-01-01

    The Randomized Control Trials (RCT) design and its quasi-experimental kissing cousin, the Comparison Group Trials (CGT), are golden to some and not even silver to others. At the center of the affection, at the vortex of the discomfort, are beliefs about what it takes to establish causality. These designs are considered primarily when the purpose…

  16. Statistical comparison of pooled nitrogen washout data of various altitude decompression response groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. F.; Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This analysis was done to determine whether various decompression response groups could be characterized by the pooled nitrogen (N2) washout profiles of the group members, pooling individual washout profiles provided a smooth time dependent function of means representative of the decompression response group. No statistically significant differences were detected. The statistical comparisons of the profiles were performed by means of univariate weighted t-test at each 5 minute profile point, and with levels of significance of 5 and 10 percent. The estimated powers of the tests (i.e., probabilities) to detect the observed differences in the pooled profiles were of the order of 8 to 30 percent.

  17. Intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers and a comparison group of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa; Rakestraw, Vivian Leffler

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to determine the efficacy of the theory of reasoned action in predicting intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (n = 64) and a comparison group of adolescent girls (n = 65) and (b) to explore the role of empirically suggested variables (e.g., social support and current symptoms of depression) in increasing the explanatory power of the model. Findings between the two groups differed. Subjective norms, but not attitude, was a significant predictor of intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (F = 4.82, P = .00; R(2) = .14). In the comparison group of adolescent girls, both attitude and subjective norms predicted intention to seek depression treatment (F = 8.56, P = .00, R(2) = .22). The addition of depressive symptoms and social support increased the explanatory power of the model in the comparison group of adolescent girls (R(2) change = 0.10, P = .02) but resulted in the deletion of subjective norms from the regression equation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:19216987

  18. Social comparison orientation moderates the effects of group membership on the similarity-attraction relationship.

    PubMed

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how the similarity-attraction relationship is affected by a combination of the tendency to compare oneself to other people (Social Comparison Orientation, SCO) and group membership. We expected that high-SCO individuals would prefer similar to dissimilar others only when the target belonged to their in-group and was relevant for the evaluation of their self-concept. It was also expected that among low-SCO individuals who are more certain about the self and less concerned about "being evaluated," a main effect of attitude similarity would appear, regardless of the group membership of the target. Results partially support these predictions and suggest that further research should be carried out into the combined effects of individual and group variables in the attraction literature. PMID:22208112

  19. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  20. Comparison of group motor control training versus individual training for people suffering from back pain.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Heike; Mätzold, Franz; Hamilton, Christine; Wagner, Petra

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of "motor-control training" (MCT) using the model of deficits in the activation of transversus abdominis (TrA) in people with recurrent back pain. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether MCT - implemented within a new group intervention (experimental group) - is able to produce results similar to those of a conventional intervention applied individually (control group) to people suffering from back pain. Using the form of an experimental pre-post-test design, the study consisted of an experimental group (N = 18, mean age M = 45.2; SD = 18.4; 9 ♂, 9 ♀) and a comparison group (N = 13; age = 56.6; SD = 18.5; 6 ♂, 7 ♀). The training covered a period of six weeks, with two training sessions per week. The amount of training was the same in both groups. Aside from the same extent of training, the participants in the experimental group completed training content in the group interventions identical to that completed by the comparison group in the individual treatments. To clarify: The difference between the two groups was that the participants in the individual-therapy control group received individual feedback on their exercise performance and correction notes from the instructor. This degree of individual attention was not given within the group therapy. The selective activation of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was the main focus of the intervention, with the intent of improving its stabilising corset function, especially within the lumbar region, via increased tension of the thoracolumbar fascia. To record the progress of both groups, the anterolateral abdominal muscle recruitment of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured as a main influencing factor for anterolateral stabilisation of the spine. For measurements of muscle recruitment, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (M-Turbo™ SonoSite(®) Erlangen in B-Mode) according to Whittaker (2007) was used. Furthermore, the relationship between pain

  1. Modeling phytoplankton community in reservoirs. A comparison between taxonomic and functional groups-based models.

    PubMed

    Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon. PMID:26406877

  2. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  3. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  4. Electroencephalographic coherence in Alzheimer's disease: comparisons with a control group and population norms.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous research from independent laboratories has shown reduced electroencephalographic coherence in patients diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This study added to this work by comparing interhemispheric and intrahemispheric coherence in nonmedicated DAT patients (n = 35) with that of a normal control group (n = 30), as well as with a data bank of population norms. Raw and Z-score transformed values showed reduced coherence, interhemispherically (in delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands) and intrahemispherically (delta and theta bands) in DAT patients with both comparison procedures. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 73% to 75% of patients. The results are discussed in relation to earlier research, "trait" versus "state" factors, the cholinergic system, and cognitive processes in dementia. PMID:10753001

  5. Comparison of firefly luciferase and NanoLuc luciferase for biophotonic labeling of group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Loh, Jacelyn M S; Proft, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc) is an engineered enzyme that catalyses the substrate, furimazine, to produce light. Nluc has higher sensitivity than the commonly used bioluminescent reporter, firefly luciferase (FFluc). We have introduced Nluc into a toxin-antitoxin stabilised plasmid for the efficient labeling of group A Streptococcus. Comparison of signal strength and kinetic properties between Nluc-labeled bacteria and similarly previously-labeled FFluc bacteria, showed that the bioluminescent signal produced by Nluc-labeled bacteria is up to 15-times higher than FFluc-labeled bacteria during the logarithmic phase. However, with Nluc we were unable to differentiate between bacteria that are metabolically active and inactive because of its ATP-independence. Nluc therefore offers a more sensitive reporter but, perhaps, one more restricted for downstream applications. PMID:24322775

  6. Derivations and Comparisons of Three Groups ofSelf-Organization Theories for Magnetohydrodynamic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Sato, Tetsuya

    1994-04-01

    A theoretical investigation on self-organization theories ofdissipative MHD plasmas is presented to derive three groups oftheories that lead to the same relaxed state of ∇ × B=λ B, in order to find more essential physicalpicture embedded in self-organization phenomena due to nonlinear anddissipative processes. Comparisons among all of the theories treatedand derived here suggest that a theory standing upon spectrumspreadings and selective dissipations of eigenmodes for thedissipative operator -∇ ×η j and leading toself-organized relaxed states of ∇ ×ηj=α B/2 with the minimum dissipation rate is the most agreeable to various results obtained by experiments and by 3-D MHD simulations reported so far.

  7. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy and group interpersonal psychotherapy for the nonpurging bulimic individual: a controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, D E; Agras, W S; Telch, C F; Rossiter, E M; Schneider, J A; Cole, A G; Sifford, L A; Raeburn, S D

    1993-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, whereas the WL condition did not. Binge eating remained significantly below baseline levels for both treatment conditions at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. These data support the central role of both eating behavior and interpersonal factors in the understanding and treatment of bulimia. PMID:8473584

  8. Comparison of the Variations of Sunspot Number, Number of Sunspot Groups, and Sunspot Area, 1875 -2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the yearly variations and ratios of sunspot number, the number of sunspot groups, and the total corrected sunspot area for the interval 1875-2013. While yearly sunspot number independently correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with the yearly number of sunspot groups (y = -2 + 11.99x) and the total corrected sunspot area (y = 5 + 0.059x), the strongest correlation (Ry12 = 0.99) is the one based on the bivariate fit of sunspot number against the combined variations of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot area (y = 1 + 5.88x1 + 0.031x2, where y refers to sunspot number, x1 refers to the number of sunspot groups, and x2 refers to the sunspot area). While all cycle minima based on the bivariate fit are concurrent with the observed minimum in sunspot number, cycle maxima are sometimes found to differ. For sunspot cycles 12, 19, 20, and 23, cycle maximum is inferred to have occurred in 1884, 1958, 1970, and 2002, respectively, rather than in 1883, 1957, 1968, and 2000, based on the observed sunspot number. Also, cycle 19's maximum amplitude based on observed sunspot number seems too high in comparison to that found using the bivariate fit. During the 139-year interval 1875-2013, the difference between the observed and predicted sunspot number based on the bivariate fit is <1 standard error of estimate (se) (<6.4) for 111 years, between 1 and <2 se (6.4 to <12.8) for 28 years, and =2 se (=12.8) for only 4 years, these years being 1957 (16.6), 1978 (-15.8), 1980 (23), and 1982 (-16.3). For sunspot cycle 24, the difference between observed and predicted values has been only -0.7 and 3.2 (=0.5 se).

  9. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  10. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  11. Comparison of the Effect of Group Transdiagnostic Therapy and Group Cognitive Therapy on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADI, Abolfazl; BIRASHK, Behrooz; GHARAIE, Banafsheh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cognitive behavioral interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach for emotional disorders have received useful empirical supports in recent years. Most of the researches on this area have been conducted without any control group. Moreover, little information about comparative effectiveness has reported. The current study was compared transdiagnostic group therapy with classical cognitive group therapy. Methods: Thirty three collages students with anxiety and depressive symptoms participated in eight two-hour sessions in Akhavan Hospital, Tehran, Iran during May and June 2011. The results were analyzed by The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale in pre and post intervention. Results: Both groups showed the significant difference in research variables pre and post test. However, there was no significant difference in the results analysis using ACOVAs except for anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: The effectiveness of transdiagnostic group therapy was confirmed in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Implications of the study are discussed. PMID:23514901

  12. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls. PMID:24497627

  13. Artifact removal in the context of group ICA: A comparison of single-subject and group approaches.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhui; Allen, Elena A; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to identify intrinsic brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA computes group-level components from all data and subsequently estimates individual-level components to recapture intersubject variability. However, the best approach to handle artifacts, which may vary widely among subjects, is not yet clear. In this work, we study and compare two ICA approaches for artifacts removal. One approach, recommended in recent work by the Human Connectome Project, first performs ICA on individual subject data to remove artifacts, and then applies a group ICA on the cleaned data from all subjects. We refer to this approach as Individual ICA based artifacts Removal Plus Group ICA (IRPG). A second proposed approach, called Group Information Guided ICA (GIG-ICA), performs ICA on group data, then removes the group-level artifact components, and finally performs subject-specific ICAs using the group-level non-artifact components as spatial references. We used simulations to evaluate the two approaches with respect to the effects of data quality, data quantity, variable number of sources among subjects, and spatially unique artifacts. Resting-state test-retest datasets were also employed to investigate the reliability of functional networks. Results from simulations demonstrate GIG-ICA has greater performance compared with IRPG, even in the case when single-subject artifacts removal is perfect and when individual subjects have spatially unique artifacts. Experiments using test-retest data suggest that GIG-ICA provides more reliable functional networks. Based on high estimation accuracy, ease of implementation, and high reliability of functional networks, we find GIG-ICA to be a promising approach. PMID:26859308

  14. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2] Wald…

  15. A comparison of field methods to assess body composition in a diverse group of sedentary women.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Aluf, Ana; Vincent, Linda; Cooper, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of body composition is essential in the evaluation of obesity. While laboratory methods are commonly used to assess fat mass, field measures (e.g., skinfold thickness [SKF] and bioelectrical impedance [BIA]) may be more practical for screening large numbers of individuals in intervention studies. In this study, a correlational design was used among 46 racially and ethnically diverse, sedentary women (mean age = 25.73 years) to (a) compare the percentage of body fat as determined by SKF and the upper body BIA and (b) examine the effects of body mass index (BMI), racial/ethnic background, age, and stage of the menstrual cycle on differences in the estimated percentage of body fat obtained using the SKF and BIA. Overall, a significant correlation between SKF and BIA (r = .98, p < .001) was found, with similar findings among Black, Hispanic and White non-Hispanic women. The mean differences between BIA and SKF were not significantly correlated with BMI, age, race/ethnicity or stage of the menstrual cycle. Data from this study suggest that BIA showed similar body fat prediction values compared with SKF and may be a viable alternative to SKF among diverse groups of healthy women. Additional testing and comparison of these field methods with the laboratory methods of hydro-densitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is recommended to further determine whether BIA devices can be routinely recommended as an alternative to the SKF. PMID:19022781

  16. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  17. Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany). PMID:18855319

  18. Development of a Cognitive Level Explanation Model in Brain Injury : Comparisons between Disability and Non-Disability Evaluation Groups

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tae-Hee; Gong, Chang-Bong; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jin-Sung; Bai, Dai-Seg

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether Disability Evaluation (DE) situations influence patients' neuropsychological test performances and psychopathological characteristics and which variable play a role to establish an explanation model using statistical analysis. Methods Patients were 536 (56.6%) brain-injured persons who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, classified into the DE group (DE; n = 300, 56.0%) and the non-DE group (NDE; n = 236, 44.0%) according to the neuropsychological testing's purpose. Next, we classified DE subjects into DE cluster 1 (DEC1; 91, 17.0%), DE cluster 2 (DEC2; 125; 23.3%), and DE cluster 3 (DEC3; 84, 15.7%) via two-step cluster analysis, to specify DE characteristics. All patients completed the K-WAIS, K-MAS, K-BNT, SCL-90-R, and MMPI. Results In comparisons between DE and NDE, the DE group showed lower intelligence quotients and more severe psychopathologic symptoms, as evaluated by the SCL-90-R and MMPI, than the NDE group did. When comparing the intelligence among the DE groups and NDE group, DEC1 group performed worst on intelligence and memory and had most severe psychopathologic symptoms than the NDE group did. The DEC2 group showed modest performance increase over the DEC1 and DEC3, similar to the NDE group. Paradoxically, the DEC3 group performed better than the NDE group did on all variables. Conclusion The DE group showed minimal "faking bad" patterns. When we divided the DE group into three groups, the DEC1 group showed typical malingering patterns, the DEC2 group showed passive malingering patterns, and the DEC3 group suggested denial of symptoms and resistance to treatment. PMID:21430977

  19. Neurobehavioral Integrity of Chimpanzee Newborns: Comparisons across groups and across species reveal gene-environment interaction effects

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Kim A.; Brent, Linda; Lester, Barry; Worobey, John; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this article are to describe the neurobehavioral integrity of chimpanzee newborns, to investigate how early experiences affect the neurobehavioral organization of chimpanzees, and to explore species differences by comparing chimpanzee newborns to a group of typically developing human newborns. Neurobehavioral integrity related to orientation, motor performance, arousal, and state regulation of 55 chimpanzee (raised in four different settings) and 42 human newborns was measured with the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) a semi-structured 25-minute interactive assessment. Thirty-eight chimpanzees were tested every other day from birth, and analyses revealed significant developmental changes in 19 of 27 NBAS scores. The cross-group and cross-species comparisons were conducted at 2 and 30 days of age. Among the 4 chimpanzee groups, significant differences were found in 23 of 24 NBAS scores. Surprisingly, the cross-species comparisons revealed that the human group was distinct in only 1 of 25 NBAS scores (the human group had significantly less muscle tone than all the chimpanzee groups). The human group was indistinguishable from at least one of the chimpanzee groups in the remaining 24 of 25 NBAS scores. The results of this study support the conclusion that the interplay between genes and environment, rather than genes alone or environment alone, accounts for phenotypic expressions of newborn neurobehavioral integrity in hominids. PMID:25110465

  20. Toward Designing Optimal Problem-Solving Procedures: Comparisons of Male and Female Interacting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Robert C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared performances for male and female groups using three different group problem-solving procedures: unstructured, structured-open, and structured-forced. Results indicated that female groups performed better with the structured-forced procedure than with the structured-open procedure. Male groups performed better with the structured-open…

  1. Pain and emotional distress among substance-use patients beginning treatment relative to a representative comparison group

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Katharina L.; Colditz, Jason B.; Carr, Kathryn; Asphaug, Victoria J.; McCarty, Dennis; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A secondary analysis assessed health-related quality of life characteristics (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, and types of pain) among patients entering substance-use treatment, and identified characteristics specific to treatment modalities relative to a representative comparison group. Methods: As part of a larger alcohol bank assessment, substance-use patients (n=406) beginning methadone treatment (n=170) or other outpatient treatment (n=236) and a comparison group representative of the general population (n=1000) completed a survey measuring anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain interference, and pain in the last 7 days. Previous studies lacked comparable and concurrent assessments across these three groups. Results: Patients entering substance-use treatment had relatively high levels of emotional distress and poorer health-related quality of life relative to the general population. Among treatment modalities, patients beginning methadone treatment reported the highest levels of pain interference and pain behavior and the poorest physical functioning. Prior to the potentially modifying effects of methadone maintenance, patients beginning agonist therapy reported the greatest levels of compromised quality of life. Conclusion: These data present the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life characteristics between treatment and comparison groups using the same assessment rubric and may help inform the design and timing of treatment modalities, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy for patients. PMID:25275876

  2. Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment, and their children's attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Springer, Lydia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children's attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (n = 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers' biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (n = 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers' experience than the comparison group mothers. Children's (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status. PMID:24931835

  3. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  4. The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

  5. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  6. A Comparison of Time-Limited and Brief Time-Limited Group Therapy at Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, James N.; Hays, Kimberly A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of brief time-limited (BTL) groups (i.e., six sessions) in a university counseling center. When compared to semester length, time-limited (TL) groups and BTL groups were found to be similar in dimensions of Depth, Positivity, and Arousal. Indicates that BTL is an efficient and effective intervention. (RJM)

  7. Comparison of Taiwan Science Students' Outcomes with Inquiry-Group versus Traditional Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Mao, Song-Ling

    1999-01-01

    Examined the comparative efficiency of inquiry-group instruction and traditional teaching methods on Taiwanese junior high school students' achievement and attitudes toward earth science. Surveys of students in both groups indicated that students in the inquiry group had significantly higher achievement scores and significantly more favorable…

  8. A COMPARISON OF THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES BETWEEN GALAXIES AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa

    2013-03-01

    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  9. Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L.; Cella, David F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the US each year are estimated to begin a five-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. OBJECTIVES To describe one-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among AI patients and a postmenopausal comparison group. METHODS Patients initiating AIs (n=91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at six repeated assessments over one year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n=177) completed concomitantly-timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0–10) were used to measure pain in eight joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. RESULTS By week six, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means=1.8, (95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over a year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe longitudinal arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. PMID:23575918

  10. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  11. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  12. Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

  13. A simple ratio-based approach for power and sample size determination for 2-group comparison using Rasch models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of patient-reported Outcomes (PRO) in clinical studies, their design remains a challenge. Justification of study size is hardly provided, especially when a Rasch model is planned for analysing the data in a 2-group comparison study. The classical sample size formula (CLASSIC) for comparing normally distributed endpoints between two groups has shown to be inadequate in this setting (underestimated study sizes). A correction factor (RATIO) has been proposed to reach an adequate sample size from the CLASSIC when a Rasch model is intended to be used for analysis. The objective was to explore the impact of the parameters used for study design on the RATIO and to identify the most relevant to provide a simple method for sample size determination for Rasch modelling. Methods A large combination of parameters used for study design was simulated using a Monte Carlo method: variance of the latent trait, group effect, sample size per group, number of items and items difficulty parameters. A linear regression model explaining the RATIO and including all the former parameters as covariates was fitted. Results The most relevant parameters explaining the ratio’s variations were the number of items and the variance of the latent trait (R2 = 99.4%). Conclusions Using the classical sample size formula adjusted with the proposed RATIO can provide a straightforward and reliable formula for sample size computation for 2-group comparison of PRO data using Rasch models. PMID:24996957

  14. A Comparison of Hypnotic Induction, Task Motivation, and a "Cold Start" Control Group on Hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Stephen; Kumar, V K

    2016-10-01

    Groups of participants (N = 164) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Group 1 received a trance induction, Group 2 received task-motivational instructions, and Group 3-"cold start" control-was simply told, "We will begin the hypnosis procedure now." All participants received the Creative Imagination Scale suggestions and then completed the Creative Imagination Scale and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The three conditions did not differ significantly either on the Creative Imagination Scale or in reported hypnotic depth. These results are consistent with prior studies which show that trance induction and task-motivational yield similar results, but they are inconsistent inasmuch as the trance induction and task-motivational groups did not differ from the control group. These results, however, are predictable from socio-cognitive perspectives that the context of hypnosis itself can elicit hypnotic behaviors. PMID:27586049

  15. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    PubMed

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group. PMID:26022589

  16. A comparison of individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment for female pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2007-09-01

    The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159

  17. Vocabulary Learning in Collaborative Tasks: A Comparison of Pair and Small Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobao, Ana Fernández

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the opportunities that pair and small group interaction offer for collaborative dialogue and second language (L2) vocabulary learning. It compared the performance of the same collaborative writing task by learners working in groups of four (n = 60) and in pairs (n = 50), focusing on the occurrence of lexical language-related…

  18. Solving Creative Problems in Groups: A Comparison of Techniques for Use in Advertising Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Nancy; Danielson, Mary Ann

    An underinvestigated aspect of advertising education is the consideration of methods by which groups effectively solve creative problems. Brainstorming has been popularly used by teams in classes to generate ideas; yet, little research exists that compares small group structures for creative problem solving. Bridging this gap, a study compared…

  19. A Comparison of Static Picture Prompting and Video Prompting Simulation Strategies Using Group Instructional Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David; Alberto, Paul A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Gama, Robert I.

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of three students with moderate mental retardation were instructed using group procedures to compare static picture and video prompting simulation strategies. An alternating treatments design was used to compare individual student task acquisition and maintenance performances of purchasing and banking skills. The results indicated that…

  20. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  1. Somatic antigens of Streptococcus group E. I. Comparison of extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Payne, J B; Armstrong, C H

    1970-05-01

    Eleven Streptococcus group E strains, representing serotypes I, II, III, IV, V, and "untypable" isolates, were extracted by formamide, trichloroacetic acid, and hydrochloric acid under various conditions in an effort to determine the best method for recovering maximum amounts of group and type antigens. The group antigen was found to be relatively stable, and adequate amounts for identification purposes were recovered by a wide spectrum of conditions. Type-specific antigens were relatively labile, and were destroyed at low pH in acid hydrolysis or by prolonged heating in formamide hydrolysis. The best single procedure for recovering both type and group antigens from Streptococcus group E was formamide hydrolysis for 30 min at 180 C. PMID:5463578

  2. The Comparison of Nutritional Status Between Turkman and Non-Turkman Ethnic Groups in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veghari, Gholam Reza; Jafar Golalipour, Mohammad

    Undernutrition and obesity are two most children health problems in world. Several agents can effect on food pattern among ethnic groups. This study was designed to determine nutritional status among rural children by two ethnic groups (Turkman and Non-Turkman) in north of Iran in 2004. We chose 20 villages of 118 by cluster and simple sampling. All of 2-5 years old children in this area were considered in this study. Sample size was 1446 cases (551 = Turkman and 895 = non-Turkman). Height, weight and personal identification were recorded by questioner. BMI percentile and under -1SD, -2SD and -3SD from NCHS were used for comparison. X2-test and T-test were used to analyze by software SPSS. Turkman children are about 426 g heavier and 4.9 cm taller than non-Turkman in all of age groups. T-test is significant between two groups by weight and height (p< 0.05). Stunting and underweight were observed in Turkman group 13.2 and 1.9%, respectively less than in non-Turkman by -2SD criterion. There is a significant difference between two groups by stunting (p< 0.05). Obesity and overweight exist in Turkman group 24.5 and 2.6%, respectively are less than in non-Turkman. Obesity is statistical significant between two groups (p< 0.05). Secular growth in two groups is incompatible and in Turkman group, it is better than Non-Turkman. There is severe height deficit in Non-Turkman group and it increases the BMI values. Thereby, malnutrition is the most health problem in rural area in north of Iran and nutritional intervention is necessary for solving these problems. BMI values are not suitable for children with stature failure.

  3. Comparison of individual answer and group answer with and without structured peer assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablan, Zeynel

    2014-09-01

    Background:Cooperative learning activities provide active participation of students leading to better learning. The literature suggests that cooperative learning activities need to be structured for a more effective and productive interaction. Purpose: This study aimed to test the differences among three instructional conditions in terms of science achievement. Sample:A total of 79 fifth-grade students, 42 males (53%) and 37 females (47%), participated in the study. Design and Methods:In the first condition, students answered the teacher's questions individually by raising hands. In the second condition, students discussed the answer in groups and came up with a single group answer. In this condition, the teacher provided only verbal directions to the groups without using any strategy or material. In the third condition, students used a 'peer assessment form' before giving the group answer. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used. Multiple-choice and open-ended tests were used for data collection. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test the differences in the test scores between the three groups (individual answer, unstructured group answer and structured group answer). Results:Results showed that there were no significant differences among the three learning conditions in terms of their multiple-choice test scores. In terms of the open-ended test scores, students in the structured group answer condition scored significantly higher than the students in the individual answer condition. Conclusions:Structuring the group work through peer assessment helped to monitor the group discussion, provided a better learning compared to the individual answer condition, and helped students to participate in the activity equally.

  4. Two-Year Comparison of a Stream Macroinvertebrate Functional Group Bioassessment Protocol for the Republic of Palau Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, A. A.; Benbow, M. E.; Holm, T.; Burky, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Macroinvertebrate functional feeding group data was collected in 2003 and 2004 to develop a rapid bioassessment protocol for Palauan streams. One reference stream, Ngardmau, was selected to test functional group ratios and associated ecosystem attributes against streams of variable impact. In both years qualitative samples were collected using 30s dip net samples in pool habitats and benthic scouring methods in cascades with additional quantitative cascade collections for sampling technique comparisons in 2004. In the reference stream riffle habitat, filtering-gatherers dominated the community (89.92% in 2003 and 47.37% in 2004) compared to all other functional groups. Among the impacted streams, riffle functional group composition was variable compared to the reference stream. In reference pool habitats, gathering-collectors and scrapers dominated in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Scrapers dominated pool habitats of impacted streams in 2004, with some functional groups missing. Changes in ecosystem attributes followed functional group variability depending on degree of impact. Functional group ratios indicated channel stability ratio ([filtering-collectors + scrapers]/[shredders + gathering-collectors]) was lowered with increasing impact, suggesting food and/or habitat quality for filtering-collectors was degraded in riffle habitats in 2003 with no trends in 2004. By this protocol streams were determined to be degraded in 2004 relative to 2003.

  5. Comparison of the Efficiency of Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) Procedure in Older and Younger Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sivaslioglu, Akin; Ilhan, Türkan; Uçar, Mustafa Gazi; Dolen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal vault prolapsus is a challenging problem for the patients and physicians. There may be differences between young and elderly patients in terms of efficiency and safety of surgical procedures. Aim The aim of our study was to compare the efficiency of the Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) procedure in older versus younger patient groups. Materials and Methods A total of 40 patients who underwent the PIVS procedure were chosen. Twenty of these patients were younger than 60 years of age (Group I) while the other 20 patients were 60 years of age or older (Group II). Preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapsed Quantification (POP-Q) reference points were compared with postoperative data at the first year following surgery. Student’s t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the χ2 test was used to analyse categorical data. The Mann–Whitney test was used for data that were not normally distributed. Results Anatomical cure rates were 90 percent in both groups (p=1.00). There were significantly greater improvements in POP-Q points in group I than group II. Conclusion It could be concluded that PIVS as minimally invasive procedure for vaginal vault prolapsed and is effective in all age groups.

  6. Comparison of stability and weight shift among golfers grouped by skill level.

    PubMed

    Stemm, J D; Jacobson, B H; Royer, T D

    2006-12-01

    This study compared balance, sway, and weight shift among golfers with different skill levels. Participants (N=52) were right-handed, male golfers between the ages of 18 and 55 and were divided into 3 groups based on their official handicap (Group 1= 0-9, Group 2= 10-16, Group 3 = 17+). Postural sway velocity was recorded unilaterally for each leg and bilaterally. Weight shift as assessed by limits of stability was measured as movement velocity and directional control. During testing, participants stood on a virtual center square as illustrated by a monitor placed directly in front of them. On command participants initiated movement about eight target squares located in a circle around the center square and attempted to move quickly and accurately to the targets. Means from the three forward, three backward, three left, and three right targets were analyzed by group. While significant condition means existed for each of the analyzed means, no significant group differences were found for bilateral or unilateral postural sway, and no significant group differences were found for movement velocity or directional control. In conclusion, as measured in the current study, balance and weight shift are not significantly different among golfers with different skill. PMID:17326490

  7. Ovarian steroids and premenstrual symptoms: a comparison of group differences and intra-individual patterns.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Martha J; Woods, Nancy; Heitkemper, Margaret; Mitchell, Ellen; Henker, Richard; Shaver, Joan

    2007-06-01

    To examine the relationship of gonadal hormone and symptom patterns across the menstrual cycle, women screened for 2-3 cycles completed an intensive study cycle; 26 had a low-severity symptoms (LS), 20, a premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and 26, a premenstrual magnification pattern (PMM). All completed daily symptom diaries and collected late afternoon urine samples which were assayed for pregnanediol and estradiol for that cycle. The PMS and PMM groups had significantly more positive cross-correlations of pregnanediol and symptoms than the LS group. Women in all groups had similar levels of estradiol and pregnanediol. Women with PMS and PMM patterns responded to progesterone differently than women with LS patterns: thus the former groups may not benefit from hormone therapies. PMID:17514719

  8. A comparison of workload and morbidity recording by partners in a group practice

    PubMed Central

    Carney, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A survey was carried out of one year's workload and morbidity recording by three partners in a semi-rural teaching practice. Despite an equal workload of patient contacts there were shown to be statistically significant differences between the partners in the number of return consultations, the sex and age of the patients seen, and in nine diagnostic groups. The statistically significant differences in the latter groups appear to have been caused by variations in policy for recalling patients and the different sex and age groups of the patients consulting the partners, not by diagnostic preferences. A lack of previous experience affected one group. The partners did not find the discussion of these differences to be threatening. PMID:7441620

  9. Neighborhoods, Family, and Substance Use: Comparisons of the Relations across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use among adolescents is related to several risk and protective factors derived from two ecological contexts: the neighborhood and the family. It explicitly investigates how the relationships between substance use and the factors vary across different racial and ethnic groups. Findings suggest many common correlates and processes of substance use for adolescents, regardless of race or ethnicity, including that neighborhood safety is associated with substance use. There are also some racial and ethnic group differences in relationships, including that low attachment to and lack of social opportunities in neighborhoods more strongly predict substance use among whites than among other racial and ethnic groups and that family management decreases the relationship between neighborhood safety and substance use among African Americans. A better understanding of the associations among factors that influence substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups can help effectively target preventive interventions for different groups. PMID:18461154

  10. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T.; Gowd, T. Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. Objective: To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. Results: In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (p<0.001). Subjects with A+ and O- blood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups. PMID:25478445

  11. Management of Myofascial Pain of Upper Trapezius: A Three Group Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Priya

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of myofascial trigger points (MTPt). Thus we aimed to study the effect of therapeutic ultrasound, laser and ischemic compression in reducing pain and improving cervical range of motion among patients with MTPt. Experimental study comparing three groups was designed as a 5 days trial, a co-relational design was considered. Outcome measures: VAS for pain, provocative pain test using “soft tissue tenderness grading scheme” and active cervical lateral flexion using inch tape. Methods- Patients were divided into 3 groups, Gr 1 underwent treatment using therapeutic ultrasound, Gr 2 with therapeutic laserand Gr 3 with ischemic compression. Assessments were done on day 1 and day 5 of treatment respectively. Results: ANOVA revealed improvement among all 3 groups as statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the start and end of trial. Analysis using Chi square test shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement between laser and the other 2 groups. Mean difference in the change of scores between the assessments showed laser therapy to have a tendency towards progressive improvement over the treatment period and a better improvement than the other 2 groups. Weconclude that laser can be used as an effective treatment regimen in the management of myofascial trigger points thereby reducing disability caused due to musculoskeletal pathology. PMID:22980377

  12. A comparison of two methods of measuring food group intake: grams vs servings.

    PubMed

    Nöthlings, Ute; Murphy, Suzanne P; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2006-05-01

    Different measurements can be used to quantify food group intake, such as servings, cups, or grams. Dietary recommendations are given in terms of servings (recently expressed as cup and ounce measurements), but research on disease risks often uses grams as the intake measure. Because serving sizes vary among foods within a food group, the method of expressing food group intake (grams vs servings) may impact disease risk analyses. Daily consumption of eight food groups was calculated as both Food Guide Pyramid servings and grams for 206,721 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study who completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire between 1993 and 1996. Mean grams per serving ranged from 25 g for red meat to 172 g for dairy products. Spearman correlation coefficients between intakes as grams per day and servings per day were 0.85 for grains, 0.97 for vegetables, 0.99 for fruit, 0.95 for dairy products, 0.98 for red meat, 0.93 for processed meat, 1.00 for poultry, and 1.00 for fish. Because there was little effect on the ranking of study participants' intakes due to the method of calculating food group consumption, the two measures are interchangeable in disease risk models. PMID:16647334

  13. Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder: Comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Binge Eating to an Active Comparison Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Robinson, Athena Hagler; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder (DBT-BED) aims to reduce binge eating by improving adaptive emotion-regulation skills. Preliminary findings have been promising but have only compared DBT-BED to a wait-list. To control for the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED, the present study compared DBT-BED to an active comparison group therapy (ACGT). Men and women (n = 101) meeting DSM-IV BED research criteria were randomly assigned to 20 group sessions of DBT-BED (n = 50) or ACGT (n = 51). DBT-BED had a significantly lower dropout rate (4%) than ACGT (33.3%). Linear Mixed Models revealed that posttreatment binge abstinence and reductions in binge frequency were achieved more quickly for DBT-BED than for ACGT (posttreatment abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 36% for ACGT) though differences did not persist over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (e.g., 12-month follow-up abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 56% for ACGT). Secondary outcome measures revealed no sustained impact on emotion regulation. Although both DBT-BED and ACGT reduced binge eating, DBT-BED showed significantly fewer dropouts and greater initial efficacy (e.g., at posttreatment) than ACGT. The lack of differential findings over follow-up suggests that the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED do not show long-term impact beyond those attributable to nonspecific common therapeutic factors. PMID:20171332

  14. Trust matters: a cross-cultural comparison of Northern Ghana and Oaxaca groups

    PubMed Central

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    A cross-cultural analysis of trust and cooperation networks in Northern Ghana (NGHA) and Oaxaca (OAX) was carried out by means of ego networks and interviews. These regions were chosen because both are inhabited by several ethnic groups, thus providing a good opportunity to test the cultural group selection hypothesis. Against the predictions of this approach, we found that in both regions cooperation is grounded in personal trust groups, and that social cohesion depends on these emotional bonds. Moreover, in agreement with Fiske's notion of “evolved proclivities,” we also found two distinct kinds of trust networks, one for each region, which vary in terms of the degree of ethnic interrelation. This pattern suggests that social cohesion increases when environmental resources are scarce. PMID:26052296

  15. Global Comparison of Warring Groups in 2002–2007: Fatalities from Targeting Civilians vs. Fighting Battles

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Lee, Uih Ran; Sundberg, Ralph; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors) that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002–2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI), defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1.) 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67%) refrained from targeting civilians. 2.) Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3.) In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4.) When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. Conclusions/Significance Most warring groups in 2002–2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal behavior into

  16. Indicators of visual scale as predictors of landscape preference; a comparison between groups.

    PubMed

    Tveit, Mari Sundli

    2009-07-01

    Landscape change alters the visual scale of agricultural landscapes, as production units get larger and strips of taller vegetation are removed between smaller units. Visual scale, defined as the perceptual units reflecting the experience of landscape rooms, visibility and openness, is considered a key factor shaping landscape preference. The visual expression of landscapes affects people in many ways; aesthetic appreciation, health and well being. In order to understand how landscape changes alter the visual scale of landscapes, and hence its effect on human beings, it is important to establish efficient and practical ways of measuring visual scale and its relation to landscape preferences. This paper presents an empirical test of the ability to predict landscape preference of two photo-based indicators of visual scale; percentage open land in the view and size of landscape rooms. A preference survey was conducted with two groups of respondents; a student group from the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) and a public group. The student group was chosen to represent future landscape professionals. Photos of landscapes varying in the expression of visual scale were shown to survey respondents, who were asked to give scores according to how much they liked the landscapes. Both indicators were found to be predictors of preference for the student group, but not for the public group. The results demonstrate that student preferences do not reflect the landscape preferences of the wider public. The different appreciation of visual scale in the landscape of future landscape professionals and the public implies that experts wanting to reflect preferences of the wider public should be cautious when evaluating the visual impact of landscape change. PMID:18951696

  17. The dose-effect relationships between torture and psychiatric symptoms in Vietnamese ex-political detainees and a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Mollica, R F; McInnes, K; Pham, T; Smith Fawzi, M C; Murphy, E; Lin, L

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in Vietnamese ex-political detainees newly arrived into the United States a) the prevalence of torture and psychiatric symptoms and b) the dose-effect relationships between cumulative torture experience and the psychiatric symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. The study population included Vietnamese ex-political detainees (N = 51) and a comparison group (N = 22). All respondents received culturally validated instruments with known psychometric properties including Vietnamese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The ex-political detainees, in contrast to the comparison group, had experienced more torture events (12.2 SD = 4.2 vs. 2.6 SD = 3.1) and had higher rates of PTSD (90% vs. 79%) and depression (49% vs. 15%). Dose-effect relationships between cumulative torture experience and psychiatric symptoms were positive with the PTSD subcategory of "increased arousal" revealing the strongest association. These findings provide evidence that torture is associated with psychiatric morbidity in Vietnamese refugees. The demonstration of significant dose-effect responses supports the hypothesis that torture is a major risk factor in the etiology of major depression and PTSD. The generalizability of these results to other torture survivor groups is unknown. The interaction between torture and other pre- and post-migration risk factors over time in different cultural settings still needs to be examined. PMID:9741560

  18. Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. Material and methods The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once – for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Results Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Conclusions Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier. PMID:23788875

  19. Which Setting to Choose: Comparison of Whole-Class vs. Small-Group Computer Simulation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Lara K.; Bell, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies considering whole-class use of computer simulations are limited, despite the increasing interest in this mode of use. The current study explored how a collection of computer simulations was integrated into both whole-class and small-group instructional settings during a high school chemistry unit on atomic structure. Participants included…

  20. A Comparison of Therapeutic Factors in Two Group Treatment Modalities: Verbal and Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Perl-Dekel, Ofra

    2000-01-01

    Compares therapeutic factors in verbal and art group psychotherapy in a psychiatric day-treatment clinic in Israel. Results only partly support the differences between modalities, but do reveal significant differences between participants with only a few interactions between participants and modalities. All therapeutic factors appear in both…

  1. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    PubMed

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure. PMID:26480030

  2. Coping with Workplace Stress: A Multiple-Group Comparison of Female Managers and Clerical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bonita C.

