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Sample records for age-matched control animals

  1. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  2. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  3. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  4. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  5. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  6. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  7. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  8. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  9. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  10. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  11. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  12. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  13. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  14. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  15. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  16. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  17. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  18. Addressing feral and wild animal threats during deployment: the distinction between animal control and rabies control.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Raymond F; Sargent, Gerald R

    2009-01-01

    Feral and wild animal control is a critical component of force health protection during troop deployments. The primary goal of animal control during a military deployment is to limit human injury or disease by reducing the likelihood of human-animal contact on US bases. For deployed US military forces, animal control will often be necessary, and trapping and euthanasia will remain the standard. In contrast, a rabies control program focuses on reducing disease incidence in an animal population with a subsequent reduction in rabies risk to military personnel. A successful rabies control program requires several components that typically are not possible in areas where the US Army deploys. The responsibility for animal control during an Army deployment has historically fallen to Army Preventive Medicine Sciences officers (Area of Concentration 67C). Understanding that the deployed US Army conducts animal control to limit human-animal contact, and also that it is generally not possible to mount a successful rabies control program on US contingency bases in the absence of an established, mature national plan will ensure that we are doing all we can to protect Soldiers from animal injury and disease transmission. PMID:20084736

  19. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  20. Ecological animal control by habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Means, D. B.; Komarek, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The article introduces the subject for this issue of Environmental Management—traditional and alternative means of agricultural pest management based on environmental manipulations The issue is the proceedings of the eighth Tall Timbers Research Station conference on ecological animal control by habitat management.

  1. Understanding the dynamical control of animal movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Donald

    2008-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, neurophysiologists have described many neural circuits that transform sensory input into motor commands, while biomechanicians and behavioral biologists have described many patterns of animal movement that occur in response to sensory input. Attempts to link these two have been frustrated by our technical inability to record from the necessary neurons in a freely behaving animal. As a result, we don't know how these neural circuits function in the closed loop context of free behavior, where the sensory and motor context changes on a millisecond time-scale. To address this problem, we have developed a software package, AnimatLab (www.AnimatLab.com), that enables users to reconstruct an animal's body and its relevant neural circuits, to link them at the sensory and motor ends, and through simulation, to test their ability to reproduce appropriate patterns of the animal's movements in a simulated Newtonian world. A Windows-based program, AnimatLab consists of a neural editor, a body editor, a world editor, stimulus and recording facilities, neural and physics engines, and an interactive 3-D graphical display. We have used AnimatLab to study three patterns of behavior: the grasshopper jump, crayfish escape, and crayfish leg movements used in postural control, walking, reaching and grasping. In each instance, the simulation helped identify constraints on both nervous function and biomechanical performance that have provided the basis for new experiments. Colleagues elsewhere have begun to use AnimatLab to study control of paw movements in cats and postural control in humans. We have also used AnimatLab simulations to guide the development of an autonomous hexapod robot in which the neural control circuitry is downloaded to the robot from the test computer.

  2. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  3. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  4. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  5. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  6. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  7. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  8. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  9. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  10. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  11. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  12. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  13. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  14. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  15. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  16. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  17. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  18. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  19. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  20. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  1. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  2. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  3. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  4. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  5. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  6. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  7. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  8. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  9. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  10. ANIMAL CONTROL - WHAT CONSTITUTES A RELIABLE CUE TO STOP ANIMAL MOVEMENT?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling free-range livestock requires low-stress cues to alter animal behaviour. Recently modulated sound and electric shock were demonstrated to be effective in controlling free-ranging cattle. In this study the behaviour of 60, 300 kg Belmont Red heifers were observed for behavioural changes ...

  11. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  12. Small animal radiation research platform: imaging, mechanics, control and calibration.

    PubMed

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Gray, Owen; Iordachita, Iulian; Kennedy, Chris; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Taylor, Russell H; Kazanzides, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In cancer research, well characterized small animal models of human cancer, such as transgenic mice, have greatly accelerated the pace of development of cancer treatments. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those same models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. In combination with advanced imaging methods, small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression, and response to therapy, with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The SARRP will realistically model human radiation treatment methods in standard animal models. In this paper, we describe the mechanical and control structure of the system. This system requires accurate calibration of the x-ray beam for both imaging and radiation treatment, which is presented in detail in the paper. PMID:18044657

  13. "The Giver" as a Bridge to "Animal Farm": Controlling Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibbetson, Kirsten

    Both the adolescent novel "The Giver" (Lois Lowry) and the classic work "Animal Farm" (George Orwell) deal with the idea of a controlling society. "The Giver" gives the reader an understanding of what it is like to live in a society where every move and every decision is basically made for you, but the people living in the society do not know life…

  14. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  15. Control and prevention of rabies in animals: paradigm shifts.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C E; Hanlon, C A; Slate, D

    2006-01-01

    Animal management is the keystone of any modern programme for the prevention and control of rabies. Historically, "animal control" for local elimination of disease was largely equated with population reduction. However, with relatively few exceptions, culling alone has not led to effective control of rabies. In most documented examples of effective control of rabies in the 20th century, an integrated management approach was used that included public education, responsible stewardship of animal populations, manipulation of the population carrying capacity of the local habitat, and vaccination strategies. Globally, the greatest burden on human health that is attributable to this zoonosis is caused by uncontrolled rabies in dogs. Where political willingness, biomedical infrastructure, and economic stability permit the sustained use of control measures (e.g. stray animal removal and mandatory parenteral vaccination), canine rabies has been significantly suppressed and even eliminated over large geographical areas. Examples include many island nations, most of North America, Europe, and increasingly in South America. Despite the effectiveness of such proven control techniques, however, their implementation in parts of Asia, Africa, and elsewhere has been limited, primarily because of a lack of dedicated resources and intersectoral cooperation, and also because of the burden of high-density populations of dogs. Implementation is often complicated by cultural and social factors, e.g. reluctance to cull apparently ownerless, nuisance animals that are suspected to have been exposed to rabies, partly on the basis of religious beliefs). Attempts to modify animal fertility (such as the encouragement of voluntary spay-neuter programmes or individual chemical contraception, and the extension of such actions to animals in the community) may provide ancillary support in line with other traditional methods of control of canine rabies. With the identification of complex situations

  16. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Thomas C; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard; Hansen, Axel K

    2006-05-01

    The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room. The experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, 'real-world' environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks, and a corridor between the racks and a curtain was present. The room was ventilated with air, which was blown into the room through the middle of the corridor, flowing downstream and passing through the holes in the curtain. This set-up resulted in air flow from the corridor through the curtain. Air samples were collected from sites in the corridor and behind the curtain. The samples were analyzed for the allergen Mus m1, and the amount of allergen was calculated. The results show air flow from the aisle through the holes in the curtains and through the racks behind the curtains, and this flow keeps allergen behind the curtains and prevents its spread from the cages into the aisle. The present study shows that the use of curtains in front of the cage racks is an efficient way to prevent spread of allergens from rodent cages to the entire animal room. PMID:16642971

  17. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  18. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  19. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  1. Stars Can't Spin Out of Control (Artist's Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for QuickTime Movie of Stars Can't Spin Out of Control

    This artist's animation demonstrates how a dusty planet-forming disk can slow down a whirling young star, essentially saving the star from spinning itself to death. Evidence for this phenomenon comes from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The movie begins by showing a developing star (red ball). The star is basically a giant ball of gas that is collapsing onto itself. As it shrinks, it spins faster and faster, like a skater folding in his or her arms. The green lines represent magnetic fields.

    As gravity continues to pull matter inward, the star spins so fast, it starts to flatten out. The same principle applies to the planet Saturn, whose spin has caused it to be slightly squashed or oblate.

    A forming star can theoretically whip around fast enough to overcome gravity and flatten itself into a state where it can no longer become a full-fledged star. But stars don't spin out of control, possibly because swirling disks of dust slow them down. Such disks can be found orbiting young stars, and are filled with dust that might ultimately stick together to form planets.

    The second half of the animation demonstrates how a disk is thought to keep its star's speed in check. A developing star is shown twirling inside its disk. As it turns, its magnetic fields pass through the disk and get bogged down like a spoon in molasses. This locks the star's rotation to the slower-turning disk, so the star, while continuing to shrink, does not spin faster.

    Spitzer found evidence for star-slowing disks in a survey of nearly 500 forming stars in the Orion nebula. It observed that slowly spinning stars are five times more likely to host disks than rapidly spinning stars.

  2. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  3. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  4. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

  5. Effects of Teacher Controlled Segmented-Animation Presentation in Facilitating Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of teacher controlled segmented-animation presentation on learning achievement of students with lower level of prior knowledge. Segmented-animation and continuous-animation courseware showing cellular signal transmission process were developed for the research purpose. Pre-test and post-test…

  6. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  7. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  8. SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

  9. Animal Models for Investigating the Central Control of the Mammalian Diving Response

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Paul Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Pioneering studies by Per Scholander indicated that the diving response consists of reflexly induced apnea, bradycardia and an alteration of blood flow that maintains perfusion of the heart and brain. More recently field physiological studies have shown that many marine animals can adjust cardiorespiratory aspects of their diving response depending upon the behavioral situation. This could suggest that the very labile heart rate during diving is under direct cortical control. However, the final control of autonomic nervous system functioning resides within the brainstem and not the cortex. Many physiologists regard the brain as a “black box” where important neuronal functioning occurs, but the complexity of such functioning leaves systematic investigation a daunting task. As a consequence the central control of the diving response has been under-investigated. Thus, to further advance the field of diving physiology by understanding its central neuronal control, it would be first necessary to understand the reflex circuitry that exists within the brainstem of diving animals. To do this will require an appropriate animal model. In this review, two animals, the muskrat and rat, will be offered as animal models to investigate the central aspects of the diving response. Firstly, although these rodents are not marine animals, natural histories indicate that both animals can and do exploit aquatic environments. Secondly, physiological recordings during natural and simulated diving indicate that both animals possess the same basic physiological responses to underwater submersion that occur in marine animals. Thirdly, the size and ease of housing of both animals makes them attractive laboratory research animals. Finally, the enormous amount of scientific literature regarding rodent brainstem autonomic control mechanisms, and the availability of brain atlases, makes these animals ideal choices to study the central control of the mammalian diving response. PMID:22661956

  10. Animal models for investigating the central control of the Mammalian diving response.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Paul Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Pioneering studies by Per Scholander indicated that the diving response consists of reflexly induced apnea, bradycardia and an alteration of blood flow that maintains perfusion of the heart and brain. More recently field physiological studies have shown that many marine animals can adjust cardiorespiratory aspects of their diving response depending upon the behavioral situation. This could suggest that the very labile heart rate during diving is under direct cortical control. However, the final control of autonomic nervous system functioning resides within the brainstem and not the cortex. Many physiologists regard the brain as a "black box" where important neuronal functioning occurs, but the complexity of such functioning leaves systematic investigation a daunting task. As a consequence the central control of the diving response has been under-investigated. Thus, to further advance the field of diving physiology by understanding its central neuronal control, it would be first necessary to understand the reflex circuitry that exists within the brainstem of diving animals. To do this will require an appropriate animal model. In this review, two animals, the muskrat and rat, will be offered as animal models to investigate the central aspects of the diving response. Firstly, although these rodents are not marine animals, natural histories indicate that both animals can and do exploit aquatic environments. Secondly, physiological recordings during natural and simulated diving indicate that both animals possess the same basic physiological responses to underwater submersion that occur in marine animals. Thirdly, the size and ease of housing of both animals makes them attractive laboratory research animals. Finally, the enormous amount of scientific literature regarding rodent brainstem autonomic control mechanisms, and the availability of brain atlases, makes these animals ideal choices to study the central control of the mammalian diving response. PMID:22661956

  11. Self-control, cultural animals, and Big Gods.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tania; Baumeister, Roy F

    2016-01-01

    As Norenzayan et al. cogently argue, religions that proliferated most successfully did so because they facilitated prosociality and cooperation in large-scale, anonymous groups. One important way that religion promotes cooperation may be through improving self-control. In this comment, we cover some potential obstacles to implementing self-control and how religion can overcome them. PMID:26948739

  12. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility—the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

  13. Application of statistical process control charts to monitor changes in animal production systems.

    PubMed

    De Vries, A; Reneau, J K

    2010-04-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of monitoring, controlling, and improving a process through statistical analysis. An important SPC tool is the control chart, which can be used to detect changes in production processes, including animal production systems, with a statistical level of confidence. This paper introduces the philosophy and types of control charts, design and performance issues, and provides a review of control chart applications in animal production systems found in the literature from 1977 to 2009. Primarily Shewhart and cumulative sum control charts have been described in animal production systems, with examples found in poultry, swine, dairy, and beef production systems. Examples include monitoring of growth, disease incidence, water intake, milk production, and reproductive performance. Most applications describe charting outcome variables, but more examples of control charts applied to input variables are needed, such as compliance to protocols, feeding practice, diet composition, and environmental factors. Common challenges for applications in animal production systems are the identification of the best statistical model for the common cause variability, grouping of data, selection of type of control chart, the cost of false alarms and lack of signals, and difficulty identifying the special causes when a change is signaled. Nevertheless, carefully constructed control charts are powerful methods to monitor animal production systems. Control charts might also supplement randomized controlled trials. PMID:20081080

  14. Tegument protein control of latent herpesvirus establishment and animation.

    PubMed

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are successful pathogens that infect most vertebrates as well as at least one invertebrate species. Six of the eight human herpesviruses are widely distributed in the population. Herpesviral infections persist for the life of the infected host due in large part to the ability of these viruses to enter a non-productive, latent state in which viral gene expression is limited and immune detection and clearance is avoided. Periodically, the virus will reactivate and enter the lytic cycle, producing progeny virus that can spread within or to new hosts. Latency has been classically divided into establishment, maintenance, and reactivation phases. Here we focus on demonstrated and postulated molecular mechanisms leading to the establishment of latency for representative members of each human herpesvirus family. Maintenance and reactivation are also briefly discussed. In particular, the roles that tegument proteins may play during latency are highlighted. Finally, we introduce the term animation to describe the initiation of lytic phase gene expression from a latent herpesvirus genome, and discuss why this step should be separated, both molecularly and theoretically, from reactivation. PMID:21429246

  15. Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Christian M.

    This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

  16. Prevention, control, and treatment: food, animal, and human

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is estimated that non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) cause twice the number of illnesses annually in the U.S. compared to E. coli O157:H7. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s FoodNet Program have shown that six STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O1...

  17. Optogenetic Control of Targeted Peripheral Axons in Freely Moving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shrivats M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) would enable novel studies of motor control, somatosensory transduction, and pain processing. Such control requires the development of methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted sub-populations of neurons within peripheral nerves. We report here methods to deliver opsins and light to targeted peripheral neurons and robust optogenetic modulation of motor neuron activity in freely moving, non-transgenic mammals. We show that intramuscular injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 6 enables expression of channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in motor neurons innervating the injected muscle. Illumination of nerves containing mixed populations of axons from these targeted neurons and from neurons innervating other muscles produces ChR2-mediated optogenetic activation restricted to the injected muscle. We demonstrate that an implanted optical nerve cuff is well-tolerated, delivers light to the sciatic nerve, and optically stimulates muscle in freely moving rats. These methods can be broadly applied to study PNS disorders and lay the groundwork for future therapeutic application of optogenetics. PMID:23991144

  18. Mechanical control of mitotic progression in single animal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattin, Cedric J.; Düggelin, Marcel; Martinez-Martin, David; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J.; Stewart, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of mitotic cell rounding in tissue development and cell proliferation, there remains a paucity of approaches to investigate the mechanical robustness of cell rounding. Here we introduce ion beam-sculpted microcantilevers that enable precise force-feedback–controlled confinement of single cells while characterizing their progression through mitosis. We identify three force regimes according to the cell response: small forces (∼5 nN) that accelerate mitotic progression, intermediate forces where cells resist confinement (50–100 nN), and yield forces (>100 nN) where a significant decline in cell height impinges on microtubule spindle function, thereby inhibiting mitotic progression. Yield forces are coincident with a nonlinear drop in cell height potentiated by persistent blebbing and loss of cortical F-actin homogeneity. Our results suggest that a buildup of actomyosin-dependent cortical tension and intracellular pressure precedes mechanical failure, or herniation, of the cell cortex at the yield force. Thus, we reveal how the mechanical properties of mitotic cells and their response to external forces are linked to mitotic progression under conditions of mechanical confinement. PMID:26305930

  19. Emotion recognition in animated compared to human stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-06-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon face). Participants were 37 adolescents (age 11-16) with a diagnosis of ASD (33 male, 4 female). 42 males and 39 females served as typically developing, age-matched controls. Overall there was significant advantage for control groups over the ASD group for emotion recognition in human stimuli but not animated stimuli, across modalities. For static animated images specifically, those with ASD significantly outperformed controls. The findings are consistent with the ASD group using atypical explicit strategies. PMID:25567528

  20. Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

  1. Landscape features influencing residential rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential “pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers, rabbits) and exotic (e.g., black and Norway rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in...

  2. Animal house stock control based on bar-coded cage labels.

    PubMed

    Wootton, R

    1985-10-01

    In an animal house serving the needs of a large research institute, a regular inventory of the animals in stock is a considerable help towards effective management of the facility. In particular, advising the licence-holders of what animals are being held in their name and reminding them of the costs involved is a valuable exercise. The introduction of a computerized system of stock control, based on bar-coded cage labels, is described. The system has proved economical to operate, accurate, and can be run by persons without computer expertise. PMID:4068665

  3. Animal medical genetics: a perspective on the epidemiology and control of inherited disorders.

    PubMed

    Jolly, R D; Dittmer, K E; Blair, H T

    2016-05-01

    This perspective considers genetic disorders of domestic animal populations, in particular their epidemiology and control. Inherited disorders of animals share the same basic molecular biology as those of human beings, but they differ in their epidemiology due largely to the breed structure of the various species, human control of breeding and a greater influence of the founder effect, particularly due to extensive use of a limited number of sires, and inbreeding. Control of genetic disorders in animals is also more practical through extensive screening for disease, or heterozygous animals within defined breed populations, followed by exclusion of affected or carrier animals from breeding. This is assisted by the fact that, within a breed, many inherited monogenic disorders are associated with a single mutation. However some of the more important disorders may be inherited in a non-Mendelian manner, being influenced by multiple genes as well as environmental factors. These aspects are discussed and contrasted with similar aspects in human medical genetics. PMID:26667890

  4. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) for Primary Animal Habitat Lighting in Highly Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Syrkin, N.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Significant alterations in Biological Clock responses have been reported following sidereal time changes (e.g., Jet-lag), and exposure to microgravity (e.g., daytime sleepiness). Additionally, light reduces circulating melatonin (spectral specificity greatest between 450-500 nm). It was hypothesized that LEDs can replace the current light sources used in zero gravity and terrestrial research laboratories because of their small size, low mass, low energy consumption and long functional life. This report evaluates the capacity of LEDs to entrain the circadian system of rats as judged by measurement of overt behavioral circadian rhythms (activity, feeding, drinking). These data were collected in highly controlled environments similar to the shuttle Animal Enclosure Modules. Two groups were compared: control - animals exposed to standard cool-white fluorescent lights, and test - animals exposed to LEDs with a spectral power distribution matching the fluorescent lights. Gross locomotor activity, feeding and drinking frequencies were continuously monitored and stored at 10 minute intervals. Animals were exposed to the following photoperiods: 28 days of 12L:12D, 19 days of 24L:0D and 16 days of 12L:12D. Light intensities tested varied between 0.1 to 100 lux. Rats received food and water ad libitum, and temperature and humidity were controlled throughout the study. The general health status of all rats was acceptable for each day of this study. No incidents of aggressive behavior were observed. Growth, locomotor activity, food and water consumption were comparable for all groups of animals, i.e, the circadian characteristics of the animals under these conditions were comparable. These results indicate that LED arrays are as effective in maintaining circadian rhythm stability as the commonly used cool-white fluorescent light sources. LEDs with their flexible spectrum, low energy requirements and minimal heat production have advantages for some chronopharmacology studies and

  5. [Investigation of behavior of "impulsive" and "self-controlled" animals by the method of "emotional resonance"].

