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Sample records for age-matched control animals

  1. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  2. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  3. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  4. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  5. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  6. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  7. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  8. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  9. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  10. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  11. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  12. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  13. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of human hippocampal tissues from Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control brains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting people over 65 years of age. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular deposits known as amyloid β plaques and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, both of which are the principal players involved in synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. Tau protein and Aβ fragment 1–42 have been investigated so far in cerebrospinal fluid as a potential AD biomarkers. However, an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers which will capture disease in the early stages and with better specificity remains. High-throughput proteomic and pathway analysis of hippocampal tissue provides a valuable source of disease-related proteins and biomarker candidates, since it represents one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Results In this study 2954 proteins were identified (with at least 2 peptides for 1203 proteins) from both control and AD brain tissues. Overall, 204 proteins were exclusively detected in AD and 600 proteins in control samples. Comparing AD and control exclusive proteins with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) literature-based proteome, 40 out of 204 AD related proteins and 106 out of 600 control related proteins were also present in CSF. As most of these proteins were extracellular/secretory origin, we consider them as a potential source of candidate biomarkers that need to be further studied and verified in CSF samples. Conclusions Our semiquantitative proteomic analysis provides one of the largest human hippocampal proteome databases. The lists of AD and control related proteins represent a panel of proteins potentially involved in AD pathogenesis and could also serve as prospective AD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:23635041

  14. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  15. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  16. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  17. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  18. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  19. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  20. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  1. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  2. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  3. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  4. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  5. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  6. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  7. Animation control of surface motion capture.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Margara; Casas, Dan; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Surface motion capture (SurfCap) of actor performance from multiple view video provides reconstruction of the natural nonrigid deformation of skin and clothing. This paper introduces techniques for interactive animation control of SurfCap sequences which allow the flexibility in editing and interactive manipulation associated with existing tools for animation from skeletal motion capture (MoCap). Laplacian mesh editing is extended using a basis model learned from SurfCap sequences to constrain the surface shape to reproduce natural deformation. Three novel approaches for animation control of SurfCap sequences, which exploit the constrained Laplacian mesh editing, are introduced: 1) space–time editing for interactive sequence manipulation; 2) skeleton-driven animation to achieve natural nonrigid surface deformation; and 3) hybrid combination of skeletal MoCap driven and SurfCap sequence to extend the range of movement. These approaches are combined with high-level parametric control of SurfCap sequences in a hybrid surface and skeleton-driven animation control framework to achieve natural surface deformation with an extended range of movement by exploiting existing MoCap archives. Evaluation of each approach and the integrated animation framework are presented on real SurfCap sequences for actors performing multiple motions with a variety of clothing styles. Results demonstrate that these techniques enable flexible control for interactive animation with the natural nonrigid surface dynamics of the captured performance and provide a powerful tool to extend current SurfCap databases by incorporating new motions from MoCap sequences.

  8. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  9. Infectious animal disease and its control.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P M

    1985-09-12

    The control of infectious diseases in the main food-producing animals is considered and the main factors involved in the epizootiology of disease are presented. The properties of infectious agents and their natural history together with factors that influence the spread and development of disease are summarized. The factors in intensive animal husbandry that affect the occurrence of infectious disease and its control are considered. These include population density, population movement, management, hygiene and genetic constitution of the host. They encourage the appearance of new diseases, changes in the character of established diseases and the development of pathogenicity in infectious agents that were previously of no importance. Intensive animal husbandry has also increased the importance of multifactorial disease, which includes diseases that require more than one infectious agent or one or more infectious agents plus other factors for their cause. The methods of control of infectious disease currently available are described and the success and difficulties of their control on a global, national and local (farm or enterprise) basis are considered. Examples of diseases of global importance where national and world programmes of control and eradication have been of varying success are described. Examples of diseases that are enzootic throughout the world and the procedures used for their control are also described. The technological opportunities for the improvement of the control of infectious disease in the future are discussed. It is considered that developments in molecular biology and immunology will provide improvements in diagnostic tools and will revolutionize the development of animal resistance to disease and the production and use of vaccines.

  10. Animations and auralizations for noise control education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2002-11-01

    For students just starting out in acoustics, some basic concepts can be terribly difficult to understand. Ideas like plane, spherical, travelling, standing, and evanescent waves are easily described mathematically but can be difficult to understand physically. The use of animation to show the particle motion, velocity, and/or pressure fields associated with these wave motions helps to solidify the understanding of the basic physics. In noise control, students often have problems conceiving the effects of reverberation on acoustic signals and the perceived noise reduction from various acoustic treatments. These acoustic effects can be simulated through the use of auralization. Animations and auralizations developed using MATLAB, CATT Acoustics, and Cooledit for a senior level architectural engineering undergraduate classes in building noise control and acoustical room design will be presented.