    1998-01-01

    A causal model of workplace stress was refined and cross-validated. Multivariate analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were used to investigate the effects of social roles on patterns of coping with workplace stress and job satisfaction. Differences found between managers (n=249) and clerical workers (n=214) suggest power and…

  3. Receiving the Initial Down Syndrome Diagnosis: A Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Group Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Springer, Nicole; Foote, Laura Cline; Frantz, Courtney; Peak, Madison; Tracy, Courtney; Veh, Taylor; Bentley, Gail E.; Cross, Kayli A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the preliminary experiences of parents upon learning of their child's diagnosis of Down syndrome. Qualitative data from a web-based, national survey were analyzed based on two groups: prenatal ("n" = 46) or postnatal ("n" = 115) diagnosis. Three primary categories emerged from the data analysis:…

  4. A Comparison of Independent, Interdependent, and Dependent Group Contingencies with Randomized Reinforcers to Increase Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alric, Jolie M.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2007-01-01

    Fluency, or the rate at which a student reads, is developed in the early stages of literacy and has been shown to correlate with comprehension. A myriad of interventions have been developed to increase fluency. Group contingencies are one of these that in particular have shown some positive effects on reading fluency. Advantages to using them are…

  5. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  6. Reexamining the Impact of Nonnormality in Two-Group Comparison Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonjeong; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The authors performed a Monte Carlo simulation to empirically investigate the robustness and power of 4 methods in testing mean differences for 2 independent groups under conditions in which 2 populations may not demonstrate the same pattern of nonnormality. The approaches considered were the t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Welch-James test with…

  7. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  8. Detection of Differential Item Functioning for More than Two Groups: A Monte Carlo Comparison of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment is a crucial component in test construction, serving as the primary way in which instrument developers ensure that measures perform in the same way for multiple groups within the population. When such is not the case, scores may not accurately reflect the trait of interest for all individuals in the…

  9. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Comparison of Individual Therapy, Group Therapy, and Telephone Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…

  11. Evaluation of MIMIC-Model Methods for DIF Testing with Comparison to Two-Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for 1 group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. This study focuses on the use of multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation models for DIF testing, parameterized as item…

  12. A Comparison of Three Groups of Young Fathers and Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Maxine L.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Smith, Peggy B.; Nevarez, Lucinda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a fatherhood program on risk behaviors among three groups of young fathers: those still in school (21%), those who had dropped out (52%), and those who graduated from high school or completed a GED (27%). The sample consisted of 198 young fathers who participated in a school-linked…

  13. Testing Measurement Invariance: A Comparison of Multiple-Group Categorical CFA and IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated two major approaches in testing measurement invariance for ordinal measures: multiple-group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MCCFA) and item response theory (IRT). Unlike the ordinary linear factor analysis, MCCFA can appropriately model the ordered-categorical measures with a threshold structure. A simulation…

  14. Worrying about What Others Think: A Social-Comparison Concern Intervention in Small Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Small-group learning has become commonplace in education at all levels. While it has been shown to have many benefits, previous research has demonstrated that it may not always work to the advantage of every student. One potential problem is that less-prepared students may feel anxious about participating, for fear of looking "dumb" in…

  15. Comparison of Stretching Force Constants in Symmetry Coordinates between Td and C3v Point Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, Maureen M.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we consider what happens to the force constants of a silicate moiety (SiO4) when the length of one of its bonds is changed. This situation exists in the molecule O3SiObrSiO3, where Obr is the bridging oxygen atom connecting the two SiO3 moieties. The problem is to present a set of force constants such that when the structure of the more symmetric molecule is perturbed, the relevant force constants are also perturbed. Algebraic expressions are derived for the stretching force constants of SiO4 (tetrahedral point group Td) and ObrSiO3 (point group C3v) in symmetry coordinates. This paper is addressed to students and researchers in applied group theory who wish to compare force constants between similar molecules. We assume the reader has some familarity with the group theoretical methods presented by Wilson et al. (Wilson, E. B. Jr.; Decius, J. C.; Cross, P. C. Molecular Vibrations; Dover: New York, 1980). We cannot apply Wilson's method for obtaining symmetry coordinates from internal coordinates directly, as we demonstrate. Instead we must start with the irreducible representations of the symmetries of the moiety with the higher symmetry and then reduce them to the representations of the symmetries of the moiety with the lower symmetry. The symmetry coordinates are calculated for each species in order to factor the secular equation. The matrix representations of the generators of these point groups are a function of the specific symmetry coordinates. Finally, the symmetry coordinates are applied to the force constant matrix and the algebraic results are compared.

  16. A comparison of clinical features among Japanese eating-disordered women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, H; Miyata, A; Iwasaki, Y; Matsui, T; Fujimoto, K; Kiriike, N

    1999-01-01

    Clinical features, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, were investigated in Japanese women with DSM-III-R eating disorders (EDs) and concurrent OCD in comparison to age-matched women with OCD. Sixteen women with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN), 16 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 16 with both AN and BN (BAN) showed commonality in a more elevated prevalence of OCD symptoms of symmetry and order compared with 18 OCD women. Among the personality disorders (PDs), likewise, obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) was more prevalent in each ED group compared with the OCD group. However, aggressive obsessions were more common in both BN and BAN subjects compared with AN subjects. Subjects with bulimic symptoms were also distinguished from AN subjects by impulsive features in behavior and personality. Thus, an elevated prevalence of aggressive obsessions along with an admixture of impulsive and compulsive features specifically characterized the clinical features of bulimic subjects with OCD. PMID:10509614

  17. Scandium in the open ocean: A comparison with other group 3 trivalent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Brown, M. T.; Bruland, K. W.

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the distribution of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean. Since the 1970s there has been only one published depth profile of dissolved Sc. The work presented here reports depth profiles of dissolved Sc from GEOTRACES cruises in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and South Pacific. This work also compares the reactivity of Sc with its trivalent periodic table groupmates in Group IIIB, yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La), and Group IIIA, aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga). Yttrium and La are classic nutrient-type metals that increase in concentration in aging deep water; Al and Ga are classic scavenged-type metals that do the opposite. Results indicate that Sc is a hybrid-type metal with an inferred residence time on the order of 1000 years, and that Sc's inorganic speciation and reactivity are similar to Fe's and have the potential to give insights into the nonnutrient side of oceanic Fe cycling.

  18. Levels of the Staff's Exposure to Violence at Locked Psychiatric Clinics: A Comparison by Occupational Groups.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Rabia; Sercan, Mustafa; Izci, Filiz

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the rates of exposure to violence among physicians, nurses, and other health care staff members working at the locked psychiatric clinics, to examine the quantity and types of violence exposed, and to compare occupational groups by the level of exposure to violence. In parallel with the existing literature, the present study supports the proposition that physicians and nurses working at psychiatric units represent a risky group in terms of exposure to violence. The survey found that 87.6% of staff members viewed security measures insufficient. It is considered by the authors that preventive actions should be taken to reduce the risk of exposure to violence against the staff members working at the locked psychiatric clinics. PMID:27104294

  19. Multicenter Evaluation of the Solana Group A Streptococcus Assay: Comparison with Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Daly, Judy A.; Marti, Tara N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared group A Streptococcus (GAS) culture with a rapid helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) method using 1,082 throat swab specimens. The HDA method demonstrated 98.2% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity. GAS prevalence by culture was 20.7%, and it was 22.6% using the HDA method. In 35 min, the HDA method provided rapid, sensitive GAS detection, making culture confirmation unnecessary. PMID:27358464

  20. Risk Factors for Endothelial Cell Loss after Phacoemulsification: Comparison in Different Anterior Chamber Depth Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yang Kyeung; Chang, Hwa Seok

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the risk factors for endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification with implantation of intraocular lens according to anterior chamber depth (ACD). Methods This prospective study included 94 eyes of 94 patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery. To assess the risk factors for corneal endothelial cell loss, we examined seven variables at 1 day, 1 week, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks postoperatively in each ACD-stratified group. Results Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the only variable influencing the percentage decrease in corneal endothelial cell density throughout the postoperative follow-up period in the long ACD group (ACD III) was nucleosclerosis. The variables influencing the percentage decrease in corneal endothelial cell density in the short ACD group (ACD I) at one day and one week postoperatively were corneal incisional tunnel length and nucleosclerosis. Conclusions Risk factors for endothelial cell loss after phaoemulsification were different according to ACD. Long corneal tunnel length can be one of the risk factors for endothelial cell loss in short ACD eyes. PMID:20157408

  1. Comparison of the Mindfulness Skills, Metacognitive Beliefs and Perceived Stress in Hypertension Patients and Control Group.

    PubMed

    Haji-Mirsaeidi, Zohreh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the skills of mindfulness, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress in hypertension patients and control group. The study was a causal-comparative one. The population included all patients with high blood pressure who were admitted in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute in 2014, 90 of which were selected by purposive sampling. Research instruments include: Kentucky's mindfulness skills (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), metacognitive beliefs questionnaire (Welles, 1997) and questionnaire perceived stress (Cohen & Kamarck, 1983). Of all the questionnaires returned, 80 were fully completed and therefore analyzed. Data were analyzed using a t-test and multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that there is a difference between mindfulness skills and beliefs of people with hypertension and control group. Moreover, the results showed that there isn't any meaningful difference between the perceived stress in patients with hypertension and control group. It can be said that mindfulness skills, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress can help us to understand the psychological issues of patients with high blood pressure better. PMID:27530578

  2. Which Setting to Choose: Comparison of Whole-Class vs. Small-Group Computer Simulation Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Lara K.; Bell, Randy L.

    2014-08-01

    Studies considering whole-class use of computer simulations are limited, despite the increasing interest in this mode of use. The current study explored how a collection of computer simulations was integrated into both whole-class and small-group instructional settings during a high school chemistry unit on atomic structure. Participants included one teacher and all of the students in two of her classes. Descriptive statistics are reported for pre- and post-instruction quantitative assessments of student conceptual understanding. Analytic induction guided analysis of a variety of qualitative data sources, including classroom observations, artifacts and interviews. Findings indicated that, regardless of the setting, computer simulations positively contributed to students' learning gains. Further, highly collaborative talk, coupled with meaningful teacher-student interactions, was more frequent in the whole-class group. These results suggest that both whole-class and small-group settings are appropriate for using simulations in science. Further, the effective incorporation of simulations into whole-class instruction may provide a solution to the dilemma of technology penetration versus integration in today's classrooms.

  3. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  4. Comparison of catchment grouping methods for flow duration curve estimation at ungauged sites in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauquet, E.; Catalogne, C.

    2011-08-01

    The study aims at estimating flow duration curves (FDC) at ungauged sites in France and quantifying the associated uncertainties using a large dataset of 1080 FDCs. The interpolation procedure focuses here on 15 percentiles standardised by the mean annual flow, which is assumed to be known at each site. In particular, this paper discusses the impact of different catchment grouping procedures on the estimation of percentiles by regional regression models. In a first step, five parsimonious FDC parametric models are tested to approximate FDCs at gauged sites. The results show that the model based on the expansion of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) outperforms the other tested models. In the EOF model, each FDC is interpreted as a linear combination of regional amplitude functions with spatially variable weighting factors corresponding to the parameters of the model. In this approach, only one amplitude function is required to obtain a satisfactory fit with most of the observed curves. Thus, the considered model requires only two parameters to be applicable at ungauged locations. Secondly, homogeneous regions are derived according to hydrological response, on the one hand, and geological, climatic and topographic characteristics on the other hand. Hydrological similarity is assessed through two simple indicators: the concavity index (IC) representing the shape of the dimensionless FDC and the seasonality ratio (SR), which is the ratio of summer and winter median flows. These variables are used as homogeneity criteria in three different methods for grouping catchments: (i) according to an a priori classification of French Hydro-EcoRegions (HERs), (ii) by applying regression tree clustering and (iii) by using neighbourhoods obtained by canonical correlation analysis. Finally, considering all the data, and subsequently for each group obtained through the tested grouping techniques, we derive regression models between physiographic and/or climatic variables and the

  5. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different Social Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A; Rathod, HK; Konda, M; Bhawalkar, JS

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fast, developing economies such as India, the population is undergoing rapid social transition, which can increase the risk profile for diabetes. Market forces promoting lifestyles such as sedentary habits, alcohol and tobacco use, which earlier were more prevalent among affluent urban populations are now trickling into the urban poor and rural populations. Aim: The aim of the present research was to compare the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes among three distinct social groups-the urban affluent, the urban poor and the rural poor. Subjects and Methods: A total of 775 adult population over 18 years and belonging to both genders were surveyed for prevalence of some of the risk factors for diabetes such as physical inactivity, obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use. The sample comprised of three distinct social groups as follows; 125 medical students representing the affluent, 400 subjects from urban slums, and 250 subjects from rural areas. Obesity was measured by body mass index (BMI) while central obesity was ascertained by waist hip ratio (WHR). Alcohol and tobacco use were elicited by interview. Results: The overall response rate was 88.52% (686/775). Medical students were more sedentary with mean hours spent each day sitting or reclining at 10.47 (3.25) h, compared to corresponding figures of 6.34 (3.1) h and 7.49 (3.74) h for the rural and urban slum residents respectively (P < 0.001). However, all types of leisure time physical activities were significantly more among the medical students compared to the other groups (P < 0.001). BMI was significantly highest among the rural population with mean of 24.22 (4.17) kg/m2 when compared to the other groups, (P < 0.001). Villagers also had higher WHR and had a higher proportion of persons above the WHR cut-off for gender (P < 0.001). Experimentation with alcohol was more prevalent among the medical students while the urban slum residents were more frequent and heavy drinkers. Smoking was most

  6. Power and Sample Size Determination for the Group Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes with Rasch Family Models

    PubMed Central

    Blanchin, Myriam; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Guillemin, Francis; Falissard, Bruno; Sébille, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) that comprise all self-reported measures by the patient are important as endpoint in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Models from the Item Response Theory (IRT) are increasingly used to analyze these particular outcomes that bring into play a latent variable as these outcomes cannot be directly observed. Preliminary developments have been proposed for sample size and power determination for the comparison of PRO in cross-sectional studies comparing two groups of patients when an IRT model is intended to be used for analysis. The objective of this work was to validate these developments in a large number of situations reflecting real-life studies. Methodology The method to determine the power relies on the characteristics of the latent trait and of the questionnaire (distribution of the items), the difference between the latent variable mean in each group and the variance of this difference estimated using Cramer-Rao bound. Different scenarios were considered to evaluate the impact of the characteristics of the questionnaire and of the variance of the latent trait on performances of the Cramer-Rao method. The power obtained using Cramer-Rao method was compared to simulations. Principal Findings Powers achieved with the Cramer-Rao method were close to powers obtained from simulations when the questionnaire was suitable for the studied population. Nevertheless, we have shown an underestimation of power with the Cramer-Rao method when the questionnaire was less suitable for the population. Besides, the Cramer-Rao method stays valid whatever the values of the variance of the latent trait. Conclusions The Cramer-Rao method is adequate to determine the power of a test of group effect at design stage for two-group comparison studies including patient-reported outcomes in health sciences. At the design stage, the questionnaire used to measure the intended PRO should be carefully chosen in relation to the studied

  7. Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Rogers, A R; Beesley, J; Jorde, L B

    1994-10-01

    The genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's GST was 0.013 (p < 0.002) for the RFLP data and 0.012 (p > 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the genetic variance in this population can be attributed to subdivision effects. A comparison of intersubdivision distance matrices based on blood groups, RFLPs, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees shows that genetic distances have relatively low and nonsignificant correlations with the other three types of data. However, the correlations based on RFLPs are considerably higher than those based on blood groups. Relationship matrices based on interindividual allele sharing were compared with known genealogical kinship coefficients between each pair of individuals. The correlation between the blood group and RFLP relationship matrices was small but marginally significant using the Mantel test (r = 0.014, p < 0.06). The RFLP relationship matrix correlated more highly with genealogical kinship than did the blood group relationship matrix (r = 0.023, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.012, p < 0.001, respectively). These correlations increased by approximately one order of magnitude when pairs of subjects having zero kinship coefficients were excluded. These results show that genetic distances derived from RFLPs correlate more strongly with other types of kinship than do distances based on blood groups. This probably reflects the fact that RFLPs are more neutral, have frequencies that are more accurately estimated, and contain more information about DNA sequence variation. PMID:8001907

  8. Comparison of Healthcare Quality Outcomes Between Accountable Care Organizations and Physician Group Practices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhchain; Khosla, Sandeep; Sethi, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) were created under the Affordable Care Act to deliver better quality of care at reduced cost compare with the traditional fee-for-service model. But their effectiveness in achieving healthcare quality metrics is unclear. We analyzed ACO and physician group practice (PGP) performance rates for the single coronary artery disease measure and four diabetes mellitus measures now publicly reported on the Medicare Physician Compare Web site for program year 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in reported quality measures between ACOs and PGPs. Our study shows that PGPs can achieve outcomes at par with ACOs. PMID:26223106

  9. Comparison of alternative weight recalibration methods for diagnosis-related groups

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Jeannette Roskamp; Byrne, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    In this article, alternative methodologies for recalibration of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) weights are examined. Based on 1984 data, cost and charge-based weights are less congruent than those calculated with 1981 data. Previous studies using 1981 data demonstrated that cost- and charge-based weights were not very different. Charge weights result in higher payments to surgical DRGs and lower payments to medical DRGs, relative to cost weights. At the provider level, charge weights result in higher payments to large urban hospitals and teaching hospitals, relative to cost weights. PMID:10113568

  10. Molecular epidemiologic comparison of 2 unusual clusters of group a streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Guliz; Ford, Jacqueline M; Kanenaka, Rebecca Y; Abe, Lucienne; Yamaga, Karen; Effler, Paul V

    2005-06-15

    Two clusters of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) due to group A streptococcus (GAS) were identified on the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Maui during 1997 and 2002, respectively. The emm gene sequence types and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were determined for 6 isolates recovered from patients with NF and for 116 isolates recovered from patients with temporally associated community-acquired GAS infection. No predominant emm type was identified, and the emm types of 64 (52.5%) of the isolates were considered to be uncommon in the continental United States. These findings suggest that unusual emm types might be responsible for invasive GAS infections in patients from Hawaii. PMID:15909276

  11. Comparison of picked-up protons and water group ions upstream of Comet Halley's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Coates, A. J.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The similarities and differences between the picked-up cometary protons and water-group (WG) ions upstream of the bow shock of Comet Halley are examined using measurements obtained by the ion mass spectrometer and plasma analyzer experiments on board Giotto. It was found that the dependencies of the pitch angle and the energy diffusion rates of the cometary protons and WG ions on the ion densities and on the angle alpha between the interplanetary field and the solar wind velocity vector were very different. This finding could not be explained in terms of presently available theories and models.

  12. Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Quasi-experimental Pre-test and Post-test Comparison Using Two Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-01

    A flipped classroom approach has been implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in active in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. In-class activities are designed to achieve a trifecta of: 1. developing problem solving skills, 2. learning subject content, and 3. developing inquiry skills. The instructor and assistants provide critical ``just-in-time tutoring'' during the in-class problem solving sessions. Comparisons are made with a simultaneous section offered in a traditional mode by a different instructor. Regression analysis was used to control for differences among students and to quantify the effect of the flipped fluid mechanics course. The dependent variable was the students' combined final examination and post-concept inventory scores and the independent variables were pre-concept inventory score, gender, major, course section, and (incoming) GPA. The R-square equaled 0.45 indicating that the included variables explain 45% of the variation in the dependent variable. The regression results indicated that if the student took the flipped fluid mechanics course, the dependent variable (i.e., combined final exam and post-concept inventory scores) was raised by 7.25 points. Interestingly, the comparison group reported significantly more often that their course emphasized memorization than did the flipped classroom group.

  13. Disaster Impact Across Cultural Groups: Comparison of Whites, African Americans, and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends knowledge regarding the differential impact of natural disasters among White, African American, and Latino survivors of Hurricane Ike through its use of a large, regional sample recruited via representative sampling procedures to examine the associations between cultural identification and disaster impact, including loss, damage, and negative mental health outcomes. Consistent with previous research, results indicated disparities between cultural groups with regard to disaster exposure. Additionally, type of disaster impact was differentially associated with PTSD and depression status dependent on cultural group. Specifically, the extent of personal disaster exposure, property damage, and loss of services made significant contributions to PTSD status among White survivors. African-Americans were more likely than White and Latino Ike survivors to endorse post-disaster PTSD and depression and endorsement of depression was predicted by severity of property damage. With respect to Latino respondents, only the extent of personal disaster exposure significantly contributed to both PTSD and depression status. Implications of the current findings are discussed with regard to future disaster preparedness and response efforts and the implementation and evaluation of community-based disaster resources. PMID:23709270

  14. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  15. The specificity of emotional switching in borderline personality disorder in comparison to other clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Houben, Marlies; Bohus, Martin; Santangelo, Philip S; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Trull, Timothy J; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In an attempt to better understand the nature of emotion dysregulation in the daily lives of persons with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), Houben et al. (2016) recently identified emotional switching, which refers to the tendency to make large changes between positive and negative emotional states over time, as a possible defining characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in BPD. The goal of this study was to examine the specificity of these previous findings in 2 samples by comparing BPD patients (N = 43 in sample 1; N = 81 in sample 2) to patients with bulimia nervosa (N = 20), posttraumatic stress disorder (N = 28), or healthy controls (N = 28) in sample 1, and to patients with depressive disorder (N = 50) in sample 2, with respect to measures of emotional switching. Analyses of these 2 experience sampling datasets revealed that contrary to expectations, BPD patients did not differ from the clinical groups regarding their mere tendency to switch between positive and negative emotional states on consecutive moments over time and regarding the magnitude of such changes between positive and negative emotional states over time. However, all clinical groups did differ from healthy controls regarding all switch measures in dataset 1. These results indicate that emotional switching, similar to other more traditional indicators of overall changes in emotional intensity in daily life, might reflect a feature of emotional responding characterizing a range of disorders with mood disturbances. PMID:26882282

  16. The healthy immigrant (migrant) effect: In search of a better native-born comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tod G

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates whether immigrants' initial health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts results primarily from characteristics correlated with their birth countries (e.g., immigrant culture) or from selective migration (e.g., unobserved characteristics such as motivation and ambition) by comparing recent immigrants' health to that of recent U.S.-born interstate migrants ("U.S.-born movers"). Using data from the 1999-2013 waves of the March Current Population Survey, I find that, relative to U.S.-born adults (collectively), recent immigrants have a 6.1 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Changing the reference group to U.S.-born movers, however, reduces the recent immigrant health advantage by 28%. Similar reductions in the immigrant health advantage occurs in models estimated separately by either race/ethnicity or education level. Models that examine health differences between recent immigrants and U.S.-born movers who both moved for a new job-a primary motivation behind moving for both immigrants and the U.S.-born-show that such immigrants have only a 1.9 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Together, the findings suggest that changing the reference group from U.S.-born adults collectively to U.S.-born movers reduces the identified immigrant health advantage, indicating that selective migration plays a significant role in explaining the initial health advantage of immigrants in the United States. PMID:26463553

  17. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  18. Visuo-spatial memory deficits following medial temporal lobe damage: A comparison of three patient groups.

    PubMed

    Esfahani-Bayerl, Nazli; Finke, Carsten; Braun, Mischa; Düzel, Emrah; Heekeren, Hauke R; Holtkamp, Martin; Hasper, Dietrich; Storm, Christian; Ploner, Christoph J

    2016-01-29

    The contributions of the hippocampal formation and adjacent regions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) to memory are still a matter of debate. It is currently unclear, to what extent discrepancies between previous human lesion studies may have been caused by the choice of distinct patient models of MTL dysfunction, as disorders affecting this region differ in selectivity, laterality and mechanisms of post-lesional compensation. Here, we investigated the performance of three distinct patient groups with lesions to the MTL with a battery of visuo-spatial short-term memory tasks. Thirty-one subjects with either unilateral damage to the MTL (postsurgical lesions following resection of a benign brain tumor, 6 right-sided lesions, 5 left) or bilateral damage (10 post-encephalitic lesions, 10 post-anoxic lesions) performed a series of tasks requiring short-term memory of colors, locations or color-location associations. We have shown previously that performance in the association task critically depends on hippocampal integrity. Patients with postsurgical damage of the MTL showed deficient performance in the association task, but performed normally in color and location tasks. Patients with left-sided lesions were almost as impaired as patients with right-sided lesions. Patients with bilateral post-encephalitic lesions showed comparable damage to MTL sub-regions and performed similarly to patients with postsurgical lesions in the association task. However, post-encephalitic patients showed additional impairments in the non-associative color and location tasks. A strikingly similar pattern of deficits was observed in post-anoxic patients. These results suggest a distinct cerebral organization of associative and non-associative short-term memory that was differentially affected in the three patient groups. Thus, while all patient groups may provide appropriate models of medial temporal lobe dysfunction in associative visuo-spatial short-term memory, additional deficits in

  19. Developmental Language Disorders: Challenges and Implications of Cross-Group Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Historically, specific language impairment (SLI) and language deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been viewed as distinct developmental language disorders. However, over the last decade or so a considerable amount of research has explored general similarities or specific areas of overlap between children with SLI and ASD based on language and cognitive profiles, neuroimaging findings, and genetic research. The clinical classification schemes that are used to identify the children necessarily influence the extent to which SLI and ASD are viewed as overlapping or distinct conditions. Yet, the criteria used to diagnosis these two populations vary across countries and even across investigators within a given country. This necessarily impacts the findings from comparative investigations of these groups. With these challenges in mind, clinical implications of evidence for similarities and distinctions between children with SLI and ASD will be discussed with respect to differential diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23942044

  20. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links With Pragmatic Language

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 28 with typical development (TD), aged 4–15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  1. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Joe P.; Manship, Daniel R.; Wright, Timothy G.; Breckenridge, W. H.

    2014-02-28

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG–H{sup −} (RG = He–Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, M{sub IIa}H{sup −} (M{sub IIa} = Be–Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be–He complex. While the RG–H{sup −} and Be–He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH{sup −} and MgH{sup −} species, the other M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns{sup 2}) and H{sup −}(1s{sup 2}). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species than for RG–H{sup −}. Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the M{sub IIa} atom to move away from the incoming H{sup −}.

  2. Diagnosis-Related Groups in Hand Surgery--a comparison of six European countries.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Oliver; Amr, Amro; Chiarello, Pietro; Bihler, Manuela; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Stahl, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) is a classification system, which groups patients according to their diagnosis and resource consumption. Common hand surgical diagnoses and procedures were processed using national DRG-groupers of six European countries. The upper thresholds of length of stay (LoS) are indicated for every country with the exception of Spain. The mean value in the series was 9.9 days for Germany, 4.5 days for Austria, 10.7 days for Italy, 9.7 days for Sweden and 9.4 days for the United Kingdom (UK). Germany and Austria also have lower thresholds of LoS and the average LoS.Multiple finger replantation presented the highest single case reimbursement in Germany, Austria and the UK (13,825 €, 10,576 € and 9,198 €). Scaphoid non-union had the highest single case reimbursement in Italy (2,676 €), flap coverage of wounds in Spain (5,506 €) and trapeziometacarpal arthritis in Sweden (5,350 €). The mean values for single case reimbursement were as follows: Germany 3,211 €, Austria 2,821 €, Italy 1,947 €, Spain 3,594 €, Sweden 2,403 € and the UK 3,253 €. Ten out of 19 cases showed the highest reimbursement in Spain, followed by the UK (5 cases), Sweden (2 cases), Germany and Austria (1 case each). Applying the case numbers of our clinic to the reimbursement system of each country, total proceeds would be 2.25 million € in Spain, 1.79 million € in Germany as well as the UK, 1.75 million € in Austria, 1.63 million € in Sweden and 1.22 million € in Italy. The consequences of international differences in efficiency and reimbursement are hard to assess as they are influenced by multiple factors that are seldom purely market-driven. However, the consideration of international data for benchmarking and refinement of national compensation systems should be a useful instrument. PMID:22557941

  3. Enteric neuromuscular junctions: comparison of ultrastructural features in different phylogenetic groups.

    PubMed

    Halasy, K; Benedeczky, I; Fekete, E; Tóth, L; Gábriel, R

    1988-04-01

    The enteric neuromuscular junctions of snail (Helix pomatia), locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides), cockroach (Periplaneta americana), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca) were studied by means of different light and electron microscopic methods. The nitroblue tetrazolium staining revealed that the myenteric plexuses of the above species are composed of nerve cells, a network of varicose nerves and nerve bundles. Instead of highly organized ganglia, single neurons or small groups of 2-4 cells are characteristic of the invertebrates and fish studied. Catecholaminergic fluorescence induced by glyoxylic acid was detected in the muscular layer of the entire alimentary tract in snail and the hindgut of tench. Fluorescent nerves and perikarya were frequent in the snail gut, while only nerves and no perikarya were found in tench. A close contact between enteric muscles and nerves is the most common form of enteric neuromuscular junction in both the smooth (i.e. the molluscan and fish gut) and the striated (i.e. the insect gut) musculature. The striated musculature (i.e. the insect gut, the oesophagus of carp, and the oesophagus, stomach and the midgut of tench) also receives a synaptic input. Cytochemical evidence is provided of the cholinergic character of fish motor endplates. The ultrastructural appearance and vesicle population of certain nerve terminals suggest a universal role of aminergic and peptidergic control in gut motility. PMID:3393275

  4. Group-specific comparison of four lactobacilli isolated from human sources using differential blast analysis.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Eric; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used in fermentation processes for centuries. More recent applications including the use of LAB as probiotics have significantly increased industrial interest. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of four completely sequenced Lactobacillus strains, isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract, versus 25 lactic acid bacterial genomes present in the public database at the time of analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533, Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1are all considered probiotic and widely used in industrial applications. Using Differential Blast Analysis (DBA), each genome was compared to the respective remaining three other Lactobacillus and 25 other LAB genomes. DBA highlighted strain-specific genes that were not represented in any other LAB used in this analysis and also identified group-specific genes shared within lactobacilli. Initial comparative analyses highlighted a significant number of genes involved in cell adhesion, stress responses, DNA repair and modification, and metabolic capabilities. Furthermore, the range of the recently identified potential autonomous units (PAUs) was broadened significantly, indicating the possibility of distinct families within this genetic element. Based on in silico results obtained for the model organism L. acidophilus NCFM, DBA proved to be a valuable tool to identify new key genetic regions for functional genomics and also suggested re-classification of previously annotated genes. PMID:21484153

  5. Tobacco, marijuana, and sensation seeking: comparisons across gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual groups.

    PubMed

    Trocki, Karen F; Drabble, Laurie A; Midanik, Lorraine T

    2009-12-01

    This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the past 5 years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same-sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians, and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared with heterosexual men. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368

  6. Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory A; Bard, David E

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in rates of recidivism. Based upon both juvenile and adult recidivism data, 6.4% of the sample reoffended sexually and 30.1% reoffended nonsexually. Retrospective risk assessments were completed using the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Comparisons of the 3 preexisting groups for differences on scale and factor scores were conducted using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Differences among groups for recidivism were measured using survival curve analysis. Associations between risk scales and recidivism were measured using Cox regression analyses. Results suggest significant differences among the 3 offender groups on multiple scales of the JSOAP-II and PCL:YV, with mixed type offenders consistently producing higher risk scores as compared to those who exclusively offend against children or peers/adults. The Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior scale of the JSOAP-II and the Interpersonal and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. The Behavioral and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of nonsexual recidivism. Results supported previous research indicating that most adolescents who sexually offend do not continue offending into adulthood. Such results can lead to improved treatment by targeting specific risk factors for intervention and better use of risk management resources in the community, while preserving the most restrictive treatment options for the highest risk offenders. PMID:17136626

  7. Novel genetic aberrations in breast phyllodes tumours: comparison between prognostically distinct groups.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wai Jin; Lai, Johnathan C; Thike, Aye Aye; Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Tan, Sie Yong; Koh, Valerie Cui Yun; Lim, Tse Hui; Bay, Boon Huat; Tan, Min-Han; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-06-01

    Phyllodes tumours of the breast are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms which pose management challenges due to difficulties in accurate prediction of clinical behaviour, as histological assessment has its limitations. Molecular studies have improved the understanding of these rare tumours but such findings are scant. We aimed to investigate genetic aberrations in phyllodes tumours stratified according to clinical behaviour, to identify potential genes contributing to disease progression. Twenty phyllodes tumours were separated into prognostically distinct categories depending on whether they had recurred/metastasized within the follow-up period. DNA extracted from FFPE materials was subjected to Affymetrix OncoScan™ FFPE Express molecular inversion probe microarray platform for analysis of copy number changes and mutational status. Results were cross validated with Sanger sequencing, FISH and immunohistochemistry. A higher number of chromosomal aberrations were observed in cases which recurred/metastasized, with median events of 19 compared to 3.5 in cases which did not recur/metastasize. High-level amplification and homozygous deletions were detected exclusively in the former group. Regions of high-level amplification included MDM4 (1q32.1), RAF1 (3p25), EGFR (7p12) and PDZD2 (5p13.3). EGFR amplification was confirmed on FISH and accompanied by intense EGFR immunostaining. Regions of homozygous deletion included CDKN2A (9p21) and MACROD2 (20p12.1). Homozygous deletion of 9p21 which involved CDKN2A was accompanied by loss of protein expression. No mutations were identified in all samples. These findings provide insights into identifying target genes and pathways exploited by phyllodes tumours, which would aid future development of individualised therapy. PMID:24831776

  8. Latitudinal comparison of spawning season and growth of 0-group sole, Solea solea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Amara, R.; Maia, A.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    0-Group sole, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in four nursery grounds: two on the Northern French coast and two on the Portuguese coast. Juvenile sole were collected at the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1992, in the Authie estuary (Eastern English Channel) in 1997, and in the Douro and Tagus estuary (Northern and central Portugal, respectively) in 2005. Left lapilli otoliths were used to estimate age and investigate variability in growth rates and hatch dates. In the French study areas nursery colonisation ended in early June in the Vilaine estuary and in late June in the Authie estuary. In the Portuguese estuaries nursery colonisation ended in May in the Douro estuary and in late June in the Tagus estuary. Growth rates were higher in the Portuguese estuaries, 0.767 mm d -1 in the Tagus estuary and 0.903 mm d -1 in the Douro estuary. In the French nurseries, growth rates were estimated to be 0.473 mm d -1 in the Villaine estuary and 0.460 mm d -1 in the Authie estuary. Data on growth rates from other studies shows that growth rates are higher at lower latitudes, probably due to higher water temperature. Spawning took place between early January and early April in the Villaine estuary's coastal area in 1992. In 1997, in the Authie estuary spawning started in late January and ended in early April. On the Douro estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-January and ended in late March, in 2005, while on the Tagus estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-February and ended in mid-April, in the same year. Literature analysis of the spawning period of sole along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 38°N to 55°N in the Northeast Atlantic indicated that there is a latitudinal trend, in that spawning starts sooner at lower latitudes. Results support that local conditions, particularly hydrodynamics, may overrule general latitudinal trends.