    PubMed

    Zaĭchenko, M I; Merzhanova, G Kh; Demina, A V

    2010-01-01

    Rats divided into groups of "impulsive" and "self-controlled" animals by their preference of either high valuable but delayed or a low valuable but immediate food reward were studied by the method of "emotional resonance". It was shown that all rats of the "self-controlled" group choosing a high valuable although delayed reinforcement did not escape the defensive signals of another animal of the same species and for the most part of the trial time preferred to stay in the dark "house". The majority of animals belonging to the "impulsive" group (80%) spent more than a half of the time of the experiment in the bright compartment and thus saved a partner from electrical stimulation. The existence of some general mechanisms that underlie these two types of behavior is discussed. PMID:20469594

  6. Precise control and animation creation over the DMD for projection-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudsi, Badia

    2014-03-01

    Digital micromirror devices (DMDs) are used in a variety of display and projection applications to produce high resolution images, both static and animated. A common obstacle to working with DMDs in research and development applications is the steep learning curve required to obtain proficiency in programming the boards that control the behavior of the DMDs. This can discourage developers who wish to use DMDs in new or novel research and development applications which might benefit from their light-control properties. A new software package called Light Animator has been developed that provides a user friendly and more intuitive interface for controlling the DMD. The software allows users to address the micromirror array by the drawing and animation of objects in a style similar to that of commercial drawing programs. Sequences and animation are controlled by dividing the sequence into frames which the user can draw individually or the software can fill in for the user. Examples and descriptions of the software operation are described and operational performance measures are provided. Potential applications include 3D volumetric displays, a 3D scanner when combining the DMD with a CCD camera, and most any 2D application for which DMDs are currently used. The software's capabilities allow scientists to develop applications more easily and effectively.

  7. CONTROL OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION ORDERS: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Odors emanating from animal production facilities are the primary environmental cause for complaint resulting in great corrective expense and, in many instances, facility closure. The current state-of-the-art of odor control technology ranges from intensive waste management and g...

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  9. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  10. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  11. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases. PMID:20633939

  12. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  13. Role of import and export regulatory animal health officials in international control and surveillance for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Bob H

    2006-10-01

    The challenges to those who regulate the import and export of animals and animal products are escalating, due to the evolving nature of animal and human disease agents. The diseases and agents of interest may include low pathogenic avian influenza, bluetongue, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and foot-and-mouth disease. Fear of an incursion of an unknown or incompletely understood threat can significantly limit risk tolerance. The fear may be that an incursion will affect export trade or tourism. An incomplete knowledge of the animal health situation in the exporting country, due to insufficient surveillance for the disease agent of concern, may limit the application of science in import decisions. In addition, the disease agent may be inappropriately considered exotic if it has not been described. As a result, excessive safeguards for disease agents that do not present any new threat may be employed. To confront these challenges, we are striving toward transparency in international reporting. Moreover, regulatory import decisions exceeding the recommendations of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organization for Animal Health must be fair and science-based. PMID:17135497

  14. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Chris M; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-10-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings. PMID:26426854

  15. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Chris M.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-01-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings. PMID:26426854

  16. Control of canine rabies in developing countries: key features and animal welfare implications.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga Ceballos, N; Karunaratna, D; Aguilar Setién, A

    2014-04-01

    Over 90% of human deaths from rabies worldwide are caused by dog bites. Mass vaccination, along with the effective control of dog populations, has been used successfully in industrialised countries to control this disease. A lower success rate in developing countries is due to a number of factors, including vaccination campaigns that do not cover a sufficient number of animals or reach all communities, and a wide biodiversity that increases the number of reservoirs of the rabies virus. Educational programmes are needed, which focus on the commitment involved when acquiring a domestic animal, stating clearly what is required to provide it with a good quality of life. New technologies developed in the industrialised world will not always be successful in less developed countries. Approaches must be adapted to the particular conditions in each country, taking cultural and socio-economic issues into account. Authorities must promote research on dog population dynamics, the development of non-invasive methods to control dog populations and the most efficient, stable and low-cost options for vaccination. Under the One Health model, it is hoped that dog-transmitted human rabies will be accorded high priority as a zoonosis by human health authorities, international authorities and donor agencies to support ambitious eradication goals, particularly those being set in South-East Asia. Well-designed and adequately resourced vaccination programmes, based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines, will have significant animal welfare benefits, due to the availability of improved vaccines (in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity, ease of administration and lower cost), advances in dog population management and the more widespread implementation of the OIE Guidelines on Stray Dog Control. Animal welfare benefits include not only the elimination of pain and suffering caused by the clinical disease itself, but also the avoidance of the indirect impact of

  17. Diode probes for spatiotemporal optical control of multiple neurons in freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Koos, Tibor; Buzsáki, György

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal control with high temporal precision is possible with optogenetics, yet currently available methods do not enable to control independently multiple locations in the brains of freely moving animals. Here, we describe a diode-probe system that allows real-time and location-specific control of neuronal activity at multiple sites. Manipulation of neuronal activity in arbitrary spatiotemporal patterns is achieved by means of an optoelectronic array, manufactured by attaching multiple diode-fiber assemblies to high-density silicon probes or wire tetrodes and implanted into the brains of animals that are expressing light-responsive opsins. Each diode can be controlled separately, allowing localized light stimulation of neuronal activators and silencers in any temporal configuration and concurrent recording of the stimulated neurons. Because the only connections to the animals are via a highly flexible wire cable, unimpeded behavior is allowed for circuit monitoring and multisite perturbations in the intact brain. The capacity of the system to generate unique neural activity patterns facilitates multisite manipulation of neural circuits in a closed-loop manner and opens the door to addressing novel questions. PMID:22496529

  18. Residue control of coccidiostats in food of animal origin in Poland during 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Małgorzata; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, Teresa; Jedziniak, Piotr; Sledzińska, Edyta; Szymanek-Bany, Iwona; Korycińska, Beata; Pietruk, Konrad; Zmudzki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Coccidiostats are widely used as feed additives to prevent coccidiosis. The off-label use of anticoccidials or feeding non-target animals with cross-contaminated feedingstuffs may result in the occurrence of coccidiostat residues in animal tissues and eggs. In EU countries, food of animal origin is subjected to official control of residues according to Council Directive 96/23/EC. In Poland, within the framework of the National Residue Control Plan, 3718 samples (3533 targeted and 185 suspect) of animal liver, eggs, drinking water and feed were tested for coccidiostats between 2007 and 2010. Violative residues of nicarbazin, lasalocid, maduramicin, salinomycin, semduramicin and robenidine were detected in 77 food samples (53 samples of chicken liver, 23 samples of eggs and 1 sample of turkey liver). A high percentage (31%) of non-compliant feed samples collected during follow-up investigations was observed, which confirms that feed cross-contamination may be the reason of the occurrence of coccidiostat residues in food. PMID:24786249

  19. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  20. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  1. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  2. The control of microbial diseases in animals: alternatives to the use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Wierup, M

    2000-05-01

    In animal husbandry the control and prevention of infectious diseases is of basic economic importance. The introduction of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections almost 50 years ago led to a dramatic improvement in animal production. The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains demonstrates that the treatment of bacterial infections can not rely on the use of antibiotics without some critical consideration. Special attention has been paid to the use of antibiotics in animals including antimicrobial growth promoters because these can contribute to the problems with antibiotic resistance in humans. This has strongly emphasized the need to introduce disease preventive methods. A theory and methods for the prevention of diseases is presented that is based upon the effect on the target animal population of microbial exposure, defence and immunity to infections and combinations of these. It is emphasized that antibiotics should be an integral part of other disease preventive methods and used only when other methods have failed. They should not be included in the first line of action. PMID:10794953

  3. Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Okada, Shinpei; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Park, Hyuntae; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi; Oshio, Takuya; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Honda, Takuya; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this review were to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of animal-assisted therapy (AAT). Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which AAT was applied. We searched the following databases from 1990 up to October 31, 2012: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ichushi Web, GHL, WPRIM, and PsycINFO. We also searched all Cochrane Database up to October 31, 2012. Eleven RCTs were identified, and seven studies were about "Mental and behavioral disorders". Types of animal intervention were dog, cat, dolphin, bird, cow, rabbit, ferret, and guinea pig. The RCTs conducted have been of relatively low quality. We could not perform meta-analysis because of heterogeneity. In a study environment limited to the people who like animals, AAT may be an effective treatment for mental and behavioral disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol/drug addictions, and is based on a holistic approach through interaction with animals in nature. To most effectively assess the potential benefits for AAT, it will be important for further research to utilize and describe (1) RCT methodology when appropriate, (2) reasons for non-participation, (3) intervention dose, (4) adverse effects and withdrawals, and (5) cost. PMID:24731910

  4. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  5. A Wirelessly Powered and Controlled Device for Optical Neural Control of Freely-Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists’ capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted LED, tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the high-frequency pulse trains often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 grams capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 gram) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be simultaneously controlled from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control. PMID:21701058

  6. A wirelessly powered and controlled device for optical neural control of freely-behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-08-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists' capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically, awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted light-emitting diode (LED), tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the extended illumination periods often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 g capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2 W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3 W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 g) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be controlled simultaneously from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control.

  7. Controlled Iontophoresis Coupled with Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry/Electrophysiology in Awake, Freely Moving Animals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous electrochemical and electrophysiological data were recorded to evaluate the effects of controlled local application of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists in awake rats. Measurements were made with a probe consisting of a carbon-fiber microelectrode fused to three iontophoretic barrels used to introduce the drugs of interest. The probe and the manipulator used to position it in the brain of behaving animals were optimized to improve their performance. The effect of the dopamine autoreceptor on electrically stimulated release was demonstrated. Dopamine inhibited the release of endogenous dopamine whereas raclopride, a D2 antagonist, enhanced it, with similar responses in anesthetized and awake animals. We also examined changes in the firing rate of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons in awake animals during and after brief (15 s) iontophoretic ejections of SCH 23390 (D1 receptor antagonist) or raclopride. Changes in response to these antagonists were seen both immediately and on a prolonged time scale. Application of raclopride increased the firing rate in 40% of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), of which half responded immediately. Decreases in firing rate were observed in 46% of MSNs after SCH 23390 application. Only 11% of MSNs responded to both antagonists and one MSN (3%) showed no response to either drug. The same prolonged response in firing rate was seen for electrically stimulated and locally applied dopamine in 75% of MSNs. These results are in agreement with previously reported distributions for dopamine receptor subtypes on MSNs and probe the effects of dopamine on these cell populations. PMID:23480099

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Aluminum Chloride in Controlling External Hemorrhage: An Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Jamali, Bardia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite all the progress in surgical science, bleeding caused by traffic accidents is still one of the challenges surgeons face in saving patients’ lives. Therefore, introducing an effective method to control external bleeding is an important research priority. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the hemostatic effect of aluminum chloride versus simple suturing in controlling external bleeding. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Kashan, Iran. In this study, 60 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into six groups. An incision, two centimeters (cm) long and half a cm deep, was made on each rat’s shaved back skin and the hemostatic time was measured once using aluminum chloride with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 50%) and then using the control method (controlling hemorrhage by simple suturing). The skin tissue was assessed for pathological changes. Results: The hemostatic time of aluminum chloride 50%, 25%, 15%, 10% and 5% were 8.20 ± 0.919, 14.10 ± 1.37, 21.20 ± 1.31, 30.80 ± 1.68 and 42.00 ± 4.19 seconds, respectively. Also, the mean hemostasis time in the control group (suture) was 84.00 ± 4.05 seconds. The hemostatic times of different concentrations of aluminum chloride were significantly less than that of the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between every two hemostatic time. The pathologic examination showed the highest frequency of low-grade inflammation based on the defined pathological grading. Conclusions: The aluminum chloride method needs less time to control external hemorrhage compared to the control method (controlling external hemorrhage by simple suturing). Aluminum chloride is an effective agent in controlling external hemorrhage in an animal model. PMID:25964855

  9. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal... ] manufacture, process, pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). DATES: Submit either... Group (FSWG), chaired by the Secretaries of the Department of Health and Human Services and...

  10. A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, M. J.; Habib, A.; Fouras, A.; Dubsky, S.; Lewis, R. A.; Wallace, M. J.; Hooper, S. B.

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a custom-designed ventilator to deliver a stable pressure to the lungs of small animals for use in imaging experiments. Our ventilator was designed with independent pressure vessels to separately control the Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) and Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) to minimise pressure fluctuations during the ventilation process. The ventilator was computer controlled through a LabVIEW interface, enabling experimental manipulations to be performed remotely whilst simultaneously imaging the lungs in situ. Mechanical ventilation was successfully performed on newborn rabbit pups to assess the most effective ventilation strategies for aerating the lungs at birth. Highly stable pressures enabled reliable respiratory gated acquisition of projection radiographs and a stable prolonged (15 minute) breath-hold for high-resolution computed tomography of deceased rabbit pups at different lung volumes.

  11. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen L.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  12. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Karen L; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992-2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994-2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  13. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  14. Molecular Evolution of Multiple-Level Control of Heme Biosynthesis Pathway in Animal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5′ untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway. PMID:24489775

  15. An animal model allowing controlled receptor expression for molecular ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Saini, Reshu; Sorace, Anna G; Warram, Jason M; Mahoney, Marshall J; Zinn, Kurt R; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Reported in this study is an animal model system for evaluating targeted ultrasound (US) contrast agents binding using adenoviral (Ad) vectors to modulate cellular receptor expression. An Ad vector encoding an extracellular hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter was used to regulate receptor expression. A low and high receptor density (in breast cancer tumor bearing mice) was achieved by varying the Ad dose with a low plaque forming unit (PFU) on day 1 and high PFU on day 2 of experimentation. Targeted US contrast agents, or microbubbles (MB), were created by conjugating either biotinylated anti-HA or IgG isotype control antibodies to the MB surface with biotin-streptavidin linkage. Targeted and control MBs were administered on both days of experimentation and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) was performed on each mouse using MB flash destruction technique. Signal intensities from MBs retained within tumor vasculature were analyzed through a custom Matlab program. Results showed intratumoral enhancement attributable to targeted MB accumulation was significantly increased from the low Ad vector dosing and the high Ad vector dosing (p = 0.001). Control MBs showed no significant differences between day 1 and day 2 imaging (p = 0.96). Additionally, targeted MBs showed a 10.5-fold increase in intratumoral image intensity on day 1 and an 18.8-fold increase in image intensity on day 2 compared with their control MB counterparts. PMID:23122640

  16. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  17. Transcriptional Control of an Essential Ribozyme in Drosophila Reveals an Ancient Evolutionary Divide in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Sathiya N.; Lai, Lien B.; Gopalan, Venkat; Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential enzyme required for 5′-maturation of tRNA. While an RNA-free, protein-based form of RNase P exists in eukaryotes, the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) form is found in all domains of life. The catalytic component of the RNP is an RNA known as RNase P RNA (RPR). Eukaryotic RPR genes are typically transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III). Here we showed that the RPR gene in Drosophila, which is annotated in the intron of a pol II-transcribed protein-coding gene, lacks signals for transcription by pol III. Using reporter gene constructs that include the RPR-coding intron from Drosophila, we found that the intron contains all the sequences necessary for production of mature RPR but is dependent on the promoter of the recipient gene for expression. We also demonstrated that the intron-coded RPR copurifies with RNase P and is required for its activity. Analysis of RPR genes in various animal genomes revealed a striking divide in the animal kingdom that separates insects and crustaceans into a single group in which RPR genes lack signals for independent transcription and are embedded in different protein-coding genes. Our findings provide evidence for a genetic event that occurred approximately 500 million years ago in the arthropod lineage, which switched the control of the transcription of RPR from pol III to pol II. PMID:25569672

  18. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2008-01-01

    Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772

  19. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders: effects on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The benefits of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) for humans with mental disorders have been well-documented using cats and dogs, but there is a complete lack of controlled studies using farm animals as therapeutic agents for psychiatric patients. The study was developed in the context of Green care, a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens, or the landscape in recreational or work-related interventions for different target groups of clients in cooperation with health authorities. The present study aimed at examining effects of a 12-week intervention with farm animals on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life among adult psychiatric patients with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial and follow-up. Ninety patients (59 women and 31 men) with schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders completed questionnaires to assess self-efficacy (Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale; GSE), coping ability (Coping Strategies Scale), and quality of life (Quality of Life Scale; QOLS-N) before, at the end of intervention, and at six months follow-up. Two-thirds of the patients (N = 60) were given interventions; the remaining served as controls. Results There was significant increase in self-efficacy in the treatment group but not in the control group from before intervention (SB) to six months follow-up (SSMA), (SSMA-SB; F1,55 = 4.20, p= 0.05) and from end of intervention (SA) to follow-up (SSMA-SA; F1,55 = 5.6, p= 0.02). There was significant increase in coping ability within the treatment group between before intervention and follow-up (SSMA-SB = 2.7, t = 2.31, p = 0.03), whereas no changes in quality of life was found. There were no significant changes in any of the variables during the intervention. Conclusion AAT with farm animals may have positive influences on self-efficacy and coping ability among psychiatric patients with long lasting psychiatric symptoms. PMID

  20. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Rabivac vaccine for animal rabies control in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To fight animal rabies, Moroccan veterinary authorities organize annual dog mass vaccination campaigns using Rabivac vaccine, an inactivated adjuvanted cell culture veterinary rabies vaccine. Two experiments were undertaken to assess the efficacy and immunogenicity of Rabivac. Materials and Methods The first experiment involved 13 caged dogs (8 vaccinated and 5 negative controls). Dogs were bled at day 0 (D0) and at days D7, D14, D21, D28, D35, D49, D56, D64, D70, D77, D84, D91, D98, D105, D112, and D119 post-vaccination. At D121, a virulent challenge was performed. After 70 days monitoring period, seven out of eight vaccinated dogs survived the challenge (one dog succumbed to a mesenteric torsion accident) and four out of five controls succumbed. All vaccinated dogs seroconverted and the control dogs remained negative. The second experiment consisted in a field study involving 919 owned dogs randomly selected in eight Moroccan districts located in different parts of the country. The dogs were identified and vaccinated by the parenteral route and bled on the vaccination day (D0) and on D30. Results Ninety-two percent of dogs developed a positive rabies virus neutralizing antibody response to vaccination and 24% were positive at D0, suggesting that dogs were previously vaccinated. The increase in rabies antibody titers was highly significant in all districts. No significant difference seemed occurring between the geographical status (rural, semiurban, or urban) of the districts on the results obtained. Conclusion Rabivac is efficacious both in experimental and field conditions. This supports its use in dog mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26866025

  1. Body side-specific control of motor activity during turning in a walking animal

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bockemühl, Till; Büschges, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans need to move deftly and flexibly to adapt to environmental demands. Despite a large body of work on the neural control of walking in invertebrates and vertebrates alike, the mechanisms underlying the motor flexibility that is needed to adjust the motor behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated optomotor-induced turning and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the differences between the leg movements of the two body sides in the stick insect Carausius morosus. We present data to show that the generation of turning kinematics in an insect are the combined result of descending unilateral commands that change the leg motor output via task-specific modifications in the processing of local sensory feedback as well as modification of the activity of local central pattern generating networks in a body-side-specific way. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the specificity of such modifications in a defined motor task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13799.001 PMID:27130731

  2. The prosocial effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled studies in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-10-01

    Users of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others' positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  3. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C L; Biskup, C S; Herpertz, S; Gaber, T J; Kuhn, C M; Hood, S H; Zepf, F D

    2015-09-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  4. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage

  5. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  6. Evaluation of automotive mass airflow sensors for animal environment research and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass air flow is an important parameter to consider in animal research applications, especially for the generation of heat and moisture production data. The high flow rates and low operating pressures in animal research facilities present a unique and costly challenge for measurement of mass air fl...