  11. Understanding the dynamical control of animal movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Donald

    2008-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, neurophysiologists have described many neural circuits that transform sensory input into motor commands, while biomechanicians and behavioral biologists have described many patterns of animal movement that occur in response to sensory input. Attempts to link these two have been frustrated by our technical inability to record from the necessary neurons in a freely behaving animal. As a result, we don't know how these neural circuits function in the closed loop context of free behavior, where the sensory and motor context changes on a millisecond time-scale. To address this problem, we have developed a software package, AnimatLab (www.AnimatLab.com), that enables users to reconstruct an animal's body and its relevant neural circuits, to link them at the sensory and motor ends, and through simulation, to test their ability to reproduce appropriate patterns of the animal's movements in a simulated Newtonian world. A Windows-based program, AnimatLab consists of a neural editor, a body editor, a world editor, stimulus and recording facilities, neural and physics engines, and an interactive 3-D graphical display. We have used AnimatLab to study three patterns of behavior: the grasshopper jump, crayfish escape, and crayfish leg movements used in postural control, walking, reaching and grasping. In each instance, the simulation helped identify constraints on both nervous function and biomechanical performance that have provided the basis for new experiments. Colleagues elsewhere have begun to use AnimatLab to study control of paw movements in cats and postural control in humans. We have also used AnimatLab simulations to guide the development of an autonomous hexapod robot in which the neural control circuitry is downloaded to the robot from the test computer.

  12. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  13. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  14. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  15. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  16. 50 CFR 30.11 - Control of feral animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of feral animals. 30.11 Section 30... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.11 Control of feral animals. (a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep,...

  17. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  18. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  19. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  20. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  1. 50 CFR 31.14 - Official animal control operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official animal control operations. 31.14... Reduction and Disposal § 31.14 Official animal control operations. (a) Animal species which are surplus or...) Animal species which are damaging or destroying Federal property within a wildlife refuge area may...

  2. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  3. [Transcriptional control of ciliogenesis in animal development].

    PubMed

    Jerber, Julie; Thomas, Joëlle; Durand, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are eukaryotic organelles with a conserved structure and function from unicellular organisms to human. In animals, different types of cilia can be found and cilia assembly during development is a highly dynamic process. Ciliary defects in human lead to a wide spectrum of diseases called ciliopathies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern dynamic cilia assembly during development and in different tissues in metazoans is an important biological challenge. The FOXJ1 (Forkhead Box J1) and RFX (Regulatory Factor X) family of transcription factors have been shown to be important factors in ciliogenesis control. FOXJ1 proteins are required for motile ciliogenesis in vertebrates. By contrast, RFX proteins are essential to assemble both primary and motile cilia through the regulation of specific sets of genes such as those encoding intraflagellar transport components. Recently, new actors with more specific roles in cilia biogenesis and physiology have also been discovered. All these factors are subject to complex regulation, allowing for the dynamic and specific regulation of ciliogenesis in metazoans. PMID:23171843

  4. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  5. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  6. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  7. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  8. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  9. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  10. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  11. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  12. 36 CFR 331.23 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of animals. 331.23..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.23 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow horses, cattle, or.... Unclaimed or unattended animals are subject to immediate impoundment and removal in accordance with...

  13. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  14. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  15. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  16. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  17. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  18. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  19. Controlling the Display of Animation for Better Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Ling

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether students perform best after using computer-based learning (CBL) courseware with three types of animation-control strategies: program control, linear control, and learner control. Results suggest that accommodating learners' individual differences in the design of computer-based learning lessons is an important concern. (AEF)

  20. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  1. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  2. Controlling airborne cues to study small animal navigation

    PubMed Central

    Gershow, Marc; Berck, Matthew; Mathew, Dennis; Luo, Linjiao; Kane, Elizabeth A.; Carlson, John R.; Samuel, Aravinthan D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Small animals like nematodes and insects analyze airborne chemical cues to infer the direction of favorable and noxious locations. In these animals, the study of navigational behavior evoked by airborne cues has been limited by the difficulty of precise stimulus control. We present a system that enables us to deliver gaseous stimuli in defined spatial and temporal patterns to freely moving small animals. We use this apparatus, in combination with machine vision algorithms, to assess and quantify navigational decision-making of Drosophila larvae in response to ethyl acetate (a volatile attractant) and carbon dioxide (a gaseous repellant). PMID:22245808