  9. Recidivism following mental health court exit: Between and within-group comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Evan M; Desmarais, Sarah L; Baucom, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, Mental Health Courts (MHCs) have spread rapidly across the U.S. These courts aim to reduce recidivism among adults with mental illnesses through diversion into community-based treatment. Extant research suggests that MHCs can be effective in reducing recidivism, but also demonstrates that effectiveness varies as a function of characteristics of the participants (e.g., criminal history) and the program (e.g., coercion). Less is known regarding the extent to which process-related factors (e.g., length of participation, time between referral and receipt of services) impact effectiveness. Prior research also is limited by a focus on recidivism during MHC as opposed to postexit. To address these knowledge gaps, we examined recidivism 1 year postexit for a group of MHC participants (n = 57) and offenders receiving treatment as usual (TAU; n = 40), total N = 97. We also investigated the influence of individual characteristics and process factors on changes in jail days 1 year preentry to 1 year postexit for MHC participants. Overall, results provide some evidence supporting the effectiveness of MHCs. MHC participants had significantly fewer jail days, but not charges or convictions, relative to TAU participants. Among MHC participants, graduation from the MHC, presence of co-occurring substance use, and longer length of MHC participation were associated with greater reductions in jail days. Other process factors were unrelated to reductions in recidivism. Findings suggest that MHCs may be particularly effective for high-risk participants and that time spent in a MHC has positive effects on recidivism, regardless of graduation status. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595703

  10. Effectiveness of the surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program: an impact evaluation utilizing a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Catherine M; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Sorter, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. This evaluation employs a comparison group to measure whether program group participants differed significantly from comparison group participants on pretest-posttest measures while assessing the immediate impact of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program. Findings indicate several positive outcomes in program group students' suicide and depression knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behavioral intentions compared with the comparison group. Suicide prevention specialists and prevention planners may benefit from study findings. PMID:24786795

  11. Power and sample size determination for group comparison of patient-reported outcomes using polytomous Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Blanchin, Myriam; Feddag, Mohand-Larbi; Le Néel, Tanguy; Perrot, Bastien; Sébille, Véronique

    2015-07-20

    The analysis of patient-reported outcomes or other psychological traits can be realized using the Rasch measurement model. When the objective of a study is to compare groups of individuals, it is important, before the study, to define a sample size such that the group comparison test will attain a given power. The Raschpower procedure (RP) allows doing so with dichotomous items. The RP is extended to polytomous items. Several computational issues were identified, and adaptations have been proposed. The performance of this new version of RP is assessed using simulations. This adaptation of RP allows obtaining a good estimate of the expected power of a test to compare groups of patients in a large number of practical situations. A Stata module, as well as its implementation online, is proposed to perform the RP. Two versions of the RP for polytomous items are proposed (deterministic and stochastic versions). These two versions produce similar results in all of the tested cases. We recommend the use of the deterministic version, when the measure is obtained using small questionnaires or items with a few number of response categories, and the stochastic version elsewhere, so as to optimize computing time. PMID:25787270

  12. Group comparison of spatiotemporal dynamics of intrinsic networks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Askren, Mary K; Zhang, Jing; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Thomas J; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    right insula, an area implicated in network shifting and associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, was more highly correlated with both these networks in Parkinson's disease than in controls. In Parkinson's disease, increased correlation of the insula with the default mode network was related to lower attentional accuracy. We demonstrated that in an omnibus sense, correlations among network kernels describe biological impact of pathophysiological processes (through correlation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers) and clinical status (by classification of patient group). At a greater level of detail, we demonstrate aberrant involvement of the insula in the default mode network and the frontal frontoparietal task control network kernel. Network kernel analysis holds promise as a sensitive method for detecting biologically and clinical relevant changes to specific networks that support cognition and are impaired in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26173859

  13. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  14. Phylogenetic grouping and pathotypic comparison of urine and fecal Escherichia coli isolates from children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Navidinia, Masoumeh; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Fallah, Fatemeh; Bakhshi, Bita; Sajadinia, Raheleh Sadat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic background and to assess hlyD (involved in the secretion of haemolysin A) and intI1 (encoding a class 1 integrase) in Escherichia coli isolates derived from urinary and fecal specimens. A total of 200 E. coli isolates was collected from patients presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI) during September 2009 to September 2010 and screened for hlyD and intI1 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) and that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates mainly belong to groups B2 (54%) and D (34%) whereas group A (44%) and D (26%) are predominant among commensal E. coli isolates. In this study, hlyD was present in 26% of UPEC and 2% of commensal E. coli isolates. However, hemolytic activity was detected for 42% of UPEC and 6% of commensal E. coli isolates (p < 0.05). intI1 gene was more frequently expressed in UPEC (24%) in comparison with commensal E. coli isolates (12%). Resistance to aztreonam, co-trimoxazole and cefpodoxime were frequently found among UPEC isolates whereas commensal E. coli isolates were commonly resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and cefotaxime. Concluding, a considerable difference between UPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was observed regarding their phylogenetic groups, presence of class 1 integron and hlyD gene, hemolysin activity and resistance pattern. The detection of class 1 integrons and hlyD gene was higher among UPEC compared with commensal E. coli isolates. These findings may contribute for a better understanding of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of UPEC. PMID:25242935

  15. Comparison of the Amplitudes of the H-reflex of Post-stroke Hemiplegia Patients and Normal Adults during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare H-reflex characteristics during gait of hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-five patients and age-matched twenty-five volunteers in good health were studied. All the subjects could walk independently. [Methods] An MP150 (BIOPAC Systems, Inc., Goleta, CA, USA) was used to record the electromyography (EMG) data collected with Ag-Ag/Cl measurement electrodes (BIOPAC, diameter of 2 cm). [Results] The comparison showed significant differences of Hmax/Mmax ratio (%) in all gait cycles between the stroke group and the control group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, this study furnished basic reference data for gait strategies and functional training programs for hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:24259840

  16. Comprehensive cortical thickness and surface area comparison between young Uyghur and Han Chinese cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jiang, Chunhui; Wang, Jian; Jia, Wenxiao

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that the brain structural differences as discovered previously between Westerners and East Asians could also be revealed between Han Chinese and Uyghur, which were genetically related ethnic groups with distinct languages. We conducted a brain MRI structural comparison in terms of cortical thickness and surface area between 15 healthy young Uyghurs and 15 age-matched Han Chinese. Widespread regions with significantly greater cortical thickness were found in the Uyghurs, and their distribution showed strong resemblance to previous "Westerners vs. Asians" findings. While surface area analysis displayed less widespread brain differences. Notably, our detected regions with structural differences contained a large part of language-specific or at least closely language-related brain areas, which may partly be attributable to the brain plasticity respectively driven by Uyghur and Mandarin. Our findings will help to better understand the neurobiological basis of interethnic differences along with the language processing mechanisms of Han Chinese and Uyghur. PMID:27067474

  17. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  18. Phylogeny of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group inferred from morphological comparisons, genomic fingerprinting, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Siering, P L; Ghiorse, W C

    1996-01-01

    Phase-contrast light microscopy revealed that only one of eight cultivated strains belonging to the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of sheathed bacteria actually produced a sheath in standard growth media. Two Sphaerotilus natans strains produced branched cells, but other morphological characteristics that were used to identify these bacteria were consistent with previously published descriptions. Genomic fingerprints, which were obtained by performing PCR amplification with primers corresponding to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences, were useful for distinguishing between the genera Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix, as well as among individual strains. The complete 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of two strains of "Leptothrix discophora" (strains SP-6 and SS-1) were determined. In addition, partial sequences (approximately 300 nucleotides) of one strain of Leptothrix cholodnii (strain LMG 7171), an unidentified Leptothrix strain (strain NC-1), and four strains of Sphaerotilus natans (strains ATCC 13338T [T = type strain], ATCC 15291, ATCC 29329, and ATCC 29330) were determined. We found that two of the S. natans strains (ATCC 15291 and ATCC 13338T), which differed in morphology and in their genomic fingerprints, had identical sequences in the 300-nucleotide region sequenced. Both parsimony and distance matrix methods were used to infer the evolutionary relationships of the eight strains in a comparison of the 16S rDNA sequences of these organisms with 16S rDNA sequences obtained from ribosomal sequence databases. All of the strains clustered in the Rubrivivax subdivision of the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria, which confirmed previously published conclusions concerning selected individual strains. Additional analyses revealed that all of the S. natans strains clustered in one closely related group, while the Leptothrix strains clustered in two separate lineages that were approximately equidistant from the S. natans cluster. This finding

  19. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profile between male employees of two automotives companies in France and Sweden. The Coeur Project Group.

    PubMed

    Simon, A; Dimberg, L; Levenson, J; Lanoiselée, C; Massonneau, M; Eriksson, B; Jern, S; Kumlin, L; Marin, P; Dahlöf, B; Hansson, L; Björntorp, P

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether or not the lower rate of coronary disease in France, in comparison with Sweden, might be explained by different cardiovascular risk profiles, a cross-sectional analysis (first step of a longitudinal study) of comparable samples of automotive workers was carried out in corporate occupational health clinics of Renault and Volvo. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated and the Framingham coronary risk was estimated for 1000 randomly selected 45-50 years old Caucasian males from each company. Compared with the Frenchmen, the Swedish men consisted of more white collar workers and were slightly older. After adjustment for age and blue/white collar status, the Swedish men showed lower body mass indexes, waist to hip rations and heart rates, lower frequency of treatment of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes than the Frenchmen. The Swedish males also exhibited higher averages of blood cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and glucose, but lower frequencies of hypercholestrolemia and diabetes, and a higher frequency of family histories of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure, hypertension prevalence, triglycerides level, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) did not differ between the groups. The average number of traditional risk factors was 1.1/person for the Frenchmen and 0.8/person for the Swedes. However, the coronary risk as estimated using the Framingham index was not different between the groups. This, together with the more frequent family history of cardiovascular disease in Swedish men, suggests a lower susceptibility to risk factors as a possible explanation for the lower cardiovascular disease prevalence reported in France, and/or the possibility that factors not measured were involved. PMID:9476817

  20. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  1. A comparison of oral narratives in children with specific language and non-specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Wendy M; James, Deborah G H; McCormack, Paul F

    2010-08-01

    This research investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) and non-specific language impairment (NLI) could be differentiated by their oral narrative characteristics. Oral narrative samples were collected from 69 children and comparisons were made among four groups of participants. The two language impairment groups (SLI and NLI), aged 4;11-6;03, were matched for age and their linguistics skills. Their oral narratives were compared between these diagnostic groups and with age-matched and language-matched control groups. Measures of narrative structure, cohesion, and information did not significantly differentiate the SLI and NLI groups, suggesting that the influence of their similar linguistic skills on oral narrative measures was stronger than the influence of their differing non-verbal cognition. The SLI group produced significantly more complex and informative oral narratives than the language-matched group, while the NLI group differed from the language-matched group on fewer measures. Interactions among linguistic, cognitive, maturational, and task factors are discussed. PMID:20462361

  2. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  3. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  4. Latino College Students at Highly Selective Institutions: A Comparison of Their College Experiences and Outcomes to Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Rennick, Liz A.; Franco, Marla A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines unique patterns of college engagement and outcomes among Latino undergraduate students attending highly selective institutions in comparison with those from other racial/ethnic groups. The study also identifies predictors of select college outcomes--that is, cognitive, affective, and civic outcomes--for this population.…

  5. Using an Experimental Evaluation of Charter Schools to Test Whether Nonexperimental Comparison Group Methods Can Replicate Experimental Impact Estimates. NCEE 2012-4019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson, Kenneth; Verbitsky-Savitz, Natalya; Kopa, Emma; Gleason, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely considered to be the gold standard in evaluating the impacts of a social program. When an RCT is infeasible, researchers often estimate program impacts by comparing outcomes of program participants with those of a nonexperimental comparison group, adjusting for observable differences between the two…

  6. Platinum-group elements in the Eastern Deccan volcanic province and a comparison with platinum metals of the western Deccan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocket, James; Paul, Dalim; Lala, Trisha

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first detailed investigation of the platinum-group elements (PGE) at the eastern margin of the Deccan volcanic province of India. One of the PGE, osmium, is not included largely because of analytical problems. The study is focused on mafic volcanics and dykes from four areas including Amarkantak, Umaria, Shahdol and Chirimiri. The first two localities represent two lava piles of about 170 and 400 m thickness respectively. In Umaria, 16 flows have been demarcated based on petrography and field studies. The Shahdol samples are basal lava formations overlying Gondwana sediments (Carboniferous) and the Chirimiri samples are dykes. In this study, the western Deccan province is defined as the Western Ghats plus Kutch. On average, the PGE are ~20% higher in Amarkantak than Umaria and the flows are ~13% higher in PGE than the dykes. A Zr vs. Pd scattergram found a strong positive correlation for these two elements except for one Umaria sample which indicated severe Pd loss. A comparison of west and east parts of the Deccan volcanic province using primitive mantle normalization showed that higher values prevailed in the western province suite in the Ni-Ir-Ru-Pt region. In contrast, eastern province values dominated in the Pd-Au-Cu region at the `Cu' end of the profiles. A strong dominance of Pd in the eastern Deccan was also of interest. A number of factors, for example, percentage partial melting of the source rock and the temperature and pressure of partial melting strongly influence the character of these profiles. The observed PGE profile characteristics probably result in part from a long distance of subsurface transport of Deccan magma from the western to eastern regions.

  7. Whole-Genome Comparison Uncovers Genomic Mutations between Group B Streptococci Sampled from Infected Newborns and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Villain, Adrien; Joubrel, Caroline; Touak, Gérald; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS), a commensal of the human gut and genitourinary tract, is a leading cause of neonatal infections, in which vertical transmission from mother to child remains the most frequent route of contamination. Here, we investigated whether the progression of GBS from carriage to disease is associated with genomic adaptation. Whole-genome comparison of 47 GBS samples from 19 mother-child pairs uncovered 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven insertions/deletions. Of the SNPs detected, 16 appear to have been fixed in the population sampled whereas five mutations were found to be polymorphic. In the infant strains, 14 mutations were detected, including two independently fixed variants affecting the covRS locus, which is known to encode a major regulatory system of virulence. A one-nucleotide insertion was also identified in the promoter region of the highly immunogenic surface protein Rib gene. Gene expression analysis after incubation in human blood showed that these mutations influenced the expression of virulence-associated genes. Additional identification of three mutated strains in the mothers' milk raised the possibility of the newborns also being a source of contamination for their mothers. Overall, our work showed that GBS strains in carriage and disease scenarios might undergo adaptive changes following colonization. The types and locations of the mutations found, together with the experimental results showing their phenotypic impact, suggest that those in a context of infection were positively selected during the transition of GBS from commensal to pathogen, contributing to an increased capacity to cause disease. IMPORTANCE Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major pathogen responsible for neonatal infections. Considering that its colonization of healthy adults is mostly asymptomatic, the mechanisms behind its switch from a commensal to an invasive state are largely unknown. In this work, we

  8. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, rapid antigen immunoassay, and culture for detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs.

    PubMed

    Uhl, J R; Adamson, S C; Vetter, E A; Schleck, C D; Harmsen, W S; Iverson, L K; Santrach, P J; Henry, N K; Cockerill, F R

    2003-01-01

    We compared the performance characteristics of a real-time PCR method, the LightCycler Strep-A assay (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, Ind.), to those of a rapid antigen immunoassay, the Directigen 1-2-3 Group A Strep Test kit (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), and a standard culture method for detection of group A streptococci (GAS) from 384 throat swabs. The LightCycler PCR produced more positive results (n = 58) than either culture (n = 55) or the Directigen immunoassay (n = 31). The results of the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method were independently compared to the results of the accepted "gold standard," bacterial culture. The sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values for this comparison were as follows: for the Directigen method, 55, 99, 97, and 93%, respectively; for the LightCycler PCR, 93, 98, 88, and 99%, respectively. In no case was a throat swab positive by both the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method but negative by culture. The medical histories of patients whose throat swabs were negative by culture but positive by either the LightCycler PCR (n = 7) or the Directigen method (n = 1) were reviewed. All of these patients had signs or symptoms compatible with GAS disease, and therefore, all of these discordant positive results (along with positive results by either the Directigen method or the LightCycler PCR that agreed with the culture results) were counted as true positives for statistical analysis. For this analysis, the LightCycler PCR detected more true-positive results than the culture method (58 versus 55 swabs); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.5465). In contrast, statistically significantly more true-positive results occurred by culture than by the Directigen method (55 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001) and by the LightCycler PCR than by the Directigen method (58 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001). The LightCycler PCR is a suitable stand-alone method for the detection of

  9. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, Rapid Antigen Immunoassay, and Culture for Detection of Group A Streptococci from Throat Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, J. R.; Adamson, S. C.; Vetter, E. A.; Schleck, C. D.; Harmsen, W. S.; Iverson, L. K.; Santrach, P. J.; Henry, N. K.; Cockerill, F. R.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the performance characteristics of a real-time PCR method, the LightCycler Strep-A assay (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, Ind.), to those of a rapid antigen immunoassay, the Directigen 1-2-3 Group A Strep Test kit (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), and a standard culture method for detection of group A streptococci (GAS) from 384 throat swabs. The LightCycler PCR produced more positive results (n = 58) than either culture (n = 55) or the Directigen immunoassay (n = 31). The results of the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method were independently compared to the results of the accepted “gold standard,” bacterial culture. The sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values for this comparison were as follows: for the Directigen method, 55, 99, 97, and 93%, respectively; for the LightCycler PCR, 93, 98, 88, and 99%, respectively. In no case was a throat swab positive by both the LightCycler PCR and the Directigen method but negative by culture. The medical histories of patients whose throat swabs were negative by culture but positive by either the LightCycler PCR (n = 7) or the Directigen method (n = 1) were reviewed. All of these patients had signs or symptoms compatible with GAS disease, and therefore, all of these discordant positive results (along with positive results by either the Directigen method or the LightCycler PCR that agreed with the culture results) were counted as true positives for statistical analysis. For this analysis, the LightCycler PCR detected more true-positive results than the culture method (58 versus 55 swabs); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.5465). In contrast, statistically significantly more true-positive results occurred by culture than by the Directigen method (55 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001) and by the LightCycler PCR than by the Directigen method (58 versus 31 swabs; P < 0.0001). The LightCycler PCR is a suitable stand-alone method for the

  10. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral and Humanistic Group Treatment for Children with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Outcomes and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Pastor, Ronit

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this study examined the outcomes and processes of 2 types of group treatment--cognitive-behavioral treatment groups (CBTG) and humanistic group therapy (HGT)--offered to 200 elementary school children in a center for students with learning disabilities in Israel. Results indicated that the addition of either type of group treatment…

  12. Standing "On Our Own Two Feet": A Comparison of Teacher-Directed and Group Learning in an Extra-Curricular Instrumental Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This practitioner-based research, undertaken by the author in her own teaching context with herself as participant, explores how autonomous learning skills and motivation can be fostered in primary-aged instrumentalists. A primary school extra-curricular recorder group was observed participating in two stages of lessons: the first,…

  13. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  14. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  15. Comparison of the Wave Amplitude of Visually Evoked Potential in Amblyopic Eyes between Patients with Esotropia and Anisometropia and a Normal Group

    PubMed Central

    Talebnejad, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinmenni, Saeedeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mirzajani, Ali; Osroosh, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: We compared the wave amplitude of visually evoked potential (VEP) between patients with esotropic and anisometropic amblyopic eyes and a normal group. Methods: The wave amplitude of VEP was documented in 2 groups of persons with amblyopia (15 with esotropia and 28 with anisometropia) and 1 group of individuals with normal visual acuity (n, 15). The amplitude of P100 was recorded monocularly with different spatial frequencies. Results: Our statistical analysis revealed that the wave amplitude in the 2 groups with amblyopia was significantly decreased compared to that in the normal group (P<0.001). There was a significant difference regarding the amplitude in high spatial frequencies in both high- and low-contrast conditions between the groups with esotropia and anisometropia and the normal group (P<0.001). There were also significant differences in large check-size stimuli and low-contrast condition between the amblyopic groups with esotropia and anisometropia and the normal group (P=0.013 and P=0.044, respectively). In large check-size stimuli and high-contrast condition, a significant difference was indicated only in the comparison between the esotropic amblyopic eyes and the normal eyes (P=0.036). Conclusion: The wave amplitude parameter of VEP was influenced by both types of amblyopia, but it seems that this parameter was more sensitive to esotropic amblyopia than anisometropic amblyopia. This outcome may reflect a non-parallel pattern of cortical responses in the comparison of the 2 types of amblyopia with each other and with the control group, which may be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia. PMID:26989279

  16. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  17. Identification of Variables Associated with Group Separation in Descriptive Discriminant Analysis: Comparison of Methods for Interpreting Structure Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Discriminant Analysis (DA) is a tool commonly used for differentiating among 2 or more groups based on 2 or more predictor variables. DA works by finding 1 or more linear combinations of the predictors that yield maximal difference among the groups. One common goal of researchers using DA is to characterize the nature of group difference by…

  18. Comparison of the calystegine composition and content of potato sprouts and tubers from Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja and Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Wynne; Shepherd, Tom; Stewart, Derek

    2008-07-01

    The calystegines detected in tubers from 17 Phureja ( S. tuberosum Group Phureja) lines and five Tuberosum ( S. tuberosum Group Tuberosum) cultivars were identified as the A 3 and B 2 structural types. Their concentration in whole tubers was of a similar order of magnitude in both species, as was the variability in the ratio of B 2 to A 3. On average, calystegine concentrations in the peel were about 13 times that found in the flesh for the five Tuberosum cultivars, and 4 times higher for four Phureja lines. Removal of the peel reduced the calystegine content by an average of over 50% in Tuberosum but by only 30% in Phureja, despite the latter having the greater proportion of peel. The calystegine content of sprouts was also determined for five Tuberosum cultivars and four Phureja lines and was found to include small amounts of four additional types, B 3, B 4, N 1, and X 2, in addition to the more abundant A 3 and B 2. Concentrations in the sprouts of Tuberosum were on average 100 times higher than that in the tuber flesh and 8 times higher than in the peel, whereas for Phureja, the equivalent values were 30 and 7 times higher, respectively. No correlation was found between sprout concentration and either flesh or peel calystegine concentration. PMID:18533664

  19. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia. PMID:10947750

  20. 3D comparison of average faces in subjects with oral clefts.

    PubMed

    Bugaighis, Iman; Tiddeman, Bernard; Mattick, Claire R; Hobson, Ross

    2014-08-01

    This prospective cross-sectional, case-controlled morphometric study assessed three dimensional (3D) facial morphological differences between average faces of 103 children aged 8-12 years; 40 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 23 with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA), 19 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 21 with isolated cleft palate (ICP), and 80 gender and age-matched controls. 3D stereophotogrammetric facial scans were recorded for each participant at rest. Thirty-nine landmarks were digitized for each scan, and x-, y-, z-coordinates for each landmark were extracted. A 3D photorealistic average face was constructed for each participating group and subjective and objective comparisons were carried out between each cleft and control average faces. Marked differences were observed between all groups. The most severely affected were groups where the lip and palate were affected and repaired (UCLP and UCLA). The group with midsagittal palatal deformity and repair (ICP) was the most similar to the control group. The results revealed that 3D shape analysis allows morphometric discrimination between subjects with craniofacial anomalies and the control group, and underlines the potential value of statistical shape analysis in assessing the outcomes of cleft lip and palate surgery, and orthodontic treatment. PMID:23172581

  1. Two-criteria dental aging method applied to a Bosnian population: comparison of formulae for each tooth group versus one formula for all teeth.

    PubMed

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Cihlarz, Zdenko; Klonowski, Eva-Elvira; Selak, Ivan; Brkić, Hrvoje; Topić, Berislav

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain age estimation formulae using the length of periodontosis, transparency of the root and root height in each tooth group for the current male population in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare these formulae with Lamendin's and Prince's formulae. The research was undertaken on 847 single rooted teeth from 200 identified deceased persons, individuals who died between the ages of 23 and 85 years. Periodontosis, transparency and root height were measured according to Lamendin's procedure. All teeth were grouped in two ways: according to the tooth groups and to the age groups. The highest coefficients of correlation are obtained for maxillary canines (R = 0,731) and mandibular canines (R = 0,706) and the maxillary lateral incisors showed the lowest mean error (ME = 6,63 years). In age groups, the lowest mean error was obtained in the 40-49 years age group (ME = 5,15 years). Equations developed in this study give statistically significantly better age estimations in comparison to the original Lamendin and Prince formulae for the whole sample as well as for each tooth group, except for mandibular central incisors. Age estimation with models developed for each tooth group (except for mandibular lateral incisors) was statistically significantly better than models based on the whole sample. PMID:16995854

  2. A Preliminary Comparison of the Effectiveness of Cluster Analysis Weighting Procedures for Within-Group Covariance Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, John R.

    A Monte Carlo study compared the usefulness of six variable weighting methods for cluster analysis. Data were 100 bivariate observations from 2 subgroups, generated according to a finite normal mixture model. Subgroup size, within-group correlation, within-group variance, and distance between subgroup centroids were manipulated. Of the clustering…

  3. Do Differences in GPA Impact Attitudes about Group Work? A Comparison of Business and Non-Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzimek, Volker; Marks, Melanie Beth; Kinnamon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data the authors investigate the impact of grade point average (GPA) on students' preferences for classroom group work and its structure. Topics range from general attitudes and beliefs (benefits to grades, impact on mastery of material, professors' motives) to administration (group composition, grading, peer reviews, group…

  4. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  5. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  6. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. Dorzolamide Comparison Study Group.

    PubMed

    Rusk, C; Sharpe, E; Laurence, J; Polis, A; Adamsons, I

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter, parallel-design, randomized, double-masked study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide with those of 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (i.o.p). A total of 311 adults with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were randomly allocated to receive either 2% dorzolamide administered topically TID or 0.5% betaxolol administered topically BID plus placebo administered topically QD for 12 weeks. After the washout of previous ocular hypotensive drugs, patients with IOP > or = 23 mm Hg in at least one eye at 10 AM or 4 PM on study day 1 were randomly allocated to receive one of the study treatments. Throughout the study, IOP was measured 2 and 8 hours after instillation of study medication for the morning peak effect (hour 2) and afternoon trough effect (hour 8). After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean change in IOP was not significantly different between the dorzolamide and betaxolol treatment groups at hour 8 (-3.6 mm Hg in both groups) or hour 2 (-5.4 vs -5.3 mm Hg, respectively). The differences between treatments (and 95% CIs associated with these differences) in mean IOP changes from baseline were 0.02 mm Hg (-0.870 to 0.901) for hour 8 and -0.14 mm Hg (-0.959 to 0.685) for hour 2. The ocular adverse experience (AE) most frequently reported by patients was ocular burning and/or stinging, and the most frequently reported nonocular AEs were taste perversion, upper respiratory infection, and headache. Only the incidence of taste perversion was significantly different between treatment groups (14.6% for the dorzolamide group and 0.0% for the betaxolol group). Two percent of patients in each treatment group discontinued the study due to AEs. This study confirmed the similar IOP-lowering effect of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol. Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and their safety profiles were similar. PMID:9663361

  7. Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Cost-effectiveness of Rupatadine and Olopatadine in Patients of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Randomized, Double-blind, Comparative, Parallel Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh N; Wankhede, Sumit S; Mahatme, Mohini S; Hiware, Sachin K; Mishra, Dharmendra B; Dudhgaonkar, Sujata S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Materials and Methods: A 6-week, single-centered, randomized, double blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 6 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were mean total symptom score (MTSS) calculated by adding the mean number of wheals (MNW) and the mean pruritus score (MPS), number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS). Results: Both the drugs significantly reduced the MTSS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep, but olopatadine was found to be superior. In olopatadine group, there was significantly higher reduction in MTSS (p = 0.01), Number of wheals (P < 0.05), Size of wheals (p < 0.05), Scale for intensity of erythema (p < 0.05) and change in eosinopils count (p = 0.015) than that of rupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Cost effectiveness ratio was less in olopatadine group as compared to rupatadine group throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Olopatadine is a better choice in chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness profile. PMID:26955097

  8. Randomised double blind comparison of terbinafine and itraconazole for treatment of toenail tinea infection. Seventh Lamisil German Onychomycosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, M.; Nolting, S.; Schopf, R. E.; Weidinger, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea unguium. DESIGN--Multicentre, double blind, parallel group study. SETTING--17 university hospitals, one army hospital, and five dermatology practices. PATIENTS--195 patients with clinically suspected toenail tinea and growth of dermatophytes in baseline culture; data on 86 patients in the terbinafine group and 84 patients in the itraconazole group were fully evaluated for efficacy. INTERVENTIONS--Daily dose of 250 mg terbinafine or 200 mg itraconazole for 12 weeks, with follow up for a further 40 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mycological cure (negative results on microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement (length and area of unaffected nail) at week 52 or at discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS--At the end of the study mycological cure rates were 81% (70 out of 86) for terbinafine and 63% (53 out of 84) for itraconazole (2P < 0.01). Negative culture was achieved in 92% (79 out of 86) in the terbinafine group and 67% (56 out of 84) in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.0001). Length of unaffected nail was 9.44 mm in the terbinafine group and 7.85 mm in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.05). CONCLUSION--Terbinafine is more effective than itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea infection. PMID:7580551

  9. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  10. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  11. Comparison of condylar displacement between three biotypological facial groups by using mounted models and a mandibular position indicator

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, José Pedro; Lopes, Jorge Dias; Ferreira, Afonso Pinhão

    2014-01-01

    Objective Facial-type-associated variations in diagnostic features have several implications in orthodontics. For example, in hyperdivergent craniofacial types, growth imbalances are compensated by displacement of the condyle. When diagnosis and treatment planning involves centric relation (CR), detailed knowledge of the condylar position is desirable. The present study aimed to measure condylar displacement (CD) between CR and maximum intercuspation in three facial types of an asymptomatic orthodontic population. Methods The study was conducted in 108 patients classified into three groups of 36 individuals each (27 women and 9 men; mean age, 20.5 years), based on the following facial patterns: hyperdivergent, hypodivergent, and intermediate. To quantify CD along the horizontal and vertical axes, the condylar position was analyzed using mounted casts on a semi-adjustable articulator and a mandibular position indicator. The Student t-test was used to compare CD between the groups. Results Vertical displacement was found to be significantly different between the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent groups (p < 0.0002) and between the hyperdivergent and intermediate groups (p < 0.0006). The differences in horizontal displacement were not significant between the groups. In each group, vertical CD was more evident than horizontal displacement was. Conclusions All facial types, especially the hyperdivergent type, carried a significantly high risk of CD. Therefore, the possibility of CD should be carefully evaluated and considered in the assessment of all orthodontic cases in order to accurately assess jaw relationships and avoid possible misdiagnosis. PMID:25473647

  12. Functional connectivity comparison of the default mode network in non-depressed Parkinson disease and depressed Parkinson disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuan; Li, Rui; Liu, Jiangtao; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Examining the spontaneous activity to understand the neural mechanism of brain disorders and establish neuroimaging-based disease-related biomarkers is a focus in recent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies. The present study hypothesized that resting activity in the default mode network (DMN), which was used for characterizing the resting-state human brain might be different in patients with depressed Parkinson disease (dPD) compared with non-depressed Parkinson disease (ndPD) patients. To test the hypothesis, we firstly employed the Group independent component analysis (ICA) approach to isolate the DMN for the two groups by analyzing the resting-state fMRI data from a group of 12 patients with dPD and a group of 12 age-matched ndPD subjects. Between-group comparison of the functional connectivity in the DMN was then performed to examine the impact of depression on the intrinsic activity in PD. We found 1) the core region from the network the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show significant decreased activity in dPD group compared with ndPD group; 2) the activity in MPFC has significant negative correlation with behavioral measure; 3) the resting activity intensity of MPFC is suggested to be a promising biomarker for distinguishing dPD from ndPD.

  13. A Comparison of Web-based and Small-Group Palliative and End-of-Life Care Curricula: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study at One Institution

    PubMed Central

    Day, Frank C.; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Griffin, Erin; Hoffman, Jerome R.; Wilkes, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have compared the effect of web-based eLearning versus small-group learning on medical student outcomes. Palliative and end-of-life (PEOL) education is ideal for this comparison, given uneven access to PEOL experts and content nationally. Method In 2010, the authors enrolled all third-year medical students at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine into a quasi-randomized controlled trial of web-based interactive education (eDoctoring) compared to small-group education (Doctoring) on PEOL clinical content over two months. All students participated in three 3-hour PEOL sessions with similar content. Outcomes included a 24-item PEOL-specific self-efficacy scale with three domains (diagnosis/treatment [Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, CI: 0.91–0.93], communication/prognosis [alpha = 0.95; CI: 0.93–0.96], and social impact/self-care [alpha = 0.91; CI: 0.88–0.92]); eight knowledge items; ten curricular advantage/disadvantages, and curricular satisfaction (both students and faculty). Results Students were randomly assigned to web-based eDoctoring (n = 48) or small-group Doctoring (n = 71) curricula. Self-efficacy and knowledge improved equivalently between groups: e.g., prognosis self-efficacy, 19%; knowledge, 10–42%. Student and faculty ratings of the web-based eDoctoring curriculum and the small group Doctoring curriculum were equivalent for most goals, and overall satisfaction was equivalent for each, with a trend towards decreased eDoctoring student satisfaction. Conclusions Findings showed equivalent gains in self-efficacy and knowledge between students participating in a web-based PEOL curriculum, in comparison to students learning similar content in a small-group format. Web-based curricula can standardize content presentation when local teaching expertise is limited, but may lead to decreased user satisfaction. PMID:25539518

  14. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gok Durnali, Ayse; Paksoy Turkoz, Fatma; Ardic Yukruk, Fisun; Tokluoglu, Saadet; Yazici, Omer Kamil; Demirci, Ayse; Bal, Oznur; Gundogdu Buyukbas, Selay; Esbah, Onur; Oksuzoglu, Berna; Alkis, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14–74). Thirty-nine patients (41.9%) had synchronous lung metastases (Group A) and 54 patients (58.1%) had metachronous lung metastases (Group B). The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS) was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010), number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020), presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007) and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst. PMID:27167624

  15. Neuropsychological results of long-term therapy with oxiracetam in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia in comparison with a control group.