  7. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is

  8. CONTROLLED DIESEL EXPOSURES: INTER-PHASING HUMAN AND ANIMAL STUDIES AND THEIR USE IN THE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled diesel exposures: Inter-phasing human and animal studies and their use in the risk assessment process.
    Michael C. Madden, US EPA.

    Particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with health effects (e.g., premature deaths, hospitalizations, lung ...

  9. Modelling, Simulation, Animation, and Real-Time Control (Mosart) for a Class of Electromechanical Systems: A System-Theoretic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Armando A.; Metzger, Richard P.; Cifdaloz, Oguzhan; Dhirasakdanon, Thanate; Welfert, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive modelling, simulation, animation, and real-time control (MoSART) environment for a class of 'cart-pendulum' electromechanical systems that may be used to enhance learning within differential equations and linear algebra classes. The environment is useful for conveying fundamental mathematical/systems concepts…

  10. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  11. What Animated Illustrations Conditions Can Improve Technical Document Comprehension in Young Students? Format, Signaling and Control of the Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Guignard, Helene

    2005-01-01

    We study the comprehension of a multimedia technical document about gear functioning by young pupils. The research is focused on the effect of three factors on the construction of a mental model: illustration format (animated versus static) signaling cues (presence versus absence) learner-control of information delivery (three rhythms of…

  12. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-09-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  13. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  14. Transmission of Sarcoptes scabiei from animal to man and its control.

    PubMed

    Mitra, M; Mahanta, S K; Sen, S; Ghosh, C; Hati, A K

    1995-04-01

    Outbreak of Sarcoptes scabiei in animals spilling over to man in close association was observed in two adjacent villages, Fewgram and Nurpur in the district of Birbhum, West Bengal, from mid-November to mid-December, 1991. Nineteen goats and one calf who did not receive any treatment died of sarcoptic manage. All infected animals got cured with external application of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid and triazapentadiene. Human cases were treated successfully with benzene hexachloride (2%). PMID:8699041

  15. Detection of cardiomyopathy in an animal model using quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, K.; Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Brill, A.B.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Atkins, H.L.; Sole, M.J.

    1988-10-01

    A fatty acid analog (15-p-iodophenyl)-3,3 dimethyl-pentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) was studied in cardiomyopathic (CM) and normal age-matched Syrian hamsters. Dual tracer quantitative wholebody autoradiography (QARG) with DMIPP and 2-(/sup 14/C(U))-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) or with FDG and /sup 201/Tl enabled comparison of the uptake of a fatty acid and a glucose analog with the blood flow. These comparisons were carried out at the onset and mid-stage of the disease before congestive failure developed. Groups of CM and normal animals were treated with verapamil from the age of 26 days, before the onset of the disease for 41 days. In CM hearts, areas of decreased DMIPP uptake were seen. These areas were much larger than the decrease in uptake of FDG or /sup 201/Tl. In early CM only minimal changes in FDG or /sup 201/Tl uptake were observed as compared to controls. Treatment of CM-prone animals with verapamil prevented any changes in DMIPP, FDG, or /sup 201/Tl uptake. DMIPP seems to be a more sensitive indicator of early cardiomyopathic changes as compared to /sup 201/Tl or FDG. The trial of DMIPP and SPECT in the diagnosis of human disease, as well as for monitoring the effects of drugs which may prevent it seems to be warranted.

  16. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  17. A Sensory-Motor Control Model of Animal Flight Explains Why Bats Fly Differently in Light Versus Dark

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Nadav S.; Skogestad, Sigurd; Marçal, Jose M.; Ulanovsky, Nachum; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Animal flight requires fine motor control. However, it is unknown how flying animals rapidly transform noisy sensory information into adequate motor commands. Here we developed a sensorimotor control model that explains vertebrate flight guidance with high fidelity. This simple model accurately reconstructed complex trajectories of bats flying in the dark. The model implies that in order to apply appropriate motor commands, bats have to estimate not only the angle-to-target, as was previously assumed, but also the angular velocity (“proportional-derivative” controller). Next, we conducted experiments in which bats flew in light conditions. When using vision, bats altered their movements, reducing the flight curvature. This change was explained by the model via reduction in sensory noise under vision versus pure echolocation. These results imply a surprising link between sensory noise and movement dynamics. We propose that this sensory-motor link is fundamental to motion control in rapidly moving animals under different sensory conditions, on land, sea, or air. PMID:25629809

  18. A sensory-motor control model of animal flight explains why bats fly differently in light versus dark.

    PubMed

    Bar, Nadav S; Skogestad, Sigurd; Marçal, Jose M; Ulanovsky, Nachum; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Animal flight requires fine motor control. However, it is unknown how flying animals rapidly transform noisy sensory information into adequate motor commands. Here we developed a sensorimotor control model that explains vertebrate flight guidance with high fidelity. This simple model accurately reconstructed complex trajectories of bats flying in the dark. The model implies that in order to apply appropriate motor commands, bats have to estimate not only the angle-to-target, as was previously assumed, but also the angular velocity ("proportional-derivative" controller). Next, we conducted experiments in which bats flew in light conditions. When using vision, bats altered their movements, reducing the flight curvature. This change was explained by the model via reduction in sensory noise under vision versus pure echolocation. These results imply a surprising link between sensory noise and movement dynamics. We propose that this sensory-motor link is fundamental to motion control in rapidly moving animals under different sensory conditions, on land, sea, or air. PMID:25629809

  19. Tick-borne Diseases in Animals and USDA Research on Tick Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne diseases represent a major threat to animal health in the United States. The cattle industry in the United States has benefited greatly from the continued USDA efforts through the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in preventing the re-introduction of cattle ticks and associated pathog...

  20. Sources of variation in baseline gene expression levels from toxicogenomics study control animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of gene expression profiling in both clinical and laboratory settings would be enhanced by better characterization ofvariance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis ofmicroarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the con...

  1. Risk factors for MRSA infection in companion animals: results from a case-control study within Germany.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Szilvia; Brandenburg, Anja G; Espelage, Werner; Stamm, Ivonne; Wieler, Lothar H; Kopp, Peter A; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Walther, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    Increasing numbers of companion animals suffering from infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported in the recent past. These infections are of particular concern because of the limited treatment options for MRSA and their transferability to humans. Since MRSA lineages isolated from infected companion animals often mirror typical human epidemic strains circulating in the same region, successful strategies to combat MRSA need strong and coordinated efforts from both, the human and the veterinary field according to the "One Health" concept. Hence, to identify potential risk factors related to MRSA infections in dogs, cats and horses, a case-control study was conducted, including data on 106 MRSA-infected animal patients as cases and 102 MSSA-infected animals as controls, originating from 155 different veterinary settings within Germany. Demographic data on animal patients, patient history and administration of antibiotics as well as practice/clinic specific parameters were assessed as putative risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression identified the following variables as risk factors for MRSA infection compared to MSSA infection: number of employees working at the veterinary setting (n>10; p<0.001), antibiotic treatment prior to sampling (systemic: p=0.002; local: p=0.049, both: p=0.011) and surgical site infection (p<0.001). Spa typing revealed predominantly clonal complexes well-known for hospital-associated lineages spreading in human health-care settings in Germany (CC5 and CC22) for isolates of dog and cat origin. CC398-MRSA dominated among equine isolates, a CC that was described as a nosocomial pathogen in equine clinical settings before. The identified risk factors and genotyping results are in accordance with numerous study outcomes from the field of human medicine and point towards reasonable problems with nosocomial spread of MRSA, especially within companion animal veterinary clinics. To define targeted

  2. Contrasting views of animal healthcare providers on worm control practices for sheep and goats in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Saddiqi, H A; Jabbar, A; Babar, W; Sarwar, M; Iqbal, Z; Cabaret, J

    2012-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the worm control practices and anthelmintic usage of 150 key respondents involved in sheep and goat production in the arid Thal area of Pakistan. The information was collected by visiting farms, and interviewing the key respondents which included veterinary officers (n = 15), veterinary assistants (n = 51), traditional practitioners (n = 24), and small and large scale sheep/goat farm herders and owners (n = 60). Among all interviewed animal healthcare providers, the veterinary officers had the highest level of awareness of parasitic infection and advocated the use of modern available anthelmintics according to the predefined schedule. The farmers on the other hand, had the lowest level of knowledge about parasitic infections. They used modern anthelmintics at low frequencies (every six months) following an unusual practice of diluting the medicine. Veterinary assistants had a medium level of awareness about the parasitic infections using anthelmintic treatments when they deemed necessary rather than following a predefined treatment schedule. Traditional practitioners were also aware of parasitic infections and used traditional anthelmintics or a combination of the traditional and modern anthelmintics. The animal health providers had a different awareness and knowledge of parasitic infections which resulted in contrasting proposals for its' control. The farmers used worm control measures in accordance with their own views and those of animal healthcare advisors, combining modern and traditional treatments. This study provides the first insight into the differing views of those animal healthcare providers who form the basis for effective parasitic control within the sheep and goat industry of an arid region. PMID:22314240

  3. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  4. Cross-cultural management of pest animal damage: a case study of feral buffalo control in Australia's Kakadu National Park.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control. PMID:14986894

  5. NAD kinase controls animal NADP biosynthesis and is modulated via evolutionarily divergent calmodulin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Love, Nick R; Pollak, Nadine; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Chen, Yaoyao; Oliveri, Paola; Amaya, Enrique; Patel, Sandip; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) is a critical cofactor during metabolism, calcium signaling, and oxidative defense, yet how animals regulate their NADP pools in vivo and how NADP-synthesizing enzymes are regulated have long remained unknown. Here we show that expression of Nadk, an NAD(+) kinase-encoding gene, governs NADP biosynthesis in vivo and is essential for development in Xenopus frog embryos. Unexpectedly, we found that embryonic Nadk expression is dynamic, showing cell type-specific up-regulation during both frog and sea urchin embryogenesis. We analyzed the NAD kinases (NADKs) of a variety of deuterostome animals, finding two conserved internal domains forming a catalytic core but a highly divergent N terminus. One type of N terminus (found in basal species such as the sea urchin) mediates direct catalytic activation of NADK by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM), whereas the other (typical for vertebrates) is phosphorylated by a CaM kinase-dependent mechanism. This work indicates that animal NADKs govern NADP biosynthesis in vivo and are regulated by evolutionarily divergent and conserved CaM-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25605906

  6. NAD kinase controls animal NADP biosynthesis and is modulated via evolutionarily divergent calmodulin-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Love, Nick R.; Pollak, Nadine; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Chen, Yaoyao; Oliveri, Paola; Amaya, Enrique; Patel, Sandip; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) is a critical cofactor during metabolism, calcium signaling, and oxidative defense, yet how animals regulate their NADP pools in vivo and how NADP-synthesizing enzymes are regulated have long remained unknown. Here we show that expression of Nadk, an NAD+ kinase-encoding gene, governs NADP biosynthesis in vivo and is essential for development in Xenopus frog embryos. Unexpectedly, we found that embryonic Nadk expression is dynamic, showing cell type-specific up-regulation during both frog and sea urchin embryogenesis. We analyzed the NAD kinases (NADKs) of a variety of deuterostome animals, finding two conserved internal domains forming a catalytic core but a highly divergent N terminus. One type of N terminus (found in basal species such as the sea urchin) mediates direct catalytic activation of NADK by Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM), whereas the other (typical for vertebrates) is phosphorylated by a CaM kinase-dependent mechanism. This work indicates that animal NADKs govern NADP biosynthesis in vivo and are regulated by evolutionarily divergent and conserved CaM-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25605906

  7. Effect of Replacing Animal Protein with Plant Protein on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Stewart, Sarah E.; Jayalath, Viranda H.; Ng, Alena Praneet; Mirrahimi, Arash; de Souza, Russell J.; Hanley, Anthony J.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of replacing sources of animal protein with plant protein on glycemic control has been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of this replacement on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through 26 August 2015. We included RCTs ≥ 3-weeks comparing the effect of replacing animal with plant protein on HbA1c, fasting glucose (FG), and fasting insulin (FI). Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data, assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2-statistic). Thirteen RCTs (n = 280) met the eligibility criteria. Diets emphasizing a replacement of animal with plant protein at a median level of ~35% of total protein per day significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = −0.15%; 95%-CI: −0.26, −0.05%), FG (MD = −0.53 mmol/L; 95%-CI: −0.92, −0.13 mmol/L) and FI (MD = −10.09 pmol/L; 95%-CI: −17.31, −2.86 pmol/L) compared with control arms. Overall, the results indicate that replacing sources of animal with plant protein leads to modest improvements in glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Owing to uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for larger, longer, higher quality trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02037321. PMID:26633472

  8. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  9. Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava and Muenchen animal infections: Implications for epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Arent, Z; Frizzell, C; Gilmore, C; Allen, A; Ellis, W A

    2016-07-15

    Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars - Bratislava and Muenchen - have been associated with disease in domestic animals, in particular pigs, but also in horses and dogs. Similar strains have also been recovered from various wildlife species. Their epidemiology is poorly understood. Two hundred and forty seven such isolates, from UK domestic animal and wildlife species, were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. A representative sub-sample of 65 of these isolates was further examined by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and 22 by secY sequencing. Ten restriction pattern types were identified. The majority of isolates fell into one of three restriction endonuclease analysis pattern types designated B2a, B2b and M2a. B2a was ubiquitous and was isolated from 10 species and represented the majority of the horse and all dog isolates. B2b was very different, being isolated only from pigs, indicating that this type was maintained by pigs. The pattern M2a was reported for the majority of isolates from pigs but also was common in small rodents isolates. Five restriction pattern types were found only in wildlife suggesting that they are unlikely to pose a disease threat to domestic animals. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis identified six clusters. The REA types B2a and B2b were all found in one MLVA cluster while the majority of the M2a strains examined occurred in another cluster. The secY sequencing detected only one sequence type, clustered with other serovars of Leptospira interrogans. PMID:27283852

  10. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  11. Endemic bacteriophages: a cautionary tale for evaluation of bacteriophage therapy and other interventions for infection control in animals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most effective targets for control of zoonotic foodborne pathogens in the farm to fork continuum is their elimination in food animals destined for market. Phage therapy for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminants, the main animal reservoir of this pathogen, is a popular research topic. Since phages active against this pathogen may be endemic in host animals and their environment, they may emerge during trials of phage therapy or other interventions, rendering interpretation of trials problematic. Methods During separate phage therapy trials, sheep and cattle inoculated with 109 to 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 soon began shedding phages dissimilar in plaque morphology to the administered therapeutic phages. None of the former was previously identified in the animals or in their environment. The dissimilar “rogue” phage was isolated and characterized by host range, ultrastructure, and genomic and proteomic analyses. Results The “rogue” phage (Phage vB_EcoS_Rogue1) is distinctly different from the administered therapeutic Myoviridae phages, being a member of the Siphoviridae (head: 53 nm; striated tail: 152 x 8 nm). It has a 45.8 kb genome which is most closely related to coliphage JK06, a member of the “T1-like viruses” isolated in Israel. Detailed bioinformatic analysis reveals that the tail of these phages is related to the tail genes of coliphage lambda. The presence of “rogue” phages resulting from natural enrichments can pose problems in the interpretation of phage therapeutic studies. Similarly, evaluation of any interventions for foodborne or other bacterial pathogens in animals may be compromised unless tests for such phages are included to identify their presence and potential impact. PMID:22985539

  12. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  13. Decoding a neural circuit controlling global animal state in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Patrick; Soltesz, Zoltan; Nelson, Geoffrey M; Chen, Changchun; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto; Levy, Emmanuel; de Bono, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Brains organize behavior and physiology to optimize the response to threats or opportunities. We dissect how 21% O2, an indicator of surface exposure, reprograms C. elegans' global state, inducing sustained locomotory arousal and altering expression of neuropeptides, metabolic enzymes, and other non-neural genes. The URX O2-sensing neurons drive arousal at 21% O2 by tonically activating the RMG interneurons. Stimulating RMG is sufficient to switch behavioral state. Ablating the ASH, ADL, or ASK sensory neurons connected to RMG by gap junctions does not disrupt arousal. However, disrupting cation currents in these neurons curtails RMG neurosecretion and arousal. RMG signals high O2 by peptidergic secretion. Neuropeptide reporters reveal neural circuit state, as neurosecretion stimulates neuropeptide expression. Neural imaging in unrestrained animals shows that URX and RMG encode O2 concentration rather than behavior, while the activity of downstream interneurons such as AVB and AIY reflect both O2 levels and the behavior being executed. PMID:25760081

  14. A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Steneroden, Kay K; Hill, Ashley E; Salman, M D

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures and protocols. Fifty percent of shelters responded to the survey and represented a wide variety of shelter types, sizes and locations. The top-three diseases of concern to shelters were feline upper respiratory disease (FURD), canine parvovirus and ringworm. Concern over these diseases was greater in open-admission shelters (compared to limited admission or no-kill/sanctuary) (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.5) and in shelters with a desire for more zoonotic-disease training (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.5-24.8) (compared to shelters desiring infectious-disease training, training on cleaning and disinfection or those who have no need for further training). In 45% of responding shelters many to most animals arrive with infectious diseases. Written protocols for preventive medicine exist in 88% of shelters, cleaning and disinfection protocols in 75%, specific disease protocols for outbreak situations in 36% and infection-control manuals in 15%. Veterinarians are in charge of infection-control in 6% of shelters. Approximately 45% of shelters vaccinate dogs and cats for rabies. Infectious-disease training is provided to 30% of staff and 35% of volunteers upon hire. Overall, volunteers received less training in infectious- and zoonotic-disease identification, prevention and control than staff members. Ninety percent of shelters said they would benefit from training in infectious and zoonotic disease. Results from this study can be used to assess and address needs in animal shelters relating to infection-control, infectious and

  15. Controller-driven VRML animation of the next-generation inspection system (NGIS) real-time controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouffer, Keith; Horst, John A.

    2001-02-01

    Virtual objects in a web-based environment can be interfaced to and controlled by external real world controllers. A Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) inspection cell was created that models a real-time inspection system. The tested consists of a Cordax Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), a vision system for determining the part position and orientation, and an open architecture controller. Because of the open architecture, data such as the probe position and the part position and orientation, can be obtained from the controller to drive a VRML model of the system. The VRML CMM is driven using a socket connection between the collaborator's web browser and the real world controller. The current probe position, which is stored in a world model buffer in the controller, is collected by a Java applet running on the web page. The applet updates the VRML model of the CMM via the External Authoring Interface of the VRML plug-in. The part position and orientation is obtained from the vision system and the part is updated in the VRML model to represent the part's real world position and orientation. The remote access web site also contains a client-controlled pan/tilt/zoom camera, which sends video to the client allowing them to monitor a remote inspection with a PC and an Internet connection.

  16. VALIDATION OF EMBRYO TESTS FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF FUNGAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS ON NONTARGET AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to conidiospores of the fungal weed control agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, f. sp. aeschynomene, and the entomopathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. nly Metarhiz...

  17. [Questionnaire on the incidence and control of fleas in dogs and cats presented to German small animal practices].

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    2590 small animal practitioners in Germany have been asked by a questionnaire from which 1694 (65.4%) replied. 1186 of these veterinarians (70%) often see ectoparasite infestation. Fleas are predominant and occur on cats (1016/60%), followed by dogs (424/25%), small mammals and birds (254/15%). Flea infestations on dogs and cats are observed throughout the year, but the prevalences are generally higher during the summer season. The results reveal that topically administered spot-on formulations is the most popular method used for flea control. The most common applied antiparasitic substances both in dogs and in cats were fipronil (535/31.6%; 690/40.7%), imidacloprid (290/17.1%; 417/24.6%) and selamectin (267/15.8%; 319/18.8%). Due to 771 (45.5%) of the answering veterinarians the animal owner himself, and according 694 (41%) respectively 229 (13.5%) of the replies the veterinarian or the veterinary technician applies the antiparasiticide onto the skin. 1457 veterinarians (86%) administer compounds against adult fleas and their developmental stages also in the animal's environment. PMID:17009722

  18. Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.