  3. Animal trypanosomosis: making quality control of trypanocidal drugs possible.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, O B; Skellern, G G; Araya, F; Cannavan, A; Sasanya, J J; Dungu, B; van Gool, F; Münstermann, S; Mattioli, R C

    2014-12-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is arguably the most important animal disease impairing livestock agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to vector control, the use oftrypanocidal drugs is important in controlling the impact of the disease on animal health and production in most sub-Saharan countries. However, there are no internationally agreed standards (pharmacopoeia-type monographs or documented product specifications) for the quality control of these compounds. This means that it is impossible to establish independent quality control and quality assurance standards for these agents. An international alliance between the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Federation for Animal Health, the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines, the University of Strathclyde and the International Atomic Energy Agency (with critical support from the World Organisation for Animal Health) was established to develop quality control and quality assurance standards for trypanocidal drugs, with the aim of transferring these methodologies to two control laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa that will serve as reference institutions for their respective regions. The work of the international alliance will allow development of control measures against sub-standard or counterfeit trypanocidal drugs for treatment of trypanosome infection. Monographs on diminazene aceturate (synonym: diminazene diaceturate), isometamidium chloride hydrochloride, homidium chloride and bromide salts and their relevant veterinary formulations for these agents are given in the annex to this paper. However, the authors do not recommend use of homidium bromide and chloride, because of their proven mutagenic properties in some animal test models and their suspected carcinogenic properties. PMID:25812206

  4. Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools.

    PubMed

    Kroschewski, K; Kramer, M; Micklich, A; Staubach, C; Carmanns, R; Conraths, F J

    2006-04-01

    In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES) on the basis of its predecessor, the ANImal MOvement (ANIMO) project. The nationwide use of the ANIMO system by the veterinary authorities in Germany marked the beginning of the development in 1993 of a computerised national animal disease reporting system--the TierSeuchenNachrichten (TSN)--using the ANIMO hardware and software components. In addition to TRACES and TSN the third pillar for the management of animal disease outbreaks and crises in Germany is the national cattle and swine database--called Herkunftssicherungs- und Informationssystem für Tiere. A high degree of standardisation is necessary when integrating the different solutions at all levels of government and with the private sector. In this paper, the authors describe the use of these tools on the basis of their experience and in relation to what we can do now and what we should opt for in the future.

  5. Small animal radiation research platform: imaging, mechanics, control and calibration.

    PubMed

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Gray, Owen; Iordachita, Iulian; Kennedy, Chris; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Taylor, Russell H; Kazanzides, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In cancer research, well characterized small animal models of human cancer, such as transgenic mice, have greatly accelerated the pace of development of cancer treatments. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those same models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. In combination with advanced imaging methods, small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression, and response to therapy, with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The SARRP will realistically model human radiation treatment methods in standard animal models. In this paper, we describe the mechanical and control structure of the system. This system requires accurate calibration of the x-ray beam for both imaging and radiation treatment, which is presented in detail in the paper. PMID:18044657

  6. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control

    PubMed Central

    Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors. PMID:17553265

  7. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  8. "The Giver" as a Bridge to "Animal Farm": Controlling Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibbetson, Kirsten

    Both the adolescent novel "The Giver" (Lois Lowry) and the classic work "Animal Farm" (George Orwell) deal with the idea of a controlling society. "The Giver" gives the reader an understanding of what it is like to live in a society where every move and every decision is basically made for you, but the people living in the society do not know life…

  9. Control and prevention of rabies in animals: paradigm shifts.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C E; Hanlon, C A; Slate, D