    PubMed

    Parnetti, L; Mecocci, P; Petrini, A; Longo, A; Buccolieri, A; Senin, U

    1989-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioral effects of oxiracetam therapy during long-term treatment in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and multi-infarct dementia (MID) were studied in comparison with a historical control group. Twenty DAT/MID outpatients, aged 54-86 years, received oxiracetam (800 mg twice a day) for a period of 6 months. Another 20 DAT/MID outpatients, aged 67-85 years, were selected from our clinical records in order to obtain a control group of patients matched for age, sex, diagnosis, baseline Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and follow-up duration. All the patients were diagnosed as having mild to moderate degrees of dementia as defined by a baseline MMSE score between 14 and 24. The patients of both groups underwent, both at baseline and after 6 months, the following neuropsychological tests: MMSE, Idiopathic Cerebral Dysfunction Scale, Babcock Test, Gibson Spiral, Toulouse-Pieron Test. Statistical analysis of experimental data demonstrated that at baseline the two groups were comparable. At the end of the study period the oxiracetam group scored significantly better on the majority of the tests evaluating memory, attention, orientation, concentration and psychomotricity than the control group, in which a worsening trend was seen on the whole. No side effects were seen during oxiracetam treatment. The present study, showing positive clinical findings after long-term oxiracetam therapy in controlled conditions, confirms that this drug can be a useful pharmacological treatment for mild to moderate degrees of dementia. PMID:2518332

  16. A comparison of mebeverine with high-fibre dietary advice and mebeverine plus ispaghula in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an open, prospectively randomised, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, N D; Grillage, M G; Mazumder, R; Atkinson, S N

    1990-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and acceptability of mebeverine and high-fibre dietary advice versus mebeverine and ispaghula in fixed combination in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. DESIGN Open, prospectively randomised, parallel group comparison of mebeverine/dietary advice and mebeverine/ispaghula during an eight-week study period. SETTING General practices in the UK. PATIENTS One hundred and eleven patients with irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by symptom profile or negative investigations between the ages of 18 and 75 years were entered. All patients had a history of abdominal pain occurring at least once a week for a period of three months or more. INTERVENTION Dosage was 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride, three times daily before meals, together with advice on high-fibre dietary intake, or 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride plus 3.5 g of ispaghula husk twice or three times daily before meals. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Details of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bowel frequency and stool consistency were recorded by means of clinicians' assessments and patient diaries. Pre-treatment assessments revealed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the parameters. Both treatment groups demonstrated highly significant improvements in the numbers of pain attacks and their severity; no statistically significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated. Five patients in the mebeverine/dietary advice group reported five concurrent effects and nine patients in the mebeverine/ispaghula group reported 13 concurrent effects. All of the mebeverine/dietary advice group found their treatment acceptable but up to 28% of the mebeverine/ispaghula group found their treatment unpalatable. CONCLUSION Both treatments are effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. The fixed combination of mebeverine/ispaghula, however, was found to be unpalatable by up to 28% of the patients in that group

  17. Comparison of Serpent and HELIOS-2 as applied for the PWR few-group cross section generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Leppaenen, J.; Wemple, C.

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses recent modifications to the Serpent Monte Carlo code methodology and related to the calculation of few-group diffusion coefficients and reflector discontinuity factors The new methods were assessed in the following manner. First, few-group homogenized cross sections calculated by Serpent for a reference PWR core were compared with those generated 1 commercial deterministic lattice transport code HELIOS-2. Second, Serpent and HELIOS-2 fe group cross section sets were later employed by nodal diffusion code DYN3D for the modeling the reference PWR core. Finally, the nodal diffusion results obtained using the both cross section sets were compared with the full core Serpent Monte Carlo solution. The test calculations show that Serpent can calculate the parameters required for nodal analyses similar to conventional deterministic lattice codes. (authors)

  18. Family composition and social class in bulimia. A catchment area study of a clinical and a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Dolan, B M; Evans, C; Lacey, J H

    1989-05-01

    Many theories of the etiology of eating disorders focus on the role of the family. However, these theories are based on clinical experience and uncontrolled clinical case series. We report a study comparing 50 bulimic women with 40 non-eating-disordered women all from the same clinical catchment area. This study revealed no significant differences in social class, family size, birth position, or sibling sex ratio between the two groups. However, the parents of bulimic women were found to have been significantly older than those of the control group at the time of birth of their daughter. These findings are discussed with reference to previous family studies of eating disorders. PMID:2651557

  19. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  20. A Comparison of Repetitive Behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuccaro, Michael L.; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K.; Wright, Harry H.; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems…

  1. A Comparison of the Perceptions of Four Groups of University Constituents Concerning Institutional Effectiveness at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernecker, Kimberly James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of congruence in the perceptions of institutional effectiveness among four groups of stakeholders at a small, private university in the Southern United States. The constituency consisted of 923 on-campus students, 12 administrators, 60 faculty, and 120 staff members. A descriptive research design…

  2. Equity and Opportunity To Learn in High School United States History Classes: Comparisons between Schools and Ability Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskin, Carol

    Many education reformers criticize the mediocre state of learning in high schools in the United States. In order to insure that all students have equal access to high quality teaching, it is argued that educators must explore the potent connections among school setting, ability grouping, teaching methods, and student opportunity to learn. The…

  3. Peer Devaluation in British Secondary Schools: Young People's Comparisons of Group-Based and Individual-Based Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Background: Bullying has usefully been described as demonstrations of the norms of young people's social groups, outlawing and punishing those who do not conform. The way a person appraises bullying strongly influences the coping process, how the person reacts emotionally and bystander behaviour. A social-psychological perspective was used to…

  4. Comparison of One-to-One Embedded Instruction in General Education Classes with Small Group Instruction in Special Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, John; Johnson, Jesse W.; Polychronis, Shamby; Riesen, Tim; Jameson, Matt; Kercher, Kelli

    2006-01-01

    A single subject alternating treatment design was used to compare the effectiveness of embedded and small-group instruction to teach vocabulary word definitions to four middle school students with developmental disabilities. Embedded instruction was implemented in the students' general education classes. Students were taught to verbally define…

  5. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Improve Homework Completion and Accuracy for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, AnnMarie; Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study employed an alternating-treatments design to compare the differential effect of group contingencies on the improvement of homework completion and accuracy of students with disabilities in a self-contained fifth-grade classroom. Generally, past investigations have indicated a positive association between homework performance and…

  6. Comparison of Collaboration and Performance in Groups of Learners Assembled Randomly or Based on Learners' Topic Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela, Karina L.; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Teachers and instructional designers frequently incorporate collaborative learning approaches into their e-learning environments. A key factor of collaborative learning that may affect learner outcomes is whether the collaborative groups are assigned project topics randomly or based on a shared interest in the topic. This is a particularly…

  7. Comparisons of Improvement-Over-Chance Effect Sizes for Two Groups under Variance Heterogeneity and Prior Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robin K.; Natesan, Prathiba; Axelson, Erika D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the distributional properties of 3 improvement-over-chance, I, effect sizes each derived from linear and quadratic predictive discriminant analysis and from logistic regression analysis for the 2-group univariate classification. These 3 classification methods (3 levels) were studied under varying levels of data conditions,…

  8. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  9. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  10. A Comparison of Three IRT Approaches to Examinee Ability Change Modeling in a Single-Group Anchor Test Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Cai, Li; Chi, Eunlim

    2014-01-01

    Typically a longitudinal growth modeling based on item response theory (IRT) requires repeated measures data from a single group with the same test design. If operational or item exposure problems are present, the same test may not be employed to collect data for longitudinal analyses and tests at multiple time points are constructed with unique…

  11. The Tavistock Group Relations Conference: Description and Comparison with Laboratory Training. A CRUSK-ISR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowfoot, James E.

    Laboratory training and the Tavistock Conference, two types of experiential learning, contrast in important ways. They are designed to respond to different societal issues and make different types of responses to these issues. Tavistock conferences focus consciously and exclusively on group operation, role, role relationships, intergroup…

  12. Comparison of maintenance energy requirement and energetic efficiency between lactating Holstein-Friesian and other groups of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of cow group on energy expenditure and utilization efficiency. Data used were collated from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken from 1992 to 2010, with 823 observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and 112 observations from other groups of lactating cows including Norwegian (n=50), Jersey × HF (n=46), and Norwegian × HF (n=16) cows. The metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) for individual cows was calculated from heat production (HP) minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention, and pregnancy. The efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. The effects of cow groups were first evaluated using Norwegian cows against HF crossbred cows (F1 hybrid, Jersey × HF and Norwegian × HF). The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ per kg of metabolic body weight, MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl. Consequently, their data were combined (categorized as non-HF cows) and used to compare with those of HF cows. Again, we detected no significant difference in energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl between non-HF and HF cows. The effects were further evaluated using linear regression to examine whether any significant differences existed between HF and non-HF cows in terms of relationships between ME intake and energetic parameters. With a common constant, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups of cows in coefficients in each set of relationships between ME intake (MJ/kg(0.75)) and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), El(0) (MJ/kg(0.75)), HP (MJ/kg(0.75)), MEm:ME intake, El(0):ME intake, or HP:ME intake. However, MEm values (MJ/kg(0.75)) were positively related to ME

  13. Comparison of Rx-defined morbidity groups and diagnosis- based risk adjusters for predicting healthcare costs in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medication claims are commonly used to calculate the risk adjustment for measuring healthcare cost. The Rx-defined Morbidity Groups (Rx-MG) which combine the use of medication to indicate morbidity have been incorporated into the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case Mix System, developed by the Johns Hopkins University. This study aims to verify that the Rx-MG can be used for adjusting risk and for explaining the variations in the healthcare cost in Taiwan. Methods The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) was used in this study. The year 2006 was chosen as the baseline to predict healthcare cost (medication and total cost) in 2007. The final sample size amounted to 793 239 (81%) enrolees, and excluded any cases with discontinued enrolment. Two different kinds of models were built to predict cost: the concurrent model and the prospective model. The predictors used in the predictive models included age, gender, Aggregated Diagnosis Groups (ADG, diagnosis- defined morbidity groups), and Rx-defined Morbidity Groups. Multivariate OLS regression was used in the cost prediction modelling. Results The concurrent model adjusted for Rx-defined Morbidity Groups for total cost, and controlled for age and gender had a better predictive R-square = 0.618, compared to the model adjusted for ADGs (R2 = 0.411). The model combined with Rx-MGs and ADGs performed the best for concurrently predicting total cost (R2 = 0.650). For prospectively predicting total cost, the model combined Rx-MGs and ADGs (R2 = 0.382) performed better than the models adjusted by Rx-MGs (R2 = 0.360) or ADGs (R2 = 0.252) only. Similarly, the concurrent model adjusted for Rx-MGs predicting pharmacy cost had a better performance (R-square = 0.615), than the model adjusted for ADGs (R2 = 0.431). The model combined with Rx-MGs and ADGs performed the best in concurrently as well as prospectively predicting pharmacy cost (R2 = 0.638 and 0.505, respectively). The prospective models showed a

  14. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011–2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01–0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4–6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for “average consumer” was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for “high consumers” in the group 4–6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18–59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day (“high consumers”, middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18–59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18–59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  15. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  16. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers. PMID:26733457

  17. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility. PMID:24430276

  18. Bonobos show limited social tolerance in a group setting: a comparison with chimpanzees and a test of the relational model.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; De Groot, Evelien; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-01-01

    Social tolerance is a core aspect of primate social relationships with implications for the evolution of cooperation, prosociality and social learning. We measured the social tolerance of bonobos in an experiment recently validated with chimpanzees to allow for a comparative assessment of group-level tolerance, and found that the bonobo group studied here exhibited lower social tolerance on average than chimpanzees in this paradigm. Furthermore, following the Relational Model of de Waal, we investigated whether bonobos responded to an increased potential for social conflict with tolerance, conflict avoidance or conflict escalation, and found that only behaviours indicative of conflict escalation differed across conditions. Taken together, these findings contribute to the current debate over the level of social tolerance of bonobos and lend support to the position that the social tolerance of bonobos may not be notably high compared with other primates. PMID:25926027

  19. Comparison of the genetic diversity of wild and captive groups of Microcebus murinus using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method.

    PubMed

    Neveu, H; Hafen, T; Zimmermann, E; Rumpler, Y

    1998-01-01

    Continued survival of most animal species depends on population management and active protection. It is generally agreed that, in order to avoid extinction of endangered species, ex situ and in situ conservation must be developed in tandem. However, even though many recommendations have been put forward to promote the survival of captive populations, some rapidly become extinct due to loss of genetic diversity (drift effect). Genetic markers, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, can be applied to rapid testing of many individuals. They also permit analysis of very small amounts of DNA, when small species such as mouse lemurs (Microcebus) are to be tested. Using RAPD markers, we compare genetic diversity in four captive groups of Microcebus murinus to that in a sample of 70 wild mouse lemurs. Following the principles of Mendelian inheritance, each amplified fragment of DNA may be considered as a 'locus' (or an amplifying site). The series of bands amplified by a particular primer in any individual is referred to as the individual's 'profile'. We tested 5 primers, or, in the above terms, we studied 98 different 'loci'. Results showed that the captive groups had lost genetic information with respect to the wild sample. Among the four captive groups, the loss of genetic diversity varied according to their number of founders and/or the management of their captive reproduction. Our study of polymorphism permitted us to establish tools for the genetic management of captive breeding, and for the determination of paternity which frequently give better results than behavioural studies; and simulation of introductions or departures of individuals in one very monomorphic group permitted estimation of future increases in its genetic diversity. PMID:9595690

  20. Recovering Physical Activity Missing Data Measured by Accelerometers: A Comparison of Individual and Group-Centered Recovery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Jin, Jing; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which method, individual information-centered (IIC) or group information-centered (GIC), is more efficient in recovering missing physical activity (PA) data. Method: A total of 2,758 Chinese children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old (1,438 boys and 1,320 girls) wore ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+…

  1. Predicting intentions to continue exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months: a comparison among racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Fly, Alyce D

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how mothers of different races/ethnicities make decisions to continue exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months under the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants were recruited from hospitals and WIC clinics in Central Indiana and Southern New Jersey from 2008 to 2009. Mothers (N=236: 93 non-Hispanic African American, 72 non-Hispanic white, 71 Hispanic/Latina) completed a self-administered questionnaire that measured theoretical constructs and beliefs related to their intention to practice EBF for 6 months. Intentions to continue EBF for 6 months were similar (P=0.15) across racial/ethnic groups. Significant proportions of the intention (P<0.001) were explained by the three theoretical constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control). The relative importance of each construct in predicting the intention varied by group. The most influential predictors (P<0.001) were attitude for white mothers, subjective norm for African American mothers, and perceived behavioral control for Latina mothers. Latent beliefs strongly associated with attitude in white mothers were 'bonding with the baby' and 'easy feeding.' Beliefs held by family members and the general public contributed to the subjective norm of African American mothers. Perceived behavioral control in Latina mothers was highly correlated with 'pumping breast milk'. Development of policy and intervention programs that focus on shaping strong predictors and beliefs within racial/ethnic groups could reduce disparities in EBF rates and establish EBF for 6 months as a cultural norm. PMID:21057864

  2. Comparison of Ant Community Diversity and Functional Group Composition Associated to Land Use Change in a Seasonally Dry Oak Forest.

    PubMed

    Cuautle, M; Vergara, C H; Badano, E I

    2016-04-01

    Ants have been used to assess land use conversion, because they reflect environmental change, and their response to these changes have been useful in the identification of bioindicators. We evaluated ant diversity and composition associated to different land use change in a temperate forest (above 2000 m asl) in Mexico. The study was carried out in "Flor del Bosque" Park a vegetation mosaic of native Oak Forests and introduced Eucalyptus and grasslands. Species richness, dominance and diversity rarefaction curves, based on ant morphospecies and functional groups, were constructed and compared among the three vegetation types, for the rainy and the dry seasons of 2008-2009. Jaccard and Sorensen incidence-based indices were calculated to obtain similarity values among all the habitats. The Oak Forest was a rich dominant community, both in species and functional groups; the Eucalyptus plantation was diverse with low dominance. The most seasonality habitat was the grassland, with low species and high functional group diversity during the dry seasons, but the reverse pattern during the wet season. The Oak Forest was more similar to the Eucalyptus plantation than to the grassland, particularly during the dry season. Oak Forests are dominated by Cold Climate Specialists, specifically Prenolepis imparis (Say). The Eucalyptus and the grassland are characterized by generalized Myrmicinae, as Pheidole spp. and Monomorium ebenium (Forel). The conservation of the native Oak Forest is primordial for the maintenance of Cold Climate Specialist ant communities. The microclimatic conditions in this forest, probably, prevented the invasion by opportunistic species. PMID:26696090

  3. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  4. Child Abuse in Group of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Hadianfard, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very difficult to handle. It can be very frustrating and needs an outstanding tolerance. Behavioral difficulties in ADHD children may increase the risk of child abuse for them. The aim of this research was to compare child abuse, and neglect between ADHD group and normal children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 ADHD students (10 girls and 20 boys) were selected from regional mental behavior disorder clinics and matched with 30 normal students. Data were collected using Child Abuse Self Report Scale. Descriptive statistics, one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) was performed by using SPSS software. Result: The result of the research showed that almost 60% of participants had experienced neglect and 35% psychological abuse. Neglect and psychological abuse are more frequent than other maltreatments. Neglect, psychological and physical abuses are significantly higher in the ADHD group. Conclusion: The findings showed that the rates of neglect and psychological abuse are higher in the ADHD group. Therefore, it can be suggested that the society and families should be trained to deal better with ADHD children. PMID:25349848

  5. Cost-effectiveness of extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a randomized comparison with conventional herniorrhaphy. Coala trial group.

    PubMed Central

    Liem, M S; Halsema, J A; van der Graaf, Y; Schrijvers, A J; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair seems superior to open techniques with respect to short-term results. An issue yet to be studied in depth remains the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. As part of a multicenter randomized study in which >1000 patients were included, a cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal point of view was performed. METHODS: After informed consent, all resource costs, both in and outside the hospital, for patients between August 1994 and July 1995 were recorded prospectively. Actual costs were calculated in a standardized fashion according to international guidelines. The main measures used for the evaluation of inguinal hernia repair were the number of averted recurrences and quality of life measured with the Short Form 36 questionnaire. RESULTS: Resource costs were recorded for 273 patients, 139 in the open and 134 in the laparoscopic group. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Average total hospital costs were Dfl 1384.91 (standard deviation: Dfl 440.15) for the open repair group and Dfl 2417.24 (standard deviation: Dfl 577.10) for laparoscopic repair, including a disposable kit of Dfl 676. Societal costs, including costs for days of sick leave, were lower for the laparoscopic repair and offset the hospital costs by Dfl 780.83 (75.6%), leaving the laparoscopic repair Dfl 251.50 more expensive (Dfl 4665 versus Dfl 4916.50). At present, the recurrence rate is 2.6% lower after laparoscopic repair. Thus, 38 laparoscopic repairs, costing an additional Dfl 9,557, prevent the occurrence of one recurrent hernia. Quality of life was better after laparoscopic repair. CONCLUSION: A better quality of life in the recovery period and the possibility of replacing parts of the disposable kit with reusable instruments may result in the laparoscopic repair becoming dominantly better--that is, less expensive and more effective from a

  6. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    Context: The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. Aims: The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. Results: For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. Conclusions: The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use. PMID:26417159

  7. Contextual factors and weight change over time: a comparison between U.S. Hispanics and other population sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, S Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing interest in understanding the role of social and physical contexts in influencing health behaviors and outcomes. This is especially true for weight, which is considered to be highly dependent on environmental factors. The evidence linking neighborhood characteristics to weight in the United States, however, is mixed. Many studies in this area are hampered by cross sectional designs and a limited scope, insofar as they investigate only one dimension of neighborhood context. It is also unclear to what extent neighborhood characteristics account for racial/ethnic disparities in weight. Using longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), we compare patterns of weight change between Hispanics and other racial and ethnic groups in order to evaluate whether we observe a pattern of unhealthy assimilation in weight among Hispanic immigrants and to identify differences in the rate at which different groups gain weight over time. We also explore the extent to which patterns of weight change are related to a wider range of community characteristics. We find that weight increases across all groups between the two study waves of L.A. FANS and that the increases are significant except for Asians/Pacific Islanders. With respect to differences in the pace of weight change, second and higher generation Hispanic women and black men gain weight more rapidly than their first generation Hispanic counterparts. Although the evidence presented indicates that first generation Hispanics gain weight, we do not find evidence for convergence in weight since the U.S.-born gain weight at a more rapid rate. The inclusion of community-level variables does not alter the relationships between the race, ethnicity, and immigrant generation categories and weight change. Of the six types of community characteristics considered, only collective efficacy is consistently and significantly associated with weight change

  8. Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Guillermo; Urdiain, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Ana; López-López, Aránzazu; Blanch, Anicet R; Tamames, Javier; Kämpfer, Peter; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Ramón, Daniel; Martínez, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. PMID:23791203

  9. Estimation of Parameters of the Rasch Model and Comparison of Groups in Presence of Locally Dependent Items.

    PubMed

    Feddag, Mohand-Larbi; Blanchin, Myriam; Sébille, Véronique; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Measurement specialists routinely assume examinee responses to test are independent of one another. However, previous research has shown that many tests contain item dependencies, and not accounting for these dependencies leads to misleading estimates of item and person parameters. In this paper, the marginal maximum likelihood estimation in Rasch model with the violation of the local independence is studied. The power of the Wald test on a group effect parameter on the latent traits in cross-sectional studies is examined under the local independence and the local item dependence assumptions. The different results are illustrated with simulation studies. PMID:26753222

  10. A Prospective, Multicenter, Phase I Matched-Comparison Group Trial of Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Preliminary Efficacy of Riluzole in Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fehlings, Michael G.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Burau, Keith D.; Chow, Diana S.L.; Tator, Charles; Teng, Angela; Toups, Elizabeth G.; Harrop, James S.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Shaffrey, Christopher I.; Johnson, Michele M.; Harkema, Susan J.; Boakye, Maxwell; Guest, James D.; Wilson, Jefferson R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A prospective, multicenter phase I trial was undertaken by the North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of, as well as obtain pilot data on, the effects of riluzole on neurological outcome in acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-six patients, with ASIA impairment grades A–C (28 cervical and 8 thoracic) were enrolled at 6 NACTN sites between April 2010 and June 2011. Patients received 50 mg of riluzole PO/NG twice-daily, within 12 h of SCI, for 14 days. Peak and trough plasma concentrations were quantified on days 3 and 14. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure to riluzole varied significantly between patients. On the same dose basis, Cmax did not reach levels comparable to those in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Riluzole plasma levels were significantly higher on day 3 than on day 14, resulting from a lower clearance and a smaller volume of distribution on day 3. Rates of medical complications, adverse events, and progression of neurological status were evaluated by comparison with matched patients in the NACTN SCI Registry. Medical complications in riluzole-treated patients occurred with incidences similar to those in patients in the comparison group. Mild-to-moderate increase in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels were found in 14–70% of patients for different enzymes. Three patients had borderline severe elevations of enzymes. No patient had elevated bilirubin on day 14 of administration of riluzole. There were no serious adverse events related to riluzole and no deaths. The mean motor score of 24 cervical injury riluzole-treated patients gained 31.2 points from admission to 90 days, compared to 15.7 points for 26 registry patients, a 15.5-point difference (p=0.021). Patients with cervical injuries treated with riluzole had more-robust conversions of impairment grades to higher grades than the comparison group. PMID:23859435

  11. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method. PMID:23689302

  12. A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group γ genes in birds

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S; Kuryshev, Vladimir Y; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C

    2009-01-01

    Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs). ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively). We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72%) compared with the chicken (~66%) and the zebra finch (~38%). We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group α, θ and γ genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called γ-c clade). An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each γ-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The γ-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group γ-c) OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data supports recent

  13. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction. The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  14. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction (Browning et al, 1994). The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  15. Visible light-harvesting photoanodes for solar energy conversion: A comparison of anchoring groups to titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Lauren A.

    integration of efficient visible-light absorption, ultrafast forward electron transfer, and stable charge separation is quite complicated. The work presented here is devoted to the design, synthesis, spectroscopy, and computational study of dye-sensitized photoanodes. In particular, we explore the relative stability and performance of different anchoring groups for the surface attachment of light-harvesting molecular dyes to titanium dioxide. Here we present the first systematic study that directly compares carboxylate, phosphonate, acetylacetonate, and hydroxamate anchors using the same molecular chromophore framework. We discuss a number of novel methods for the incorporation of anchoring group functionalities on each chromophore framework. We also assess the relative water stability of each of the anchoring groups on titanium dioxide as well as the relative efficiency of electron transfer from photoexcited molecular chromophores through each anchoring group into the conduction band of titanium dioxide. We hope that the work presented here will contribute to the rational design of better photoanodes for light-driven water splitting.

  16. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-03-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces. PMID:25158226

  17. A comparison of computer versus panel assessment of two groups of patients with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Laitung, J K; Coghlan, B A; Pigott, R W

    1993-01-01

    A computer-based system of assessing asymmetry was used to compare standardised photographs of primarily corrected cleft noses, uncorrected cleft noses and control (normal) noses. A significant difference was found between control and cleft groups for both upper nasal perimeter (p < 0.001) and nostril outline (p = 0.001), and between uncorrected and corrected noses for upper nasal perimeter (p = 0.03) but not for nostril outline (p = 0.99). Comparing the results achieved by panel assessment (Cussons et al., 1992) with this of the same patients revealed some discordance related to the influence of extraneous factors on panel decisions. Panel assessment is needed in the evaluation of overall appearance, whilst the computer method is able to assess the results of different techniques, and from different centres, on specific features where symmetry is a major objective of surgical technique. PMID:8431736

  18. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. PMID:26669678

  19. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F; Dixon, David A

    2016-08-01

    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1-4) and (MO3)n (M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1-3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation density functional theory (DFT) functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors, and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer. PMID:27384926

  20. [Quality analyses of the development of preterm infants: results of the Lower-Saxonian preterm infant follow-up project and a comparison group of term infants].

    PubMed

    Damm, Gabriele; Macha, Thorsten; Petermann, Franz; Voss, Wolfgang; Sens, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Based on perinatal and neonatal quality assurance programmes, a follow-up project for the high-risk group of extremely preterm infants, unparalleled in Germany, was initiated in the federal state of Lower Saxony in 2004. Here we describe the new approach of examining a comparison group of term infants, which, for the first time, allows a valid interpretation of the collection of area-wide long-term outcome data on preterm children. The prospective long-term outcome project investigates the medical care situation for children born at less than 28 weeks of gestation up to school age. Based on the information obtained about the children's development the quality of health care will be optimised. A standardised examining concept with established development tests at defined follow-up intervals (at the age of 6 months, 2, 5 and 10 years) is used. At the age of five years 75 % of the examined premature children exhibited impairments. In order to better assess remarkable results, a comparison group of term infants (n=305) selected by a matched-pairs method was examined at the age of five using an analogous concept in kindergartens in Lower Saxony. The results were compared with the first two age cohorts of the follow-up-project (n=226) and quality analyses performed. As expected, significant differences have been found in the children's motor, cognitive and linguistic development between the preterm and term infants examined. This fact draws attention to the importance of early support for the majority of extremely premature infants. Feedback on the results given to the medical staff involved allows for the implementation of best practices and quality improvements. Identifying potential for improvement in everyday health care will help to develop specific optimisation measures. PMID:25839361

  1. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. PMID:27374738

  2. Comparison of different extraction methods to determine free and bound forms of B-group vitamins in quinoa.

    PubMed

    Hälvin, Kristel; Nisamedtinov, Ildar; Paalme, Toomas

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of free and bound forms of B-group vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6) was quantified in quinoa seeds using LC-MS-TOF combined with a stable isotope dilution assay. The effectiveness of liberating thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine from the food matrix and cofactors was evaluated for a variety of extraction conditions, including the addition of enzymes. Phosphatase and protease inhibitors, as well as ultrafiltration, were evaluated for their ability to suppress vitamer liberation via enzymes endogenous to quinoa. Cold extraction, together with a mixture of phosphatase and protease inhibitors, is identified as the most efficient treatment to prevent the conversion of cofactors into simple vitamers. Overnight incubation at 37 °C both with and without additional hydrolytic enzyme preparations containing phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity was almost equally effective in releasing the bound forms of the vitamers. This indicates that the endogenous enzymes within quinoa seeds have high activity. β-Glucosidase should be used when the total pyridoxine content is to be determined, and thermal treatment followed by enzymatic treatment with phosphatase activity is recommended to liberate the bound forms of pyridoxal prior to quantification. PMID:25195054

  3. VAST PLANES OF SATELLITES IN A HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP: COMPARISON TO ANDROMEDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gillet, N.; Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2015-02-10

    We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane.

  4. Group and case study of the dysexecutive syndrome in alcoholism without amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, H; Berrios, G; London, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the dysexecutive syndrome (DES) hypothesis of chronic alcoholism by the neuropsychological group and case study approaches.
METHODS—A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, including the "behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome", a battery of tests recently designed to be "ecologically valid", was administered to 17 patients with chronic alcoholism without amnesia to examine executive functions, intelligence, and memory. In terms of each neuropsychological measure, reciprocal analyses of group means and individual case profiles were conducted: for the first contrasting the alcoholic patients with 17 age matched healthy subjects; and for the second making intersubject and intrasubject comparison of the patients, according to percentile basis impairment indices obtained from the control subjects.
RESULTS—Despite relatively unimpaired memory and intelligence, the patients as a whole had the impairment of a wide range of executive domains, extending to "everyday" problem solving as well as more elementary aspects of executive functions, such as visuospatial performance, mental set shifting, and the inhibition of habitual behaviour. The profile analysis divided individual patients into four groups: the representative DES characterised by a clear dissociation between impaired executive functions and preserved intelligence and memory; the group of a modified dysexecutive pattern in which memory as well as executive functions were impaired with intelligence preserved; the group of general cognitive deterioration; and the group of unimpaired cognitive functioning. About two thirds of the patients were categorised into either the first or the second type of DES.
CONCLUSION—DES characterised by the even more pronounced impairment of executive functions than of intelligence and memory afflicts a considerable proportion of patients with chronic alcoholism. Due to its subtlety, this would be potentially left out, unless appropriate

  5. Comparison of mental health between former child soldiers and children never conscripted by armed groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Speckman, Rebecca A.; Maharjan, Sujen M.; Worthman, Carol M.; Komproe, Ivan H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Despite child soldiers being considered in need of special mental health interventions, there is a lack of studies investigating the mental health of child soldiers compared with civilian children in armed conflicts. Objective: To compare the mental health status of former child soldiers with children who have never been conscripts of armed groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: A matched-pair cohort study conducted from March through April 2007 in Nepal compared the mental health of 141 former child soldiers to 141 never conscripted children matched on age, sex, education, and ethnicity. Outcome Measures: Depression symptoms were assessed via the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), anxiety symptoms via the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-5), symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) via the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), general psychological difficulties via the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), daily functioning via the Function Impairment (FI) tool, and exposure to traumatic events via Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KIDDIE-SADS) PTSD Traumatic Event Checklist. Results: Participants were a mean of 15.75 years at the time of this study and child soldiers ranged in age from 5 to 16 years at the time of conscription. All participants experienced at least 1 type of trauma. Number (%) of child soldiers meeting cutoff scores were 75 (53.2%) for depression, 65 (46.1%) for anxiety, 78 (55.3%) for PTSD, 55 (39.0%) for psychological difficulties, and 88 (62.4%) for function impairment. Child soldiers had greater odds of meeting cutoff for depression (OR=3.56, 95% CI 2.33—5.43), PTSD (for which we employed stratified analyses because of sex interaction: boys’ OR=3.85, 95% CI 1.77—8.39; girls’ OR=6.33, 95% CI 2.64—15.17), psychological difficulties (OR=2.91, 95% CI=1.53—5.51), and function impairment (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.41—2.96), but no difference for anxiety (OR=1

  6. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  7. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  8. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP) in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and p values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011). PMID:27419131

  9. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group.

    PubMed

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP) in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and p values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011). PMID:27419131

  10. Impact of tissue atrophy on high-pass filtered MRI signal phase-based assessment in large-scale group-comparison studies: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweser, Ferdinand; Dwyer, Michael G.; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of abnormal accumulation of tissue iron in the basal ganglia nuclei and in white matter plaques using the gradient echo magnetic resonance signal phase has become a research focus in many neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. A common and natural approach is to calculate the mean high-pass-filtered phase of previously delineated brain structures. Unfortunately, the interpretation of such an analysis requires caution: in this paper we demonstrate that regional gray matter atrophy, which is concomitant with many neurodegenerative diseases, may itself directly result in a phase shift seemingly indicative of increased iron concentration even without any real change in the tissue iron concentration. Although this effect is relatively small results of large-scale group comparisons may be driven by anatomical changes rather than by changes of the iron concentration.

  11. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat.