    PubMed

    Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control. PMID:24001810

  19. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  20. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  1. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the…

  2. Epidemic Spreading in an Animal Trade Network - Comparison of Distance-Based and Network-Based Control Measures.

    PubMed

    Büttner, K; Krieter, J; Traulsen, A; Traulsen, I

    2016-02-01

    This study considered a simple SIR model for the spread of epidemics amongst holdings of a producer community in Northern Germany, based on the directed network of animal movements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different control measures to reduce the epidemic size substantially. The currently applied control measures based on the distance to an infected holding were compared with the control measures based on the specific network-based centrality parameters. We found that network-based measures led to a more efficient control of epidemics with a much smaller number of removed holdings. To assess the impact of different holding types, the analysed control measures were implemented by both including and excluding these holding types. The comparison revealed a crucial role of multipliers in the spread of an epidemic. The network-based control measures depending on the removal by out-degree, outgoing infection chain, betweenness centrality and outgoing closeness centrality showed the best results: In the three-year network, on average, 2.75, 4.15, 3.73 and 3.43 times more holdings had to be removed by the control measures based on the 1, 3, 5 and 10 km radius to reduce the epidemic to the same size compared with the network-based control measures. In an area with a higher holding density, the improvement of the network-based control measures may become even more obvious. The removal of holdings based on the above-mentioned centrality parameters did thus not only rapidly decompose the network into fragments, but also reduced the epidemic size most efficiently. PMID:25056832

  3. Detection and control of a nosocomial outbreak caused by Salmonella Newport at a large animal hospital

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective – To describe active surveillance, early recognition, and aggressive mitigation efforts that allowed control of an outbreak of nosocomial S. Newport infections in a large referral hospital without closure. Design – Longitudinal outbreak investigation Procedures – An outbreak of S. Newpor...

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis Exacerbates the Severity of Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice. A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Animal Study.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pretreated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund's adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8 weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT (µCT) and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by µCT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening, lamina dura loss, and cortex thinning. ZA prevented these changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could

  6. Improvements on Restricted Insecticide Application Protocol for Control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Picozzi, Kim; Hatendorf, Jan; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Susan Christina; Kabasa, John David; Waiswa, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomes constrain livestock and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, and aggravate poverty and hunger of these otherwise largely livestock-keeping communities. To solve this, there is need to develop and use effective and cheap tsetse control methods. To this end, we aimed at determining the smallest proportion of a cattle herd that needs to be sprayed on the legs, bellies and ears (RAP) for effective Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT/AAT) control. Methodology/Principal finding Cattle in 20 villages were ear-tagged and injected with two doses of diminazene diaceturate (DA) forty days apart, and randomly allocated to one of five treatment regimens namely; no treatment, 25%, 50%, 75% monthly RAP and every 3 month Albendazole drench. Cattle trypanosome re-infection rate was determined by molecular techniques. ArcMap V10.3 was used to map apparent tsetse density (FTD) from trap catches. The effect of graded RAP on incidence risk ratios and trypanosome prevalence was determined using Poisson and logistic random effect models in R and STATA V12.1 respectively. Incidence was estimated at 9.8/100 years in RAP regimens, significantly lower compared to 25.7/100 years in the non-RAP regimens (incidence rate ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22–0.65; P<0.001). Likewise, trypanosome prevalence after one year of follow up was significantly lower in RAP animals than in non-RAP animals (4% vs 15%, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08–0.44; P<0.001). Contrary to our expectation, level of protection did not increase with increasing proportion of animals treated. Conclusions/significance Reduction in RAP coverage did not significantly affect efficacy of treatment. This is envisaged to improve RAP adaptability to low income livestock keepers but needs further evaluation in different tsetse challenge, HAT/AAT transmission rates and management systems before adopting it for routine tsetse control programs. PMID:25356758

  7. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT. PMID:26671582

  8. Meat consumption, animal products, and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro Luis; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; De Stefani, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, all incident cases of bladder cancer were included in a case-control study in order to study the role of meat consumption and product animals in the etiology of urothelial cancer. The study included 225 cases and 1,510 hospitalized controls with non-neoplastic conditions, not related to smoking and alcohol drinking. Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were calculated in order to clarify the effect of meat consumption in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Total meat consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), total processed meat (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27), frankfurters (hot dogs) (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21), ham (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.67) and salted meat (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.18) were positively associated with risk of bladder cancer. Animal products, like cheese, whole milk, and total eggs were also associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for eggs 4.05, 95% CI 2.68-6.12). In conclusion, total meat, processed meat, and eggs could play an important role in the etiology of bladder cancer in Uruguay. PMID:25081704

  9. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed. PMID:27624561

  10. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  11. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  12. Antifungal nanofibers made by controlled release of sea animal derived peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Juliane F. C.; Carrijo, Jéssica; Freitas, Camila G.; Paul, Arghya; Alcaraz, Jarib; Lacorte, Cristiano C.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Andrade, César A.; Falcão, Rosana; Santos, Nuno C.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Otero-González, Anselmo J.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2015-03-01

    Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the scaffold. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy were used to measure the diameters, showing that Cm-p1 affects fiber morphology as well as the diameter and scaffold thickness. The Cm-p1 release behavior from the nanofibers demonstrated peptide release from 30 min to three days, leading to effective yeast control in the first 24 hours. Moreover, the biocompatibility of the fibers were evaluated through a MTS assay as well as ROS production by using a HUVEC model, showing that the fibers do not affect cell viability and only nanofibers containing 10% Cm-p1-PVA improved ROS generation. In addition, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α by the HUVECs was also slightly modified by the 10% Cm-p1-PVA nanofibers. In conclusion, the electrospinning technique applied here allowed for the manufacture of biodegradable biomimetic nanofibrous extracellular membranes with the ability to control fungal infection.Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the

  13. Psychobiology of cocaine addiction: Contribution of a multi-symptomatic animal model of loss of control.

    PubMed

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Transition to addiction is the shift from controlled to uncontrolled drug use that occurs after prolonged drug intake in a limited number of drug users. A major challenge of addiction research in recent years has been to develop models for studying this pathological transition. Toward this goal, a DSM-IV/5-based multi-symptomatic model of cocaine addiction has been developed in the rat. It is based on an operational translation of the main features of the disease. 1. Addiction is not just taking drug; it is a non-adaptive drug use: The procedure models addiction in relation to its clinical definition. 2. All drug users do not face the same individual risk of developing addiction: The model includes an individual-based approach. 3. Addiction develops after protracted periods of controlled drug use: This procedure allows for the study of the long-term shift from controlled drug use to addiction. We describe this model in detail and show how it can contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23916478

  14. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

    PubMed

    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals. PMID:25274621

  15. 78 FR 63477 - Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 20, 2012 (77 FR 37059), FDA published the notice of... Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal Drug for Use in Companion Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Effectiveness of a New Animal Drug for Use in Companion Animals.'' This guidance advises industry on the use...

  16. An integrated system for synchronous culture of animal cells under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Pérez, Elena; Hernández, Vanessa; Palomares, Laura A; Serrato, José A

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle has fundamental effects on cell cultures and their products. Tools to synchronize cultured cells allow the study of cellular physiology and metabolism at particular cell cycle phases. However, cells are most often arrested by methods that alter their homeostasis and are then cultivated in poorly controlled environments. Cell behavior could then be affected by the synchronization method and culture conditions used, and not just by the particular cell cycle phase under study. Moreover, only a few viable cells are recovered. Here, we designed an integrated system where a large number of cells from a controlled bioreactor culture is separated by centrifugal elutriation at high viabilities. In contrast to current elutriation methods, cells are injected directly from a bioreactor into an injection loop, allowing the introduction of a large number of cells into the separation chamber without stressful centrifugation. A low pulsation peristaltic pump increases the stability of the elutriation chamber. Using this approach, a large number of healthy cells at each cell cycle phase were obtained, allowing their direct inoculation into fully instrumented bioreactors. Hybridoma cells synchronized and cultured in this system behaved as expected for a synchronous culture. PMID:27625207

  17. From individual control to majority rule: extending transactional models of reproductive skew in animal societies.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Hudson Kern; Jeanne, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Transactional concession models of social evolution explain the reproductive skew within groups by assuming that a dominant individual completely controls the allocation of reproduction to other group members. The models predict when the dominant will benefit from donating parcels of reproduction to other members in return for peaceful cooperation. Using linear programming methods, we present a 'majority-rules' model in which the summed actions of all society members, each with equal power, completely determine the reproductive share of any single member. The majority-rules model predicts that, despite the diffusion of power, a 'virtual dominant' (a dominant lacking special behavioural power) will emerge and that the reproductive skew will be exactly that predicted if the virtual dominant were to control completely the group's reproductive partitioning. The virtual dominant is the individual to which group members have the maximum average genetic relatedness. This result greatly broadens the applicability of transactional models of reproductive skew to social groups of any size, such as large-colony eusocial insects, and explains why queens in such colonies can achieve reproductive domination without any behavioural enforcement. Moreover, the majority-rules model unifies transactional-skew theory with models of worker policing and even generates a new theory for the cooperation among somatic cells in a multicellular organism. PMID:12803893

  18. Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population. A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of Jodhpur from September to November, 2005 indicated that low body condition score (70%), skin conditions (69%) and tick infestation (68%) were the most common health problems in this population. An observational study of 888 stray dogs on the streets of Jodhpur from March to April, 2006 revealed that sterilized dogs were more likely to have a higher body condition score (BCS) than sexually intact dogs when controlling for age, based on a multinomial regression model. However, sterilized dogs were more likely to have a skin condition than sexually intact dogs, based on a logistic regression model. Our observations of the surgical/kennel facility indicated that an effective tick control program was needed. Additionally, the current parasite control protocol at the kennel/shelter facility was inadequate to treat mange, a contact-transmitted skin disease. This is the first study to evaluate the associations between an ABC program and stray dog health, apart from rabies. PMID:21144606

  19. Low attentive and high impulsive rats: A translational animal model of ADHD and disorders of attention and impulse control.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Andrew; Tomlinson, Anneka; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-02-01

    Many human conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia and drug abuse are characterised by deficits in attention and impulse control. Carefully validated animal models are required to enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders, enabling development of improved pharmacotherapy. Recent models have attempted to recreate the psychopathology of these conditions using chemical lesions or genetic manipulations. In a diverse population, where the aetiology is not fully understood and is multifactorial, these methods are restricted in their ability to identify novel targets for drug discovery. Two tasks of visual attention and impulsive action typically used in rodents and based on the human continuous performance task (CPT) include, the well-established 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) and the more recently validated, 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) which provides enhanced translational value. We suggest that separating animals by behavioural performance into high and low attentive and impulsivity cohorts using established parameters in these tasks offers a model with enhanced translational value. In this review, methods to separate animals are compared and the results discussed to highlight advantages over more constrained models, in addition to potential future directions for enhanced validation. Advantages include reliability, flexibility and enhanced translation to clinical conditions, all important considerations in modelling ADHD, schizophrenia and drug abuse, conditions with multifactorial aetiology. Based on the existing evidence, we suggest that future studies should incorporate an element of behavioural separation when studying the constructs of visual attention and impulsive action of relevance to human disorders. PMID:26617216

  20. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  1. Endovanilloid control of pain modulation by the rostroventromedial medulla in an animal model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Martins, D; Charrua, A; Piscitelli, F; Tavares, I; Morgado, C; Di Marzo, V

    2016-08-01

    The involvement of transient receptor vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels in pain modulation by the brain remains understudied. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) plays a key role in conveying to the spinal cord pain modulatory influences triggered in higher brain centres, with co-existence of inhibitory (antinociceptive) and facilitatory (pronociceptive) effects. In spite of some reports of TRPV1 expression in the RVM, it remains unknown if endovanilloid signalling plays a direct role in local pain modulation. Here we used a model of diabetic neuropathy, the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat, to study the role of endovanilloid signalling in RVM-mediated pain modulation during chronic pain. Four weeks after diabetes induction, the levels of TRPV1 mRNA and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a crucial enzyme for endovanilloid catabolism, in the RVM of STZ-diabetic rats were higher than control. The RVM of STZ-diabetic rats presented decreased levels of several TRPV1 endogenous ligands, namely anandamide (AEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). Administration of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) into the RVM decreased nociceptive behavioural responses in the inflammatory phase of the formalin test (phase 2). These findings suggest that diabetic neuropathy induces plastic changes of RVM endovanilloid signalling, indicating that TRPV1 may be a putative target for pain modulation in this chronic pain condition. PMID:26965218

  2. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided. PMID:27137450

  3. Are children with autism more responsive to animated characters? A study of interactions with humans and human-controlled avatars.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Williams, Diane L; Hodgins, Jessica K; Lehman, Jill F

    2014-10-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4- to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and cartoon characters who sought social responses. We found superior gestural and verbal responses to the therapist; intermediate response levels to the avatar and the actor; and poorest responses to the cartoon characters, although attention was equivalent across conditions. These results suggest that even avatars that provide live, responsive interactions are not superior to human therapists in eliciting verbal and non-verbal communication from children with autism in this age range. PMID:24859047

  4. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the living animal. Both treatments were based on the self-determination theory. More than 400 pupils filled in pre-test, post-test and two follow-up-tests (with a delay of 6-8 weeks and 7-8 months). After each lesson, pupils rated the lesson on a short intrinsic motivation scale. In the meta-analysis, we found that the living animal treatments significantly scored better than a control group, but not when comparing living animals with alternative treatments. In the treatment-control study, both treatments led to a significant increase in knowledge but there were no differences between film and living animal treatment. Pre-test and previous grading had a significant influence on post- and both follow-up tests. In the mouse lesson, pupils of the living animal group showed higher values in interest and competence and lower values in pressure. Interest and competence correlated positively with achievement, while pressure correlated negatively.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics model of avian tracheal temperature control as a model for extant and extinct animals.

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, N S; Arkali, F; Witzel, U; Perry, S F

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory evaporative cooling is an important mechanism of temperature control in bird. A computational simulation of the breathing cycle, heat and water loss in anatomical avian trachea/air sac model has not previously been conducted. We report a first attempt to simulate a breathing cycle in a three-dimensional model of avian trachea and air sacs (domestic fowl) using transient computational fluid dynamics. The airflow in the trachea of the model is evoked by changing the volume of the air sacs based on the measured tidal volume and inspiratory/expiratory times for the domestic fowl. We compare flow parameters and heat transfer results with in vivo data and with our previously reported results for a two-dimensional model. The total respiratory heat loss corresponds to about 13-19% of the starvation metabolic rate of domestic fowl. The present study can lend insight into a possible thermoregulatory function in species with long necks and/or a very long trachea, as found in swans and birds of paradise. Assuming the structure of the sauropod dinosaur respiratory system was close to avian, the simulation of the respiratory temperature control (using convective and evaporative cooling) in the extensively experimentally studied domestic fowl may also help in making simulations of respiratory heat control in these extinct animals. PMID:23797184

  6. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  7. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  8. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  9. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  10. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  11. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  12. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  13. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  14. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  15. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  16. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  17. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  18. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication. PMID:27344911

  19. Food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, K; Rajagunalan, S; Chakraborty, S; Verma, A K; Kumar, A; Tiwari, R; Kapoor, S

    2013-10-15

    The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance

  20. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  1. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  2. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  3. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  4. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  5. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, P<0.01) and the P450 amplitude (F(3,27)=3.57, P<0.05) was present for normal pre-adolescents which was absent in pathological pre-adolescents. Moreover, enhanced N450 ERP amplitudes to our Memory Workload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, P<0.004). Furthermore, significant differences between normal and pathological groups were found in bilateral electrodermal activity (F(1,18)=23.86, P<0.001) and on the Mangina-Test performance (F(1,18)=75.35, P<0.001). Our present research findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning disabled/ADHD with severe behavioral disorders as opposed to normal subjects. PMID:10828376

  6. Animal learning and training: implications for animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Brando, Sabrina I C A

    2012-09-01

    Exotic animals are housed in a variety of settings, from pets at home, as display animals housed in wildlife centers and zoos, to those kept for interactive and outreach programs. The behavioral management program and medical care are major parts of an excellent animal care program. Because animals learn all the time, albeit through different mechanisms, animals are almost always "in training." Understanding animal learning when caring for and treating animals can greatly improve their welfare during experiences that are often related to involuntary procedures and where animals have little control over living conditions or procedures. PMID:22998957

  7. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  9. A review of Brucella seroprevalence among humans and animals in Bangladesh with special emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors and control opportunities.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Werre, Stephen R; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M

    2013-10-25

    Brucellosis is a neglected bacterial zoonotic disease in many countries affecting both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to review published reports of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and dogs) in Bangladesh. The prevalence studies are based primarily on the following serological tests: rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBT), plate agglutination test (PAT), tube agglutination test (TAT), mercaptoethanol agglutination test (MET), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), slow agglutination test (SAT), milk ring test (MRT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (I-ELISA), competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) and fluorescent polarization assay (FPA). Seroprevalences of brucellosis were found to be affected by the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests employed. Brucellosis prevalence varied based on occupations of people (2.5-18.6%) and species of animals (3.7% in cattle, 4.0% in buffalo, 3.6% in goats and 7.3% in sheep). The prevalence of brucellosis in humans was reported in livestock farmers (2.6-21.6%), milkers (18.6%), butchers (2.5%) and veterinarians (5.3-11.1%) who have direct contact with animal and its products or who consume raw milk. According to published reports brucellosis does affect people and livestock of Bangladesh. There is an immediate need for a concerted effort to control and eradicate brucellosis from domesticated animals in Bangladesh. PMID:23867082

  10. Animal studies of life shortening and cancer risk from space radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    The U. S. Air Force study of the delayed effects of single, total body exposures to simulated space radiation in rhesus monkeys is now in its 21st year. Observations on 301 irradiated and 57 age-matched control animals indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be expressed as a logarithmic function of the dose. The primary causes of life shortening are cancer and endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Life shortening estimates permit comparison of the risk associated with space radiation exposures to be compared with that of other occupational and environmental hazards, thereby facilitating risk/benefit decisions in the planning and operational phases of manned space missions. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of human is, therefore, critical to the assessment of life-time cancer risk.

  11. Efficacy and safety of damage control in experimental animal models of injury: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is now widely used to manage major trauma patients, the procedure and its component interventions have not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While some have suggested the need for such trials, they are unlikely to be conducted because of patient safety concerns. As animal studies may overcome several of the limitations of existing observational damage control studies, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of damage control versus definitive surgery in experimental animal models of injury. Methods/design We will search electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library), conference abstracts, personal files, and bibliographies of included articles. We will include RCTs and prospective cohort studies that utilized an animal model of injury and compared damage control surgery (or specific damage control interventions or adjuncts) to definitive surgery (or specific definitive surgical interventions). Two investigators will independently evaluate the internal and external/construct validity of individual studies. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes will include blood loss amounts; blood pressures and heart rates; urinary outputs; core body temperatures; arterial lactate, pH, and base deficit/excess values; prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times; international normalized ratios; and thromboelastography (TEG) results/activated clotting times. We will calculate summary relative risks (RRs) of mortality and mean differences (for continuous outcomes) using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. Heterogeneity will be explored using subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression. We will assess for publication bias using funnel plots and Begg’s and Egger’s tests. When evidence of publication bias exists, we will use the Duval and Tweedie trim

  12. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...