    2006-01-01

    Animal management is the keystone of any modern programme for the prevention and control of rabies. Historically, "animal control" for local elimination of disease was largely equated with population reduction. However, with relatively few exceptions, culling alone has not led to effective control of rabies. In most documented examples of effective control of rabies in the 20th century, an integrated management approach was used that included public education, responsible stewardship of animal populations, manipulation of the population carrying capacity of the local habitat, and vaccination strategies. Globally, the greatest burden on human health that is attributable to this zoonosis is caused by uncontrolled rabies in dogs. Where political willingness, biomedical infrastructure, and economic stability permit the sustained use of control measures (e.g. stray animal removal and mandatory parenteral vaccination), canine rabies has been significantly suppressed and even eliminated over large geographical areas. Examples include many island nations, most of North America, Europe, and increasingly in South America. Despite the effectiveness of such proven control techniques, however, their implementation in parts of Asia, Africa, and elsewhere has been limited, primarily because of a lack of dedicated resources and intersectoral cooperation, and also because of the burden of high-density populations of dogs. Implementation is often complicated by cultural and social factors, e.g. reluctance to cull apparently ownerless, nuisance animals that are suspected to have been exposed to rabies, partly on the basis of religious beliefs). Attempts to modify animal fertility (such as the encouragement of voluntary spay-neuter programmes or individual chemical contraception, and the extension of such actions to animals in the community) may provide ancillary support in line with other traditional methods of control of canine rabies. With the identification of complex situations

  10. Remote controlled bio-stimulator and animal behavior analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Weiguo; Yuan, Kui; Han, Taizhen; Chai, Jie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a surveillance and stimulation system to study the animal locomotion behavior under electrical micro-stimulations in the brain nerve, which provides a new platform and methodology for behavior experiment in neural science. The system consists of two parts: 1) micro-control based multi-channel stimulator backed by animal; 2) Computer vision based animal behavior tracking system; The performance of the micro-stimulator is validated for sciatic nerve of frog and the results show that it is reliable, stabile, compact (25×35×10 mm), light (20g with cell). The tracking speed and accuracy is improved with our new hybrid tracking algorithm based on color table looking and moving predication, and compared with the manual recording. The preliminary results of rat tracking show that it works accurately and robustly in real-time even under interference condition.

  11. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  12. Sense or nonsense? Traditional methods of animal parasitic disease control.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1997-07-31

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional health-care practices in the western as well as in the developing world. In animal health, this has led to further interest in ethnoveterinary research and development, a relatively new field of study that covers traditional practices, ethnobotany and application of animal care practices embedded in local tradition. This development has practical applications for animal parasite control, whether related to epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy, or to comprehensive disease control methods leading to integrated pest/disease management. Examples are provided of traditional practices in diagnostics, herd-, grazing- and pasture-management as well as of manipulation and treatment. Many of these applications indicate a basic understanding of disease, especially epidemiology, by farmers and herders, although not always explained, or explainable, in rational western ways. Although abuse and quackery exist, the application of traditional practices seems to make sense in areas without adequate veterinary services. Moreover, acknowledgement of the value of traditional knowledge empowers local herders/farmers to try to solve their herds' disease problems in a cost-effective way. Traditional practices often make sense, albeit with some regulation to ascertain safety and to prevent abuse.

  13. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  14. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  15. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  16. Stars Can't Spin Out of Control (Artist's Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for QuickTime Movie of Stars Can't Spin Out of Control

    This artist's animation demonstrates how a dusty planet-forming disk can slow down a whirling young star, essentially saving the star from spinning itself to death. Evidence for this phenomenon comes from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The movie begins by showing a developing star (red ball). The star is basically a giant ball of gas that is collapsing onto itself. As it shrinks, it spins faster and faster, like a skater folding in his or her arms. The green lines represent magnetic fields.

    As gravity continues to pull matter inward, the star spins so fast, it starts to flatten out. The same principle applies to the planet Saturn, whose spin has caused it to be slightly squashed or oblate.

    A forming star can theoretically whip around fast enough to overcome gravity and flatten itself into a state where it can no longer become a full-fledged star. But stars don't spin out of control, possibly because swirling disks of dust slow them down. Such disks can be found orbiting young stars, and are filled with dust that might ultimately stick together to form planets.

    The second half of the animation demonstrates how a disk is thought to keep its star's speed in check. A developing star is shown twirling inside its disk. As it turns, its magnetic fields pass through the disk and get bogged down like a spoon in molasses. This locks the star's rotation to the slower-turning disk, so the star, while continuing to shrink, does not spin faster.

    Spitzer found evidence for star-slowing disks in a survey of nearly 500 forming stars in the Orion nebula. It observed that slowly spinning stars are five times more likely to host disks than rapidly spinning stars.