    PubMed

    Dervis, Sheila; Coombs, Geoff B; Chaseling, Georgia K; Filingeri, Davide; Smoljanic, Jovana; Jay, Ollie

    2016-03-15

    We sought to determine 1) the influence of adiposity on thermoregulatory responses independently of the confounding biophysical factors of body mass and metabolic heat production (Hprod); and 2) whether differences in adiposity should be accounted for by prescribing an exercise intensity eliciting a fixed Hprod per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM). Nine low (LO-BF) and nine high (HI-BF) body fat males matched in pairs for total body mass (TBM; LO-BF: 88.7 ± 8.4 kg, HI-BF: 90.1 ± 7.9 kg; P = 0.72), but with distinctly different percentage body fat (%BF; LO-BF: 10.8 ± 3.6%; HI-BF: 32.0 ± 5.6%; P < 0.001), cycled for 60 min at 28.1 ± 0.2°C, 26 ± 8% relative humidity (RH), at a target Hprod of 1) 550 W (FHP trial) and 2) 7.5 W/kg LBM (LBM trial). Changes in rectal temperature (ΔTre) and local sweat rate (LSR) were measured continuously while whole body sweat loss (WBSL) and net heat loss (Hloss) were estimated over 60 min. In the FHP trial, ΔTre (LO-BF: 0.66 ± 0.21°C, HI-BF: 0.87 ± 0.18°C; P = 0.02) was greater in HI-BF, whereas mean LSR (LO-BF 0.52 ± 0.19, HI-BF 0.43 ± 0.15 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.19), WBSL (LO-BF 586 ± 82 ml, HI-BF 559 ± 75 ml; P = 0.47) and Hloss (LO-BF 1,867 ± 208 kJ, HI-BF 1,826 ± 224 kJ; P = 0.69) were all similar. In the LBM trial, ΔTre (LO-BF 0.82 ± 0.18°C, HI-BF 0.54 ± 0.19°C; P < 0.001), mean LSR (LO-BF 0.59 ± 0.20, HI-BF 0.38 ± 0.12 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.04), WBSL (LO-BF 580 ± 106 ml, HI-BF 381 ± 68 ml; P < 0.001), and Hloss (LO-BF 1,884 ± 277 kJ, HI-BF 1,341 ± 184 kJ; P < 0.001) were all greater at end-exercise in LO-BF. In conclusion, high %BF individuals demonstrate a greater ΔTre independently of differences in mass and Hprod, possibly due to a lower mean specific heat capacity or impaired sudomotor control. However, thermoregulatory responses of groups with different adiposity levels should not be compared using a fixed Hprod in watts per kilogram lean body mass. PMID:26702025

  12. Transcriptomic and Epigenetic Profiling of the Lung of Influenza-Infected Pigs: A Comparison of Different Birth Weight and Susceptibility Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Gunvaldsen, Rayna E.; Detmer, Susan E.; Dyck, Michael K.; Dixon, Walter T.; Foxcroft, George R.; Plastow, Graham S.; Harding, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology. PMID:26393920

  13. Relationship between Serum Level of Interleukin-2 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Disease Activity in Comparison with Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Mehrdad; Musavi, Sara; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the large number of surveys, there are not any validated biomarkers for SLE disease activity till now. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum level of IL-2 in patients with SLE and disease activity in comparison with control group. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 73 patients with lupus and 73 healthy subjects referred to the rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran).They were studied via convenience sampling during 2011-2012. Blood samples were taken from both groups and serum levels of interleukin -2 measured by Avi Bion Human IL-2 ELISA kit. Serum Level of IL-2 greater than 15 pg/ml defined positive and lesser than this amount defined negative. Disease activity evaluated with SLE disease activity index. Score greater than or equal to three or four defined as active disease. Data analysis conducted by SPSS software (version 16) and by using descriptive statistics and statistical tests. Results: Serum level of IL-2 was positive in 45.2% of sample studied and negative in 54.8% in case group, while in control group, serum level of IL-2 only in 11% of sample studied was positive and in 89% was negative. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between serum level of IL-2 and the SLE disease activity index (p=0.025). Conclusion: This study showed the relationship between serum levels of IL-2 and disease activity, so this biomarker can be used as a clinical indicator for assessing disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:25177590

  14. Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery

  15. Cerebral glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy using statistical mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Juh, Rahyeong; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Uk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Taesuk

    This study measured the cerebral glucose metabolism in patients suffering from corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The aim was to determine if there is a different metabolic pattern using (18)F-labeled 2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The regional cerebral glucose metabolism was examined in 8 patients diagnosed clinically with CBD (mean age 69.6 +/- 7.8 years; male/female: 5/3), 8 patients with probable PSP (mean age 67.8 +/- 4.5 years; male/female: 4/4) and 22 healthy controls. The regional cerebral glucose metabolism between the three groups was compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with a voxel-by-voxel approach (p < 0.001, 200-voxel level). Compared with the normal controls, asymmetry in the regional glucose metabolism was observed in the parietal, frontal and cingulate in the CBD patients. In the PSP patients, the glucose metabolism was lower in the orbitofrontal, middle frontal, cingulate, thalamus and mid-brain than their age matched normal controls. A comparison of the two patient groups demonstrated relative hypometabolism in the thalamus, the mid-brain in the PSP patients and the parietal lobe in CBD patients. These results suggest that when making a differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP, voxel-based analysis of the (18)F-FDG PET images using a SPM might be a useful tool in clinical examinations. PMID:15936506

  16. Comparison between Cleavage Stage versus Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfer in an Egyptian Cohort Undergoing in vitro Fertilization: A Possible Role for Laser Assisted Hatching

    PubMed Central

    Hendawy, Sherif F.; Raafat, TA

    2011-01-01

    Background Extended in vitro embryo culture and blastocyst transfer have emerged as essential components of the advanced reproductive technology armamentarium, permitting selection of more advanced embryos considered best suited for transfer. Aim of study The aim of this study was to compare between cleavage stage and blastocyst stage embryo transfer in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and to assess the role of assisted hatching technique in patients undergoing blastocyst transfer. Patients and methods This study was carried out on two groups. Group I: 110 patients who underwent 120 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with day 2–3 embryo transfer—for unexplained infertility or male factor within the previous 3 years. Their data obtained retrospectively from medical records. Group II: 46 age matched infertile female patients undergoing 51 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles for similar causes. Patients in Group II were further subdivided into 2 equal subgroups; Group IIa (23 patients), which had laser assisted hatching and Group IIb (23 patients), which did not have assisted hatching. All patients had an infertility workup including basal hormonal profile, pelvic ultrasound, hysterosalpingogram and/or laparoscope and semen analysis of the patient’s partner. All patients underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: Using long protocol of ovulation induction. Laser assisted hatching was done for blastocysts of 23 patients. Results Comparison between both groups as regards the reproductive outcome showed a significant difference in pregnancy and implantation rates, both being higher in group II (P < 0.05) Comparison between both subgroups as regards the reproductive outcome showed a highly significant difference in pregnancy and implantation rates, both being higher in Group IIa (P < 0.01). There was also a significantly higher rate of multiple pregnancies among Group IIa (P < 0.05). Conclusion Blastocyst transfer is a successful

  17. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, P<0.01) and the P450 amplitude (F(3,27)=3.57, P<0.05) was present for normal pre-adolescents which was absent in pathological pre-adolescents. Moreover, enhanced N450 ERP amplitudes to our Memory Workload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, P<0.004). Furthermore, significant differences between normal and pathological groups were found in bilateral electrodermal activity (F(1,18)=23.86, P<0.001) and on the Mangina-Test performance (F(1,18)=75.35, P<0.001). Our present research findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning

  18. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    PubMed

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran. PMID:27165237

  19. An In-Depth Comparison of the Male Pediatric and Adult Urinary Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, John W.; Vaezzadeh, Ali R.; Kirchner, Marc; Briscoe, Andrew C.; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Steen, Hanno; Lee, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the male pediatric infant urinary proteome by parallel proteomic analysis of normal healthy adult (n =6) and infant (n =6) males and comparison to available published data. A total of 1584 protein groups were identified. Of these, 708 proteins were identified in samples from both cohorts. Although present in both cohorts, 136 of these common proteins were significantly enriched in urine from adults and 94 proteins were significantly enriched in urine from infants. Using Gene Ontology, we found that the infant-enriched or specific subproteome (743 proteins) had an overrepresentation of proteins that are involved in translation and transcription, cellular growth and metabolic processes. In contrast, the adult enriched or specific subproteome (364 proteins) showed an overexpression of proteins involved in immune response and cell adhesion. This study demonstrates that the non-diseased male urinary proteome is quantitatively affected by age, has age-specific subproteomes, and identifies a common subproteome with no age-dependent abundance variations. These findings highlight the importance of age-matching in urinary proteomics. PMID:23707565

  20. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W; Manning, Alisa K; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert V; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R; Morrison, Alanna C; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M; Psaty, Bruce M; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gauderman, W James; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2016-07-01

    Studying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and G × E interaction effects (the "joint" framework). The alternative "stratified" framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from genome-wide association studies of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on (1) the minor allele frequency, (2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and (3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low-frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts. PMID:27230302

  1. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

  2. Improving sexual health for HIV patients by providing a combination of integrated public health and hospital care services; a one-group pre- and post test intervention comparison

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital HIV care and public sexual health care (a Sexual Health Care Centre) services were integrated to provide sexual health counselling and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing and treatment (sexual health care) to larger numbers of HIV patients. Services, need and usage were assessed using a patient perspective, which is a key factor for the success of service integration. Methods The study design was a one-group pre-test and post-test comparison of 447 HIV-infected heterosexual individuals and men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a hospital-based HIV centre serving the southern region of the Netherlands. The intervention offered comprehensive sexual health care using an integrated care approach. The main outcomes were intervention uptake, patients’ pre-test care needs (n=254), and quality rating. Results Pre intervention, 43% of the patients wanted to discuss sexual health (51% MSM; 30% heterosexuals). Of these patients, 12% to 35% reported regular coverage, and up to 25% never discussed sexual health topics at their HIV care visits. Of the patients, 24% used our intervention. Usage was higher among patients who previously expressed a need to discuss sexual health. Most patients who used the integrated services were new users of public health services. STIs were detected in 13% of MSM and in none of the heterosexuals. The quality of care was rated good. Conclusions The HIV patients in our study generally considered sexual health important, but the regular counselling and testing at the HIV care visit was insufficient. The integration of public health and hospital services benefited both care sectors and their patients by addressing sexual health questions, detecting STIs, and conducting partner notification. Successful sexual health care uptake requires increased awareness among patients about their care options as well as a cultural shift among care providers. PMID:23270463

  3. Complete sequence of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4 environmental isolate and comparison with related plasmids from the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Ariel F; Benintende, Graciela B; Zandomeni, Rubén O

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen used worldwide as a bioinsecticide. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group as well as Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. Plasmids from this group of organisms have been implicated in pathogenicity as they carry the genes responsible for different types of diseases that affect mammals and insects. Some plasmids, like pAW63 and pBT9727, encode a functional conjugation machinery allowing them to be transferred to a recipient cell. They also share extensive homology with the non-functional conjugation apparatus of pXO2 from B. anthracis. In this study we report the complete sequence of three plasmids from an environmental B. thuringiensis isolate from Argentina, obtained by a shotgun sequencing method. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pFR12 (12,095bp), pFR12.5 (12,459bp) and pFR55 (55,712bp) from B. thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4. pFR12 and pFR12.5 were classified as cryptic as they do not code for any obvious functions besides replication and mobilization. Both small plasmids were classified as RCR plasmids due to similarities with the replicases they encode. Plasmid pFR55 showed a structural organization similar to that observed for plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. pFR55 also shares a tra region with these plasmids, containing genes related to T4SS and conjugation. A comparison between pFR55 and conjugative plasmids led to the postulation that pFR55 is a conjugative plasmid. Genes related to replication functions in pFR55 are different to those described for plasmids with known complete sequences. pFR55 is the first completely sequenced plasmid with a replication machinery related to that of ori44. The analysis of the complete sequence of plasmids from an environmental isolate of B. thuringiensis permitted the identification of a near complete conjugation apparatus in pFR55, resembling those of plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. The availability of this sequence is a step forward in the study

  4. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  5. Comparison of Blue-Yellow Opponent Color Contrast Sensitivity Function between Female Badminton Players and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mirzajani, Ali; Hatami, Maryam; Musavian, Razieh; Abbasi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the chromatic contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the blue-yellow opponent channel (BYOC) between female badminton players and non-athlete controls. Methods We recruited 40 young females (18-25 years old) who played badminton for at least 5 consecutive years as the test group, and 30 age-matched female controls who had no history of regular physical activity. The Pattern Generator™ system was used to test the CSF for the BYOC which was performed at three spatial frequencies (SFs) of 2 cycles per degree (cpd), 5 cpd, and 25 cpd. Results Comparison of BYOC thresholds showed significantly better results in the test group for all three SFs (P<0.001). Band pass shift (better CSF in the middle SF) was seen in the test group. The control group had low pass (better CSF in the low SF). Ocular motility (heterophoria, fusional convergence and divergence at far and near distances, and near point of convergence) was better in the test group, but the inter-group difference was not significant. Conclusions The BYOC threshold results for badminton players indicated a better visual performance which may be a result of enhanced performance of the parallel processing of the parvocellular and magnocellular systems. This may be inherent and/or acquired in badminton players. In addition, badminton players appear to have developed sensory-motor programmed activities. Testing the CSF for BYOC may be useful for athlete selection in different levels and/or used as a criterion for screening players in the field of badminton. PMID:23802052

  6. Technologies That Assist in Online Group Work: A Comparison of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication Technologies on Students' Learning and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda; Wendt, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    While the benefits of online group work completed using asynchronous CMC technology is documented, researchers have identified a number of challenges that result in ineffective and unsuccessful online group work. Fewer channels of communication and lack of immediacy when compared to face-to-face group work are a few of the noted limitations. Thus,…

  7. Self-Administered Vidoetape Therapy for Families With Conduct-Problem Children: Comparison With Two Cost-Effective Treatments and a Control Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned parents of 114 conduct-problem young children to either individually administered videotape modeling treatment, group discussion videotape modeling treatment, group discussion treatment, or waiting-list control. Compared with controls, all three treatment groups of mothers reported significantly fewer child behavior problems, more…

  8. Transmission of group II heteronymous pathways is enhanced in rigid lower limb of de novo patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Simonetta Moreau, M; Meunier, S; Vidailhet, M; Pol, S; Galitzky, M; Rascol, O

    2002-09-01

    A potent heteronymous excitation of quadriceps motoneurones via common peroneal group II afferents has recently been demonstrated in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this group II excitation contributes to rigidity in Parkinson's disease. The early and late facilitations of the quadriceps H reflex elicited by a conditioning volley to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) at twice motor threshold, attributed to non-monosynaptic group I and group II excitations, respectively, were investigated. The comparison was drawn between results obtained in 20 "de novo" patients with Parkinson's disease (hemiparkinsonian, 17; bilateral, three) and 20 age-matched normal subjects. There was no statistically significant effect of "group" (patients/controls), "duration", "global severity" [Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)] or "side" (unilaterally versus bilaterally affected) factors on either group I or group II facilitations. To further the analysis, the factors of status (affected or non-affected limb), akinesia (lower limb akinesia score) and rigidity (lower limb rigidity score) were entered in a general linear model to explain the variations of the quadriceps H reflex facilitation. Rigidity was the only factor useful in predicting the value of the group II facilitation of the quadriceps H reflex (P < 0.007). Group I and group II facilitation was then compared between the rigid, non-rigid and control lower limbs [multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)]. Results are represented as mean +/- SEM (standard error of the mean). Group II facilitation was enhanced in the rigid lower limb of unilaterally affected patients (153.2 +/- 7% of control H reflex) compared with non-rigid lower limbs (124 +/- 4% of control H reflex; P < 0.007) or control lower limbs (126.1 +/- 4.1%; P < 0.01). There was no difference between the non-rigid lower limbs of the unilaterally affected patients and the control lower limbs, but a difference was observed

  9. Age-Related Changes in Ocular Blood Velocity in Suspects with Glaucomatous Optic Disc Appearance. Comparison with Healthy Subjects and Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asejczyk-Widlicka, Magdalena; Krzyzanowska-Berkowska, Patrycja; Sander, Beata P.; Iskander, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate retrobulbar blood flow characteristics of glaucoma suspects with glaucomatous optic disc appearance (GODA) in comparison to healthy control group (CG) and primary open angle glaucoma patients (POAG) and assess the effect of age. Methods 145 patients from a single glaucoma clinic were enrolled and classified into two diagnostic groups (GODA and POAG). Third group of subjects consisted of 67 age matched individuals (CG). Retrobulbar blood velocity measurement in central retinal artery was performed using color Doppler imaging (CDI). CDI images were processed in custom software leading a range of parameter estimates from a continuous waveform signal. The effect of age on the estimated parameters was evaluated with the stepwise forward regression and ANCOVA in which age was used as a continuous factor. One-way ANOVA was used to test for the differences in the CDI parameters between the three considered groups. Correlation between restive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) was assessed with a bilinear fitting guaranteeing no discontinuities in RI intercept estimate. Fisher test was used to assess the applicability of a bilinear PI/RI relationship, while the statistics of the RI intercept estimate were evaluated using the bootstrap. Results ANCOVA showed significant interaction between age and group (p<0.05) for five out of nine considered CDI parameters. The RI intercept for CG and GODA groups was 0.602±0.047, and 0.574±0.044 respectively, while the RI intercept of 0.934±0.066 was found for the POAG. Conclusions The observed similarity of CG and GODA group and dissimilarity between GODA and POAG groups in terms of PI/RI relationship is remarkable. Age may play some role in the different mechanisms occurring in blood velocity dynamics in GODA and POAG subjects but it is not a strongly determining factor. PMID:26218249

  10. Differences in Caregiver-Reported Health Problems and Health Care Use in Maltreated Adolescents and a Comparison Group from the Same Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kools, Susan; Negriff, Sonya; Smith, Sharon; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Maltreated youth have a high prevalence of acute and chronic mental and physical health problems, but it is not clear whether these problems are related to maltreatment or to a disadvantaged environment. To compare health status and health care use of maltreated youth receiving child protective services to comparison youth living in the same community, we conducted a secondary analysis of caregiver reports for 207 maltreated adolescents (mean age 11.9 years) and 142 comparison adolescents (mean age 12.3 years) living in urban Los Angeles, using questionnaire data from a larger longitudinal study framed in a socio-ecological model. Caregivers included biological parents, relatives, and unrelated caregivers. Analyses included t-test, MANOVA, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression. Caregivers reported similar rates of physical health problems but more mental health problems and psychotropic medicine use in maltreated youth than in the comparison youth, suggesting that maltreated youths’ higher rates of mental health problems could not be attributed to the disadvantaged environment. Although there were no differences in health insurance coverage, maltreated youth received preventive medical care more often than comparison youth. For all youth, having Medicaid improved their odds of receiving preventive health and dental care. Attention to mental health issues in adolescents receiving child welfare services remains important. Acceptance of Medicaid by neighborhood-based and/or school-based services in low-income communities may reduce barriers to preventive care. PMID:25557881

  11. Group Progress of Community Elderly as Measured by Tape Recordings, Group Tempo and Group Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Marcella Bakur; Weinstock, Comilda S.

    1979-01-01

    Geriatric outpatients were involved in a group resocialization program. Comparison is made between experimental groups whose leader used group intervention techniques, and groups where leader played a nonintervention role. Experimental group members showed changes toward more active problem-solving approaches, while group members remained fixed at…

  12. Comparison of serum procollagen III peptide concentrations and PGA index for assessment of hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Teare, J P; Sherman, D; Greenfield, S M; Simpson, J; Bray, G; Catterall, A P; Murray-Lyon, I M; Peters, T J; Williams, R; Thompson, R P

    1993-10-01

    In early hepatic fibrosis, increased amounts of type III collagen are deposited. Persistently high serum concentrations of aminoterminal type III procollagen propeptide (PIIIP) correlate with the activity of the fibrogenic process. Another index for the detection of fibrosis, the PGA index, combines the prothrombin time, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and serum apolipoprotein A1 concentration (the latter falls with progressive fibrosis). We compared PIIIP measurements and PGA index in patients with various histological forms of alcoholic liver disease (104), primary biliary cirrhosis (38), and chronic B virus hepatitis (27), and in healthy age-matched controls (30). The ability of each test to identify correctly patients with fibrosis or cirrhosis was assessed with receiver operating curves. The PGA index was much higher in all groups of patients with alcoholic liver disease than in controls (p < 0.0001). PIIIP concentrations were also substantially higher than in controls (p < 0.05 for fatty liver, p < 0.0001 for all other groups), especially in the group with alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. For the detection of cirrhosis the PGA was 91% sensitive and 81% specific and the PIIIP concentration was 94% sensitive and 81% specific. The two tests combined had 85% sensitivity, but 93% specificity. Among patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, both PGA index and PIIIP concentration correlated well with the severity of the disease, determined by the Mayo score (r = 0.72 and 0.66 respectively). The combined tests were 96% sensitive for the detection of fibrosis. All patients with chronic B virus hepatitis had raised PGA and PIIIP values in comparison with controls (p < 0.0001) but there were no differences between subgroups. Substantially raised PIIIP concentrations thus identify the subgroup of alcoholic patients with both hepatitis and cirrhosis. The combination of PGA index and PIIIP concentration may be useful for targeting treatment with antifibrotic drugs

  13. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564

  14. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564

  15. A Comparison of Recidivism Rates for Operation Outward Reach (OOR) Participants and Control Groups of Non-Participants for the Years 1990 through 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Desuta, Joesph F.

    2000-01-01

    A 5-year study of Operation Outward Reach, a nonprofit program providing community-based vocational training in carpentry and masonry for Pennsylvania inmates, compared completers and control groups. Results showed average differences in recidivism between the groups of 16% per year. Fiscal and social cost savings were also identified. (JOW)

  16. Development of Peer-Group-Classification Criteria for the Comparison of Cost Efficiency among General Hospitals under the Korean NHI Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Chung; Hong, Jae-Seok; Park, Heon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To classify general hospitals into homogeneous systematic-risk groups in order to compare cost efficiency and propose peer-group-classification criteria. Data Sources Health care institution registration data and inpatient-episode-based claims data submitted by the Korea National Health Insurance system to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from July 2007 to December 2009. Study Design Cluster analysis was performed to classify general hospitals into peer groups based on similarities in hospital characteristics, case mix complexity, and service-distribution characteristics. Classification criteria reflecting clustering were developed. To test whether the new peer groups better adjusted for differences in systematic risks among peer groups, we compared the R2 statistics of the current and proposed peer groups according to total variations in medical costs per episode and case mix indices influencing the cost efficiency. Data Collection A total of 1,236,471 inpatient episodes were constructed for 222 general hospitals in 2008. Principal Findings New criteria were developed to classify general hospitals into three peer groups (large general hospitals, small and medium general hospitals treating severe cases, and small and medium general hospitals) according to size and case mix index. Conclusions This study provides information about using peer grouping to enhance fairness in the performance assessment of health care providers. PMID:22356558

  17. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Distance Theory, A Comparison of Various Regional Groupings on 1966-69 Cooperation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph is a computer printout which presents findings from an analysis of data on cooperation among 29 regional groupings. Regional groupings are interpreted as geographic areas such as Africa and Latin America and international organizations such as The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Organization of American States…

  18. A comparison of the performance and compatibility of protocols used by seven monitoring groups to measure stream habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    To comply with legal mandates, meet local management objectives, or both, many federal, state, and tribal organizations have monitoring groups that assess stream habitat at different scales. This myriad of groups has difficulty sharing data and scaling up stream habitat assessmen...

  19. Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting Procedure in 1:1 and Small Group Instruction to Teach Play Skills to Preschool Students with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colozzi, Gail A.; Ward, Louise W.; Crotty, Kerry E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the effectiveness of a simultaneous prompting procedure used in both 1:1 and small group instruction to teach pretend play skills to a group of preschool students, three having a diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder and one having a diagnosis of severe developmental disabilities. The study also assessed…

  20. Sexual Risk Attitudes and Intentions of Youth Aged 12-14 Years: Survey Comparisons of Parent-Teen Prevention and Control Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Regina P.; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention…

  1. The Impact of Homogeneity on Intra-Group Cohesion: A Macro-Level Comparison of Minority Communities in a Western Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffa, Oromiya-Jalata

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier studies dealing with the cultural identity development of diasporic minorities, this paper assesses the impact of homogeneity on intra-group cohesion and ethnic orientation. To this end, Oromo-Americans, an ethnic group originally located within the national borders of Ethiopia, will be compared to Armenian-Americans,…

  2. GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. Methods/Design An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child’s occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised

  3. A comparison of the clinical effectiveness and costs of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing and independent medical prescribing: a post-test control group study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supplementary prescribing for mental health nurses was first introduced in the UK in 2003. Since then, a number of studies have reported stakeholders' perceptions of the success of the initiative. However, there has been little experimental research conducted into its effectiveness. This paper reports findings from the first known study to compare the cost and clinical impact of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing to independent medical prescribing. Methods A post-test control group experimental design was used to compare the treatment costs, clinical outcomes and satisfaction of patients in receipt of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing with a matched group of patients in receipt of independent prescribing from consultant psychiatrists. The sample comprised 45 patients in receipt of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing for a minimum of six months and a matched group (by age, gender, diagnosis, and chronicity) of patients prescribed for by psychiatrists. Results There were no significant differences between patients in the nurse supplementary prescribers' group and the independent prescribers' group in terms of medication adherence, health status, side effects, and satisfaction with overall care. Total costs per patient for service use were £803 higher for the nurse prescribers' group but this difference was not significant (95% confidence interval -£1341 to £3020). Conclusions No significant differences were found between the health and social outcomes of patients in the mental health nurse supplementary prescribers' group, and those prescribed for by the independent medical prescribers. The cost appraisal also showed that there was no significant difference in the costs of the two types of prescribing, although the pattern of resources used differed between patients in the two prescriber groups. The results suggest that mental health nurse supplementary prescribers can deliver similar health benefits to patients as

  4. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  5. Histologic and Histomorphometric Comparison of Bone Regeneration Between Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB in Experimental Groups.

    PubMed

    Guven, Gokhan; Gultekin, B Alper; Guven, Gamze Senol; Guzel, Elif; Furat, Selenay; Ersanli, Selim

    2016-05-01

    Efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) delivered via absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) on bone formation was evaluated in guinea pig tibias. Three-millimeter-circular bone tibia defects were created in 24 guinea pigs assigned randomly to 4 groups according to the following defect filling materials: ACS only, rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, or empty. New bone formation was evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically at 15 (early healing) and 45 days (late healing). Mean new bone per total defect area ratio was 0.73, 0.57, 0.43, and 0.42 in rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, ACS only, and empty groups at early healing, respectively. During early healing, significantly more new bone formation was observed in rhBMP-2+ACS and rhPDGF-BB+ACS groups than in the control groups. New bone formation was significantly higher with rhBMP-2+ACS than with rhPDGF-BB+ACS. Mean new bone per total defect area ratio was 0.81, 0.86, 0.74, and 0.75 in the rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, ACS only, and empty groups at late healing, respectively. During late healing, new bone formation was significantly higher in the rhPDGF-BB+ACS group relative to both control groups, but the results did not differ significantly from those in the rhBMP-2+ACS group. New bone formation in the rhBMP-2+ACS group did not change significantly between the healing periods. In the rhPDGF-BB+ACS group, however, new bone formation was significantly higher in the late healing period. Both growth factors accelerated new bone formation in the early healing period. Although rhBMP-2 was more effective in the early healing period, the effects of rhPDGF-BB were longer lasting. PMID:27092911

  6. A comparison of stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia in four stakeholder groups: perceived likelihood of violence and desire for social distance.

    PubMed

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Elbogen, Eric B; Swartz, Marvin S

    2005-01-01

    This study compared four stakeholder groups regarding the presence of stigmatizing attitudes toward a hypothetical person diagnosed with schizophrenia. Participants included consumers with schizophrenia (n = 104), family members of those with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness (n = 83), mental health clinicians (n = 85), and members of the general public (n = 59); all participants resided in North Carolina. The purpose of the analyses was to investigate whether mental health stakeholder groups differed from the general public and from each other in terms of key attitudes associated with stigmatization of persons with schizophrenia, that is, perceived likelihood of violent behavior, the desire for social distance, and the causes of the illness. Analysis of variance results with follow-up Scheffé tests indicated no statistically significant differences between the mental health stakeholder groups and members of the general public in the likelihood of violence or the desire for social distance. However, there was more variation between both the mental health stakeholder groups and the general public and within the mental health stakeholder groups in the perceptions of the causes of the mental illness. Throughout the analyses, the consumers tended to have the most negative views of the illness. Implications for future stigma research and education are discussed. PMID:16247858

  7. Comparison of most probable number and pour plate procedures for isolation and enumeration of sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores and group D faecal streptococci from oysters.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, T J; West, P A

    1987-05-01

    A comparative study of methods to enumerate sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores and Group D faecal streptococci in oysters demonstrated that pour plate solid agar techniques gave higher counts than liquid broth most probable number procedures. Reinforced clostridial broth with supplements to detect sulphite reduction was compared with pour plates of egg yolk-free tryptose sulphite cycloserine agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Azide dextrose broth was compared with pour plates using Slanetz and Bartley (SB) agar or KF-streptococcus agar at 37 degrees C. Most probable number procedures used for both groups of organisms gave excessive numbers of improbable tube combinations. For enumeration of Group D faecal streptococci, a pour plate technique using SB agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h is recommended. PMID:3112087

  8. Comparison of the effects of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain), by age group: The need for a cold wave prevention plan.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J; Carmona, R; Mirón, I J; Ortiz, C; Linares, C

    2015-11-01

    A number of studies have shown that there is a time trend towards a reduction in the effects of heat on mortality. In the case of cold, however, there is practically no research of this type and so there is no clearly defined time trend of the impact of cold on mortality. Furthermore, no other specific studies have yet analysed the time trend of the impact of both thermal extremes by age group. We analysed data on daily mortality due to natural causes (ICD-10: A00-R99) in the city of Madrid across the period 2001-2009 and calculated the impact of extreme temperatures on mortality using Poisson regression models for specific age groups. The groups of age selected coinciding with the pre-existing age-groups analyzed in previous papers. For heat waves the groups of age used were: <10 years, 10-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. For cold waves the groups of age used were: <1 year; 1-5 years, 6-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. <1, 1-17, 18-44, 45-66, 65-74 and over-75 years. We controlled for confounding variables, such as air pollution, noise, influenza, pollen, pressure and relative humidity, trend of the series, as well as seasonalities and autoregressive components of the series. The results of these models were compared to those obtained for the same city during the period 1986-1997 and published in different studies. Our results show a lightly reduction in the effects of heat, especially in the over-45-year age group. In the case of cold, the behaviour pattern was the opposite, with an increase in its effect. Heat adaptation and socio-economic and public-health prevention and action measures may be behind this amelioration in the effects of heat, whereas the absence of such actions in respect of low temperatures may account for the increase in the effects of cold on mortality. From a public health point of view, the implementation of cold wave prevention plans covering all age groups is thus called

  9. The Comparison of Under-5-year Nutritional Status among Fars-native, Turkman and Sistani Ethnic Groups in the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Veghari, Gholamreza; Marjani, Abdoljalal; Kazemi, Shima; Bemani, Masoumeh; Shabdin, Mansoreh; Hashimifard, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a health problem in developing countries and the main aim of this study was determine of the nutritional status and some sociodemographic factors among rural under-5-year children in the North of Iran in 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, which carried out on 2530 children (637 = Fars-native, 1002 = Turkman and 891 = Sistani) from 21 villages in the North of Iran. Villages were chosen by random sampling among 118, and all of under-five children were chosen by simple sampling. For all of cases, a questionnaire with contain questions on the socialdemographic condition was completed and anthropometric indexes were measured by a learned team. Anthropometric data were compared with those in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference population. SPSS 18.0 software was used for statistical data analysis and P value under 0.05 included significations. Results: Generally, under nutrition (Z-score ≤ −2) was observed in 6.6%, 18.5% and 3.3% based on underweight, stunting and wasting, respectively and there were in boys more than girls and in Sistani more than other ethnic groups. Based on underweight and stunting, under nutrition was seen in Sistani more than other ethnic groups. Among three ethnic groups, stunting was significant both in boys (P = 0.013) and in girls (P = 0.004), but wasting was significant only in girls (P = 0.001). The estimated odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval of under nutrition was obtained from logistic regression. Compared with good economic group, the OR was 1.831 in poor economic groups (P = 0.001). The risk of under nutrition in Sistanish ethnic group was 1.754 times more than Fars-native group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Under nutrition is a health problem among under-5-year children in rural area in the North of Iran and stunting was seen in an alarming rate among them. Among ethnic groups, Sistanish children more than others were under nourished. Poor economic

  10. A comparison of nutrient density scores for orange vegetables: A Call for Inter- and Intra-group Variety When Recommending Vegetable Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare inter- and intra-group nutrient density (ND) scores of orange vegetables based on type and preparation. ND scores of carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and 3 varieties of winter squash were calculated using 6 methods. Nutrient profiles/100 g of food was calc...

  11. An Investigation of the Validity of AP® Grades of 3 and a Comparison of AP and Non-AP Student Groups. Research Report No. 2002-9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Barbara G.; Fitzpatrick, Steven J.; De Ayala, R. J.; Jennings, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the validity of grades of 3 on AP® Examinations and to compare AP students to other relevant student groups. While research has shown that students who earn grades of 3 or higher and place out of introductory courses do well in the subsequent courses, there are some college faculty members who think this is…

  12. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  13. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Objectives: Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete’s immune system. So this study was designed to compare the effect of one course of exhaustive exercise on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in different groups of athletes. Patients and Methods: Forty professional athletes with a mean age of 25.1 ± 5.0 years, divided equally in 4 groups (handball, volleyball, Sepak-takraw and climbing) were selected for this purpose. 30 second Wingate test for each athlete was used to assess anaerobic power. Blood samples before, immediately after and 2 hours after exercise was collected and the amount of serum IL-17 was measured. Results: The results showed that the level of IL-17 in the study groups before and after the two hours exercise did not significantly change in all four groups. Conclusions: The results showed that short anaerobic exercise has no effect on the level of IL-17. PMID:25741409

  14. Cognitive Difficulties in Struggling Comprehenders and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension: A Comparison of Group Selection and Regression-Based Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties suppressing previously encountered but currently irrelevant information from working memory characterize less skilled comprehenders in studies in which they are matched to skilled comprehenders on word decoding and nonverbal IQ. These "extreme" group designs are associated with several methodological issues. When sample size…

  15. Comparison of K-Means Clustering with Linear Probability Model, Linear Discriminant Function, and Logistic Regression for Predicting Two-Group Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Tak-Shing Harry; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    This study compared the accuracy of predicting two-group membership obtained from K-means clustering with those derived from linear probability modeling, linear discriminant function, and logistic regression under various data properties. Multivariate normally distributed populations were simulated based on combinations of population proportions,…

  16. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  17. NovaNET, 2000-2001: Analyses of Student Outcomes Relative to a Comparison Group. Eye on Evaluation. E&R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Kristin; Baenen, Nancy

    NovaNET is an online computerized instructional system that provides students with self-paced instruction for many North Carolina high school courses. This evaluation looks at outcomes for students participating in the NovaNET program and compares them with outcomes for a group of students with similar characteristics who did not participate in…

  18. Comparison of Accuracy and Efficiency of Directed Scanning and Group-Item Scanning for Augmentative Communication Selection Techniques with Typically Developing Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dropik, Patricia L.; Reichle, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Directed scanning and group-item scanning both represent options for increased scanning efficiency. This investigation compared accuracy and speed of selection with preschoolers using each scanning method. The study's purpose was to describe performance characteristics of typically developing children and to provide a reliable assessment…

  19. Some Comparisons Between Conventional College Teaching Methods and a Composite of Procedures Involving Large Lecture Groups, Seminars, and Reduced Class Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Alvin T.

    This study's purpose was to determine differences in achievement, attitude, and critical thinking in junior college freshman subjects that could be attributed to either of two ways of teaching English and history and to use the data to make decisions on pupil deployment and on plant and staff use. The experimental group comprised students taking…

  20. Comparison of the prevalence and genomic characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolated from various production groups in a vertically integrated swine operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006. Isolation of C. difficile was performed utilizing an enrichment technique and restrictive media. Prelim...