  13. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  14. Involvement of Norepinephrine in the Control of Activity and Attentive Processes in Animal Models of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, D.; Ruocco, L. A.; Arcieri, S.; Sadile, A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Functional and morphological studies in children affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest a prefrontal cortex (PFc) dysfunction. This cortical region is regulated by subcortical systems including noradrenergic (NEergic), dopaminergic (DAergic), cholinergic, serotonergic, and histaminergic pathways. A wealth of data in humans and in animal models demonstrates altered dopamine (DA) regulation. Drugs that modulate norepinephrine (NE) transmission are also effective in ADHD patients, thus leading to the hypothesis of a NEergic disorder. This review covers the regulation of PFc functions by NE and the interaction between the NE and DA systems, as suggested by pharmacological, electrophysiological, morphological, and gene knock out (KO) studies. A negative feedback between NE and DA neurons emerges from KO studies because KO mice showing increased (NE transporter (NET) KO) or decreased (DBH and VMAT2 KO) NE levels are respectively associated with lower and higher DA levels. Locomotor activity can be generally predicted by the DA level, whereas sensitivity to amphetamines is by NE/DA balance. Some animal models of ADHD, such as spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), show alterations in the PFc and in the DA system. Evidence about a correlation between the NE system and hyper-locomotion activity in such animals has not yet been clarified. Therefore, this review also includes recent evidence on the behavioral effects of two NET blockers, reboxetine and atomoxetine, in two animal models of ADHD: SHR and Naples High Excitability rats. As these drugs modulate the DA level in the PFc, certain effects are likely to be due to a rebalanced DA system. We discuss the significance of the results for theories of ADHD and make suggestions for future experimentation. PMID:15303310

  15. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  16. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  17. Diffusion Tensor and Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Measures as Biomarkers of Brain Damage in a Small Animal Model of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Margaret R.; Peterson, Kristin L.; Ibrahim, Wael G.; Lee, Dianne E.; Sarlls, Joelle; Lizak, Martin J.; Maric, Dragan; Reid, William C.; Hammoud, Dima A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no widely accepted neuro-HIV small animal models. We wanted to validate the HIV-1 Transgenic rat (Tg) as an appropriate neuro-HIV model and then establish in vivo imaging biomarkers of neuropathology, within this model, using MR structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods Young and middle-aged Tg and control rats were imaged using MRI. A subset of middle-aged animals underwent longitudinal repeat imaging six months later. Total brain volume (TBV), ventricular volume (VV) and parenchymal volume (PV = TBV–VV) were measured. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values of the corpus callosum (CC) were calculated from DTI data. Results TBV and PV were smaller in Tg compared to control rats in young and middle-aged cohorts (p<0.0001). VV increased significantly (p = 0.005) over time in the longitudinal Tg cohort. There were lower FA (p<0.002) and higher MD (p<0.003) values in the CC of middle-aged Tg rats compared to age-matched controls. Longitudinally, MD significantly decreased over time in Tg rats (p<0.03) while it did not change significantly in the control cohort over the same period of time (p>0.05). Conclusions We detected brain volume loss in the Tg rat, probably due to astrocytic dysfunction/loss, loss of structural/axonal matrix and striatal neuronal loss as suggested by immunofluorescence. Increased MD and decreased FA in the CC probably reflect microstructural differences between the Tg and Control rats which could include increased extracellular space between white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, among other pathologies. We believe that the Tg rat is an adequate model of neuropathology in HIV and that volumetric MR and DTI measures can be potentially used as biomarkers of disease progression. PMID:25144656

  18. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. PMID:25802363

  19. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  20. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain. PMID:10818819

  1. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  2. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  3. [Incus, controlled deepfrozen or in cialit conserved, after allogenetic implantation. An animal-experimental study with comparing histology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eitschberger, E; Heine, W D; Waller, W; Gammert, C

    1977-07-29

    The histological reactions to the implantation of allogenetic incus after conservation in Cialit or after controlled deepfreezing are described. After 5 months the incusses of both conservation technics show the same good tendency of revitalisation. Therefore the controlled deep-freezing technic does not offer an advantage compared to the Cialit conservation method at least for the present state of knowledge. PMID:578732

  4. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  5. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  6. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  7. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  8. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  9. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  10. Adaptability of Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) for Weed Control in Site of Animals Buried after Foot-and-Mouth Disease Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Iki, Yusuke; Inoue, Kouhei; Nagata, Shuhei; Idota, Sachiko; Yokota, Masato; Nishiwaki, Aya

    2016-01-01

    After the infection of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010, cattle and swine were slaughtered and buried in a site of 100 ha, where weed control is difficult and costly since lands are unlevelled and prohibited to be plowed for 3 years. To consider the adaptability of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) to the animal burial site for weed control, two napiergrass varieties, normal Wruk wona (WK) and dwarf late-heading variety (DL), were transplanted, compared with sowing of maize (MZ) and sorghum (SR) in both burial (BU) and neighboring bordered area (BO) in mid-June 2011. Even though several weed control methods were subjected to lands, MZ and SR failed to be established stably at only 1/3–1/2 due to the suppression of growth by indigenous weeds, while WK and DL successfully established as high as 82–91% and 73–85%, respectively, in 2011. The poor establishment of MZ and SR after sowing tended to be increased with the year from establishment. Plant dry matter yield and cellulose concentration were the highest in WK in 2011, while overwintering ability was constantly higher in DL in the 3 years. It is necessary to consider the utilization of forage plants on the animal burial site. PMID:27274886

  11. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir How can you prevent rabies in animals? There are several things you can do to ... properly cared for or vaccinated regularly. Finally, call animal control to remove all stray animals from your ...

  12. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  13. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  14. The endocrine system controlling sexual reproduction in animals: Part of the evolutionary ancient but well conserved immune system?

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-15

    Drastic changes in hormone titers, in particular of steroid hormones, are intuitively interpreted as necessary and beneficial for optimal functioning of animals. Peaks in progesterone- and estradiol titers that accompany the estrus cycle in female vertebrates as well as in ecdysteroids at each molt and during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects are prominent examples. A recent analysis of insect metamorphosis yielded the view that, in general, a sharp rise in sex steroid hormone titer signals that somewhere in the body some tissue(s) is undergoing programmed cell death/apoptosis. Increased steroid production is part of this process. Typical examples are ovarian follicle cells in female vertebrates and invertebrates and the prothoracic gland cells, the main production site of ecdysteroids in larval insects. A duality emerges: programmed cell death-apoptosis is deleterious at the cellular level, but it may yield beneficial effects at the organismal level. Reconciling both opposites requires reevaluating the probable evolutionary origin and role of peptidic brain hormones that direct steroid hormone synthesis. Do e.g. Luteinizing Hormone in vertebrates and Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH: acting through the Torso receptor) in insects still retain an ancient role as toxins in the early immune system? Does the functional link of some neuropeptides with Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis make sense in endocrine archeology? The endocrine system as a remnant of the ancient immune system is undoubtedly counterintuitive. Yet, we will argue that such paradigm enables the logical framing of many aspects, the endocrine one inclusive of both male and female reproductive physiology. PMID:26707056

  15. Essential role of eIF5-mimic protein in animal development is linked to control of ATF4 expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translational control of ATF4 through upstream ORFs (uORFs) plays an important role in eukaryotic gene regulation. While ATF4 translation is typically induced by inhibitory phosphorylation of eIF2, ATF4 translation can be also induced by expression of a new translational inhibitor protein, eIF5-mimi...

  16. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... reopening the comment period for the notice, published in the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767), FDA published a notice with... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and...

  17. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified. PMID:17652071

  18. Synthesis and quality control of fluorodeoxyglucose and performance assessment of Siemens MicroFocus 220 small animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaterpekar, Siddhesh Nitin

    The scope of this article is to cover the synthesis and quality control procedures involved in production of Fludeoxyglucose (18F--FDG). The article also describes the cyclotron production of 18F radioisotope and gives a brief overview on operations and working of a fixed energy medical cyclotron. The quality control procedures for FDG involve radiochemical and radionuclidic purity tests, pH tests, chemical purity tests, sterility tests, endotoxin tests. Each of these procedures were carried out for multiple batches of FDG with a passing rate of 95% among 20 batches. The article also covers the quality assurance steps for the Siemens MicroPET Focus 220 Scanner using a Jaszczak phantom. We have carried out spatial resolution tests on the scanner, with an average transaxial resolution of 1.775mm with 2-3mm offset. Tests involved detector efficiency, blank scan sinograms and transmission sinograms. A series of radioactivity distribution tests are also carried out on a uniform phantom, denoting the variations in radioactivity and uniformity by using cylindrical ROIs in the transverse region of the final image. The purpose of these quality control tests is to make sure the manufactured FDG is biocompatible with the human body. Quality assurance tests are carried on PET scanners for efficient performance, and to make sure the quality of images acquired is according to the radioactivity distribution in the subject of interest.

  19. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  20. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  1. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  2. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  3. Understanding attitudes toward the control of nonnative wild and feral mammals: similarities and differences in the opinions of the general public, animal protectionists, and conservationists in New Zealand (aotearoa).

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Watson, Helen; Adams, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    Lethal control is used extensively in New Zealand to control nonnative nonhuman mammals. Respondents were surveyed about 8 mammal groups considered pests and their attitudes toward their control and pest status. They also identified the most appropriate method of control for the 8 different mammals. Information was gathered from 3 groups of respondents: nonhuman animal protectionists, conservationists, and the general public. Conservationists routinely rated all animal groups as more severe pests than the general public or animal protectionists, who provided the lowest scores. Rats, stoats, brushtail possums, and rabbits were identified as the 4 most serious pests by all 3 groups. Conservationists were 5.7 and 2.6 times more likely to prefer a lethal method of control than protectionists and the general public, respectively. For all 3 groups an increase in pest score for a given animal saw a decline in importance placed upon the animal's welfare. This relationship was strong for the general public but weak for conservationists and animal protectionists. Understanding aspects of potentially opposing viewpoints may be invaluable in supporting the development of new welfare-focused control methods. PMID:23927074

  4. Geographic information systems applied to the international surveillance and control of transboundary animal diseases, a focus on highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; De Simone, Lorenzo; Lubroth, Juan

    2007-01-01

    To respond to the lack of early warning in dealing with livestock diseases, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) developed and launched the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) programme in 1994. Emphasis was placed on the prevention of emergencies due to transboundary epidemic diseases of livestock of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance. EMPRES early warning activities, mainly based on disease surveillance, reporting and epidemiological analysis are supported by the EMPRES-i information system which enables integration, analysis and sharing of animal health data, combined with relevant layers of information, such as socio-economic, production and climatic data. Indeed, data integration, analysis and mapping represent a key step towards a better understanding of the distribution and behaviour, source and evolution of a disease (or infection) for the definition of appropriate cost-effective disease control strategies. With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in South-East Asia and its rapid spread beyond its known original distribution range, through its EMPRES programme the FAO has invested time and resources in the implementation of several studies to reveal HPAI epidemiological features in specific ecosystems of Asia and advise member countries accordingly on the best disease control options. Some of the key findings are presented in this paper and illustrate the incredible potential of using geographic information systems as part of international early warning systems and their multiple applications in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases, such as HPAI. PMID:20422520

  5. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  6. Small-Animal PET Imaging of Tau Pathology with 18F-THK5117 in 2 Transgenic Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Probst, Federico; Overhoff, Felix; Korzhova, Viktoria; Lindner, Simon; Carlsen, Janette; Bartenstein, Peter; Harada, Ryuichi; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Haass, Christian; Van Leuven, Fred; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of tau aggregates in the brain is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We visualized tau deposition in vivo with the previously developed 2-arylquinoline derivative (18)F-THK5117 using small-animal PET in conjunction with autoradiography and immunohistochemistry gold standard assessment in 2 transgenic mouse models expressing hyperphosphorylated tau. Small-animal PET recordings were obtained in groups of P301S (n = 11) and biGT mice (n = 16) of different ages, with age-matched wild-type (WT) serving as controls. After intravenous administration of 16 ± 2 MBq of (18)F-THK5117, a dynamic 90-min emission recording was initiated for P301S mice and during 20-50 min after injection for biGT mice, followed by a 15-min transmission scan. After coregistration to the MRI atlas and scaling to the cerebellum, we performed volume-of-interest-based analysis (SUV ratio [SUVR]) and statistical parametric mapping. Small-animal PET results were compared with autoradiography ex vivo and in vitro and further validated with AT8 staining for neurofibrillary tangles. SUVRs calculated from static recordings during the interval of 20-50 min after tracer injection correlated highly with estimates of binding potential based on the entire dynamic emission recordings (R = 0.85). SUVR increases were detected in the brain stem of aged P301S mice (+11%; P < 0.001) and in entorhinal/amygdaloidal areas (+15%; P < 0.001) of biGT mice when compared with WT, whereas aged WT mice did not show increased tracer uptake. Immunohistochemical tau loads correlated with small-animal PET SUVR for both P301S (R = 0.8; P < 0.001) and biGT (R = 0.7; P < 0.001) mice, and distribution patterns of AT8-positive neurons matched voxelwise statistical parametric mapping analysis. Saturable binding of the tracer was verified by autoradiographic blocking studies. In the first dedicated small-animal PET study in 2 different transgenic tauopathy mouse models using the tau tracer

  7. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  8. Collaborative approach in the development of high-performance brain-computer interfaces for a neuroprosthetic arm: translation from animal models to human control.

    PubMed

    Collinger, Jennifer L; Kryger, Michael A; Barbara, Richard; Betler, Timothy; Bowsher, Kristen; Brown, Elke H P; Clanton, Samuel T; Degenhart, Alan D; Foldes, Stephen T; Gaunt, Robert A; Gyulai, Ferenc E; Harchick, Elizabeth A; Harrington, Deborah; Helder, John B; Hemmes, Timothy; Johannes, Matthew S; Katyal, Kapil D; Ling, Geoffrey S F; McMorland, Angus J C; Palko, Karina; Para, Matthew P; Scheuermann, Janet; Schwartz, Andrew B; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Solzbacher, Florian; Srikameswaran, Anita V; Swanson, Dennis P; Swetz, Scott; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Velliste, Meel; Wang, Wei; Weber, Douglas J; Wodlinger, Brian; Boninger, Michael L

    2014-02-01

    Our research group recently demonstrated that a person with tetraplegia could use a brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a sophisticated anthropomorphic robotic arm with skill and speed approaching that of an able-bodied person. This multiyear study exemplifies important principles in translating research from foundational theory and animal experiments into a clinical study. We present a roadmap that may serve as an example for other areas of clinical device research as well as an update on study results. Prior to conducting a multiyear clinical trial, years of animal research preceded BCI testing in an epilepsy monitoring unit, and then in a short-term (28 days) clinical investigation. Scientists and engineers developed the necessary robotic and surgical hardware, software environment, data analysis techniques, and training paradigms. Coordination among researchers, funding institutes, and regulatory bodies ensured that the study would provide valuable scientific information in a safe environment for the study participant. Finally, clinicians from neurosurgery, anesthesiology, physiatry, psychology, and occupational therapy all worked in a multidisciplinary team along with the other researchers to conduct a multiyear BCI clinical study. This teamwork and coordination can be used as a model for others attempting to translate basic science into real-world clinical situations. PMID:24528900

  9. COLLABORATIVE APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES FOR A NEUROPROSTHETIC ARM: TRANSLATION FROM ANIMAL MODELS TO HUMAN CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Collinger, Jennifer; Kryger, Michael; Barbara, Richard; Betler, Timothy; Bowsher, Kristen; Brown, Elke HP; Clanton, Samuel T.; Degenhart, Alan; Foldes, Stephen; Gaunt, Robert A; Gyulai, Ferenc E; Harchick, Elizabeth A; Harrington, Deborah; Helder, John B; Hemmes, Timothy; Johannes, Matthew S; Katyal, Kapil D; Ling, Geoffrey SF; McMorland, Angus JC; Palko, Karina; Para, Matthew P; Scheuermann, Janet; Schwartz, Andrew; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Solzbacher, Florian; Srikameswaran, Anita V.; Swanson, Dennis P; Swetz, Scott; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Velliste, Meel; Wang, Wei; Weber, Douglas J; Wodlinger, Brian; Boninger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Our research group recently demonstrated that a person with tetraplegia could use a brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a sophisticated anthropomorphic robotic arm with skill and speed approaching that of an able-bodied person. This multi-year study exemplifies important principles in translating research from foundational theory and animal experiments into a clinical study. We present a roadmap that may serve as an example for other areas of clinical device research as well as an update on study results. Prior to conducting a multi-year clinical trial, years of animal research preceded BCI testing in an epilepsy monitoring unit, and then in a short term (28 days) clinical investigation. Scientists and engineers developed the necessary robotic and surgical hardware, software environment, data analysis techniques, and training paradigms. Coordination among researchers, funding institutes and regulatory bodies ensured that the study would provide valuable scientific information in a safe environment for the study participant. Finally, clinicians from neurosurgery, anesthesiology, physiatry, psychology and occupational therapy all worked in a multidisciplinary team along with the other researchers to conduct a multi-year BCI clinical study. This teamwork and coordination can be used as a model for others attempting to translate basic science into real-world clinical situations. PMID:24528900

  10. Longitudinal design for sonographic measurement of median nerve swelling with controlled exposure to physical work using an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Evans, Kevin D.; Volz, Kevin R.; Sommerich, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a longitudinal design to sonographically measure swelling of the median nerve due to controlled exposure to a work task and to evaluate the relationship of changes in morphology to diagnostic standards. Fifteen macaca fascicularis pinched a lever in various wrist positions at a self-regulated pace (8 hours/day, 5 days/week, 18–20 weeks). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and cross-sectional area (CSA) were obtained every two weeks from baseline through working and a 6-week recovery. Trending across all subjects showed that NCV slowed and CSA at the carpal tunnel increased in the working arm, while no changes were observed in CSA either at the forearm or for any measure in the non-working arm. There was a small negative correlation between NCV and CSA in the working arm. This study provides validation that swelling can be observed using a longitudinal design. Longitudinal human studies are needed to describe the trajectory of nerve swelling for early identification of median nerve pathology. PMID:24139197

  11. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  12. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. “One-session treatment” guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants’ expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  13. Colored Indicator Undergloves Increase the Detection of Glove Perforations by Surgeons During Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Oliver P.; Parsons, Kevin J.; Burton, Neil J.; Langley‐Hobbs, Sorrel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of colored indicator gloves affects perforation detection rate and to identify risk factors for glove perforation during veterinary orthopedic surgery. Study Design Prospective randomized controlled trial. Sample Population 574 double pairs of gloves worn during 300 orthopedic surgical procedures (2,296 gloves). Methods Primary and assistant surgeons double‐gloved for all orthopedic surgical procedures. Type of inner glove (standard or colored indicator) was randomized for the first 360 double pairs of gloves worn by surgeons during 180 procedures. Perforations detected by surgeons were recorded and gloves changed if requested. For a further 120 procedures, indicator gloves were used exclusively. All gloves were leak‐tested after surgery to identify perforations. Association between potential risk factors and perforation was explored using multivariate logistical regression analysis. Results Glove perforations occurred during 43% of surgeries with a mean of 2.3 holes/surgery. Inner gloves were intact in 63% of glove pairs where an outer perforation occurred. Intraoperative perforation detection was improved when colored indicator gloves were worn (83% sensitivity) vs. standard gloves (34% sensitivity; P<.001). Independent risk factors for perforation were placement of plates and/or screws (P=.001; OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.0), placement of an external skeletal fixator (P=.002; OR=7.0; 95% CI, 2.1–23.8), use of orthopedic wire (P=.011; OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7), and primary surgeon being board‐certified (P=.016; OR=1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1). Conclusion Increased surgeon recognition of glove perforations through use of colored indicator gloves enables prompt change of gloves if perforation occurs and may reduce potential contamination of the surgical site. PMID:27412490

  14. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed. PMID:20003615

  15. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  16. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  17. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  18. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  19. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  20. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  1. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  2. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B₁₂, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement. PMID:24168874

  3. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. Methods and analysis A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants’ demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. Ethics and dissemination The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial

  4. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to evaluate "Animal Fun" - a program designed to enhance physical and mental health in young children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with poor motor ability have been found to engage less in physical activities than other children, and a lack of physical activity has been linked to problems such as obesity, lowered bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, if children are confident with their fine and gross motor skills, they are more likely to engage in physical activities such as sports, crafts, dancing and other physical activity programs outside of the school curriculum which are important activities for psychosocial development. The primary objective of this project is to comprehensively evaluate a whole of class physical activity program called Animal Fun designed for Pre-Primary children. This program was designed to improve the child's movement skills, both fine and gross, and their perceptions of their movement ability, promote appropriate social skills and improve social-emotional development. Methods The proposed randomized and controlled trial uses a multivariate nested cohort design to examine the physical (motor coordination) and psychosocial (self perceptions, anxiety, social competence) outcomes of the program. The Animal Fun program is a teacher delivered universal program incorporating animal actions to facilitate motor skill and social skill acquisition and practice. Pre-intervention scores on motor and psychosocial variables for six control schools and six intervention schools will be compared with post-intervention scores (end of Pre-Primary year) and scores taken 12 months later after the children's transition to primary school Year 1. 520 children aged 4.5 to 6 years will be recruited and it is anticipated that 360 children will be retained to the 1 year follow-up. There will be equal numbers of boys and girls. Discussion If this program is found to improve the child's motor and psychosocial skills, this will assist in the child's transition into the first year of school. As a result of these changes, it is anticipated that

  5. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R.; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L.; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human–animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6–month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre–program with post–program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre–session with post–session salivary cortisol and alpha–amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty–two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6–month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT–treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice–weekly 1–h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT–treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT–treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology

  6. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human-animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre-program with post-program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre-session with post-session salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty-two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6-month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT-treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice-weekly 1-h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT-treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT-treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology. Adherence to the AAT

  7. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  8. Nonantibiotic interventions to control pathogens and undesired microbial activities in mixed microbial populations residing in the gut of food-producing animals and their excreted wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intensification and industrialization of animal agriculture throughout the world has led to considerable increases in animal production efficiencies but has also led to concerns that microbial pathogens, antibiotic residues, and other chemical contaminants could be concentrated in the environmen...