  17. Controlling the switches: Rho GTPase regulation during animal cell mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yan; Oh, Wonkyung; Frost, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    Animal cell division is a fundamental process that requires complex changes in cytoskeletal organization and function. Aberrant cell division often has disastrous consequences for the cell and can lead to cell senescence, neoplastic transformation or death. As important regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, Rho GTPases play major roles in regulating many aspects of mitosis and cytokinesis. These include centrosome duplication and separation, generation of cortical rigidity, microtubule-kinetochore stabilization, cleavage furrow formation, contractile ring formation and constriction, and abscission. The ability of Rho proteins to function as regulators of cell division depends on their ability to cycle between their active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound states. However, Rho proteins are inherently inefficient at fulfilling this cycle and require the actions of regulatory proteins that enhance GTP binding (RhoGEFs), stimulate GTPase activity (RhoGAPs), and sequester inactive Rho proteins in the cytosol (RhoGDIs). The roles of these regulatory proteins in controlling cell division are an area of active investigation. In this review we will delineate the current state of knowledge of how specific RhoGEFs, RhoGAPs and RhoGDIs control mitosis and cytokinesis, and highlight the mechanisms by which their functions are controlled.

  18. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  19. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  20. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

  1. Effects of Teacher Controlled Segmented-Animation Presentation in Facilitating Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of teacher controlled segmented-animation presentation on learning achievement of students with lower level of prior knowledge. Segmented-animation and continuous-animation courseware showing cellular signal transmission process were developed for the research purpose. Pre-test and post-test…

  2. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  3. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  4. SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

  5. Animal Models for Investigating the Central Control of the Mammalian Diving Response

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Paul Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Pioneering studies by Per Scholander indicated that the diving response consists of reflexly induced apnea, bradycardia and an alteration of blood flow that maintains perfusion of the heart and brain. More recently field physiological studies have shown that many marine animals can adjust cardiorespiratory aspects of their diving response depending upon the behavioral situation. This could suggest that the very labile heart rate during diving is under direct cortical control. However, the final control of autonomic nervous system functioning resides within the brainstem and not the cortex. Many physiologists regard the brain as a “black box” where important neuronal functioning occurs, but the complexity of such functioning leaves systematic investigation a daunting task. As a consequence the central control of the diving response has been under-investigated. Thus, to further advance the field of diving physiology by understanding its central neuronal control, it would be first necessary to understand the reflex circuitry that exists within the brainstem of diving animals. To do this will require an appropriate animal model. In this review, two animals, the muskrat and rat, will be offered as animal models to investigate the central aspects of the diving response. Firstly, although these rodents are not marine animals, natural histories indicate that both animals can and do exploit aquatic environments. Secondly, physiological recordings during natural and simulated diving indicate that both animals possess the same basic physiological responses to underwater submersion that occur in marine animals. Thirdly, the size and ease of housing of both animals makes them attractive laboratory research animals. Finally, the enormous amount of scientific literature regarding rodent brainstem autonomic control mechanisms, and the availability of brain atlases, makes these animals ideal choices to study the central control of the mammalian diving response. PMID:22661956

  6. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility—the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

  7. Tegument protein control of latent herpesvirus establishment and animation.

    PubMed

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are successful pathogens that infect most vertebrates as well as at least one invertebrate species. Six of the eight human herpesviruses are widely distributed in the population. Herpesviral infections persist for the life of the infected host due in large part to the ability of these viruses to enter a non-productive, latent state in which viral gene expression is limited and immune detection and clearance is avoided. Periodically, the virus will reactivate and enter the lytic cycle, producing progeny virus that can spread within or to new hosts. Latency has been classically divided into establishment, maintenance, and reactivation phases. Here we focus on demonstrated and postulated molecular mechanisms leading to the establishment of latency for representative members of each human herpesvirus family. Maintenance and reactivation are also briefly discussed. In particular, the roles that tegument proteins may play during latency are highlighted. Finally, we introduce the term animation to describe the initiation of lytic phase gene expression from a latent herpesvirus genome, and discuss why this step should be separated, both molecularly and theoretically, from reactivation. PMID:21429246

  8. Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Christian M.