  1. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  2. Comparison of Two Small-Group Learning Methods in 12th-Grade Physics Classes Focusing on Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…

  3. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  4. Standard Setting in a Small Scale OSCE: A Comparison of the Modified Borderline-Group Method and the Borderline Regression Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan M.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    When setting standards, administrators of small-scale OSCEs often face several challenges, including a lack of resources, a lack of available expertise in statistics, and difficulty in recruiting judges. The Modified Borderline-Group Method is a standard setting procedure that compensates for these challenges by using physician examiners and is…

  5. A Comparison of College Performances of AP® and Non-AP Student Groups in 10 Subject Areas. Research Report No. 2008-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Leslie; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to compare the performance of students in the College Board Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) compared to non-AP students on a number of college outcome measures. Ten individual AP Exams were examined in this study of students in four entering classes (1998-2001) at the University of Texas at Austin. The four main groups of…

  6. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  7. Comparison of fungiform taste-bud distribution among age groups using confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo in combination with gustatory function.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Ito, Yumi; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of taste buds in fungiform papillae (FP) and gustatory function between young and elderly age groups. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used because it allows many FP to be observed non-invasively in a short period of time. The age of participants (n = 211) varied from 20 to 83 yr. The tip and midlateral region of the tongue were observed. Taste buds in an average of 10 FP in each area were counted. A total of 2,350 FP at the tongue tip and 2,592 FP in the midlateral region could be observed. The average number of taste buds was similar among all age groups both at the tongue tip and in the midlateral region. The taste function, measured by electrogustometry, among participants 20-29 yr of age was significantly lower than that in the other age groups; however, there was no difference among any other age groups in taste function. These results indicate that the peripheral gustatory system is well maintained anatomically and functionally in elderly people. PMID:26917278

  8. Methods of Costing in Universities. Brief Comparison Between the NCHEMS Approach and the Approach Used by the French-Speaking Research Group Associated with the IMHE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossu, Claude

    1975-01-01

    A group of French universities modified the NCHEMS accounting method for use in a study of its budget control procedures and cost-evaluation methods. The conceptual differences in French university education (as compared to American higher education) are keyed to the adjustments in the accounting method. French universities, rather than being…

  9. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, S; Wright, R A; Rockey, P K; Burgett, S G; Arnold, J S; Rosteck, P R; Johnson, B G; Schoepp, D D; Belagaje, R M

    1998-01-01

    Cloning and expression in a stable mammalian cell line co-transfected with a glutamate transporter (RGT cells) were used as tools for studying the functions and pharmacological properties of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the human mGluR4, human mGluR7, and human mGluR8 were isolated from human cerebellum, fetal brain or retinal cDNA libraries. The human mGluR4, mGluR7 and mGluR8 receptors were 912, 915 and 908 amino acid residues long and share 67-70% amino acid similarity with each other and 42-45% similarity with the members of mGluR subgroups I and II. The human mGluR4 and mGluR7 had amino acid identity of 96% and 99.5% with rat mGluR4 and 7, respectively, whereas the human mGluR8 has 98.8% amino acid identity with the mouse mGluR8. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the coding region of human mGluR4 and mGluR7 were found to be identical to the previously published sequences by Flor et al. and Makoff et al. Following stable expression in RGT cells, highly significant inhibitions of forskolin stimulation of cAMP production by group III agonists were found for each receptor. The relative potencies of the group III agonist L-AP4 varied greatly between the group III clones, being mGluR8>mGluR4 > mGluR7. The reported group II mGluR agonist L-CCG-I was a highly potent mGluR8 agonist (EC50=0.35 microM), with significant agonist activities at both mGluR4 (EC50=3.7 microM) and mGluR7 (EC50=47 microM). The antagonist potency of the purported group III mGluR antagonist MPPG also varied among the receptors being human mGluR8 > mGluR4 = mGluR7. The expression and second messenger coupling of human group III mGluRs expressed in the RGT cell line are useful to clearly define the subtype selectivities of mGluR ligands. PMID:9473604

  10. Comparison of Long-Term Safety and Efficacy Outcomes after Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stent Use across Racial Groups: insights from NHLBI Dynamic Registry

    PubMed Central

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Vlachos, Helen; Mulukutla, Suresh R.; Marroquin, Oscar; Selzer, Faith; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Williams, David O.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Reis, Steven E.; Lee, Joon S.; Smith, AJ. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term data on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) and bare-metal stent (BMS) across racial groups are limited, and minorities are under-represented in existing clinical trials. Whether DES has better long-term clinical outcomes compared to BMS across racial groups remains to be established. Accordingly, we assessed whether longer-term clinical outcomes are better with DES compared to BMS across racial groups. Methods Using the multicenter National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored Dynamic Registry, 2-year safety (death, MI) and efficacy (repeat revascularization) outcomes of 3,326 patients who underwent PCI with DES versus BMS were evaluated. Results With propensity-score adjusted analysis, the use of DES, compared to BMS, was associated with a lower risk for death or MI at 2 years for both blacks (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR)=0.41, 95% CI 0.25–0.69, p<0.001) and whites (aHR=0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.90, p=0.007). DES use was associated with a significant 24% lower risk of repeat revascularization in whites (aHR=0.76, 95% CI 0.60–0.97, p=0.03) and with nominal 34% lower risk in blacks (aHR=0.66, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p=0.13). Conclusion Use of DES in PCI was associated with better long-term safety outcomes across racial groups. Compared to BMS, DES was more effective in reducing repeat revascularization in whites and blacks, but this benefit was attenuated after statistical adjustment in blacks. These findings indicate that DES is superior to BMS in all patients regardless of race. Further studies are needed to determine long-term outcomes across racial groups with newer generation stents. PMID:25697874

  11. New pyridinium-based fluorescent dyes: A comparison of symmetry and side-group effects on G-Quadruplex DNA binding selectivity and application in live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Jing; Hu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Kun; Wong, Wing-Leung; Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2016-07-15

    A series of C1-, C2-and C3-symmetric pyridinium conjugates with different styrene-like side groups were synthesized and were utilized as G-quadruplex selective fluorescent probes. The new compounds were well-characterized. Their selectivity, sensitivity, and stability towards G-quadruplex were studied by fluorescence titration, native PAGE experiments, FRET and circular dichroism (CD) analyses. These new compounds investigated in the fluorescence assays were preferentially bound with G-quadruplex DNA compared with other type of nucleic acids and it is fascinating to realize the effects of molecular symmetry and associated side groups showing unexpectedly great influence on the fluorescent signal enhancement for the discrimination of G-quadruplexes DNA from other nucleic acids. This may correlate with the pocket symmetry and shape of the G-quadruplex DNA inherently. Among the compounds, a C2-symmetric dye (2,6-bis-((E)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-vinyl)-1-methylpyridin-1-ium iodide) with indolyl-groups substituted was screened out from the series giving the best selectivity and sensitivity towards G-quadruplexes DNA, particularly telo21, due to its high equilibrium binding constant (K=2.17×10(5)M(-1)). In addition, the limit of detection (LOD) of the dye to determine telo21 DNA in bioassays was found as low as 33nM. The results of the study give insight and certain crucial factors, such as molecular symmetry and the associated side groups, on developing of effective fluorescent dyes for G-quadruplex DNA applications including G-quadruplex structure stabilization, biosensing and clinical applications. The compound was also demonstrated as a very selective G-quadruplex fluorescent agent for living cell staining and imaging. PMID:26994364

  12. Population-based incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanoma in various races and ethnic groups with comparisons to other site-specific melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan-Ning; Yu, Guo-Pei; McCormick, Steven A

    2010-04-01

    Little is known on the difference in the incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. Population-based incidence of these melanomas in Asian and Hispanic individuals is almost unknown. Using 1992-2005 data provided by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. From 1992 to 2005, there were 324 vulvar melanomas and 125 vaginal melanomas diagnosed in this group. The annual age-adjusted incidence rates (per million female population) of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in the different racial/ethnic groups was 0.87 (Blacks), 0.75 (American-Indian), 1.03 (Asians and Pacific Islanders), 1.22 (Hispanics), and 1.90 (non-Hispanic Whites). The overall white/black incidence ratio in vulvar and vaginal melanomas was 3.14 : 1 and 1.02 : 1, respectively; which is much less than that of cutaneous melanoma (13 : 1-17 : 1) and uveal melanoma (18 : 1) and is similar to that of conjunctival melanoma (2.6 : 1) and other mucosal melanomas (2.1 : 1-2.3 : 1). The low racial difference in vulvar and vaginal melanomas (as well as conjunctival and other mucosal melanomas) may be determined by their microenvironment factors (all originate from mucosa or semi-mucosa tissues). The incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas has does not increased in recent decades or toward the south (more sun exposure), indicating that ultraviolet radiation is not a causative factor in these melanomas. The slight decrease of incidence of vulvar melanoma in dark pigmented individuals may be related to the biochemical protective effects of melanin (as an antioxidant) rather than their photo-screen effects. PMID:20147857

  13. Trimetazidine: a new concept in the treatment of angina. Comparison with propranolol in patients with stable angina. Trimetazidine European Multicenter Study Group.

    PubMed

    Detry, J M; Sellier, P; Pennaforte, S; Cokkinos, D; Dargie, H; Mathes, P

    1994-03-01

    1. Trimetazidine has a direct anti-ischaemic effect on the myocardium without altering the rate x pressure product or coronary blood flow. 2. The effects of trimetazidine (20 mg three times daily) were compared with those of propranolol (40 mg three times daily) in a double-blind parallel group multicentre study in 149 men with stable angina. 3. Reproducibility of exercise performance was verified during a 3 week run-in placebo washout period. All patients had > 1 mm ST-depression on exercise test. 4. After 3 months, similar anti-anginal efficacy was observed between the trimetazidine (n = 71) and propranolol (n = 78) groups. No significant differences were observed between trimetazidine and propranolol as regards anginal attack rate per week (mean difference P-TMZ: 2; 95% CI: -4.4, 0.5) and exercise duration (mean difference P-TMZ: 0 s; 95% CI: -33, 34) or time to 1 mm ST segment depression (mean difference P-TMZ: 13 s; 95% CI: -24, 51). Heart rate and rate x pressure product at rest and at peak exercise remained unchanged in the trimetazidine group but significantly decreased with propranolol (P < 0.001 in all cases). With both drugs there was a trend to decreased ischaemic episodes in the 46% patients who experienced ambulatory ischaemia on Holter monitoring. Six patients stopped trimetazidine and 12 propranolol. Of these, five in each group were withdrawn because of deterioration in cardiovascular status. 5. The results suggest that trimetazidine and propranolol at the doses studied have similar efficacy in patients with stable angina pectoris.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8198938

  14. Longitudinal comparison of a physiotherapist-led, home-based and group-based program for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the longer-term effects of physical activity interventions. Here we compare a 6-month physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program to a community group exercise program over 2 years. Healthy, sedentary community-dwelling 50-65 year olds were recruited to a non-randomised community group exercise program (G, n = 93) or a physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program (HB, n = 65). Outcomes included 'sufficient' physical activity (Active Australia Survey), minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (ActiGraph GT1M), aerobic capacity (2-min step-test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using intention-to-treat analysis, both interventions resulted in significant and sustainable increases in the number of participants achieving 'sufficient' physical activity (HB 22 v. 41%, G 22 v. 47%, P ≤ 0.001) and decreases in waist circumference (HB 90 v. 89 cm, G 93 v. 91 cm, P < 0.001) over 2 years. The home-based program was less costly (HB A$47 v. G $84 per participant) but less effective in achieving the benefits at 2 years. The physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program may be a low-cost alternative to increase physical activity levels for those not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program. PMID:26509205

  15. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.

  16. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  17. In vitro and in vivo comparison of human Escherichia coli heat-stable peptide analogues incorporating the 111In-DOTA group and distinct linker moieties.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Michael F; Gali, Hariprasad; Sieckman, Gary L; Owen, Nellie K; Hoffman, Timothy J; Forte, Leonard R; Volkert, Wynn A

    2004-01-01

    Three human Escherichia coli heat-stable peptide (STh) analogues, each containing a DOTA chelating group, were synthesized by SPPS and oxidative refolding and compared in in vitro and in vivo systems. One analogue, DOTA-F19-STh(1-19), contains an N-terminal DOTA group attached via an amide bond linkage to an STh moiety which is essentially wild-type except for a Tyr to Phe alteration at position 19 of the molecule. A second analogue, DOTA-R1,4,F19-STh(1-19), differs from the first in that asparagine residues in positions 1 and 4 have been altered to arginine residues in order to examine the effect of positively charged groups in the linker domain. A third analogue, DOTA-11AUN-F19-STh(1-19), differs from the first in that it incorporates an 11-aminoundecanoic acid spacer group between the DOTA group and the first asparagine residue. In vitro competitive binding assays utilizing T-84 human colon cancer cells demonstrated that significant alterations to the N-terminal region of the STh molecule were well tolerated and did not significantly affect binding affinity of STh for the guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) receptor. Internalization and efflux studies of the indium-labeled species demonstrated that inclusion of positive charge in the linker moiety inhibits internalization of the compound within tumor cells. The characteristics of the three analogues were compared in an in vivo model utilizing T-84 human colon cancer cell xenografts in SCID mice. Clearance of all analogues was rapid, primarily via renal excretion into the urine, with >89% ID excreted into the urine at 1 h pi for all analogues. The 111In-DOTA-R1,4,F19-STh(1-19) and 111In-DOTA-11AUN-F19-STh(1-19) analogues both had longer residence times in the blood than did the 111In-DOTA-F19-STh(1-19) analogue, probably accounting for increased %ID/g values for tumors and nontarget tissues at 1 h pi. At 4 h pi, significant differences between analogues were only seen with respect to metabolic routes of excretion

  18. On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

  19. Comparison of methimazole/hydrocortisone ointment with oral methimazole in patients with graves disease: A prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, 18-month study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Hong-qing; Gao, Yan-yan; Liang, Jun; Wang, Men; Bai, Jie; Qi, Wen-bo; Zhang, Jun-sheng; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Juan-qing; Li, Hui-qing

    2008-01-01

    Background: Thionamide antithyroid drugs (ATDs) have certain disadvantages and are associated with some adverse events (AEs). To overcome the problems associated with ATDs, a compound antithyroid ointment (CATO) containing methimazole (MMI) and hydrocortisone has been developed for use as a local thyroid treatment (LTT). Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of CATO LTT in patients with Graves disease (GD). Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial conducted at the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University (Jinan, China). Patients with GD aged 19 to 65 years were randomized to receive either CATO LTT 0.3 g/d or oral MMI 37.5 mg/d (control group) treatment for 18 months, with a 4-year follow-up period. Hyperthyroid symptoms, thyroid function, granulocyte count, liver function, and AEs were assessed at baseline and every 2 weeks until serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentration normalized, at which point patients were assessed monthly. The primary efficacy end points were the duration of treatment required for serum TH concentration to normalize and the remission rate after completing the 18-month treatment regimen. Results: A total of 154 patients (133 women, 21 men; mean [SD] age, 39.6 [11.8] years; all Han Chinese) participated in the study; all patients completed the 18-month treatment period. Compared with the MMI group (n 76), the CATO- treated group (n 78) had a significantly shorter median (range) time to restoration of normal serum thyroid hormone concentration (43 [12–150] vs 22 [7–60] days; P < 0.001), a significantly lower rate of recurrence of hyperthyroidism (309/1520 [20.3%] vs 193/1368 [14.1%] person-time; P < 0.001), a significantly lower drug hypothyroidism rate (185/1520 [12.2%] vs 54/1368 [3.9%] person-time; P < 0.001), and a higher remission rate (year 1:46/69 [66.7%] vs 65/72 [90.3%] patients, P 0.001; year 2:40/69 [58.0%] vs 60/72 [83

  20. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. Methods We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995–97) aged 20–61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25 521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Results Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Conclusions Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. PMID:26525724

  1. Quantifying Additive Interactions of the Osmolyte Proline with Individual Functional Groups of Proteins: Comparisons with Urea and Glycine Betaine, Interpretation of m-Values

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Roger C.; Guinn, Emily J.; Capp, Michael W.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Record, M. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To quantify interactions of the osmolyte L-proline with protein functional groups and predict its effects on protein processes, we use vapor pressure osmometry to determine chemical potential derivatives dµ2/dm3 = µ23 quantifying preferential interactions of proline (component 3) with 21 solutes (component 2) selected to display different combinations of aliphatic or aromatic C, amide, carboxylate, phosphate or hydroxyl O, and/or amide or cationic N surface. Solubility data yield µ23 values for 4 less-soluble solutes. Values of µ23 are dissected using an ASA-based analysis to test the hypothesis of additivity and obtain α-values (proline interaction potentials) for these eight surface types and three inorganic ions. Values of µ23 predicted from these α-values agree with experiment, demonstrating additivity. Molecular interpretation of α-values using the solute partitioning model yields partition coefficients (Kp) quantifying the local accumulation or exclusion of proline in the hydration water of each functional group. Interactions of proline with native protein surface and effects of proline on protein unfolding are predicted from α-values and ASA information and compared with experimental data, with results for glycine betaine and urea, and with predictions from transfer free energy analysis. We conclude that proline stabilizes proteins because of its unfavorable interactions with (exclusion from) amide oxygens and aliphatic hydrocarbon surface exposed in unfolding, and that proline is an effective in vivo osmolyte because of the osmolality increase resulting from its unfavorable interactions with anionic (carboxylate and phosphate) and amide oxygens and aliphatic hydrocarbon groups on the surface of cytoplasmic proteins and nucleic acids. PMID:23909383

  2. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

    2010-01-01

    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations. PMID:20160682

  3. Stripes in a three-chain Hubbard ladder: A comparison of density-matrix renormalization group and constrained-path Monte Carlo results

    SciTech Connect

    Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Guerrero, M.; Jeckelmann, Eric; White, Steven R.

    2000-02-01

    Using both the density-matrix renormalization group method and the constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, we studied the ground-state energies and the spin and hole densities of a 12x3 Hubbard model with open boundary conditions and six holes doped away from half-filling. Results obtained with these two methods agree well in the small and intermediate U regimes. For U/t{>=}6 we find a ground-state with charge inhomogeneities consistent with stripes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. A comparison of discharge strategies after chemotherapy completion in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tamara P; Getz, Kelly D; Kavcic, Marko; Li, Yimei; Huang, Yuan-Shun V; Sung, Lillian; Alonzo, Todd A; Gerbing, Robert; Daves, Marla; Horton, Terzah M; Pulsipher, Michael A; Pollard, Jessica; Bagatell, Rochelle; Seif, Alix E; Fisher, Brian T; Gamis, Alan S; Aplenc, Richard

    2016-07-01

    While most children receive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chemotherapy as inpatients, there is variability in timing of discharge after chemotherapy completion. This study compared treatment-related morbidity, mortality and cumulative hospitalization in children with AML who were discharged after chemotherapy completion (early discharge) and those who remained hospitalized. Chart abstraction data for 153 early discharge-eligible patients enrolled on a Children's Oncology Group trial were compared by discharge strategy. Targeted toxicities included viridans group streptococcal (VGS) bacteremia, hypoxia and hypotension. Early discharge occurred in 11% of courses post-Induction I. Re-admission occurred in 80-100%, but median hospital stay was 7 days shorter. Patients discharged early had higher rates of VGS (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.11-2.51), hypoxia (aRR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.06-3.48) and hypotension (aRR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.01-9.46), but there was no difference in mortality. As pressure increases to shorten hospitalizations, these results have important implications for determining discharge practices in pediatric AML. PMID:26727639

  5. Comparison of the influence of polyaspartic acid and polylysine functional groups on the adsorption at the Cr2O3-Aqueous polymer solution interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostolska, Iwona; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Polyamino acids are a group of synthesized polymers obtained by polymerization of a given kind of amino acid monomer. Because of high biodegradability of this class of polymers, they can be used as flocculation or stabilization agents in the environmental aspects. Therefore determination of their influence on the stability of the aqueous suspension of metal oxides is important. An influence of different functional groups of polyamino acids, their molecular weight and concentration on the adsorption at the chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3)-aqueous solution interface was determined. Experiments were carried out for four values of solution pH varying from 3 to 10 (3, 4, 7.6 and 10, respectively). Two polymers were used: anionic polyaspartic acid (ASP) of 6800 and 27,000 as well as polylysine (LYS) of 4900 and 33,000 molecular weights. Changes of surface charge density of colloidal Cr2O3 in the presence and in the absence of macromolecular substances were determined using potentiometric titration. In these studies the influence of the concentration and molecular weight of the ionic polymers on the pHpzc value was determined. Additionally, due to the lack of appropriate literature data, potentiometric titration of the selected polymers was performed to determine pKa values.

  6. Dietary and nutrient intake of a Sami population living in traditional reindeer herding areas in north Norway: comparisons with a group of Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, H; Utsi, E; Bønaa, K H

    1999-04-01

    The Samis are an ethnic minority living in the Northern region of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Traditionally the Samis made their living from reindeer herding with some fishing and agriculture. Earlier studies have shown that their diet consisted of large amounts of reindeer meat, some fish and wild berries with low intakes of other fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Due to the introduction of technical improvements like snowmobiles and terrain vehicles which makes moving with the herd less necessary, their lifestyle has changed. There is little documentation how this has affected their dietary habits. In this study, the dietary pattern and nutrient intake of a group of Samis (n = 75) living in traditional reindeer herding areas of North Norway were investigated and compared with that of a group of Norwegians (n = 65). Dietary information was obtained through an interview by a nutritionist using the dietary history method. The findings indicate that nutrient content of the Sami diet is adequate except for folic acid. Calcium and iron intake was slightly below recommended levels for Sami females. There seems to be some difference between the diet of the Samis and Norwegians. The Samis consume more meat, fat, table sugar and coffee and less fruits and vegetables. The dietary pattern of the Samis seems, however, to be changing toward a more typically Norwegian diet. PMID:10429341

  7. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  8. Model-measurement comparison of functional group abundance in α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Bernhard, Fabian A.; Henderson, Barron H.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation under different NOx regimes is simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 (MCM) coupled with an absorptive gas-particle partitioning module. Vapor pressures for individual compounds are estimated with the SIMPOL.1 group contribution model for determining apportionment of reaction products to each phase. We apply chemoinformatic tools to harvest functional group (FG) composition from the simulations and estimate their contributions to the overall oxygen to carbon ratio. Furthermore, we compare FG abundances in simulated SOA to measurements of FGs reported in previous chamber studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These simulations qualitatively capture the dynamics of FG composition of SOA formed from both α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in low-NOx conditions, especially in the first hours after start of photooxidation. Higher discrepancies are found after several hours of simulation; the nature of these discrepancies indicates sources of uncertainty or types of reactions in the condensed or gas phase missing from current model implementation. Higher discrepancies are found in the case of α-pinene photooxidation under different NOx concentration regimes, which are reasoned through the domination by a few polyfunctional compounds that disproportionately impact the simulated FG abundance in the aerosol phase. This manuscript illustrates the usefulness of FG analysis to complement existing methods for model-measurement evaluation.

  9. Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments. PMID:23343984

  10. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024

  11. Comparison between continuous ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring and standard blood pressure measurements among patients of younger and older age group.

    PubMed

    Babić, Betty Korljan; Bagatin, Jugoslav; Kokić, Slaven; Ostojić, Sanja Barsić; Carević, Vedran; Berović, Nina

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between blood pressure measured in a physician's office and the average 24 hr continuous blood pressure monitored by hypertensive patients at home. If there is a difference between these two situations then is it possibly the result of a blood pressure response by the patient to the physician which is known as "white coat effect" or "white coat hypertension". We studied 80 hypertensive outpatients which were divided into two groups of 40 patients each--a younger patient group, with a mean age of 22.8 +/- 1.8 years, and an older patient group with a mean age of 50.3 +/- 5.7 years. They were selected because they had been diagnosed as essentially hypertension grade 1, according to 2007 ESH/ESC Guidelines, or the USA Joint National Committee Guidelines (JNC 7) (i.e., arterial blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg and < 160/100 mmHg) and 35 were not having any antihypertensive treatment. All participants in the study went through a two-week "wash-out" period without medication. At the beginning of the study blood pressure was measured using the Riva-Rocci-Korotkoff method (mercury sphygmomanometer) after 5 minutes of rest and with the patient in the sitting position. The average of the two last measurements by sphygmomanometer was used in the analysis. The subsequent measurement was made by continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207 device). Continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed that 17 patients of the younger age group (42.5%) who were diagnosed hypertonic, according to mercury sphygmomanometeric measurement, were in fact normotonic. In the older age group only 7 (17.5%) of participants were normotonic during 24 hr blood pressure monitoring. The proportion of miss-diagnosed normotonic younger patients was directly related to elevated clinic blood pressure, which could be referred to as office hypertension or isolated clinic hypertension (white coat hypertension

  12. Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo TLD for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.

    1998-09-01

    Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average.

  13. Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

  14. Software pipeline for midsagittal corpus callosum thickness profile processing : automated segmentation, manual editor, thickness profile generator, group-wise statistical comparison and results display.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Chris; Beare, Richard; Walterfang, Mark; Seal, Marc

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a fully automated pipeline for thickness profile evaluation and analysis of the human corpus callosum (CC) in 3D structural T 1-weighted magnetic resonance images. The pipeline performs the following sequence of steps: midsagittal plane extraction, CC segmentation algorithm, quality control tool, thickness profile generation, statistical analysis and results figure generator. The CC segmentation algorithm is a novel technique that is based on a template-based initialisation with refinement using mathematical morphology operations. The algorithm is demonstrated to have high segmentation accuracy when compared to manual segmentations on two large, publicly available datasets. Additionally, the resultant thickness profiles generated from the automated segmentations are shown to be highly correlated to those generated from the ground truth segmentations. The manual editing tool provides a user-friendly environment for correction of errors and quality control. Statistical analysis and a novel figure generator are provided to facilitate group-wise morphological analysis of the CC. PMID:24968872

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 45: A comparison of the information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) in aerospace, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviors of those who create and use STI. In this paper, we analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific and technical information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers and scientists. We describe some of their demographic characteristics and their duties and responsibilities as a method of understanding their STI use patterns. There is considerable diversity among aerospace engineers in their use of STI. In general, engineers engaged in research use more STI than those who are in design/development and manufacturing/production. Research engineers also use different standards to determine the STI sources and products that they will use.

  16. Quality-of-Life Comparisons in a Randomized Trial of Interval Secondary Cytoreduction in Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen Q.; Monk, Bradley J.; Rose, Peter G.; Cella, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare self-reported quality of life (QOL) in patients who did versus did not undergo interval secondary cytoreduction after initial surgery and combination chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer and to assess the association between baseline QOL scores and survival. Patients and Methods Consenting patients participating in a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) phase III treatment trial (GOG 152) completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Ovarian (FACT-O) questionnaire and treatment-specific supplemental questions at the third and sixth chemotherapy cycles and at 6 and 12 months after starting treatment. Results For all patients, QOL decreased approximately 1 unit from the first to second assessment. Significant improvement observed at 6 months (P < .001) was sustained at 12 months, with no appreciable between-group difference. The baseline FACT-O score was associated with overall survival (P = .048) but not progression-free survival. Less neurotoxicity was reported among patients who did (38.4%) versus did not (54.0%) undergo interval secondary cytoreduction at the third assessment (P = .005), and older patients experienced more long-term effects. Conclusion This is the first multicenter randomized trial in ovarian cancer to longitudinally examine self-reported QOL and establish a predictive value of baseline QOL on survival, attributed primarily to the lowest-scoring quartile. Although interval secondary cytoreduction resulted in no notable long-term difference, a clinically significant improvement was seen in both arms at 6 and 12 months after starting therapy. Interestingly, there were fewer complaints of neurotoxicity at 6 months among patients who did versus did not undergo interval secondary cytoreduction. PMID:16110020

  17. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  18. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  19. The emergence of lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (decapoda: achelata, astacidea, glypheidea, polychelida).

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Ahyong, Shane T; Wilkinson, Richard D; Feldmann, Rodney M; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bendall, Matthew; Palero, Ferran; Chan, Tin-Yam; Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tsang, Ling-Ming; Kim, Dohyup; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-07-01

    Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that include the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and "living fossil" species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of all lobster families and 94% of the genera using six genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) and 195 morphological characters across 173 species of lobsters for the most comprehensive sampling to date. Lobsters were recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the combined (molecular + morphology) analysis. All families were monophyletic, with the exception of Cambaridae, and 7 of 79 genera were recovered as poly- or paraphyletic. A rich fossil history coupled with dense taxon coverage allowed us to estimate and compare divergence times and origins of major lineages using two drastically different approaches. Age priors were constructed and/or included based on fossil age information or fossil discovery, age, and extant species count data. Results from the two approaches were largely congruent across deep to shallow taxonomic divergences across major lineages. The origin of the first lobster-like decapod (Polychelida) was estimated in the Devonian (∼409-372 Ma) with all infraorders present in the Carboniferous (∼353-318 Ma). Fossil calibration subsampling studies examined the influence of sampling density (number of fossils) and placement (deep, middle, and shallow) on divergence time estimates. Results from our study suggest including at least 1 fossil per 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in divergence dating analyses. [Dating; decapods; divergence; lobsters; molecular; morphology; phylogenetics.]. PMID

  20. Comparison of the inhibitory capacity of two groups of pure natural extract on the crystallization of two types of material compound urinary stones in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghalia, Mohamed; Ghalem, Said; Allali, Hocine

    2015-10-01

    Urolithiasis is defined as the result of an abnormal precipitation within the urinary tract. This precipitation is most often from the normal constituents of the urine. This is a fairly common condition in the population. She is happy and recurrent etiology is often unknown if hypothetical. In Algeria, as in many countries, a large number of patients use herbal medicines in the treatment of their diseases including urolithiasis. Thus the aim of this study is the most widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, in the treatment of calcium urolithiasis oxalo-and magnesium-amoniaco in vitro. The study also examines the effect of these extracts on the states of crystallization (nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation), followed by photography on polarized light microscope.In this regard, we are devoted to studying the crystallization steps from oxalo-calcium and phospho-calcic prepared as artificial urine and supersaturated aqueous solutions, maintained at 37 °C to remain close to biological conditions. Extracts of the first group of herbs: Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Ajuga iva, Globularia alypum, Atriplex halimus are studied on the crystallization calcium oxalate, we cite the Ammodaucus leucotrichus which acts on the stages of nucleation, growth and the aggregation with a total inhibition. The second group of extracts plants tested on calcium phosphate crystallization : Acacia raddiana, Citrullus colocynthis, Rhus tripartita, Pistacia lentiscu, Warionia saharae, are able to significantly reduce phosphate crystallization in vitro. It is easily proved by FTIR and optical microscope. In conclusion the results of our work allows us to confirm the use of these plants as an aqueous decoction, in the field of urolithiasis. These activities may help to strengthen the body in depressed situations.

  1. Measuring the impact of Hurricane Katrina on access to a personal healthcare provider: the use of the National Survey of Children's Health for an external comparison group.

    PubMed

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists. PMID:22456985

  2. A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood Apraxia of Speech is an impairment of speech motor planning that manifests as difficulty producing the sounds (articulation) and melody (prosody) of speech. These difficulties may persist through life and are detrimental to academic, social, and vocational development. A number of published single subject and case series studies of speech treatments are available. There are currently no randomised control trials or other well designed group trials available to guide clinical practice. Methods/Design A parallel group, fixed size randomised control trial will be conducted in Sydney, Australia to determine the efficacy of two treatments for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: 1) Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the 2) Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme – Third edition. Eligible children will be English speaking, aged 4–12 years with a diagnosis of suspected CAS, normal or adjusted hearing and vision, and no comprehension difficulties or other developmental diagnoses. At least 20 children will be randomised to receive one of the two treatments in parallel. Treatments will be delivered by trained and supervised speech pathology clinicians using operationalised manuals. Treatment will be administered in 1-hour sessions, 4 times per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcomes are speech sound and prosodic accuracy on a customised 292 item probe and the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology inconsistency subtest administered prior to treatment and 1 week, 1 month and 4 months post-treatment. All post assessments will be completed by blinded assessors. Our hypotheses are: 1) treatment effects at 1 week post will be similar for both treatments, 2) maintenance of treatment effects at 1 and 4 months post will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment, and 3) generalisation of treatment effects to untrained related speech behaviours will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition

  3. A comparison of different pre-lysis methods and extraction kits for recovery of Streptococcus agalacticae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus) DNA from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Burke, Rachael M; McKenna, James P; Cox, Ciara; Coyle, Peter V; Shields, Michael D; Fairley, Derek J

    2016-10-01

    Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp). Mechanical pre-lysis increased yields of bacterial genomic DNA by 51.3 fold (95% confidence interval; 31.6-85.1, p<0.001) and pre-lysis with achromopeptidase by 6.1 fold (95% CI; 4.2-8.9, p<0.001), compared with no pre-lysis. Differences in yield due to pre-lysis were 2-3 fold larger than differences in yield between extraction methods. Including a pre-lysis step can improve the limits of detection of GBS using PCR or other molecular methods without need for culture. PMID:27546716

  4. Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry results with routine albedo thermoluminescent dosimetry for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.

    1999-03-01

    This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The bubble dosimeters were issued and read on a daily basis and the data were used as an ALARA tool. The personnel albedo dosimeter was processed on monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average. However it was observed that there is a significant variability of the results on an individual basis both month-to-month and from one individual to another.

  5. Vitamin D intake and other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency in Middle Eastern people living in the UK: a comparison of cultural and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wassan A; Al-Murrani, Waleed; Kuri, Victor; Rees, Gail A

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about factors affecting vitamin D status in Middle Eastern people living in the UK. A total of 242 questionnaires were returned out of 350 distributed. A total of 85% of the sample was estimated to have a low vitamin D intake (< 5 μg/d). Other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency included covering skin from sunlight (62% men and 84% women); low use of vitamin D containing supplements (18.5%) and being overweight or obese (49% men and 44% women). Vitamin D intake was lowest in the Kurdish ethnic group (2.18 μg/d) and in those with primary (1.83 μg/d) and secondary school (2.14 μg/d) level education compared to higher education (3.0-3.59 μg/d). Vitamin D intake was highest in those aged 40-49 years (4.0 μg/d), those born in the Levant (4.29 μg/d), and in those who were obese (3.60 μg/d). PMID:23621485

  6. Dissociative disorders and possession experiences in Israel: a comparison of opiate use disorder patients, Arab women subjected to domestic violence, and a nonclinical group.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Ross, Colin; Kirshberg, Revital; Bakri, Rana Shawahdy; Ismail, Shefa

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association between exposure to domestic violence and dissociative symptoms. A sample of 68 Israeli opiate use disorder patients in recovery, 80 battered Arab Israeli women, and 103 respondents from a community sample participated in structured interviews that included the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule (DTDIS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). As predicted, community participants reported significantly less exposure to traumatizing events and lower levels of dissociative psychopathology than individuals sampled from specialized treatment centers. In all, 91% of battered female participants were taxon-positive for dissociative disorder with 1 of every 2 respondents reporting symptoms corresponding to dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder, suggesting that this group may be particularly vulnerable to dissociative psychopathology. Extrasensory and paranormal experiences (ESP) and dissociative trance disorder experiences were strongly related to dissociative experiences and features of dissociative identity disorder (DID). These statistical associations suggest that dissociative disorders and ESP/trance experiences may share an underlying construct. Further research is needed on trauma and dissociation among female victims of domestic abuse in patriarchal, collectivist societies, particularly in the Arab world. PMID:25300648

  7. Coal as a source rock of petroleum: A comparison between the petrology of the Mesaverde Group coals, in burial and hydrous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gonzalez, M.; Surdam, R.C. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    Almond Formation coal samples from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, were studied to investigate the textural characteristics and maceral composition at different levels of maturation as observed through burial and hydrous pyrolysis experiments. The textural changes observed in these scenarios (burial and hydrous pyrolysis) are very similar and show a textural evolution that starts with the loss of the original laminated texture on desmocollinite, followed by the formation of a porous texture that evolves to a vesicular texture due to the generation of increasing quantities of exsudatinite, which can be considered as the precursor of petroleum. The maceral transformation starts with the formation of micrinite from liptinite, and at the same time desmocollinite becomes homogenized and the content of semifusinite and fusinite increases with increasing temperature in both burial and hydrous pyrolysis. The sources of exsudatinite in the Almond coal are the liptinite macerals and desmocollinite, which both contribute to the formation of vesicles filled by exsudatinite. When these vesicles are broken, the expulsion of oil from coal takes place. The recovery of liquid petroleum (as much as 27 mg oil/g coal) demonstrates that the Almond coal may be a significant source for oil in the Greater Green River Basin.