  9. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  10. Use of glucose consumption rate (GCR) as a tool to monitor and control animal cell production processes in packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, F; Papp, F; Ruffieux, P-A; Bernard, A R; Kadouri, A; von Stockar, U

    2006-03-01

    For animal cell cultures growing in packed-bed bioreactors where cell number cannot be determined directly, there is a clear need to use indirect methods that are not based on cell counts in order to monitor and control the process. One option is to use the glucose consumption rate (GCR) of the culture as an indirect measure to monitor the process in bioreactors. This study was done on a packed-bed bioreactor process using recombinant CHO cells cultured on Fibra-Cel disk carriers in perfusion mode at high cell densities. A key step in the process is the switch of the process from the cell growth phase to the production phase triggered by a reduction of the temperature. In this system, we have used a GCR value of 300 g of glucose per kilogram of disks per day as a criterion for the switch. This paper will present results obtained in routine operations for the monitoring and control of an industrial process at pilot-scale. The process operated with this GCR-based strategy yielded consistent, reproducible process performance across numerous bioreactor runs performed on multiple production sites. PMID:16153735

  11. Using Animal Models to Determine the Role of Gustatory Neural Input in the Control of Ingestive Behavior and the Maintenance of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ciullo, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Decades of research have suggested that nutritional intake contributes to the development of human disease, mainly by influencing the development of obesity and obesity-related conditions. A relatively large body of research indicates that functional variation in human taste perception can influence nutritional intake as well as body mass accumulation. However, there are a considerable number of studies that suggest that no link between these variables actually exists. These discrepancies in the literature likely result from the confounding influence of a variety of other, uncontrolled, factors that can influence ingestive behavior. Strategy In this review, the use of controlled animal experimentation to alleviate at least some of these issues related to the lack of control of experimental variables is discussed. Specific examples of the use of some of these techniques are examined. Discussion and conclusions The review will close with some specific suggestions aimed at strengthening the link between gustatory neural input and its putative influence on ingestive behaviors and the maintenance of body weight. PMID:26557212

  12. Animal Intuitions.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  13. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  14. "Carbon in Underland": A multidisciplinary approach to producing an informative animated video for the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geological CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Cappuccio, J. A.; Berry, I.; Miller, J.; Bourg, I. C.; Kelly, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the 'Science for Our Nation's Energy Future, Summit and Forum', each of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) created in 2009 by the US Department of Energy was invited to design a short, engaging film with the central goal to educate, inspire, and entertain an intelligent but not expert audience about the extraordinary science, innovation and people in their center. The Center for Nanoscale Control of Geological CO2 (NCGC) is an EFRC that is building a next generation understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes critical to controlling the flow,transport, and ultimate mineralization in porous rock media, in particular as applied to geologic sequestration of CO2. In response to the invitation, the NCGC assembled a team that included several young scientists, the Center project manager, and members from the Public Affairs and Creative Services Office of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the objective of preparing a submission. A videographer from the Creative Services Office was responsible for overall management including production, art direction, and editing, while scientists from the Center were responsible for scientific content and original storyline concept. The Center project manager facilitated the communication between team members. A group of scientists together with the project manager developed the original idea, which was refined and given shape as a script in dialogue form by a science writer from Public Affairs. The objective was to communicate scientific content in an entertaining manner with a simple storyline. In a second phase, the script was revised further by scientists for content. Clips from experiments and modeling simulations were requested from the Center's scientists to illustrate the scientific content. Video production and animation were done by the videographer and an animator in an iterative process that involve feedback from the Center team. The final cut was edited to meet the maximum length

  15. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  16. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  17. Participatory methods for the assessment of the ownership status of free-roaming dogs in Bali, Indonesia, for disease control and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morters, M K; Bharadwaj, S; Whay, H R; Cleaveland, S; Damriyasa, I Md; Wood, J L N

    2014-09-01

    The existence of unowned, free-roaming dogs capable of maintaining adequate body condition without direct human oversight has serious implications for disease control and animal welfare, including reducing effective vaccination coverage against rabies through limiting access for vaccination, and absolving humans from the responsibility of providing adequate care for a domesticated species. Mark-recapture methods previously used to estimate the fraction of unowned dogs in free-roaming populations have limitations, particularly when most of the dogs are owned. We used participatory methods, described as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), as a novel alternative to mark-recapture methods in two villages in Bali, Indonesia. PRA was implemented at the banjar (or sub-village)-level to obtain consensus on the food sources of the free-roaming dogs. Specific methods included semi-structured discussion, visualisation tools and ranking. The PRA results agreed with the preceding household surveys and direct observations, designed to evaluate the same variables, and confirmed that a population of unowned, free-roaming dogs in sufficiently good condition to be sustained independently of direct human support was unlikely to exist. PMID:24910425

  18. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection among adult cats at an animal control center: association of viremia with phenotype and season.

    PubMed

    McMichael, J C; Stiers, S; Coffin, S

    1986-04-01

    The overall frequency of feline leukemia virus infection among 555 cats tested from the Hillsborough County Florida Animal Control facility, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was 9.4%. Among male cats, the frequency was 13.8%, which was statistically higher (P = 0.003) than that for females (5.9%). There was no statistical evidence to associate frequency of viral infection with hair length or coloration. There was an association with color distribution. The frequency of viral infection in cats with a solid color in their coat, excluding tabby, calico, and tortoise, was higher (12.2%) than the frequency in the remainder of the cats (5.5%; P = 0.011). Finally, there was a difference in frequency related to season. For the 10 months of the study, cats collected in the 5 cooler months (January, February, March, April, and October) had a frequency of 14.6%; cats obtained in the 5 warmer months (May, June, July, August, and September) had a frequency of 7.2% (P = 0.038). PMID:3008609

  19. Animal models of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  20. Immunocontraception in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Purswell, B J; Kolster, Kara A

    2006-08-01

    There is real need worldwide to control the population growth of companion animals. Throughout the world and particularly in the United States, overpopulation of unwanted dogs and cats is a concern for many reasons. Feral populations pose risk to native species by spread of disease and predation. That unwanted animals are humanely eradicated is of concern to many persons. The need to control population growth has led to various approaches to contraception, including immunocontraception. Concerns regarding efficacy, duration of action, harm to the individual, and species specificity are among the issues being addressed. As new technologies emerge, ethical, political, and safety issues evoke differing opinions. It is hoped that in the near future, different strategies will be developed to solve this disturbing problem. PMID:16837035

  1. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  2. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  3. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  4. Alpha 2A adrenergic receptor agonist, guanfacine, attenuates cocaine-related impairments of inhibitory response control and working memory in animal models.

    PubMed

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Schade, Rosann; Kille, Nancy J; Plagenhoef, Marc

    2014-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that centrally acting α2A adrenergic receptor agonists can attenuate impairments in executive function that result from dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. Such positive effects resulted in the recent approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the α2A agonists clonidine and guanfacine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but also suggest that they could have beneficial effects in substance abuse disorders and other neuropsychiatric conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate guanfacine for its ability to attenuate behavioral alterations associated with acute cocaine exposure in rats trained to perform a task of sustained attention, the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) and monkeys trained to perform a task of working/short term memory, the delayed match to sample (DMTS) task. In the rodent 5C-SRTT acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cocaine (3.5-15.0mg/kg) did not affect accuracy, but was associated with dose-dependent increases in premature responses and timeout responses. Guanfacine (0.1-1.0mg/kgi.p.) dose-dependently decreased premature responses and timeout responses associated with cocaine and it attenuated similar deficits in inhibitory response control observed in a variable ITI version of the 5C-SRTT. In the DMTS task in monkeys, acute intramuscular (i.m.) administration of cocaine (4.0mg/kg) was associated with impairments in accuracy at long delay intervals, an effect that was attenuated by guanfacine (0.4mg/kg). These animal studies suggest that guanfacine may have therapeutic potential for treating impairments of executive function that are associated with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:25242808

  5. Alpha 2A adrenergic receptor agonist, guanfacine, attenuates cocaine-related impairments of inhibitory response control and working memory in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alvin V.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Schade, Rosann; Kille, Nancy J.; Plagenhoef, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that centrally acting α2A adrenergic receptor agonists can attenuate impairments in executive function that result from dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. Such positive effects resulted in the recent approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the α2A agonists clonidine and guanfacine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but also suggest that they could have beneficial effects in substance abuse disorders and other neuropsychiatric conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate guanfacine for its ability to attenuate behavioral alterations associated with acute cocaine exposure in rats trained to perform a task of sustained attention, the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) and monkeys trained to perform a task of working/short term memory, the delayed match to sample task (DMTS). In the rodent 5C-SRTT acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cocaine (3.5–15.0 mg/kg) did not affect accuracy, but was associated with dose-dependent increases in premature responses and timeout responses. Guanfacine (0.1–1.0 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently decreased premature responses and timeout responses associated with cocaine and it attenuated similar deficits in inhibitory response control observed in a variable ITI version of the 5C-SRTT. In the DMTS task in monkeys, acute intramuscular (i.m.) administration of cocaine (4.0 mg/kg) was associated with impairments in accuracy at long delay intervals, an effect that was attenuated by guanfacine (0.4 mg/kg). These animal studies suggest that guanfacine may have therapeutic potential for treating impairments of executive function that are associated with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:25242808

  6. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C.; Yuan, David C.; Gold, David A.; Jacobs, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  7. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  8. New "light" for one-world approach toward safe and effective control of animal diseases and insect vectors from leishmaniac perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang Poo; Kolli, Bala K

    2016-01-01

    Light is known to excite photosensitizers (PS) to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of oxygen. This modality is attractive for designing control measures against animal diseases and pests. Many PS have a proven safety record. Also, the ROS cytotoxicity selects no resistant mutants, unlike other drugs and pesticides. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) refers to the use of PS as light activable tumoricides, microbicides and pesticides in medicine and agriculture.Here we describe "photodynamic vaccination" (PDV) that uses PDT-inactivation of parasites, i.e. Leishmania as whole-cell vaccines against leishmaniasis, and as a universal carrier to deliver transgenic add-on vaccines against other infectious and malignant diseases. The efficacy of Leishmania for vaccine delivery makes use of their inherent attributes to parasitize antigen (vaccine)-presenting cells. Inactivation of Leishmania by PDT provides safety for their use. This is accomplished in two different ways: (i) chemical engineering of PS to enhance their uptake, e.g. Si-phthalocyanines; and (ii) transgenic approach to render Leishmania inducible for porphyrinogenesis. Three different schemes of Leishmania-based PDV are presented diagrammatically to depict the cellular events resulting in cell-mediated immunity, as seen experimentally against leishmaniasis and Leishmania-delivered antigen in vitro and in vivo. Safety versus efficacy evaluations are under way for PDT-inactivated Leishmania, including those further processed to facilitate their storage and transport. Leishmania transfected to express cancer and viral vaccine candidates are being prepared accordingly for experimental trials.We have begun to examine PS-mediated photodynamic insecticides (PDI). Mosquito cells take up rose bengal/cyanosine, rendering them light-sensitive to undergo disintegration in vitro, thereby providing a cellular basis for the larvicidal activity seen by the same treatments. Ineffectiveness of

  9. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  10. Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

  11. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  12. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. PMID:27033924

  13. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  14. Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  15. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  16. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  17. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  18. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  19. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  20. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  1. Prolonged weightlessness (300 plus days) and cardiac performance in primates. 1: Neuro-humoral mechanisms in the control of cardiac and vascular performance in conscious animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Research during the period 1 Oct. 1971 to 1 Oct. 1972 is reported. Studies discussed include: development of techniques for instrumentation of dogs and other animals, effects of temporary application of lower body negative pressure, and effect of infusing selected drugs on ventricular performance.

  2. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  3. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  4. Novel Radiopaque UHMWPE Sublaminar Wires in a Growth-Guidance System for the Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis: Feasibility in a Large Animal Study.

    PubMed

    Bogie, R; Roth, Ak; Faber, S; de Jong, Jja; Welting, Tjm; Willems, Pc; Arts, Jj; van Rhijn, Lw

    2014-09-29

    Study Design. In vivo analysis in an ovine model.Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of radiopaque UHMWPE sublaminar wires in a growth-guidance spinal system by assessing stability, biocompatibility and growth potential.Summary of Background Data. Several growth-guidance systems have been developed for the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). The use of gliding pedicle screws and metal sublaminar wires during these procedures can cause metal-on-metal debris formation and neurological deficits. Novel radiopaque UHMWPE wires are introduced to safely facilitate longitudinal growth and provide stability in a growth-guidance system for EOS.Methods. Twelve immature sheep received posterior segmental spinal instrumentation; pedicle screws were inserted at L5 and radiopaque UHWMPE (bismuth trioxide) wires were passed sublaminarly at each level between L3 and T11 and fixed to dual cobalt-chromiun rods. Four age-matched, unoperated animals were evaluated to serve as a control group. Radiographs were taken to measure growth of the instrumented segment. After 24 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the spines were harvested for histological evaluation and high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) analysis.Results. No neurological deficits occurred and all instrumentation remained stable. One animal died from an unknown cause. Substantial growth occurred in the instrumented segments (L5-T11) in the intervention group (27± 2 mm), which was not significantly different to the control group, (30 ± 4mm, p = 0.42). HR-pQCT analysis clearly showed safe routing and fixation of the UHMWPE wires and instrumentation. Despite the noted growth, ectopic bone formation with the formation of bony bridges was observed in all animals. Histology revealed no evidence of chronic inflammation or wear debris.Conclusions. This study shows the first results of radiopaque UHMWPE sublaminar wires as part of a growth guidance spinal system. UHMWPE sublaminar wires

  5. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non‐human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  6. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  7. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  8. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

  9. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  10. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  11. Animal issues and society.

    PubMed

    Grabau, J H

    1993-05-01

    Animal use topics are sensitive issues today. Animal uses issues are often presented as black and white or 'we' are right and 'they' are wrong. This is clearly demonstrated in the available literature from most organizations. Topics presented will include: delineation of issues and concerned groups; examples of animal issues in education and agriculture; the terrorist issue; examples of animal issues/sportsman issues; examples of political and legislative impact; and examples of biomedical and toxicology animal use issues. PMID:8516774

  12. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  13. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  14. The Great Ape Project: legislating for the control of the use of non-human hominids in research, testing and teaching--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    PubMed

    Wells, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand), which commenced on January 1 2000, provides that the use of non-human hominids in research, testing or teaching is not permitted unless the Director-General of Agriculture approves the use, and then, only if the use is in the interests of the non-human hominid itself or its species. The Animal Welfare Act 1999 originated with two parliamentary bills. The first, a private member's bill in the name of Pete Hodgson MP, was tabled in 1997, and the second, a Government measure, was tabled a year later. Neither bill made any reference to non-human hominids. The Great Ape Project made submissions that non-human hominids be afforded similar rights to humans, i.e. not to be deprived of life, not to be subjected to torture or cruel treatment and not to be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation. Proponents and opponents of the measure argued for and against the tenet of introducing "rights" issues into what was essentially "welfare" legislation. These arguments are analysed, and the legislative process that enabled this modification is examined. PMID:23577482

  15. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  16. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  17. 76 FR 76894 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA provides for use of tilmicosin Type C medicated feeds by veterinary feed directive for the control of bovine respiratory disease in groups of beef and......

  18. Risk of infectious gastroenteritis in young children living in Québec rural areas with intensive animal farming: results of a case-control study (2004-2007).

    PubMed

    Levallois, P; Chevalier, P; Gingras, S; Déry, P; Payment, P; Michel, P; Rodriguez, M

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of severe gastroenteritis in children living in Québec rural areas with intensive livestock activities. From September 2005 through June 2007, 165 cases of gastroenteritis in children aged from 6 months to 5 years, hospitalized or notified to the public health department were enrolled, and 326 eligible controls participated. The parents of cases and controls were asked questions about different gastroenteritis risk factors. The quality of the drinking water used by the participants was investigated for microbial indicators as well as for four zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Yersinia spp) and two enteric parasites (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia spp). From 134 stool specimen analysed, viruses were detected in 82 cases (61%), while 28 (21%) were found with at least one of the bacteria investigated, and five cases were infected by parasites. Campylobacteriosis was the main bacterial infection (n = 15), followed by Salmonella sp (n = 7) and E. coli O157:H7 (n = 5) among cases with bacterial gastroenteritis. No significant difference was found between cases and controls regarding the quality of water consumed; the frequency of faecal contamination of private wells was also similar between cases and controls. Considering the total cases (including those with a virus), no link was found between severe gastroenteritis and either being in contact with animals or living in a municipality with the highest animal density (4th quartile). However, when considering only cases with a bacterial or parasite infection (n = 32), there was a weak association with pig density that was not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Contact with domestic, zoo or farm animals were the only environmental factor associated with the disease. PMID:23406420

  19. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  20. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

  1. Animal models in myopia research.

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita

    2015-11-01

    Our current understanding of the development of refractive errors, in particular myopia, would be substantially limited had Wiesel and Raviola not discovered by accident that monkeys develop axial myopia as a result of deprivation of form vision. Similarly, if Josh Wallman and colleagues had not found that simple plastic goggles attached to the chicken eye generate large amounts of myopia, the chicken model would perhaps not have become such an important animal model. Contrary to previous assumptions about the mechanisms of myopia, these animal models suggested that eye growth is visually controlled locally by the retina, that an afferent connection to the brain is not essential and that emmetropisation uses more sophisticated cues than just the magnitude of retinal blur. While animal models have shown that the retina can determine the sign of defocus, the underlying mechanism is still not entirely clear. Animal models have also provided knowledge about the biochemical nature of the signal cascade converting the output of retinal image processing to changes in choroidal thickness and scleral growth; however, a critical question was, and still is, can the results from animal models be applied to myopia in children? While the basic findings from chickens appear applicable to monkeys, some fundamental questions remain. If eye growth is guided by visual feedback, why is myopic development not self-limiting? Why does undercorrection not arrest myopic progression even though positive lenses induce myopic defocus, which leads to the development of hyperopia in emmetropic animals? Why do some spectacle or contact lens designs reduce myopic progression and others not? It appears that some major differences exist between animals reared with imposed defocus and children treated with various optical corrections, although without the basic knowledge obtained from animal models, we would be lost in an abundance of untestable hypotheses concerning human myopia. PMID:26769177

  2. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products. PMID:26470463

  3. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  4. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  5. Animations in spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J.; Bolland, T. Kenneth; Ziegler, Michael G.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, Ole Haglund mentioned in this journal that it was possible to incorporate animations into spreadsheets. We would like to describe what might be an easier way to incorporate animations into spreadsheets using Excel™ software.