  8. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  9. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T.; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the “gold standard” and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  10. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  11. Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-Decaborate(2-) and closo-Dodecaborate(2-) Moieties as Reactive Groups for Labeling with Astatine-211

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the α-particle emitting radionuclide 211At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B10H9R]2−) moiety for 211At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B12H11R]2−) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as 211At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regards to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g. 79–96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et3NH]2B12H10I-CONHpropyl, [125I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1h, 19.8 %ID/g; 4h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et3NH]2B10H8I-CONHpropyl, [125I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1h, 6.6%ID/g; 4h, 0.27%ID/g). Interestingly, when another salt of the

  12. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-decaborate(2-) and closo-dodecaborate(2-) moieties as reactive groups for labeling with astatine-211.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Perry, Matthew A

    2009-03-18

    In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the alpha-particle emitting radionuclide (211)At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B(10)H(9)R](2-)) moiety for (211)At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B(12)H(11)R](2-)) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as (211)At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regard to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g., 79-96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et(3)NH](2)B(12)H(10)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1 h, 19.8%ID/g; 4 h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et(3)NH](2)B(10)H(8)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1 h, 6.6%ID/g; 4 h, 0.27%ID

  13. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL) care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Results Thirteen reviews (2001-2009) met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven). The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. Conclusions A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias. PMID:21635738

  14. Comparison of In-Patient Costs for Children Treated on the AAML0531 Clinical Trial: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Kelly D.; Li, Yimei; Alonzo, Todd A.; Hall, Matthew; Gerbing, Robert B.; Sung, Lillian; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Arnold, Staci; Seif, Alix E.; Miller, Tamara P.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Fisher, Brian T.; Adamson, Peter C.; Gamis, Alan; Keren, Ron; Aplenc, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding of drivers of treatment costs may help identify effective cost containment strategies and prioritize resources. We aimed to develop a method for estimating inpatient costs for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled on NCI-funded Phase III trials, compare costs between AAML0531 treatment arms (standard chemotherapy ± gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GMTZ)), and evaluate primary drivers of costs for newly diagnosed pediatric AML. Procedure Patients from the AAML0531 trial were matched on hospital, sex, and dates of birth and diagnosis to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database to obtain daily billing data. Inpatient treatment costs were calculated as adjusted charges multiplied by hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Generalized linear models were used to compare costs between treatment arms and courses, and by patient characteristics. Results Inpatient costs did not differ by randomized treatment arm. Costs varied by course with stem cell transplant being most expensive, followed by Intensification II (cytarabine/mitoxantrone) and Induction I (cytarabine/daunorubicin/etoposide). Room/board and pharmacy were the largest contributors to inpatient treatment cost, representing 74% of the total cost. Higher AML risk group (P = 0.0003) and older age (P < 0.0001) were associated with significantly higher daily inpatient cost. Conclusions Costs from external data sources can be successfully integrated into NCI-funded Phase III clinical trials. Inpatient treatment costs did not differ by GMTZ exposure but varied by chemotherapy course. Variation in cost by course was driven by differences in duration of hospitalization through room/board charges as well as increased clinical and pharmacy charges in specific courses. Pediatr Blood Cancer PMID:25946708

  15. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Servaes, Sabah; Naranjo, Arlene; Geller, James I.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Gow, Kenneth W.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Gratias, Eric; Mullen, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background CT and MRI are both used for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors. The diagnostic performance of the two modalities for local and regional staging of renal tumors has not been systematically evaluated. Objective To compare the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for local staging of pediatric renal tumors. Materials and methods The study population was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. Baseline abdominal imaging performed with both CT and MRI within 30 days of nephrectomy was available for retrospective review in 82 renal tumor cases. Each case was evaluated for capsular penetration, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus, preoperative tumor rupture, and synchronous contralateral lesions. The surgical and pathological findings at central review were the reference standard. Results The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting capsular penetration was 68.6% and 62.9%, respectively (P=0.73), while specificity was 86.5% and 83.8% (P=1.0). The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastasis was 76.5% and 52.9% (P=0.22), and specificity was 90.4% and 92.3% (P=1.0). Synchronous contralateral lesions were identified by CT in 4/9 cases and by MRI in 7/9 cases. Conclusion CT and MRI have similar diagnostic performance for detection of lymph node metastasis and capsular penetration. MR detected more contralateral synchronous lesions; however these were present in a very small number of cases. Either modality can be used for initial loco–regional staging of pediatric renal tumors. PMID:25135711

  16. A Comparison of Dose-Response Models for the Parotid Gland in a Large Group of Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Houweling, Antonetta C.; Philippens, Marielle E.P.; Dijkema, Tim; Roesink, Judith M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: The dose-response relationship of the parotid gland has been described most frequently using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. However, various other normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models exist. We evaluated in a large group of patients the value of six NTCP models that describe the parotid gland dose response 1 year after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 patients with head-and-neck tumors were included in this prospective parotid gland dose-response study. The patients were treated with either conventional radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dose-volume histograms for the parotid glands were derived from three-dimensional dose calculations using computed tomography scans. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before and 1 year after radiotherapy. A threshold of 25% of the pretreatment flow rate was used to define a complication. The evaluated models included the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, the mean dose model, the relative seriality model, the critical volume model, the parallel functional subunit model, and the dose-threshold model. The goodness of fit (GOF) was determined by the deviance and a Monte Carlo hypothesis test. Ranking of the models was based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results: None of the models was rejected based on the evaluation of the GOF. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model based on the AIC. The TD{sub 50} in these models was approximately 39 Gy. Conclusions: The mean dose model was preferred for describing the dose-response relationship of the parotid gland.

  17. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of the Predominant Fecal Microbiota Compositions of a Group of Pediatric Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Their Healthy Siblings▿†

    PubMed Central

    Duytschaever, Gwen; Huys, Geert; Bekaert, Maarten; Boulanger, Linda; De Boeck, Kris; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although only poorly documented, it can be assumed that intensive antibiotic treatments of chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) also affect the diversity and metabolic functioning of the gastrointestinal microbiota and potentially lead to a state of dysbiosis. A better knowledge of the differences in gut microbiota composition and stability between patients with CF and healthy subjects could lead to optimization of current antibiotic therapies and/or development of add-on therapies. Using conventional culturing and population fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA amplicons, we compared the predominant fecal microbiota of 21 patients with CF and 24 healthy siblings in a cross-sectional study. General medium counts, as well as counts on media specific for lactic acid bacteria, clostridia, Bifidobacterium spp., Veillonella spp., and Bacteroides-Prevotella spp., were consistently higher in sibling samples than in CF samples, whereas the reverse was found for enterobacterial counts. DGGE fingerprinting uncovered large intersubject variations in both study groups. On the other hand, the cross-sectional data indicated that the predominant fecal microbiota of patients and siblings had comparable species richness. In addition, a longitudinal study was performed on 7 or 8 consecutive samples collected over a 2-year period from two patients and their respective siblings. For these samples, DGGE profiling indicated an overall trend toward lower temporal stability and lower species richness in the predominant fecal CF microbiota. The observed compositional and dynamic perturbations provide the first evidence of a general dysbiosis in children with CF compared to their siblings. PMID:21926193

  18. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. Objective This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Patients and methods Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40–79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.70. Receiver operating characteristic curves, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement were used to examine the ability of the COPD-PS and IPAG questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. Results The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707–0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735–0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were −0.107 (95% CI, −0.273–0.058; P=0.203) and −0.014 (95% CI, −0.033–0.006; P=0.182), respectively. Conclusion The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO. PMID

  19. Cyclandelate in the prophylaxis of migraine: a randomized, parallel, double-blind study in comparison with placebo and propranolol. The Study group.

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Föh, M; Iaccarino, C; Wessely, P; Isler, H; Strenge, H; Fischer, M; Wedekind, W; Taneri, Z

    1996-10-01

    Cyclandelate inhibits calcium-induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, platelet-activating-factor and adenosine, and also suppresses a provoked 5HT release from platelets. This pharmacological profile suggests that cyclandelate may have a potential prophylactic effect in migraine. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind multicentre study was performed in 214 patients to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of cyclandelate compared to placebo and propranolol. After a 4-week baseline period, eligible patients (randomization 3:2:3) were treated for 12 weeks with daily doses of 1.200 mg cyclandelate (n = 81), placebo (n = 55) or 120 mg propranolol (n = 78). The number of migraine attacks (> or = 50% responders) and the migraine duration/month were compared based on the difference between baseline and the last 4 weeks of prophylactic treatment. The percentage of patients with a reduction in migraine attacks of > or = 50% treated with cyclandelate (37.0%) or propranolol (42.3%) was not significantly superior to placebo (30.9%; p > 0.025). The mean duration of migraine in hours (h) per month decreased in both active treatment groups (cyclandelate: 36.8 h, p = 0.046; propranolol: 34.4 h, p = 0.039) compared to placebo (13.7 h) without reaching statistical significance (alpha/2 = 0.025). The clinical efficacy of cyclandelate and propranolol was comparable. Adverse experiences were reported by 13 patients (16.0%) treated with cyclandelate, by 5 patients (9.1%) treated with placebo and by 19 patients (24.4%) treated with propranolol. These were drug-related in 7.1% (n = 6) of patients treated with cyclandelate and in 9% (n = 7) of patients treated with propranolol. In summary, cyclandelate has a comparable efficacy to that of propranolol, an established drug of first choice in the prophylaxis of migraine. Both drugs were better than placebo, but not significantly so. Both active treatments were well tolerated. PMID

  20. Probing neuronal activation by functional quantitative susceptibility mapping under a visual paradigm: A group level comparison with BOLD fMRI and PET.

    PubMed

    Özbay, Pinar Senay; Warnock, Geoffrey; Rossi, Cristina; Kuhn, Felix; Akin, Burak; Pruessmann, Klaas Paul; Nanz, Daniel

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic changes of brain-tissue magnetic susceptibility provide the basis for functional MR imaging (fMRI) via T2*-weighted signal-intensity modulations. Promising initial work on a detection of neuronal activity via quantitative susceptibility mapping (fQSM) has been published but consistently reported on ill-understood positive and negative activation patterns (Balla et al., 2014; Chen and Calhoun, 2015a). We set out to (i) demonstrate that fQSM can exploit established fMRI data acquisition and processing methods and to (ii) better describe aspects of the apparent activation patterns using fMRI and PET as standards of reference. Under a standardized visual-stimulation paradigm PET and 3-T gradient-echo EPI-based fQSM, fMRI data from 9 healthy volunteers were acquired and analyzed by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) at subject level and, for the first time, at group level. Numbers of activated (z-score>2.0) voxels were counted and their mean z-scores calculated in volumes of interest (occipital lobe (Nocc_lobe), segmented occipital gray-matter (NGM_occ_lobe), large veins (Nveins)), and in occipital-lobe voxels commonly activated in fQSM and fMRI component maps. Common but not entirely congruent regions of apparent activation were found in the occipital lobe in z-score maps from all modalities, fQSM, fMRI and PET, with distinct BOLD-negatively correlated regions in fQSM data. At subject-level, Nocc_lobe, NGM_occ_lobe and their mean z-scores were significantly smaller in fQSM than in fMRI, but their ratio, NGM_occ_lobe/Nocc_lobe, was comparable. Nveins did not statistically differ and the ratio Nveins/NGM_occ_lobe as well as the mean z-scores were higher for fQSM than for fMRI. In veins and immediate vicinity, z-score maps derived from both phase and fQSM-data showed positive and negative lobes resembling dipole shapes in simulated field and phase maps with no correlate in fMRI or PET data. Our results show that standard fMRI tools can directly be used

  1. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  2. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  3. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  4. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  5. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  6. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  7. Separation Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addington, Jean

    1992-01-01

    Describes eight-week short-term group designed to help separated or divorced men and women move through related adjustment phase in focused group setting. Discusses constructs that form the foundations of this short-term psychoeducational and support group and presents brief overview of psychological difficulties that occur as result of marital…

  8. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  9. Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  10. Computer-mediated focus groups.

    PubMed

    Walston, J T; Lissitz, R W

    2000-10-01

    This article discusses the feasibility and effectiveness of computer-mediated (CM) focus groups. The study describes technological and practical considerations the authors learned from conducting such groups and reports on a comparison of the reactions of CM and face-to-face (FTF) participants in focus groups discussing academic dishonesty. The results suggest that the CM environment, in comparison to FTF, may lessen members' concern about what the moderator thinks of them and discourage participants from withholding embarrassing information. The article concludes with a list of suggestions for this technique and a discussion of the potential advantages and limitations associated with CM focus groups. PMID:11183483

  11. The Unique Impact of Abolition of Jim Crow Laws on Reducing Inequities in Infant Death Rates and Implications for Choice of Comparison Groups in Analyzing Societal Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jarvis T.; Coull, Brent; Waterman, Pamela D.; Beckfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We explored associations between the abolition of Jim Crow laws (i.e., state laws legalizing racial discrimination overturned by the 1964 US Civil Rights Act) and birth cohort trends in infant death rates. Methods. We analyzed 1959 to 2006 US Black and White infant death rates within and across sets of states (polities) with and without Jim Crow laws. Results. Between 1965 and 1969, a unique convergence of Black infant death rates occurred across polities; in 1960 to 1964, the Black infant death rate was 1.19 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.20) in the Jim Crow polity than in the non–Jim Crow polity, whereas in 1970 to 1974 the rate ratio shrank to and remained at approximately 1 (with the 95% CI including 1) until 2000, when it rose to 1.10 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.12). No such convergence occurred for Black–White differences in infant death rates or for White infants. Conclusions. Our results suggest that abolition of Jim Crow laws affected US Black infant death rates and that valid analysis of societal determinants of health requires appropriate comparison groups. PMID:24134378

  12. Nonverbal Interventions in Clinical Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of nonverbal with verbal clinical group interventions suggested that some traditional self-report devices show less differentiation between these two interventions than do measures of group cohesion. A strong, replicable manipulation tested these findings, which were consistent with previous research. (Author/BEF)

  13. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  14. Gender typicality in children's speech: A comparison of boys with and without gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired. PMID:25920850

  15. Group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  16. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  17. Methodological issues regarding power of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT)-based approaches for the comparison of patient-reported outcomes in two groups of patients - a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO) are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT) based on the observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT). However, whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to analyse PRO data remains unknown. The statistical properties of CTT and IRT, regarding power and corresponding effect sizes, were compared. Methods Two-group cross-sectional studies were simulated for the comparison of PRO data using IRT or CTT-based analysis. For IRT, different scenarios were investigated according to whether items or person parameters were assumed to be known, to a certain extent for item parameters, from good to poor precision, or unknown and therefore had to be estimated. The powers obtained with IRT or CTT were compared and parameters having the strongest impact on them were identified. Results When person parameters were assumed to be unknown and items parameters to be either known or not, the power achieved using IRT or CTT were similar and always lower than the expected power using the well-known sample size formula for normally distributed endpoints. The number of items had a substantial impact on power for both methods. Conclusion Without any missing data, IRT and CTT seem to provide comparable power. The classical sample size formula for CTT seems to be adequate under some conditions but is not appropriate for IRT. In IRT, it seems important to take account of the number of items to obtain an accurate formula. PMID:20338031

  18. Comparison of 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and 131I-MIBG Semi-Quantitative Scores in Predicting Survival in Patients With Stage 4 Neuroblastoma: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Arlene; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Shulkin, Barry L.; London, Wendy B.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Kreissman, Susan G.; Yanik, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans are preferable to 131I-MIBG for neuroblastoma imaging as they deliver less patient radiation yet have greater sensitivity in disease detection. Both 123I-MIBG and 131I-MIBG scans were used for disease assessments of neuroblastoma patients enrolled on Children’s Oncology Group (COG) high-risk study A3973. The hypothesis was that 123I-MIBG and 131I-MIBG scans were sufficiently similar for clinical purposes in terms of ability to predict survival. Procedure Patients enrolled on COG A3973 with stage 4 disease who completed 123I-MIBG or 131I-MIBG scans at diagnosis, post-induction, post-transplant, or post-biotherapy were analyzed. The performance of the Curie score for each MIBG scan type in predicting survival was evaluated. At each time point, survival curves for 123I-MIBG versus 131I-MIBG were compared using the log-rank test. Results Of the 413 patients on A3973 with at least one MIBG scan, 350 were stage 4. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 33.4 ± 3.6% and 45.6 ± 4.0% (N = 350). At post-induction, EFS (P = 0.3501) and OS (P = 0.5337) for 123I-MIBG versus 131I-MIBG were not significantly different. Similarly, comparisons at the three other time points were non-significant. Conclusions We found no evidence of a statistically significant difference in outcome by type of scan. For future survival analyses of MIBG Curie scores, 123I-MIBG and 131I-MIBG results may be combined and analyzed overall, without adjustment for scan type. PMID:21328522

  19. A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter H.; Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.; Browne, Lois; Borg, Martin; Capp, Anne; Delaney, Geoff P.; Harvey, Jennifer; Kenny, Lisbeth; Francis, Michael; Zissiadis, Yvonne

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less than 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies.

  20. Reducing Bias and Increasing Precision by Adding Either a Pretest Measure of the Study Outcome or a Nonequivalent Comparison Group to the Basic Regression Discontinuity Design: An Example from Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yang; Cook, Thomas D.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Regression discontinuity design (RD) has been widely used to produce reliable causal estimates. Researchers have validated the accuracy of RD design using within study comparisons (Cook, Shadish & Wong, 2008; Cook & Steiner, 2010; Shadish et al, 2011). Within study comparisons examines the validity of a quasi-experiment by comparing its…

  1. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  2. Comparison of Whole Blood and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression for Evaluation of the Perioperative Inflammatory Response in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Nicholas; Maque, Jetrina; Chittoor, Jay; Chang, Eleanor; Bakir, Maral; Starling, Charlotte; Shahzad, Khurram; Ping, Peipei; Reed, Elaine; Deng, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) prevalence is increasing in the United States. Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) therapy is an option for Advanced HF (AdHF) patients. Perioperatively, multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) is linked to the effects of device implantation, augmented by preexisting HF. Early recognition of MOD allows for better diagnosis, treatment, and risk prediction. Gene expression profiling (GEP) was used to evaluate clinical phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptomes obtained from patients' blood samples. Whole blood (WB) samples are clinically more feasible, but their performance in comparison to PBMC samples has not been determined. Methods We collected blood samples from 31 HF patients (57±15 years old) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery and 7 healthy age-matched controls, between 2010 and 2011, at a single institution. WB and PBMC samples were collected at a single timepoint postoperatively (median day 8 postoperatively) (25–75% IQR 7–14 days) and subjected to Illumina single color Human BeadChip HT12 v4 whole genome expression array analysis. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was used to characterize the severity of MOD into low (≤ 4 points), intermediate (5–11), and high (≥ 12) risk categories correlating with GEP. Results Results indicate that the direction of change in GEP of individuals with MOD as compared to controls is similar when determined from PBMC versus WB. The main enriched terms by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis included those involved in the inflammatory response, apoptosis, and other stress response related pathways. The data revealed 35 significant GO categories and 26 pathways overlapping between PBMC and WB. Additionally, class prediction using machine learning tools demonstrated that the subset of significant genes shared by PBMC and WB are sufficient to train as a predictor separating the SOFA groups. Conclusion GEP analysis of WB has the potential to become a clinical tool

  3. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  4. Cantor Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Ben; Dow, Chris; Livshits, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The Cantor subset of the unit interval [0, 1) is "large" in cardinality and also "large" algebraically, that is, the smallest subgroup of [0, 1) generated by the Cantor set (using addition mod 1 as the group operation) is the whole of [0, 1). In this paper, we show how to construct Cantor-like sets which are "large" in cardinality but "small"…

  5. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  6. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  7. Intergroup competition may not be needed for shaping group cooperation and cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Balliet, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Because intergroup interactions often are mixed-motive rather than strictly zero-sum, groups often negotiate settlements that enable both cultures to thrive. Moreover, group prosperity rests on in-group love (rather than out-group hate) that emerges also absent intergroup competition or comparison. It follows that cultural group selection (CGS) reflects group effectiveness in organizing in-group trust and cooperation, rather than winning (in)direct intergroup competitions. PMID:27562414

  8. Flexible intuitions of Euclidean geometry in an Amazonian indigene group.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Pica, Pierre; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-06-14

    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that are present in all humans, even in the absence of formal mathematical education. Our tests probed intuitions of points, lines, and surfaces in participants from an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, as well as adults and age-matched children controls from the United States and France and younger US children without education in geometry. The responses of Mundurucu adults and children converged with that of mathematically educated adults and children and revealed an intuitive understanding of essential properties of Euclidean geometry. For instance, on a surface described to them as perfectly planar, the Mundurucu's estimations of the internal angles of triangles added up to ~180 degrees, and when asked explicitly, they stated that there exists one single parallel line to any given line through a given point. These intuitions were also partially in place in the group of younger US participants. We conclude that, during childhood, humans develop geometrical intuitions that spontaneously accord with the principles of Euclidean geometry, even in the absence of training in mathematics. PMID:21606377

  9. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  10. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  11. Spring 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization. There…

  12. Comparison of David V valve-sparing root replacement and bioprosthetic valve conduit for aortic root aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    DeNino, Walter F.; Toole, John Matthew; Rowley, Christopher; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Valve sparing root replacement (VSRR) is an attractive option for the management of aortic root aneurysms with a normal native aortic valve. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with a modification of the David V VSRR and compared it with stented pericardial bioprosthetic valve conduit (BVC) root replacement in an age-matched cohort of older patients. Methods A total of 48 VSRRs were performed at our institution, excluding those on bicuspid aortic valves. We compared these cases with 15 aortic root replacements performed using a BVC during the same period. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing 16 VSRR cases and 15 age-matched BVC cases. Results The greatest disparity between the VSRR and BVC groups was age (53 vs 69 years, respectively; P < .0005). The matched patients were similar in terms of baseline demographics and differed only in concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (2 VSRR vs 7 BVC patients; P = .036). None of the VSRR and 3 of the BVC procedures were performed for associated dissection (P = .101). Postoperative aortic insufficiency grade was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .004). The cardiopulmonary bypass, crossclamp, and circulatory arrest times were not different between the VSRR and BVC groups (174 vs 187 minutes, P = .205; 128 vs 133 minutes, P = .376; and 10 vs 13 minutes, respectively; P = .175). No differences were found between the 2 groups with respect to postoperative complications. One postoperative death occurred in the BVC group and none in the VSRR group. The postoperative length of stay and aortic valve gradients were less in the VSRR group (6 vs 8 days, P = .038; 6 vs 11.4 mm Hg, P = .001). The intensive care unit length of stay was significantly less in the VSRR group (54 vs 110 hours, P = .001). Conclusions VSRR is an effective alternative to the BVC for aortic root aneurysm. PMID:25173127

  13. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  14. Estimating individual contribution from group-based structural correlation networks.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S M Hadi; Bruno, Jennifer L; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Raman, Mira M; Kesler, Shelli R; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-10-15

    Coordinated variations in brain morphology (e.g., cortical thickness) across individuals have been widely used to infer large-scale population brain networks. These structural correlation networks (SCNs) have been shown to reflect synchronized maturational changes in connected brain regions. Further, evidence suggests that SCNs, to some extent, reflect both anatomical and functional connectivity and hence provide a complementary measure of brain connectivity in addition to diffusion weighted networks and resting-state functional networks. Although widely used to study between-group differences in network properties, SCNs are inferred only at the group-level using brain morphology data from a set of participants, thereby not providing any knowledge regarding how the observed differences in SCNs are associated with individual behavioral, cognitive and disorder states. In the present study, we introduce two novel distance-based approaches to extract information regarding individual differences from the group-level SCNs. We applied the proposed approaches to a moderately large dataset (n=100) consisting of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS; n=50) and age-matched typically developing individuals (TD; n=50). We tested the stability of proposed approaches using permutation analysis. Lastly, to test the efficacy of our method, individual contributions extracted from the group-level SCNs were examined for associations with intelligence scores and genetic data. The extracted individual contributions were stable and were significantly related to both genetic and intelligence estimates, in both typically developing individuals and participants with FXS. We anticipate that the approaches developed in this work could be used as a putative biomarker for altered connectivity in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26162553

  15. Comparison of major dish item and food group consumption between normal and obese Korean children: application to development of a brief food frequency questionnaire for obesity-related eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungmin

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to compare intake levels of major dish items and food groups between normal and obese Korean children in order to understand obesity-related eating behaviors. The study was also conducted to apply the information on the differences in major dish items and food groups found in this study to development of a brief food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for children's obesity-related eating behaviors. Finally, the developed FFQ was evaluated for reliability. A total of 290, 24-hour dietary recall data from 9-11 year-old normal or obese participants in the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were reviewed to identify dish items and food groups showing outstanding differences between the normal and obese groups. Based on the level of intake amount between the two groups, a total of 7 items, including ddeokbokggi, spaghetti, ham roast, pork cutlet, dairy products & ices, kimchi, and fruits, were selected to be included in the FFQ. The former 5 items were seen to be consumed more in the obese group, while the latter 2 items were so in the normal group. The questionnaire was formatted into a frequency response section of a seven-category option and reference period of the last 7 days. Test-retest reliability of the developed FFQ was examined by administering it to 153, 9-11 year-old children at a public elementary school in Seoul twice at a month interval. The level of reliability was found to be reasonably high. In conclusion, this study suggests that high consumption of several high-calorie dish items and low consumption of kimchi and fruits may be important eating behaviors in relation to obesity risk among 9-11 year-old children who need nutrition educators' attention. The current study also implies that a simple FFQ can be utilized to reliably assess 9-11 year-old children's diets. PMID:20368956

  16. The tryptophan synthase alpha 2 beta 2 complex: a comparison of the reactivity of amino groups in the alpha and beta 2 subunits and in the complex by differential labeling studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, E.W.; Fairwell, T.

    1984-05-01

    The interaction of the alpha and beta 2 subunits of tryptophan synthase of Escherichia coli to form an alpha 2 beta 2 complex has been probed by differential labeling studies. In the first step the separate alpha or beta 2 subunit or the alpha 2 beta 2 complex was labeled by reductive methylation with trace amounts of (/sup 3/H)HCHO in the presence of NaCNBH/sub 3/. In the second step the /sup 3/H-labeled preparation was fully labeled under denaturing conditions with (/sup 14/C)HCHO and NaCNBH/sub 3/. Peptides containing labeled monomethyl or dimethyl amino groups were isolated after thermolytic digestion or after cyanogen bromide treatment. The /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio of each peptide is a measure of the relative reactivity of the amino group or groups in each peptide. The most reactive amino group in the alpha subunit, lysine-109, is strongly shielded from modification in the alpha 2 beta 2 complex. The most reactive amino group in the beta 2 subunit, the amino-terminal threonine, is not shielded from modification in the alpha 2 beta 2 complex.

  17. Software Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Software Comparison Package (SCP) compares similar files. Normally, these are 90-character files produced by CDC UPDATE utility from program libraries that contain FORTRAN source code plus identifier. SCP also used to compare load maps, cross-reference outputs, and UPDATE corrections sets. Helps wherever line-by-line comparison of similarly structured files required.

  18. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children. PMID:22938437

  19. Repeat spinal anesthesia in cesarean section: A comparison between 10 mg and 12 mg doses of intrathecal hyperbaric (0.05%) bupivacaine repeated after failed spinal anesthesia: A prospective, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Bhar, Debasish; RoyBasunia, Sandip; Das, Anjan; Chhaule, Subinay; Mondal, Sudipta Kumar; Bisai, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Mandal, Subrata Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section is not a 100% successful technique. At times, despite straightforward insertion and drug administration, intrathecal anesthesia for cesarean section fails to obtain any sensory or motor block. Very few studies and literature are available regarding repeat administration of spinal anesthesia and its drug dosage, especially after first spinal failure in cesarean section lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) due to fear of the excessive spread of drug. The aim of our study is to compare the outcome between two different doses of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine repeated intrathecally after failed spinal. Materials and Methods: After taking informed consent and Ethical Committee approval this prospective, randomized single-blinded study was conducted in 100 parturients of American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II who were posted for elective LSCS and had Bromage score 0 and no sensory block even at L4 dermatome after 10 min of first spinal anesthesia; were included in the study. Group A (n = 50) patients received 2.4 ml and Group B (n = 50) patients received 2 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine respectively for administering repeat spinal anesthesia. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and electrocardiogram were monitored both intra- and post-operatively and complications were recorded. Results: Incidence of high spinal, bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory complications, and nausea vomiting are significantly higher in Group A compared to Group B (P < 0.05). SBP, DBP, and HR were significantly low in Group A patients compared to Group B in the first 10 min (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia can be safely repeated in the cesarean section with 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine provided after first spinal anesthesia, the level of sensory block is below L4 and motor power in Bromage scale is 0. PMID:27212775

  20. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  1. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  2. The role of weight self-stigma on the quality of life of women with overweight and obesity: A multi-group comparison between binge eaters and non-binge eaters.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Lara; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Weight self-stigma is conceptualized as a multidimensional concept involving experiences of shame, self-devaluation and the perception of being discriminated against in social situations due to one's weight. It has been associated with experiential avoidance, unhealthy eating behaviors, binge eating and diminish quality-of-life (QoL). The current study aims to explore the mediation effect of weight-related experiential avoidance on the relationship between weight self-stigma and obesity-related QoL in women with and without binge eating (BE). The sample comprised 282 women with overweight or obesity, from which 100 presented BE symptoms. Sample's mean age was 44.24 years (SD = 11.30), with a mean BMI of 31.40 kg/m(2) (SD = 4.53). Participants completed a set of self-reported measures regarding BE symptoms, weight self-stigma, weight-related experiential avoidance and QoL. Results from path analysis supported the mediation of weight-related experiential avoidance on the relationship between weight self-stigma and QoL, even when controlling for BMI. The model accounted 58% of QoL variance. Furthermore, the multi-group analysis revealed that the model was not invariant for both groups. The analysis of the critical ratios showed that the path from weight-related experiential avoidance to QoL was stronger for the BE group. Also the model only explained 39% of QoL for the group without BE and 65% of QoL for the BE group. This study highlights the pervasive role of weigh self-stigma, particularly fear of being discriminated and weigh-related experiential avoidance on obesity-related quality-of-life, especially for those women with BE. Additionally, it supports that interventions should focus not only in weight loss but also in improving individual's QoL, promoting the development of adaptive emotional regulation strategies. PMID:27423819

  3. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  4. COMPARISON OF ONCE-DAILY VERSUS TWICE-DAILY COMBINATION ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN TREATMENT-NAÏVE PATIENTS: RESULTS OF AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP (ACTG) A5073, A 48-WEEK RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Flexner, Charles; Tierney, Camlin; Gross, Robert; Andrade, Adriana; Lalama, Christina; Eshleman, Susan H.; Aberg, Judith; Sanne, Ian; Parsons, Teresa; Kashuba, Angela; Rosenkranz, Susan L.; Kmack, Anne; Ferguson, Elaine; Dehlinger, Marjorie; Mildvan, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Background Dosing frequency is an important determinant of regimen effectiveness. Methods To compare efficacy of once-daily (QD) versus twice-daily (BID) antiretroviral therapy, we randomized HIV-1 positive, treatment-naïve, patients to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400/100 mg BID (n=160) or LPV/r 800/200 mg QD (n=161), plus either emtricitabine 200 mg QD and extended-release stavudine (d4T-XR) 100 mg QD, or tenofovir 300 mg QD. Randomization was stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA comparison, with an absolute proportional difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.03 (−0.07, 0.12). The comparison depended on the screening RNA stratum (p=0.038); in the higher RNA stratum, the probability (95% CI) of SVR was significantly better in the BID arm: 0.89 (0.79, 0.94) compared to 0.76 (0.64, 0.84) in the QD arm; difference of 0.13 (0.01, 0.25). LPV trough plasma concentrations were higher with BID dosing. Adherence to prescribed doses of LPV/r was 90.6% in the QD arm versus 79.9% in the BID arm (p<0.001). Conclusions Although subjects assigned to QD regimens had better adherence, overall treatment outcomes were similar to the BID regimens. Subjects with HIV-1 RNA ≥100,000 copies/mL had better SVR on BID regimens at 48 weeks, suggesting a possible advantage in this setting for more frequent dosing. PMID:20192725

  5. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  6. Clinical response to eliglustat in treatment-naïve patients with Gaucher disease type 1: Post-hoc comparison to imiglucerase-treated patients enrolled in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jennifer; Underhill, Lisa H; Taylor, John S; Angell, Jennifer; Peterschmitt, M Judith

    2016-09-01

    Eliglustat is a recently approved oral therapy in the United States and Europe for adults with Gaucher disease type 1 who are CYP2D6 extensive, intermediate, or poor metabolizers (> 90% of patients) that has been shown to decrease spleen and liver volume and increase hemoglobin concentrations and platelet counts in untreated adults with Gaucher disease type 1 and maintain these parameters in patients previously stabilized on enzyme replacement therapy. In a post-hoc analysis, we compared the results of eliglustat treatment in treatment-naïve patients in two clinical studies with the results of imiglucerase treatment among a cohort of treatment-naïve patients with comparable baseline hematologic and visceral parameters in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry. Organ volumes and hematologic parameters improved from baseline in both treatment groups, with a time course and degree of improvement in eliglustat-treated patients similar to imiglucerase-treated patients. PMID:27408819

  7. High resolution melting analysis (HRM) as a new tool for the identification of species belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group and comparison with species-specific PCRs and multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Manzano, Marisa; Anastasi, Veronica; Reale, Anna; Zotta, Teresa; Rossi, Franca; Coppola, Raffaele; Comi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The correct identification and characterisation of bacteria is essential for several reasons: the classification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has changed significantly over the years, and it is important to distinguish and define them correctly, according to the current nomenclature, avoiding problems in the interpretation of literature, as well as mislabelling when probiotic are used in food products. In this study, species-specific PCR and HRM (high-resolution melting) analysis were developed to identify strains belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group and to classify them into L. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. HRM analysis confirmed to be a potent, simple, fast and economic tool for microbial identification. In particular, 201 strains, collected from International collections and attributed to the L. casei group, were examined using these techniques and the results were compared with consolidated molecular methods, already published. Seven of the tested strains don't belong to the L. casei group. Among the remaining 194 strains, 6 showed inconsistent results, leaving identification undetermined. All the applied techniques were congruent for the identification of the vast majority of the tested strains (188). Notably, for 46 of the strains, the identification differed from the previous attribution. PMID:25475306

  8. Comparison of humoral and cellular immune responses to a pentavalent modified live virus vaccine in three age groups of calves with maternal antibodies, before and after BVDV type 2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Platt, Ratree; Widel, Philip W; Kesl, Lyle D; Roth, James A

    2009-07-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a pentavalent (BVDV types 1 and 2, BHV-1, BRSV, and PI-3) modified live virus (MLV) vaccine given to 1-2-, 4-5-, and 7-8-week-old calves with maternal antibodies to induce humoral and cellular immune responses and protect calves from virulent BVDV type 2. Eight calves in each age group were vaccinated and four served as controls. All calves were challenged intranasally with BVDV type 2, 12 weeks after vaccination. SVN titers to all five viruses declined in all groups after vaccination (except 4-5-week-old calves to BVDV type 1). After challenge, the SVN titers for both types of BVDV showed anamnestic responses in calves vaccinated at 4-5 and 7-8 weeks, but not at 1-2 weeks of age. In all groups, T cell subsets responded specifically to BVDV types 1 and 2 but not to BHV-1, BRSV, or PI-3 after vaccination by increasing their expression of activation markers (CD25, IFN-gamma and IL-4). All vaccinated calves were significantly protected from BVDV type 2 challenge. PMID:19446589

  9. Lifting the weight of a diagnosis-related groups family change: a comparison between refined and non-refined DRG systems for top-down cost accounting and efficiency indicators.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Cuchi, Miguel Alfaro; Pérez Pérez, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Public healthcare providers in all Spanish Regions - Autonomous Communities (ACs) use All Patients Diagnosis-Related Groups (AP-DRGs) for billing non-insured patients, cost accounting and inpatient efficiency indicators. A national migration to All Patients Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups (APR-DRGs) has been scheduled for 2016. The analysis was performed on 202,912 inpatient care episodes ranging from 2005 to 2010. All episodes were grouped using AP-DRG v25.0 and APR-DRG v24.0. Normalised DRG weight variations for an AP-DRG to APR-DRG migration scenario were calculated and compared. Major differences exist between normalised weights for inpatient episodes depending on the DRGs family used. The usage of the APR-DRG system in Spain without any adjustments, as it was developed in the United States, should be approached with care. In order to avoid reverse incentives and provider financial risks, coding practices should be reviewed and structural differences between DRG families taken into account. PMID:26157082

  10. Evaluation of group versus individual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-Type A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: A single-blind randomized comparison trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rachel E; Johnston, Leanne M; Sakzewski, Leanne; Kentish, Megan J; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate efficacy of group (GRP) versus individual (IND) physiotherapy rehabilitation following lower limb intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A (BoNT-A) for ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). Following lower limb BoNT-A injections, 34 children were randomly allocated to GRP (n=17; mean age 7y8m SD 2.0; 13 males; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) I=5, II=8, III=4) or IND physiotherapy (n=17; mean age 8y7m SD 2.0; 11 males; GMFCS I=9, II=5, III=3). Primary outcomes were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) assessed at baseline, 10 and 26 weeks post intervention. There were no baseline differences between groups. GRP intervention had greater, but not clinically meaningful, improvement in COPM satisfaction (estimated mean difference EMD 1.7, 95% CI 0.4-3.1; p<0.01) at 26 weeks. Both groups demonstrated clinically significant improvements in COPM performance and satisfaction, but minimal change in quality of gait (EVGS). Six hours of direct physiotherapy (either GRP or IND) with an additional indirect dose (median 16 episodes) of individualized home programme activities following lower limb BoNT-A injections, however, was inadequate to drive clinically meaningful changes in lower limb motor outcomes. PMID:26955912

  11. Simulation-based multiple-choice test assessment of clinical competence for large groups of medical students: a comparison of auscultation sound identification either with or without clinical context

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Diem Quyen; Patenaude, Jean Victor; Gagnon, Robert; Deligne, Benoit; Bouthillier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Although simulation-based teaching is popular, high-fidelity, high-cost approaches may be unsuitable or unavailable for use with large groups. We designed a multiple-choice test for large groups of medical students to explore a low-cost approach in assessing clinical competence. We tested two different scenarios in assessing student’s ability to identify heart and lung sounds: by hearing the sounds alone, or in an enhanced scenario where sounds are incorporated into clinical vignettes to give clinical context. Method The two-section test consists of multiple-choice questions with one best answer. In the first section, the student must identify 25 auscultation sounds from amongst a choice of 14 heart sounds and 11 lung-sounds. The second section integrates these same sounds into clinical vignettes to provide clinical context. Students must either identify the illness or the next clinical step, choosing from four possible answers. Performances of 859 students were evaluated. Results The alpha coefficient of reliability is 0.54 and 0.76 respectively for the first and the second section. In the latter section there is significant difference between scores of first, second, fourth year students and residents, in contrast to the first-section scores. Conclusions A multiple-choice test to assess clinical competence based on simulated auscultation sounds incorporated into clinical vignettes allows us to differentiate between training levels and seems to be a valid assessment method suitable for large-group format. PMID:26451229

  12. Group Work Publication-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  13. Group Composition, Group Interaction and Achievement in Cooperative Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.

    This study investigated interaction and achievement in cooperative small groups in four junior high school mathematics classrooms. Ninety-six students learned a one-week unit on consumer mathematics in mixed-ability or uniform-ability groups. Students in mixed-ability groups scored higher on a problem-solving test than students in uniform-ability…

  14. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  15. Class Numbers and Groups of Algebraic Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, V. P.; Bondarenko, A. A.; Rapinčuk, A. S.

    1980-06-01

    The class number of an algebraic group G defined over a global field is the number of double cosets of the adele group GA with respect to the subgroups of integral and principal adeles. In most cases the set of double cosets has the natural structure of an abelian group, called the class group of G. In this article the class number of a semisimple group G is computed, and it is proved that any finite abelian group can be realized as a class group.Bibliography: 24 titles.

  16. The amino acid sequence of the peptide containing the thiol group of creatine kinase from normal and dystrophic chicken breast muscle. Comparison of some of the immunological properties of the antibodies developed in rabbits against these enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Buddha P.

    1974-01-01

    The major 14C-labelled peptides from creatine kinase from normal and dystrophic chicken muscle obtained by carboxymethylating the reactive thiol groups with iodo[2-14C]acetic acid and digestion with trypsin were purified by ion-exchange chromatography on Dowex-50 (X2) and by paper electrophoresis. The chromatographic characteristics of the 14C-labelled peptides, their electrophoretic mobilities at pH6.5, and their amino acid compositions were identical for the two enzymes. The sequence of amino acids around the essential thiol groups of creatine kinase from normal and dystrophic chicken muscle was shown to be Ile-Leu-Thr-CmCys-Pro-Ser-Asn-Leu-Gly-Thr-Gly-Leu-Arg (CmCys, carboxymethylcysteine). This sequence is almost identical with that for the creatine kinases in human and ox muscle and bovine brain and is very similar to that of arginine kinase from lobster muscle. Antibodies to the enzymes were raised in rabbits and their reaction with the creatine kinase from normal and dystrophic muscles in interfacial, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic experiments was studied. The cross-reaction between normal muscle creatine kinase and antisera against the dystrophic muscle enzyme (or vice versa) observed by immunodiffusion and by immunoelectrophoretic experiments further suggests that the enzymes from normal and dystrophic chicken muscle are similar in structure. The results of the present study, the identical amino acid sequence of the peptides containing the reactive thiol group from both the normal and dystrophic chicken muscle enzymes and the immunological similarities of the two enzymes are in accord with the similarity of the two enzymes observed by Roy et al. (1970). ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4219281

  17. Recent Emergence of Clonal Group O25b:K1:H4-B2-ST131 ibeA Strains among Escherichia coli Poultry Isolates, Including CTX-M-9-Producing Strains, and Comparison with Clinical Human Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Azucena; Herrera, Alexandra; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; García-Garrote, Fernando; Pita, Julia María; Coira, Amparo; Bernárdez, María Isabel; Blanco, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    To discern the possible spread of the Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 clonal group in poultry and the zoonotic potential of avian strains, we made a retrospective search of our strain collection and compared the findings for those strains with the findings for current strains. Thus, we have characterized a collection of 19 avian O25b:H4-ST131 E. coli strains isolated from 1995 to 2010 which, interestingly, harbored the ibeA gene. Using this virulence gene as a criterion for selection, we compared those 19 avian strains with 33 human O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains obtained from patients with extraintestinal infections (1993 to 2009). All 52 O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains shared the fimH, kpsMII, malX, and usp genes but showed statistically significant differences in nine virulence factors, namely, papGIII, cdtB, sat, and kpsMII K5, which were associated with human strains, and iroN, kpsMII K1, cvaC, iss, and tsh, which were associated with strains of avian origin. The XbaI macrorestriction profiles of the 52 E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive strains revealed 11 clusters (clusters I to XI) of >85% similarity, with four clusters including strains of human and avian origin. Cluster VII (90.9% similarity) grouped 10 strains (7 avian and 3 human strains) that mostly produced CTX-M-9 and that also shared the same virulence profile. Finally, we compared the macrorestriction profiles of the 12 CTX-M-9-producing O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA strains (7 avian and 5 human strains) identified among the 52 strains with those of 15 human O25b:H4-ST131 CTX-M-14-, CTX-M-15-, and CTX-M-32-producing strains that proved to be negative for ibeA and showed that they clearly differed in the level of similarity from the CTX-M-9-producing strains. In conclusion, E. coli clonal group O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA has recently emerged among avian isolates with the new acquisition of the K1 capsule antigen and includes CTX-M-9-producing strains. This clonal group represents a real

  18. Comparison of low temperature photoluminescence of bulk MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) grown AlGaAs and GaAs using a graphite generated dimer versus a standard tetramer arsenic group-V source

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Smith, M.C.; Jones, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    The carbon concentrations in GaAs and AlGaAs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have been studied when a graphite generated dimeric arsenic species and a standard tetramer arsenic species are used as the group-V source. Photoluminescence and Van der Pauw-Hall measurements have been made to examine the material quality in reference to which arsenic species is used for film growth. Results indicate that a graphite crucible arrangement for the thermal cracking of As/sub 4/ produces significant carbon contamination and is unacceptable for the MBE growth of GaAs and AlGaAs. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Head-to-head comparison of intensive lifestyle intervention (U-TURN) versus conventional multifactorial care in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol and rationale for an assessor-blinded, parallel group and randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Hansen, Katrine B; Johansen, Mette Y; Pedersen, Maria; Zacho, Morten; Hansen, Louise S; Kofoed, Katja; Thomsen, Katja; Jensen, Mette S; Nielsen, Rasmus O; MacDonald, Chris; Langberg, Henning; Vaag, Allan A; Pedersen, Bente K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current pharmacological therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are challenged by lack of sustainability and borderline firm evidence of real long-term health benefits. Accordingly, lifestyle intervention remains the corner stone in the management of T2D. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal intervention programmes in T2D ensuring both compliance as well as long-term health outcomes. Our objective is to assess the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (the U-TURN intervention) on glycaemic control in patients with T2D. Our hypothesis is that intensive lifestyle changes are equally effective as standard diabetes care, including pharmacological treatment in maintaining glycaemic control (ie, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)) in patients with T2D. Furthermore, we expect that intensive lifestyle changes will decrease the need for antidiabetic medications. Methods and analysis The study is an assessor-blinded, parallel group and a 1-year randomised trial. The primary outcome is change in glycaemic control (HbA1c), with the key secondary outcome being reductions in antidiabetic medication. Participants will be patients with T2D (T2D duration <10 years) without complications who are randomised into an intensive lifestyle intervention (U-TURN) or a standard care intervention in a 2:1 fashion. Both groups will be exposed to the same standardised, blinded, target-driven pharmacological treatment and can thus maintain, increase, reduce or discontinue the pharmacological treatment. The decision is based on the standardised algorithm. The U-TURN intervention consists of increased training and basal physical activity level, and an antidiabetic diet including an intended weight loss. The standard care group as well as the U-TURN group is offered individual diabetes management counselling on top of the pharmacological treatment. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Scientific Ethical Committee at the

  20. Recent emergence of clonal group O25b:K1:H4-B2-ST131 ibeA strains among Escherichia coli poultry isolates, including CTX-M-9-producing strains, and comparison with clinical human isolates.

    PubMed

    Mora, Azucena; Herrera, Alexandra; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; García-Garrote, Fernando; Pita, Julia María; Coira, Amparo; Bernárdez, María Isabel; Blanco, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    To discern the possible spread of the Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 clonal group in poultry and the zoonotic potential of avian strains, we made a retrospective search of our strain collection and compared the findings for those strains with the findings for current strains. Thus, we have characterized a collection of 19 avian O25b:H4-ST131 E. coli strains isolated from 1995 to 2010 which, interestingly, harbored the ibeA gene. Using this virulence gene as a criterion for selection, we compared those 19 avian strains with 33 human O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains obtained from patients with extraintestinal infections (1993 to 2009). All 52 O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains shared the fimH, kpsMII, malX, and usp genes but showed statistically significant differences in nine virulence factors, namely, papGIII, cdtB, sat, and kpsMII K5, which were associated with human strains, and iroN, kpsMII K1, cvaC, iss, and tsh, which were associated with strains of avian origin. The XbaI macrorestriction profiles of the 52 E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive strains revealed 11 clusters (clusters I to XI) of >85% similarity, with four clusters including strains of human and avian origin. Cluster VII (90.9% similarity) grouped 10 strains (7 avian and 3 human strains) that mostly produced CTX-M-9 and that also shared the same virulence profile. Finally, we compared the macrorestriction profiles of the 12 CTX-M-9-producing O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA strains (7 avian and 5 human strains) identified among the 52 strains with those of 15 human O25b:H4-ST131 CTX-M-14-, CTX-M-15-, and CTX-M-32-producing strains that proved to be negative for ibeA and showed that they clearly differed in the level of similarity from the CTX-M-9-producing strains. In conclusion, E. coli clonal group O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA has recently emerged among avian isolates with the new acquisition of the K1 capsule antigen and includes CTX-M-9-producing strains. This clonal group represents a real

  1. Isolation of 6-deoxytetrodotoxin from the pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis, and a comparison of the effects of the C-6 and C-11 hydroxy groups of tetrodotoxin on its activity.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Finn, Julian; Fukushima, Kohei; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2014-04-25

    Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1) analogues would be significant in the elucidation of its biosynthetic pathway and a study of its structure-activity relationships. In this study, a new TTX analogue, 6-deoxyTTX (2), was isolated from the ovary of the pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis, and the structure was determined using spectroscopic methods. Compound 2 was also identified in other marine animals, Nassarius snail and blue-ringed octopuses, using LC-MS. Furthermore, we investigated the voltage-gated sodium channel blocking activity of 2 by examination of the inhibitory activities to cytotoxicity induced by ouabain and veratridine in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2a). The activities were then compared with those of 1, 11-deoxyTTX (3), and 6,11-dideoxyTTX (4). The EC50 value for 2 was estimated to be 6.5±2.2 nM, approximately 3-fold larger than that of 1 (2.1±0.6 nM) and approximately 20-fold smaller than that of 3. These results suggested that contribution of the C-6 hydroxy group to the activity is less than that of the C-11 hydroxy group. PMID:24654947

  2. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended. PMID:24441299

  3. Comparison of performance of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society, the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group and the modified New York criteria in a cohort of Chinese patients with spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Yin; Lau, Chak Sing; Wu, Ka Pik; Wong, Woon Sing; MOK, Mo Yin

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) is essential as anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy can achieve significant symptomatic relief and control of disease activity. This study aims to compare the clinical characteristics, disease activity, and functional status of a Chinese cohort of SpA patients who were re-classified into ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients fulfilling the modified New York (MNY) criteria, those with undifferentiated SpA (USpA) fulfilling the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) classification criteria only (USpA/ESSG) and those who fulfill Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) only (USpA/ASAS). Disease activity was evaluated by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), severity of morning stiffness, patient global assessment, and C-reactive protein. Functional status was evaluated by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), modified Schober index, and dimension of chest expansion. One hundred and twenty-eight patients with disease duration of 16.3 ± 10.4 years were recruited. Patients in USpA/ESSG and USpA/ASAS were significantly younger (p = 0.01), had shorter disease duration (p < 0.01), and lower BASFI (p = 0.03) than established AS patients. All three groups have active disease with comparable BASDAI >3. BASFI correlated inversely with dimension of chest expansion and negatively modified Schober index in AS patients (p < 0.01) and modestly with BASDAI (r = 0.25, p < 0.01). BASFI correlated moderately with BASDAI in USpA/ESSG (r = 0.61, p < 0.01) but not with chest expansion or modified Schober index. Compared with established AS patients recognized by MNY criteria, patients fulfilling USpA defined by ESSG or ASAS criteria had earlier disease, as active disease and less irreversible functional deficit. PMID:21336823

  4. Prognostic Value of FDG-PET, Based on the Revised Response Criteria, in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma: A Comparison with CT/MRI Evaluations, Based on the International Working Group/Cotswolds Meeting Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Isohashi, Kayako; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Kato, Hiroki; Fukushima, Kentaro; Maeda, Tetsuo; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Hatazawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Post-treatment evaluations by CT/MRI (based on the International Working Group/Cotswolds meeting guidelines) and PET (based on Revised Response Criteria), were examined in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with malignant lymphoma (ML). Methods: 79 patients, undergoing CT/MRI for the examination of suspected lesions and whole-body PET/CT before and after therapy, were included in the study during April 2007-January 2013. The relationship between post-treatment evaluations (CT/MRI and PET) and PFS during the follow-up period was examined, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The patients were grouped according to the histological type into Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and other histological types. The association between post-treatment evaluations (PET or PET combined with CT/MRI) and PFS was examined separately. Moreover, the relationship between disease recurrence and serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor, lactic dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels was evaluated before and after the treatment. Results: Patients with incomplete remission on both CT/MRI and PET had a significantly shorter PFS, compared to patients with complete remission on both CT/MRI and PET and those exhibiting incomplete remission on CT/MRI and complete remission on PET (P<0.001). Post-treatment PET evaluations were strongly correlated with patient outcomes in cases with HL or DLBCL (P<0.01) and other histological types (P<0.001). In patients with HL or DLBCL, incomplete remission on both CT/MRI and PET was associated with a significantly shorter PFS, compared to patients with complete remission on both CT/MRI and PET (P<0.05) and those showing incomplete remission on CT/MRI and complete remission on PET (P<0.01). In patients with other histological types, incomplete remission on both CT/MRI and PET was associated with a significantly shorter PFS, compared to cases with complete remission on both CT/MRI and PET (P<0

  5. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Return to Web version Group B Strep Infection Overview What is group B strep? Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a certain kind of bacteria (germ) that lives in the intestine, rectum, and ...

  6. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  7. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  8. Dyslexic, Delayed, Precocious or Just Normal? Word Reading Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Jakob; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Word reading skills and reading-related language and cognitive correlates were examined in Swedish 10-15-year-olds with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The full group with ASD did not differ statistically from an age-matched comparison group in word reading, but a poor-readers subgroup was identified who displayed severe difficulties. Normal…

  9. Predicting the Quality of Composition and Written Language Bursts from Oral Language, Spelling, and Handwriting Skills in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Walter, Kirsty; Critten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Writers typically produce their writing in bursts. In this article, the authors examine written language bursts in a sample of 33 children aged 11 years with specific language impairment. Comparisons of the children with specific language impairment with an age-matched group of typically developing children (n = 33) and a group of younger,…

  10. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boya, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old) five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  11. Comparison of the American-European Consensus Group Sjögren's syndrome classification criteria to newly proposed American College of Rheumatology criteria in a large, carefully characterized sicca cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Astrid; Ice, John A.; Li, He; Grundahl, Kiely; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Radfar, Lida; Stone, Donald U.; Hefner, Kimberly S.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rohrer, Michael; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Houston, Glen D.; Lewis, David M.; Chodosh, James; Harley, John B.; Hughes, Pamela; Maier-Moore, Jacen S.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Farris, A. Darise; Segal, Barbara M.; Jonsson, Roland; Lessard, Christopher J.; Scofield, R. Hal; Moser Sivils, Kathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) and the newly proposed American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome in a well-characterized sicca cohort, given ongoing efforts to resolve discrepancies and weaknesses in the systems. Methods In a multidisciplinary clinic for the evaluation of sicca, we assessed features of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and autoimmunity as defined by tests of both AECG and ACR criteria in 646 participants. Global gene expression profiles were compared in a subset of 180 participants. Results Application of the AECG and ACR criteria resulted in classification of 279 and 268 participants with SS, respectively. Both criteria were met by 244 participants (81%). In 26 of the 35 AECG+/ACR- participants, the minor salivary gland biopsy focal score was ≥1 (74%), while 9 had positive anti-Ro/La (26%). There were 24 AECG-/ACR+ who met ACR criteria mainly due to differences in the scoring of corneal staining. All patients with SS, regardless of classification, had similar gene expression profiles, which were distinct from the healthy controls. Conclusion The two sets of classification criteria yield concordant results in the majority of cases and gene expression profiling suggests that patients meeting either set of criteria are more similar to other SS participants than to healthy controls. Thus, there is no clear evidence for increased value of the new ACR criteria over the old AECG criteria from the clinical or biological perspective. It is our contention, supported by this report, that improvements in diagnostic acumen will require a more fundamental understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms than is at present available. PMID:23968620

  12. Comparison of Toxicity Associated With Early Morning Versus Late Afternoon Radiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (HN3)

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, Georg A. MacKenzie, Robert G.; Nabid, Abdenour; Hodson, Ian D.; El-Sayed, Samy; Grimard, Laval; Brundage, Michael; Wright, James; Hay, John; Ganguly, Pradip; Leong, Carson; Wilson, Jane; Jordan, Richard C.K.; Walker, Melanie; Tu Dongsheng; Parulekar, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on our demonstration of a circadian rhythm in the human oral mucosa cell cycle, with most cells in the G{sub 1} phase in the morning and M phase at night, we hypothesized that morning radiotherapy (RT) would lead to less oral mucositis than afternoon RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients were randomized to morning (8-10 AM) vs. afternoon (4-6 PM) RT and stratified by radiation dose, smoking status, and center. Patients receiving primary or postoperative RT alone were eligible. Oral mucositis was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and a validated scoring system. Results: Of 205 evaluable patients, 52.9% vs. 62.4% developed RTOG Grade 3 or greater mucositis after morning vs. afternoon RT, respectively (p = 0.17). Morning RT was also associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months (p = 0.024). In a subgroup of 111 patients treated to a dose of 66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions, exploratory analyses revealed a significant reduction in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (44.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.022) and a longer interval to the development of Grade 3 or greater mucositis (median, >7.9 vs. 5.6 weeks, p = 0.033). In 53 patients, who smoked during therapy, a significant reduction was found in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (42.9% vs. 76%, p = 0.025). Conclusion: In this proof of principle study, morning RT was associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months and an apparent reduction in oral mucositis in a subset of patients receiving {>=}66 Gy and in patients who smoked during therapy.

  13. Comparison of electron microscopy, ELISA, real time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR for the detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA) in feces of different animal species.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    There is no gold standard for detection of Rotavirus Group A (RVA), one of the main causes of diarrhea in neonatal animals. Sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays are available for RVA but require submission of the clinical samples to diagnostic laboratories. Patient-side immunoassays for RVA protein detection have shown variable results, particularly with samples from unintended species. A sensitive and specific test for detection of RVA on the farm would facilitate rapid management decisions. The insulated isothermal RT-PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay works in a portable machine to allow sensitive and specific on-site testing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a commercially available RT-iiPCR assay for RVA detection in feces from different animal species. This assay was compared to an in-house rtRT-PCR assay and a commercially available rtRT-PCR kit, as well as an ELISA and EM for RVA detection. All three PCR assays targeted the well-conserved NSP5 gene. Clinical fecal samples from 108 diarrheic animals (mainly cattle and horses) were tested. The percentage of positive samples by ELISA, EM, in-house rtRT-PCR, commercial rtRT-PCR, and RT-iiPCR was 29.4%, 31%, 36.7%, 51.4%, 56.9%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was high (81.3-100%) in samples containing high viral loads. The sensitivity of the RT-iiPCR assay appeared to be higher than the commercially available rtRT-PCR assay, with a limit of detection (95% confidence index) of 3-4 copies of in vitro transcribed dsRNA. In conclusion, the user-friendly, field-deployable RT-iiPCR system holds substantial promise for on-site detection of RVA. PMID:27180038

  14. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VII. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-luminosity Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster, and a Comparison with the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; McConnacchie, Alan W.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Emsellem, Eric; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Simard, Luc; Boyer, Fred; Santos, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the intrinsic shapes of low-luminosity galaxies in the central 300 kpc of the Virgo Cluster using deep imaging obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). We build a sample of nearly 300 red-sequence cluster members in the yet-unexplored -14 < Mg < -8 mag range, and we measure their apparent axis ratios, q, through Sérsic fits to their two-dimensional light distribution, which is well described by a constant ellipticity parameter. The resulting distribution of apparent axis ratios is then fit by families of triaxial models with normally distributed intrinsic ellipticities, E = 1 - C/A, and triaxialities, T = (A2 - B2)/(A2 - C2). We develop a Bayesian framework to explore the posterior distribution of the model parameters, which allows us to work directly on discrete data, and to account for individual, surface-brightness-dependent axis ratio uncertainties. For this population we infer a mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.43}-0.02+0.02 and a mean triaxiality \\bar{T} = {0.16}-0.06+0.07. This implies that faint Virgo galaxies are best described as a family of thick, nearly oblate spheroids with mean intrinsic axis ratios 1:0.94:0.57. The core of Virgo lacks highly elongated low-luminosity galaxies, with 95% of the population having q > 0.45. We additionally attempt a study of the intrinsic shapes of Local Group (LG) satellites of similar luminosities. For the LG population we infer a slightly larger mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.51}-0.06+0.07, and the paucity of objects with round apparent shapes translates into more triaxial mean shapes, 1:0.76:0.49. Numerical studies that follow the tidal evolution of satellites within LG-sized halos are in good agreement with the inferred shape distributions, but the mismatch for faint galaxies in Virgo highlights the need for more adequate simulations of this population in the cluster environment. We finally compare the intrinsic shapes of NGVS low-mass galaxies with

  15. Comparison of Immunogenicity in Rhesus Macaques of Transmitted-Founder, HIV-1 Group M Consensus, and Trivalent Mosaic Envelope Vaccines Formulated as a DNA Prime, NYVAC, and Envelope Protein Boost

    PubMed Central

    Hulot, Sandrine L.; Korber, Bette; Giorgi, Elena E.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Saunders, Kevin O.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh V.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Jim; Phogat, Sanjay; Jacobs, Bertram; Kibler, Karen; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gomez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano; Rosati, Margherita; Felber, Barbara K.; Pavlakis, George N.; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey; Sutherland, Laura; Scearce, Richard; Letvin, Norman L.; Seaman, Michael S.; Alam, S. Munir; Montefiori, David; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine must induce protective antibody responses, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, that can be effective despite extraordinary diversity of HIV-1. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, computationally designed to elicit immune responses with improved cross-reactive breadth, to attempt to overcome the challenge of global HIV diversity. In this study, we have compared the immunogenicity of a transmitted-founder (T/F) B clade Env (B.1059), a global group M consensus Env (Con-S), and a global trivalent mosaic Env protein in rhesus macaques. These antigens were delivered using a DNA prime-recombinant NYVAC (rNYVAC) vector and Env protein boost vaccination strategy. While Con-S Env was a single sequence, mosaic immunogens were a set of three Envs optimized to include the most common forms of potential T cell epitopes. Both Con-S and mosaic sequences retained common amino acids encompassed by both antibody and T cell epitopes and were central to globally circulating strains. Mosaics and Con-S Envs expressed as full-length proteins bound well to a number of neutralizing antibodies with discontinuous epitopes. Also, both consensus and mosaic immunogens induced significantly higher gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses than B.1059 immunogen. Immunization with these proteins, particularly Con-S, also induced significantly higher neutralizing antibodies to viruses than B.1059 Env, primarily to tier 1 viruses. Both Con-S and mosaics stimulated more potent CD8-T cell responses against heterologous Envs than did B.1059. Both antibody and cellular data from this study strengthen the concept of using in silico-designed centralized immunogens for global HIV-1 vaccine development strategies. IMPORTANCE There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of vaccine-induced anti-Env antibody responses for preventing HIV-1

  16. Online groups and patient forums.

    PubMed

    Dosani, Sabina; Harding, Claire; Wilson, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Online mental health support forums are becoming increasingly popular and there is evidence that they are useful: particularly for providing anonymous support and filling information gaps. However, there are also very real concerns about negative outcomes for users. One online mental health service, Big White Wall, manages these risks and supports its members through the provision of 24 hour professional moderation. Comparison of Big White Wall's member population with the population of one London borough shows a diverse user group, but members are more likely to be female, and aged 25 to 34, or unemployed. PMID:25273668

  17. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  18. Redefining Cohesiveness in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann; Springston, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to replicate and extend research on work of Kelly and Duran in assessing relationship of group member perceptions of group interaction to group effectiveness. Concludes perceived similarity may not always align with perceptions of cohesiveness. (Author/ABL)

  19. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm. PMID:27213030

  20. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm. PMID:27213030

  1. Group Counseling Optimization: A Novel Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eita, M. A.; Fahmy, M. M.

    A new population-based search algorithm, which we call Group Counseling Optimizer (GCO), is presented. It mimics the group counseling behavior of humans in solving their problems. The algorithm is tested using seven known benchmark functions: Sphere, Rosenbrock, Griewank, Rastrigin, Ackley, Weierstrass, and Schwefel functions. A comparison is made with the recently published comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer (CLPSO). The results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Quantum hypothesis testing with group symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hiai, Fumio; Hayashi, Masahito; Mosonyi, Milan

    2009-10-15

    The asymptotic discrimination problem of two quantum states is studied in the setting where measurements are required to be invariant under some symmetry group of the system. We consider various asymptotic error exponents in connection with the problems of the Chernoff bound, the Hoeffding bound, and Stein's lemma, and derive bounds on these quantities in terms of their corresponding statistical distance measures. A special emphasis is put on the comparison of the performances of group-invariant and unrestricted measurements.

  3. Between-group competition, intra-group cooperation and relative performance

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan C.; Mantilla, César

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a new public goods experiment with an intra-group cooperation dilemma and inter-group competition. In our design subjects receive information about their relative individual and group performance after each round with non-incentivized and then incentivized group competition. We found that, on average, individuals with low relative performance reduce their contributions to the public good, but groups with low performance increase theirs. With incentivized competition, where the relative ranking of the group increases individual payoffs, the reaction to relative performance is larger with individuals contributing more to the group; further, we observe that the variance of strategies decreases as individual and group rankings increase. These results offer new insights on how social comparison shapes similar reactions in games with different incentives for group performance and how competition and cooperation can influence each other. PMID:25741258

  4. Group-Level Formative Feedback and Metadiscourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Monica; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Chen, Bodong; Halewood, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the ability of grade 2 students to engage in productive discussion about the state of their knowledge building using group-level feedback tools to support their metadiscourse. Two aspects of knowledge work were common to the comparison and experimental classes: "Knowledge Building talk" (KB talk) involving…

  5. COMPARISON OF RANGE OF MOTION, STRENGTH, AND HOP TEST PERFORMANCE OF DANCERS WITH AND WITHOUT A CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.; Christoforetti, John J.; Martin, RobRoy L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dancers commonly experience anterior hip pain caused by femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) that interrupts training and performance in dance. A paucity of literature exists to guide appropriate evaluation and management of FAI among dancers. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if dancers with clinical signs of FAI have differences in hip range of motion, strength, and hop test performance compared to healthy dancers. Study Design Quasi-experimental, cohort comparison. Methods Fifteen dancers aged between 18- 21 years with clinical signs of FAI that included anterior hip pain and provocative impingement tests were compared to 13 age-matched dancers for passive hip joint range of motion, isometric hip strength, and performance of the medial triple hop, lateral triple hop, and cross-over hop tests. Results No statistically significant differences in range of motion were noted for flexion (Healthy = 145° + 7°; FAI = 147° + 10°; p=0.59), internal rotation (Healthy = 63° + 7°; FAI = 61° + 11°; p=0.50), and external rotation (Healthy = 37° + 9°; FAI = 34° + 12°; p=0.68) between the two groups. Hip extension strength was significantly less in the dancers with FAI (224 + 55 Newtons) compared to the healthy group (293 ± 58 Newtons; F(1,26) = 10.2; p=0.004). No statistically significant differences were noted for flexion, internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, or adduction isometric strength. The medial triple hop test was significantly less in the FAI group (354 ± 43 cm) compared to the healthy group (410 ± 50 cm; F(1,26) = 10.3; p = 0.004). Similar results were observed for the lateral hop test, as the FAI group (294 ± 38 cm) performed worse than the healthy controls (344 ± 54cm; F(1,26) = 7.8; p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the FAI group (2.7 ± 0.92 seconds) and the healthy

  6. Interdependence and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wageman, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the differential effects of task design and reward system design on group functioning in a large U.S. corporation; the effectiveness of "hybrid" groups (having tasks and rewards with both individual and group elements); and how individuals' autonomy preferences moderate their responses to interdependence. Groups performed best when…

  7. Assertive Training in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansbury, David L.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a group approach to helping the nonassertive client. After describing the group composition and goals, he presents a session by session description for conducting the assertive training group. In addition, he presents suggestions based on experiences in leading the group. (Author)

  8. Time-Limited Group Counseling for Chronic Home Hemodialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Compared effects of six sessions of group counseling of nine chronic home hemodialysis patients with a comparable no treatment control group. Comparisons revealed no significant differences between groups. Subsequent testing a year later suggested that hemodialysis patients use the defensive mechanism of denial in adapting to their condition.…

  9. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    samples are obtained need to be developed. Particulate speciation was also assigned a high priority for quantifying the fractions of carbon soot, PAH, refractory materials, metals, sulfates, and nitrates. High priority was also placed on performing a comparison of particle sizing instruments. Concern was expressed by the workshop attendees who routinely make particulate measurements about the variation in number density measured during in-flight tests by different instruments. In some cases, measurements performed by different groups of researchers during the same flight tests showed an order of magnitude variation. Second priority was assigned to measuring concentrations of odd hydrogen and oxidizing species. Since OH, HO2, H2O2, and O are extremely reactive, non-extractive measurements are recommended. A combination of absorption and fluorescence is anticipated to be effective for OH measurements in the combustor and at the engine exit. Extractive measurements of HO2 have been made in the stratosphere, where the ambient level of OH is relatively low. Use of techniques that convert HO2 to OH for combustor and engine exit measurements needs to be evaluated, since the ratio of HO2/OH may be 1% or less at both the combustor and engine exit. CI-MS might be a viable option for H2O2, subject to sampling line conversion issues. However, H2O2 is a low priority oxidizing species in the combustor and at the engine exit. Two candidates for atomic oxygen measurements are Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Particulate measurement by simultaneous extractive and non-extractive techniques was given equal priority to the oxidizer measurements. Concern was expressed over the ability of typical ground test sampling lines to deliver an unaltered sample to a remotely located instrument. It was suggested that the sampling probe and line losses be checked out by attempting measurements using an optical or non-extractive technique

  10. Reading Strategies of Bilingual Normally Progressing and Dyslexic Readers in Hindi and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ashum; Jamal, Gulgoona

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reading accuracy of dyslexic readers in comparison to chronological age-matched normally progressing readers in Hindi and English using word reading tasks, matched for spoken frequency of usage, age of acquisition, imageability, and word length. Both groups showed significantly greater reading accuracy in Hindi than in…

  11. Mind and Body: Concepts of Human Cognition, Physiology and False Belief in Children with Autism or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4), 579-600],…

  12. Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

  13. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  14. Failure Is Not an Option: Risk-Taking Is Moderated by Anxiety and Also by Cognitive Ability in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Dana, Julianne; White, Sarah E.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding hetereogeneity in symptom expression across the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a major challenge for identifying causes and effective treatments. In 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 37 IQ--and age-matched comparison participants (the TYP group), we found no differences in summary measures on an experimental…

  15. The Impact of Instructor's Group Management Strategies on Students' Attitudes to Group Work and Generic Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Seelanatha, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of two distinct group work management strategies on finance students' attitudes towards group work and their perceptions of generic skill development. Using quantitative and qualitative data, comparisons are made between students who experienced a supportive group work environment and students who experienced an…

  16. Mystic Reflection Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazlov, Yuri; Berenstein, Arkady

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to systematically study mystic reflection groups that emerged independently in the paper [Selecta Math. (N.S.) 14 (2009), 325-372] by the authors and in the paper [Algebr. Represent. Theory 13 (2010), 127-158] by Kirkman, Kuzmanovich and Zhang. A detailed analysis of this class of groups reveals that they are in a nontrivial correspondence with the complex reflection groups G(m,p,n). We also prove that the group algebras of corresponding groups are isomorphic and classify all such groups up to isomorphism.

  17. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth.

    PubMed

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5-17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  18. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. PMID:27203576

  19. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  20. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    samples are obtained need to be developed. Particulate speciation was also assigned a high priority for quantifying the fractions of carbon soot, PAH, refractory materials, metals, sulfates, and nitrates. High priority was also placed on performing a comparison of particle sizing instruments. Concern was expressed by the workshop attendees who routinely make particulate measurements about the variation in number density measured during in-flight tests by different instruments. In some cases, measurements performed by different groups of researchers during the same flight tests showed an order of magnitude variation. Second priority was assigned to measuring concentrations of odd hydrogen and oxidizing species. Since OH, HO2, H2O2, and O are extremely reactive, non-extractive measurements are recommended. A combination of absorption and fluorescence is anticipated to be effective for OH measurements in the combustor and at the engine exit. Extractive measurements of HO2 have been made in the stratosphere, where the ambient level of OH is relatively low. Use of techniques that convert HO2 to OH for combustor and engine exit measurements needs to be evaluated, since the ratio of HO2/OH may be 1% or less at both the combustor and engine exit. CI-MS might be a viable option for H2O2, subject to sampling line conversion issues. However, H2O2 is a low priority oxidizing species in the combustor and at the engine exit. Two candidates for atomic oxygen measurements are Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Particulate measurement by simultaneous extractive and non-extractive techniques was given equal priority to the oxidizer measurements. Concern was expressed over the ability of typical ground test sampling lines to deliver an unaltered sample to a remotely located instrument. It was suggested that the sampling probe and line losses be checked out by attempting measurements using an optical or non-extractive technique