  6. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  7. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals. PMID:17633300

  8. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  9. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  10. Development of a community-based intervention for the control of Chagas disease based on peridomestic animal management: an eco-bio-social perspective

    PubMed Central

    De Urioste-Stone, Sandra M.; Pennington, Pamela M.; Pellecer, Elizabeth; Aguilar, Teresa M.; Samayoa, Gabriela; Perdomo, Hugo D.; Enríquez, Hugo; Juárez, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management strategies depend on local eco-bio-social conditions, community participation, political will and inter-sectorial partnership. Previously identified risk factors for persistent Triatoma dimidiata infestation include the presence of rodents and chickens, tiled roofs, dirt floors, partial wall plastering and dog density. Methods A community-based intervention was developed and implemented based on cyclical stakeholder and situational analyses. Intervention implementation and evaluation combined participatory action research and cluster randomized pre-test post-test experimental designs. The intervention included modified insecticide application, education regarding Chagas disease and risk factors, and participatory rodent control. Results At final evaluation there was no significant difference in post-test triatomine infestation between intervention and control, keeping pre-test rodent and triatomine infestations constant. Knowledge levels regarding Chagas disease and prevention practices including rodent control, chicken management and health service access increased significantly only in intervention communities. The odds of nymph infection and rat infestation were 8.3 and 1.9-fold higher in control compared to intervention communities, respectively. Conclusion Vector control measures without reservoir control are insufficient to reduce transmission risk in areas with persistent triatomine infestation. This integrated vector management program can complement house improvement initiatives by prioritizing households with risk factors such as tiled roofs. Requirement for active participation and multi-sectorial coordination poses implementation challenges. PMID:25604767

  11. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  12. Animals of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on how desert animals have adapted to dryness and heat, how and when animals move on the desert, and nocturnal/diurnal animals. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy pages are included for a…

  13. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  15. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to SUI with the goal of developing prophylactic treatments. Methods of assessing SUI in animals that mimic diagnostic methods used clinically have been developed to evaluate the animal models. Use of these animal models to test innovative treatment strategies has the potential to improve clinical management of SUI. This chapter provides a review of the available animal models of SUI, as well as a review of the methods of assessing SUI in animal models, and potential treatments that have been tested on these models. PMID:21290221

  16. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  17. Facial animation reconstruction from FAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lu; Zhang, Jingyu

    2000-04-01

    In MPEG-4, two sets of parameters are defined: Facial Definition Parameters (FDPs) and Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs). The FDPs are used to customize the proprietary face model of the decoder to a particular face or to download a face model along with the information about how to animate it. And the FAPs are based on the study of minimal facial actions and are closely related to muscle actions, they represent a complete set of basic facial actions, and therefore allow the representation of most facial expressions. In this paper, we propose a simple key-point displacement-controlling muscle model, which describes how the adjacent facial tissue moves with the key points to reconstruct facial animation using FAPs.

  18. Severe acute respiratory failure managed with continuous positive airway pressure and partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal by an artificial membrane lung. A controlled, randomized animal study.

    PubMed

    Borelli, M; Kolobow, T; Spatola, R; Prato, P; Tsuno, K

    1988-12-01

    Using an animal model of acute respiratory failure (ARF), we evaluated two treatments: conventional mechanical pulmonary ventilation (MV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with extracorporeal removal of CO2 by an artificial membrane lung. We developed a model of "mild" ARF and a model of "severe" ARF after ventilating healthy sheep at a peak inspiratory pressure of 50 cm H2O for various lengths of time. Sheep from either injury models were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment groups. All 16 sheep from the model with "severe" ARF died, with progressive deterioration in pulmonary function and multiorgan failure irrespective of the treatment. Of 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated by MV, only three survived, whereas all 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated with CPAP and extracorporeal removal of CO2 responded well, and nine sheep ultimately recovered. We conclude that CPAP with extracorporeal removal of CO2 provided a better environment for the recovery in our model with "mild" ARF than the conventional arrangement centered on MV alone. Our studies also suggest that lung injury can progress (i.e., model with "severe" ARF) to where neither of the two treatments can succeed. PMID:3144216

  19. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  20. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  1. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  2. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  3. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  4. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. PMID:26868238

  5. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  6. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  7. Extrapyramidal system neurotoxicity: animal models.

    PubMed

    Dorman, David

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system's extrapyramidal system provides involuntary motor control to the muscles of the head, neck, and limbs. Toxicants that affect the extrapyramidal system are generally clinically characterized by impaired motor control, which is usually the result of basal ganglionic dysfunction. A variety of extrapyramidal syndromes are recognized in humans and include Parkinson's disease, secondary parkinsonism, other degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, and clinical syndromes that result in dystonia, dyskinesia, essential tremor, and other forms of tremor and chorea. This chapter briefly reviews the anatomy of the extrapyramidal system and discusses several naturally occurring and experimental models that target the mammalian (nonhuman) extrapyramidal system. Topics discussed include extrapyramidal syndromes associated with antipsychotic drugs, carbon monoxide, reserpine, cyanide, rotenone, paraquat, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and manganese. In most cases, animals are used as experimental models to improve our understanding of the toxicity and pathogenesis of these agents. Another agent discussed in this chapter, yellowstar thistle poisoning in horses, however, represents an important spontaneous cause of parkinsonism that naturally occurs in animals. The central focus of the chapter is on animal models, especially the concordance between clinical signs, neurochemical changes, and neuropathology between animals and people. PMID:26563791

  8. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  9. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  10. Lightning safety of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  11. The dying animal.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  12. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  13. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host's normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects. PMID:22619489

  14. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  15. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Heiene, Reidun; Kristiansen, Veronica; Teige, Jon; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure. PMID:17480218

  16. [Handling of animals for slaughter according to animal welfare regulations].

    PubMed

    Stegen, D

    1993-02-01

    According to animal protection the transport and proceeding of slaughtering are a difficult topic to cope with. The section of people is often restricted to distrust and rejection. In order to achieve improvement we need laws which prescribe the transport standards in particular with regard to the duration of driving and resting periods and the feeding. Transports which exceed 12 h enlarge the risk of disregarding laws and prescriptions and should on principle be prohibited. At least the important coherence between protection of slaughter animals on the one hand and the meat quality on the other hand requires a careful treatment of the animals from the producer to the slaughtering. The only successful options are strict control and high penalties. To get the method of narcosis of pigs out of common criticism we should lead our minds into a new direction: In this case animal protection should be more reflected to than meat hygiene problems and therefore the possibility of a provoked heart failure before the bleeding out should be realized. PMID:8462422

  17. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

  18. Animal research facility for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated animal research facility is planned by NASA for Space Station Freedom which will permit long-term, man-tended experiments on the effects of space conditions on vertebrates. The key element in this facility is a standard type animal habitat which supports and maintains the animals under full bioisolation during transport and during the experiment. A holding unit accommodates the habitats with animals to be maintained at zero gravity; and a centrifuge, those to be maintained at artificial gravity for control purposes or for gravity threshold studies. A glovebox permits handling of the animals for experimental purposes and for transfer to a clean habitat. These facilities are described, and the aspects of environmental control, monitoring, and bioisolation are discussed.

  19. [Quality management in animal welfare].

    PubMed

    Stehr, D; Baumgarte, J

    2007-04-01

    In the EC since Jan. 1st 2006 the Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 requires also in the field of animal welfare uniform official controls of a consistently high quality on the basis of documented procedures. Rised demands for the administration necessitate nowadays an all-embracing conception and controlling of the system. Therefore the land of Lower Saxony developed an uniform process-oriented conception for all involved official authorities based on ISO 9001 (EQUINO -Uniform Quality Management in Official Organisations for Consumer Protection in Lower Saxony) and implemented it including a system of internal audits. PMID:17484501

  20. Ode to an Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  1. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  2. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  3. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  4. Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveen, Lois

    2007-01-01

    It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet. This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating…

  5. Animal leptospirosis in Malaya*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. E. Gordon; Turner, L. H.; Harrison, J. L.; Broom, J. C.

    1961-01-01

    In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen. PMID:20604085

  6. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  7. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  8. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  9. Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  10. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  11. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  12. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  13. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  14. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of “animal enhancement”, at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  15. Animals in research.

    PubMed

    Smith, S J; Hendee, W R

    1988-04-01

    The authors urge American physicians and scientists to undertake a primary role in defending the use of animals in biomedical research against a strategy of progressively more restrictive legislation and regulation initiated by determined and well-financed opponents. They argue that medical progress may be impeded by the objectives of both those who seek only more humane treatment of an absolute minimum of research animals and those whose belief in animals' moral rights precludes all use of animals. Smith and Hendee maintain that the greatest danger to animal research is not the activities of its opponents but the inactivity of its defenders in presenting their arguments to legislators and the public. They appeal for an aggressive, organized campaign by the biomedical community not only at the national level but by local professional groups and individuals at the state and county level. PMID:3346982

  16. Animal, but not human, faces engage the distributed face network in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J; Garcia, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and age-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents were scanned with sMRI and fMRI as they observed human and animal faces. In spite of exhibiting comparable face recognition behavior, the HFA adolescents evinced hypo-activation throughout the face-processing system in response to unfamiliar human, but not animal, faces. They also exhibited greater activation in affective regions of the face-processing network in response to animal, but not human, faces. Importantly, this atypical pattern of activation in response to human faces was not related to atypical structural properties of the FG. This atypical neural response to human faces in autism may stem from abnormalities in the ability to represent the reward value of social (i.e. conspecific) stimuli. PMID:25873084

  17. [Dynamic behavior of the adaptive control system, hypothalamus--anterior pituitary--adrenal cortex. Animal experimental study of the adequate system dynamics of the direct and indirect parameters of the adaptive control system].

    PubMed

    Zintzsch, I; Seidel, H; Lantzsch, C; Lantzsch, M

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic response of the adaptive closed-loop control system hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-adrenal cortex after application of short-time disturb pulses were examined experimentally in the pig. Blood sampling was performed biologically non-reactive by chronically implanted vascular catheters in the upper vena cava. A circadian biphase periodical dynamics characterizes the distrubance response of the adaptive control system, respectively, its direct and indirect parameters. After distrubance variables induced initial excess the plasma corticosteriods undershoot the basic level over a long period. Conversely, the dynamics of the eosinophils is determined through an initial eosinopenic phase and a subsequent typical overshoot. Periodical dynamic is absent in the steady state. The controller of the adaptive system does not show any spontaneous activity in the steady state without stress. The absence of an endogenic periodicity of the dependent parameters likewise gives evidence of an active oscillator. On the other hand, the controlling unit of the adaptive system constitutes a control response of circadian periodicty after activation by disturbance variables in pulse shape. The high damping of the control system terminates the transient state within 24 hours, and the corticosteriods and the eosinophils reach the steady state level. This control quality of the adaptive control system gains a high importance in the origination of the spontaneous circadian periodicity by corticosteriods and eosinophils and for the biological compensation of exogenous distrubance variables. PMID:233184

  18. Animal models of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans’ stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

  19. Animals Eponyms in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, VK

    2014-01-01

    The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF), and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD). PMID:25484417

  20. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  1. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  2. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  3. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the physical and physiological characteristics of fruit flies. Explains their role and function in the study of heredity. Upholds their value as a manageable and safe laboratory animal. (ML)

  4. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  5. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top How do you determine if a veterinary drug is safe to market? As mandated by the ... to the top How does CVM remove unsafe veterinary drugs from the market? See Withdrawal of New Animal ...

  6. The Classroom Animal: Cryptozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Explains how to establish and maintain a woodland terrarium. Points out how this environment can be used to study animal interaction and can serve as a focal point for learning about a variety of elementary science concepts. (ML)

  7. Morris Animal Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientific studies that advance the health of cats, dogs, horses and wildlife. Morris Animal Foundation News Remembering ... The top 5 causes of itchy skin in dogs and cats If you’ve ever lived with ...

  8. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  9. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  10. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...

  11. MMS Orbit Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)mission, a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising of fouridentically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth’sm...

  12. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  13. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  14. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  15. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  16. Draught animals and welfare.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda. PMID:8173096

  17. Linking live animals and products: traceability.

    PubMed

    Britt, A G; Bell, C M; Evers, K; Paskin, R

    2013-08-01

    It is rarely possible to successfully contain an outbreak of an infectious animal disease, or to respond effectively to a chemical residue incident, without the use of a system for identifying and tracking animals. The linking of animals at the time they are slaughtered--through the use of identification devices or marks and accompanying movement documentation--with the meat produced from their carcasses, adds further value from the perspective of consumer safety. Over the past decade, animal identification technology has become more sophisticated and affordable. The development of the Internet and mobile communication tools, complemented bythe expanded capacity of computers and associated data management applications, has added a new dimension to the ability of Competent Authorities and industry to track animals and the food they produce for disease control, food safety and commercial purposes. PMID:24547660

  18. ANIMAL ANALOGIES IN FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF FACES

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Wadlinger, Heather A.; Luevano, Victor X.; White, Benjamin M.; Xing, Cai; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Analogies between humans and animals based on facial resemblance have a long history. We report evidence for reverse anthropomorphism and the extension of facial stereotypes to lions, foxes, and dogs. In the stereotype extension, more positive traits were attributed to animals judged more attractive than con-specifics; more childlike traits were attributed to those judged more babyfaced. In the reverse anthropomorphism, human faces with more resemblance to lions, ascertained by connectionist modeling of facial metrics, were judged more dominant, cold, and shrewd, controlling attractiveness, babyfaceness, and sex. Faces with more resemblance to Labradors were judged warmer and less shrewd. Resemblance to foxes did not predict impressions. Results for lions and dogs were consistent with trait impressions of these animals and support the species overgeneralization hypothesis that evolutionarily adaptive reactions to particular animals are overgeneralized, with people perceived to have traits associated with animals their faces resemble. Other possible explanations are discussed. PMID:25339791

  19. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    SciTech Connect

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  20. Genetics of Infectious Disease Resistance in Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize genomic resources available for studies of genetic control of infectious disease resistance in animals. It will then review data collected in our and collaborators’ labs of genetic control of swine resistance to viral infections, e.g., Porcine reproductive and respir...

  1. Animal Respiratory Control Mechanisms: A Quantitative Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizadlo, Gerald R.; Brown, Gregory W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easy-to-construct manometric device that is a substitute for an expensive commercial transducer that is sensitive to slight pressure fluctuations. An activity for demonstrating the importance of CO-2 as a humoral regulator of respiration is described. (Author/SA)

  2. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  3. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  4. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  5. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  6. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  8. [Humanitarian and academic aspects of animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Fitko, R

    1993-01-01

    The author, while discussing the causes of increased demand for use of laboratory animals in biomedical research in the recent several decades, describes the origin of various social movements for the defense of the rights of animals in many countries. The paper lists the methods and ways of defending the animals' rights and numerous examples of appropriate resolutions and instructions of world institutions (UN, UNESCO, WHO), international and national bodies to regulate the animals' rights, protection and use for experimental and production purposes. The need for supervision of animal experiments, limitation of their use (only in indispensable and justified cases) and replacement with alternative methods for instance with cell, bacterial and fungal cultures, studies on species of a lower order, etc. is indicated. The author suggests that the number of laboratory animals in biomedical studies should be decreased emphasizing the need for appropriate organizational and administrative changes and use of animals with high sanitary and hygienic standards. The final part of the paper is devoted to nonspecific (environmental) anatomic and pathological changes found in the organs of laboratory animals. Based upon the proposed scoring system the author advocates a detailed description of these changes and comparison of the total pattern of changes with those in a matched control group. PMID:8247640

  9. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.; Berry, W.

    1986-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rates on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hand-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity-dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space-adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferon production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatotrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythopoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  10. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  11. Animal models for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, R T; Maran, A; Lotinun, S; Hefferan, T; Evans, G L; Zhang, M; Sibonga, J D

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge. PMID:11704974

  12. Animal models for osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  13. Animal models of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  14. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare. PMID:21216980

  15. Statistics of lattice animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Nadler, Walder; Grassberger, Peter

    2005-07-01

    The scaling behavior of randomly branched polymers in a good solvent is studied in two to nine dimensions, modeled by lattice animals on simple hypercubic lattices. For the simulations, we use a biased sequential sampling algorithm with re-sampling, similar to the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) used extensively for linear polymers. We obtain high statistics of animals with up to several thousand sites in all dimension 2⩽d⩽9. The partition sum (number of different animals) and gyration radii are estimated. In all dimensions we verify the Parisi-Sourlas prediction, and we verify all exactly known critical exponents in dimensions 2, 3, 4, and ⩾8. In addition, we present the hitherto most precise estimates for growth constants in d⩾3. For clusters with one site attached to an attractive surface, we verify the superuniversality of the cross-over exponent at the adsorption transition predicted by Janssen and Lyssy.

  16. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Lessons from animal teaching.

    PubMed

    Hoppitt, William J E; Brown, Gillian R; Kendal, Rachel; Rendell, Luke; Thornton, Alex; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2008-09-01

    Many species are known to acquire valuable life skills and information from others, but until recently it was widely believed that animals did not actively facilitate learning in others. Teaching was regarded as a uniquely human faculty. However, recent studies suggest that teaching might be more common in animals than previously thought. Teaching is present in bees, ants, babblers, meerkats and other carnivores but is absent in chimpanzees, a bizarre taxonomic distribution that makes sense if teaching is treated as a form of altruism. Drawing on both mechanistic and functional arguments, we integrate teaching with the broader field of animal social learning, and show how this aids understanding of how and why teaching evolved, and the diversity of teaching mechanisms. PMID:18657877

  18. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    An animal bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Animal bites that break the skin put you at risk for infections. ... are longer and sharper, which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by ...

  19. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  20. Animal Care in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  1. Occupational allergy to laboratory animals: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Bland, S M; Levine, M S; Wilson, P D; Fox, N L; Rivera, J C

    1986-11-01

    A cross-sectional study has been carried out at The National Institutes of Health to examine the prevalence of laboratory animal allergy (LAA) in a population exposed to animals, and to compare the prevalence of general allergy in the exposed v a control group. A group of 289 workers with light-to-moderate exposure to animals, 260 with heavy exposure, and 242 control subjects were interviewed. A slightly greater prevalence of general allergy was found among those working with laboratory animals (39%), than in the control group (33.9%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The prevalence of LAA in the total exposed group was 23.9%. A history of atopic problems and history of allergy to domestic animals correlated significantly with LAA, as did the number of species of animals handled and the average number of hours per week exposed to laboratory animals, with evidence of dose-response relationships. PMID:3491199

  2. Animal Violence Demystified

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence

  3. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  4. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  5. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  6. Biodegradation of radioactive animals

    SciTech Connect

    Party, N.; Party, E.; Wilkerson, A.

    1995-06-01

    The two most common disposal alternatives for animals contaminated with radioactive materials are incineration and burial. For most of the country burial has entailed shipping the carcasses to a commercial disposal facility at Barnwell, South Carolina, where it was landfilled along with other solid radioactive waste. Unfortunately, since 30 June 1994, this facility accepts waste generated by the states of the Southeast Compact only. Therefore, burial is no longer an option for most of the country`s generators and incineration is an option only for those institutions which have, or have access to, an incinerator that is permitted to burn radioactive materials and that accepts animal carcasses with de minimis levels of radioactive contaminants. Many institutions, especially those in congested urban areas where the public does not support incineration, do not have viable outlets for radioactive animal carcasses. Interim, on-site storage poses problems of its own. Biodegradation of animal carcasses with dermestid beetles is an inexpensive approach to this waste management problem. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Simple Animations with Excels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickensderfer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of animated drawings for teaching physics. The benefits to the students are obvious. Rather than looking at still pictures in a textbook, they can observe a physical event and see how it plays out over time.

  8. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity. PMID:25492698

  9. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Tree frogs are small (2-5 cm) animals which not only interest students but also can be maintained in classrooms for a few days. Characteristics (species, ranges, habitat, reproductive cycle, and locomotion) and housing/care needs are described. Long-term maintenance is not recommended due to the difficulty of providing live food. (DH)

  10. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  11. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  12. Animal surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L., III

    1993-01-01

    Prototype hardware and procedures which could be applied to a surgical support system on SSF are realistically evaluated in microgravity using an animal model. Particular attention is given to the behavior of bleeding in a surgical scenario and techniques for hemostasis and fluid management.

  13. ANIMAL MODELS FOR IMMUNOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater susceptibility to infection is a hallmark of compromised immune function in humans and animals, and is often considered the benchmark against which the predictive value of immune function tests are compared. This focus of this paper is resistance to infection with the pa...

  14. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  15. Wizards of Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    At the South Burlington (Vermont) High School Imaging Lab, students are learning to manipulate the animation technology that NASA uses to design rockets, Hollywood uses to make movies, and architects use to design buildings. Assisted by grants, an English teacher parlayed a single unused computer into a nationally recognized program that helps…

  16. Animals. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, presents six works of art which feature an animal. These art works, by master artists from diverse cultures and historic periods, serve as starting points for exploring various artistic techniques. Images presented include: "Lascaux Horse" (Lascaux Cave…

  17. Animal Science. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum package is designed to prepare students with highly technical information that will lead to success in the animal science field. It contains 19 units that highlight many of the specialist areas and teach students how to apply these skills. The units cover the following topics: safety, careers, private and government programs,…

  18. Animal and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks man at…

  19. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. PMID:22625856

  20. Bereavement and Companion Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Avery D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a bereavement counseling program at a humane society and reports findings that confirm parallels between human and animal bonding and bereavements. The act of consenting to euthanasia was particularly disturbing. Most of the bereaved owners reported depths of feeling that were unique and in most cases beyond those experienced in other…

  1. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  2. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: companion animals.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, J S J

    2005-08-01

    Human history reveals that the way in which humans treat animals is based on their views of themselves as well as of the living environment around them. These views may vary from an assumption of human superiority to one of equality between humans and animals. Recent trends affecting companion-animal welfare are: modern philosophies on animal issues, the specialised and varied roles that companion animals play in modern societies, new results from animal neuroscience, human-animal interaction studies and the new profession of companion animal ethology. This paper concludes that applied ethology could provide science-based criteria to assess companion-animal welfare. Due to the integral part that companion animals play in human societies, the paper is divided into an animal component that deals with the animal's basic needs and its ability to adapt, and a human component assessing the living environment of animals as provided by humans and responsible companion-animal ownership. The greatest challenge for future research is to find ways to disseminate knowledge of companion animal ethology to companion animal owners. PMID:16358503

  3. People vs. animals.

    PubMed

    Engram, S

    1992-07-12

    Animal rights activists demonstrated against physicians in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who had transplanted a baboon liver into a man. They complained that baboons should not serve as spare parts for humans, but the complaint misfired when another man with liver disease challenged them. Nevertheless the rapidly growing population in the world is threatening animal species such as elephants. In Zimbabwe where a severe drought exists and which has been somewhat able to protect animals from poachers, the government now allows people to kill elephants and other animals for their meat. The great numbers of wildlife have placed considerable population pressure on Gonarezhou National Park. The government hopes the good will plan will reduce the number of illegal poachings in the future. This illustrates the need for population stability to protect the environment. Yet the 1992 UN environment conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, did not address population growth as a threat to biodiversity and the environment. Indeed if population continues to grow at its present rate, the population in 2100 will stand at 19 billion and each year before that the Earth will lose more farmland and forests and witness more days of smog, polluted water, political instabilities, and environmental refugees. Viruses like HIV may afflict the population. Most of the population growth will be in developing countries where drought and economic and political instabilities are common. In 2100 with such a hugh population, a national park for wildlife will most likely only be a luxury. We can no longer be complacent and must take action now to prevent this disaster. It will soon be clear that a growing population does not produce more prosperity as many economists would like us to believe, and discussions about using animals for spare parts will be ludicrous. PMID:12286283

  4. Are ticks venomous animals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many Ixodida genera can induce paralysis and other types of toxicoses. Tick saliva was previously proposed as a special kind of venom since tick venom is used for blood feeding that counteracts host defense mechanisms. As a result, the present study provides evidence to reconsider the venomous properties of tick saliva. Results Based on our extensive literature mining and in silico research, we demonstrate that ticks share several similarities with other venomous taxa. Many tick salivary protein families and their previously described functions are homologous to proteins found in scorpion, spider, snake, platypus and bee venoms. This infers that there is a structural and functional convergence between several molecular components in tick saliva and the venoms from other recognized venomous taxa. We also highlight the fact that the immune response against tick saliva and venoms (from recognized venomous taxa) are both dominated by an allergic immunity background. Furthermore, by comparing the major molecular components of human saliva, as an example of a non-venomous animal, with that of ticks we find evidence that ticks resemble more venomous than non-venomous animals. Finally, we introduce our considerations regarding the evolution of venoms in Arachnida. Conclusions Taking into account the composition of tick saliva, the venomous functions that ticks have while interacting with their hosts, and the distinguishable differences between human (non-venomous) and tick salivary

  5. [Animal welfare problems concerning the use of transgenic animals

    PubMed

    Mani, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Using transgenic animals as clinical models pose certain problems since they can suffer. Yet in single cases transgenic animals can reduce the suffering of (other) animals. The permission to generate transgenic animals is not yet clearly regulated in Switzerland. The term "dignity of creature", as formulated in the Swiss Constitution, has to be defined for the Swiss animal protection law. We present the recommendations of the commission for ethical questions concerning transgenic animals appointed by the Federal Council. Partly, these recommendations shall also be applied to the traditional breeding methods. We support the nomination of a national ethics committee for transgenic animals. PMID:11208267

  6. 9 CFR 50.8 - Payment of expenses for transporting and disposing of infected, exposed, and suspect animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment of expenses for transporting and disposing of infected, exposed, and suspect animals. 50.8 Section 50.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND...

  7. 9 CFR 50.8 - Payment of expenses for transporting and disposing of infected, exposed, and suspect animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of expenses for transporting and disposing of infected, exposed, and suspect animals. 50.8 Section 50.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND...

  8. Animal health and the trade in aquatic animals within and to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Daelman, W

    1996-06-01

    The creation of a single European market has significantly extended the scope of veterinary animal and public health legislation. This extension includes aquatic animals, and a comprehensive set of directives and decisions has been developed to ensure free circulation of aquaculture animals and their products, while guaranteeing a high level of animal health. At the same time, and in the same context, other directives have been adopted which organise checks on animals and products within and to the European Union (EU), as well as accompanying financial measures. Animal health legislation for the movement of aquaculture animals is also based on a number of principles, including the following: --the definition of important pathogens and their hosts --zoning (regionalisation)--the obligation for EU Member States to move animals only from areas or farms with high health status to and between areas and farms with equal or lower health status--the prescription of a testing regime to improve animal health status in zones or farms. In addition, disease control prescriptions have been established or are being considered for adoption. These include the establishment of national and EU reference laboratories, as well as the application of contingency plans and the measures to be taken in the event of a disease outbreak. PMID:8890390

  9. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  10. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  11. Real-time pair-feeding of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic pair-feeding system was developed which immediately dispenses same amount of food to control animal as has been consumed by experimental animal that has free access to food. System consists of: master feeding system; slave feeding station; and control mechanism. Technique performs real time pair-feeding without attendant time lag.

  12. Safe handling of large animals.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1999-01-01

    The major causes of accidents with cattle, horses, and other grazing animals are: panic due to fear, male dominance aggression, or the maternal aggression of a mother protecting her newborn. Danger is inherent when handling large animals. Understanding their behavior patterns improves safety, but working with animals will never be completely safe. Calm, quiet handling and non-slip flooring are beneficial. Rough handling and excessive use of electric prods increase chances of injury to both people and animals, because fearful animals may jump, kick, or rear. Training animals to voluntarily cooperate with veterinary procedures reduces stress and improves safety. Grazing animals have a herd instinct, and a lone, isolated animal can become agitated. Providing a companion animal helps keep an animal calm. PMID:10329901

  13. Animal models of fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. These models are induced by a wide variety of methods that include repeated muscle insults, depletion of biogenic amines, and stress. All potential models produce widespread and long-lasting hyperalgesia without overt peripheral tissue damage and thus mimic the clinical presentation of fibromyalgia. We describe the methods for induction of the model, pathophysiological mechanisms for each model, and treatment profiles. PMID:24314231

  14. Modeling animal landscapes.

    PubMed

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  15. [Influenza in heterothermic animals].

    PubMed

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Kobashi, Leonardo Setsuo; Trindade, Hermínio Gomes; Fernandes, Wilson; Pinto, José Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus) and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana) were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin) or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza virus and also susceptibility to the infection. PMID:15330057

  16. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  17. Anticipatory behavior in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-03-01

    In the experiments of pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare), some of them performed as if they had contained the models of themselves and the environment in view of computing their present state as a function of the prediction of the models. In a specific situation, they escaped from the experimental apparatus as if they had constituted spatial knowledge of it (open field surrounded by walls) in the process of exploratory behavior and used the knowledge. This species gets environmental information by tactile ability of antennae, not by visual one, and do not climb perpendicular walls in general condition. If they had not escaped in the experiment, they would have died of hunger or water deficit. In this paper I will present the result of this anticipatory behavior. I also discuss that the notion of anticipation, which is another name of autonomy, is inevitably introduced when one considers the process of understanding of animal behavior progressing without any common basis between animals and experimenters.

  18. Atlas 2 Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-2 (ATLAS-2), was designed to collect data on the relationship between the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere and how these factors affect the ozone layer. The ATLAS-2 flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery's mission SST-56, launched on April 8, 1993. The videotape consists of an animated tour of the instruments that were included as part of the mission. The first half of the tape shows the various instruments, pointing to each in turn and identifying each by the associated initialisms. The instruments identified were: the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS), Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) spectrometer, Solar Spectrum Measurement (SOLSPEC) instrument, Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM), Active Cavity Radiometer (ACR) and Solar Constant (SOLCON).) The second half of the animation shows the same tour without the pointing or the identification of the instruments.

  19. Animal Models of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    A. Bouhenni, Rachida; Dunmire, Jeffrey; Sewell, Abby; Edward, Deepak P.

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of disorders that progressively lead to blindness due to loss of retinal ganglion cells and damage to the optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Although research in the field of glaucoma is substantial, the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing the disease are not completely understood. A wide variety of animal models have been used to study glaucoma. These include monkeys, dogs, cats, rodents, and several other species. Although these models have provided valuable information about the disease, there is still no ideal model for studying glaucoma due to its complexity. In this paper we present a summary of most of the animal models that have been developed and used for the study of the different types of glaucoma, the strengths and limitations associated with each species use, and some potential criteria to develop a suitable model. PMID:22665989

  20. A case control study of environmental and occupational exposures associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in patients admitted to a rural tertiary care hospital in a high density swine region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distinct strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been identified on livestock and livestock workers. Industrial food animal production may be an important environmental reservoir for human carriage of these pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate environmental and occupational exposures associated with nasal carriage of MRSA in patients hospitalized at Vidant Medical Center, a tertiary hospital serving a region with intensive livestock production in eastern North Carolina. Methods MRSA nasal carriage was identified via nasal swabs collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. MRSA carriers (cases) were gender and age matched to non-carriers (controls). Participants were interviewed about recent environmental and occupational exposures. Home addresses were geocoded and publicly available data were used to estimate the density of swine in residential census block groups of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Presence of the scn gene in MRSA isolates was assessed. In addition, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates was performed, and the Diversilab® system was used to match the isolates to USA pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. Results From July - December 2011, 117 cases and 119 controls were enrolled. A higher proportion of controls than cases were current workforce members (41.2% vs. 31.6%) Cases had a higher odds of living in census block groups with medium densities of swine (OR: 4.76, 95% CI: 1.36-16.69) and of reporting the ability to smell odor from a farm with animals when they were home (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80-2.86). Of 49 culture positive MRSA isolates, all were scn positive. Twenty-two isolates belonged to clonal complex 5. Conclusions Absence of livestock workers in this study precluded evaluation of occupational exposures. Higher odds of MRSA in medium swine density

  1. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  2. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  3. Small animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Jones, Philip H; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Radford, Alan D; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Noble, Peter J M; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie

    2015-12-12

    This is the first UK small animal disease surveillance report from SAVSNET. Future reports will expand to other syndromes and diseases. As data are collected for longer, the estimates of changes in disease burden will become more refined, allowing more targeted local and perhaps national interventions. Anonymised data can be accessed for research purposes by contacting the authors. SAVSNET welcomes feedback on this report. PMID:26667432

  4. [The diversity of animal ethics].

    PubMed

    Vilmer, J B Jeangène

    2013-01-01

    Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests". PMID:23516752

  5. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Africa.

    PubMed

    Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M

    2005-08-01

    Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in Africa. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated highland and humid coastal belts of Africa, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In Africa, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about

  6. History of animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  7. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  8. Transcriptional Enhancers in Animal Development and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory DNAs serve as templates to bring weakly interacting transcription factors into close proximity so they can work synergistically to switch genes on and off in time and space. Most of these regulatory DNAs are enhancers that can work over long distances — a million base pairs or more in mammals — to control gene expression. Critical enhancers are sometimes even found within the introns of neighboring genes. This review summarizes well-defined examples of enhancers controlling key processes in animal development. Potential mechanisms of transcriptional synergy are discussed with regard to enhancer structure and contemporary ChIP-sequencing assays, whereby just a small fraction of the observed binding sites represent bona fide regulatory DNAs. Finally, there is a discussion of how enhancer evolution can produce novelty in animal morphology and of the prospects for reconstructing transitions in animal evolution by introducing derived enhancers in basal ancestors. PMID:20833320

  9. The Birth of Animal Development: Multicellularity and the Germline.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Hugh R

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of multicellular animals has been attributed to many kinds of selective advantage; here I suggest that the evolution of somatic cells to feed and protect the germline was central to the appearance of animals. This would have been driven by selection for extreme anisogamy-the evolution of sperm and egg. Evidence is adduced from the germline stem cells of simple animals (defining germline as any cell that normally produces the next generation via the sexual process) and from the control circuitry ubiquitous in animal germlines. With the soma and its elaboration came animal development, as we understand it. PMID:26970004

  10. Foot placement control and gait instability among people with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jesse C.; Kautz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Gait instability is a common problem following stroke, as evidenced by increases in fall risk and fear of falling. However, the mechanism underlying gait instability is currently unclear. We recently found that young, healthy humans use a consistent gait stabilization strategy of actively controlling their mediolateral foot placement based on the concurrent mechanical state of the stance limb. In the present work, we tested whether people with stroke (n = 16) and age-matched controls (n = 19) used this neuromechanical strategy. Specifically, we used multiple linear regressions to test whether (1) swing phase gluteus medius (GM) activity was influenced by the simultaneous state of the stance limb and (2) mediolateral foot placement location was influenced by swing phase GM activity and the mechanical state of the swing limb at the start of the step. We found that both age-matched controls and people with stroke classified as having a low fall risk (Dynamic Gait Index [DGI] score >19) essentially used the stabilization strategy previously described in young controls. In contrast, this strategy was disrupted for people with stroke classified as higher fall risk (DGI control foot placement may contribute to poststroke instability. PMID:26437301

  11. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  12. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are

  13. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  14. Animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  15. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    PubMed

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis. PMID:23472348

  16. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  17. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  18. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) near 3:00 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. [Intercellular channels in animals].

    PubMed

    Panchin, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Gap junctions are considered to serve a similar function in all multicellular animals (Metazoa). Two unrelated protein families are involved in this function: connexins, which are found only in chordates, and pannexins, which are present in the genomes of both chordates and invertebrates. Recent sequence data from different organisms show important exceptions to this simplified scheme. It looks as if Chordate lancelet has only pannexins and no connexins in its genome. New data indicate that some metazoans have neither connexins nor pannexins and use other unidentified proteins to form gap junctions. PMID:21786702

  2. Using robots to understand animal cognition.

    PubMed

    Frohnwieser, Anna; Murray, John C; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, robotic animals and humans have been used to answer a variety of questions related to behavior. In the case of animal behavior, these efforts have largely been in the field of behavioral ecology. They have proved to be a useful tool for this enterprise as they allow the presentation of naturalistic social stimuli whilst providing the experimenter with full control of the stimulus. In interactive experiments, the behavior of robots can be controlled in a manner that is impossible with real animals, making them ideal instruments for the study of social stimuli in animals. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the field and considers the impact that the use of robots could have on fundamental questions related to comparative psychology: namely, perception, spatial cognition, social cognition, and early cognitive development. We make the case that the use of robots to investigate these key areas could have an important impact on the field of animal cognition. PMID:26781049

  3. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    Animals Alive! is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which, whenever possible, live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. By careful selection and modification of the chapter questions, activities, and…

  4. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  5. All about Animal Needs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Animals need the same things people do: air, food, water, and shelter. Each animal has different ways of fulfilling those needs. In this videotape, students explore some of the ways various animals stay healthy and full of energy. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics of…

  6. All about Animal Adaptations. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Animals change to better adapt to their environment. Over long periods of time, nature helps the animals adapt by changing their body shape and color as well as adjusting their methods of getting and eating food, defending themselves, and caring for their young. In this videotape, students learn what changes different animals go through in order…

  7. Effects of Varied Animation Strategies in Facilitating Animated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausman, Bradley D.; Lin, Huifen; Kidwai, Khusro; Munyofu, Mine; Swain, William J.; Dwyer, Francis

    2004-01-01

    The use of animation and audio as a virtual panacea for everything from advertising to educational videos and instruction has created the presumption that any materials that use them 'must be better!' Now doubt that the addition of animation can improve message delivery on a number of scales, but the use of animation regardless of message and with…

  8. [Possibilities and limits of the inspection of animal experiments and laboratory animal facilities].

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, H

    2002-03-01

    inspection of animal experiments itself as well as the achievement of refinement for practical animal welfare is more easy and more effective than a simple bureaucratic control. PMID:11963358

  9. Greetings from the Animal Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a classification activity that uses holiday greeting cards. Identification of animals, their characteristics, natural habitat, eating patterns, and geography are some of the suggested ways in which to classify the animals. (KR)

  10. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  11. Marine animal stings or bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2,000 species of animals found in the ocean that are either venomous or poisonous to humans. ... often not aggressive. Many are anchored to the ocean floor. Venomous marine animals in the United States ...

  12. Marine animal stings or bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Almost 2000 species of animals found in the ocean are either venomous or poisonous to humans, and ... usually aggressive, and many are stuck to the ocean floor. Most venomous or poisonous marine animals in ...

  13. Anthropomorphism, Teleology, Animism, and Personification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Austin

    1973-01-01

    The question of attributing a purpose to animal's actions is still being debated by scientists. Consensus seems to be that animal behavior should be described in terms of function rather than purpose. (PS)

  14. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePlus

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  15. Optogenetics in animal model of alcohol addiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalberczak, Maria; Radwanska, Kasia

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the neuronal and molecular basis of alcohol addiction is still not satisfactory. As a consequence we still miss successful therapy of alcoholism. One of the reasons for such state is the lack of appropriate animal models which would allow in-depth analysis of biological basis of addiction. Here we will present our efforts to create the animal model of alcohol addiction in the automated learning device, the IntelliCage setup. Applying this model to optogenetically modified mice with remotely controlled regulation of selected neuronal populations by light may lead to very precise identification of neuronal circuits involved in coding addiction-related behaviors.

  16. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. PMID:24329743

  17. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  18. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  19. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  20. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...