    This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

  9. Application of statistical process control charts to monitor changes in animal production systems.

    PubMed

    De Vries, A; Reneau, J K

    2010-04-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of monitoring, controlling, and improving a process through statistical analysis. An important SPC tool is the control chart, which can be used to detect changes in production processes, including animal production systems, with a statistical level of confidence. This paper introduces the philosophy and types of control charts, design and performance issues, and provides a review of control chart applications in animal production systems found in the literature from 1977 to 2009. Primarily Shewhart and cumulative sum control charts have been described in animal production systems, with examples found in poultry, swine, dairy, and beef production systems. Examples include monitoring of growth, disease incidence, water intake, milk production, and reproductive performance. Most applications describe charting outcome variables, but more examples of control charts applied to input variables are needed, such as compliance to protocols, feeding practice, diet composition, and environmental factors. Common challenges for applications in animal production systems are the identification of the best statistical model for the common cause variability, grouping of data, selection of type of control chart, the cost of false alarms and lack of signals, and difficulty identifying the special causes when a change is signaled. Nevertheless, carefully constructed control charts are powerful methods to monitor animal production systems. Control charts might also supplement randomized controlled trials. PMID:20081080

  10. Mechanical control of mitotic progression in single animal cells.

    PubMed

    Cattin, Cedric J; Düggelin, Marcel; Martinez-Martin, David; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J; Stewart, Martin P

    2015-09-01

    Despite the importance of mitotic cell rounding in tissue development and cell proliferation, there remains a paucity of approaches to investigate the mechanical robustness of cell rounding. Here we introduce ion beam-sculpted microcantilevers that enable precise force-feedback-controlled confinement of single cells while characterizing their progression through mitosis. We identify three force regimes according to the cell response: small forces (∼5 nN) that accelerate mitotic progression, intermediate forces where cells resist confinement (50-100 nN), and yield forces (>100 nN) where a significant decline in cell height impinges on microtubule spindle function, thereby inhibiting mitotic progression. Yield forces are coincident with a nonlinear drop in cell height potentiated by persistent blebbing and loss of cortical F-actin homogeneity. Our results suggest that a buildup of actomyosin-dependent cortical tension and intracellular pressure precedes mechanical failure, or herniation, of the cell cortex at the yield force. Thus, we reveal how the mechanical properties of mitotic cells and their response to external forces are linked to mitotic progression under conditions of mechanical confinement.

  11. Emotion recognition in animated compared to human stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-06-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon face). Participants were 37 adolescents (age 11-16) with a diagnosis of ASD (33 male, 4 female). 42 males and 39 females served as typically developing, age-matched controls. Overall there was significant advantage for control groups over the ASD group for emotion recognition in human stimuli but not animated stimuli, across modalities. For static animated images specifically, those with ASD significantly outperformed controls. The findings are consistent with the ASD group using atypical explicit strategies. PMID:25567528

  12. Emotion recognition in animated compared to human stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-06-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon face). Participants were 37 adolescents (age 11-16) with a diagnosis of ASD (33 male, 4 female). 42 males and 39 females served as typically developing, age-matched controls. Overall there was significant advantage for control groups over the ASD group for emotion recognition in human stimuli but not animated stimuli, across modalities. For static animated images specifically, those with ASD significantly outperformed controls. The findings are consistent with the ASD group using atypical explicit strategies.

  13. Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

  14. Landscape features influencing residential rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential “pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers, rabbits) and exotic (e.g., black and Norway rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in...

  15. Animal house stock control based on bar-coded cage labels.

    PubMed

    Wootton, R

    1985-10-01

    In an animal house serving the needs of a large research institute, a regular inventory of the animals in stock is a considerable help towards effective management of the facility. In particular, advising the licence-holders of what animals are being held in their name and reminding them of the costs involved is a valuable exercise. The introduction of a computerized system of stock control, based on bar-coded cage labels, is described. The system has proved economical to operate, accurate, and can be run by persons without computer expertise. PMID:4068665

  16. An intelligent flow control system for long term fluid restriction in small animals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Fluid retention is one of the most common symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. Although fluid restriction may be a therapeutic strategy, the degree of fluid restriction necessary for the best therapeutic outcome remains unknown partly due to the lack of proper experimental method to restrict water consumption in small animals. The traditional methods that allow animals to access water only in a limited time window or within pre-determined daily volume can be stressful because the animals may become thirsty during the time of water deprivation. To provide a less stressful water restriction paradigm, we designed a feedback-control system of drinking flow to modulate the drinking behavior of small animals. This system consisted of an infrared droplet sensor for monitoring the drinking flow and a computer controlled electric valve to regulate the water availability. A light signal which synchronized with the command for opening the valve was set to establish a conditioned reflex. An animal test indicated that rats were adaptable to a precisely programmed water supply. This system may warrant investigation into the consequences of fluid restriction in chronic experimental animal study. PMID:24110742

  17. An intelligent flow control system for long term fluid restriction in small animals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Fluid retention is one of the most common symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. Although fluid restriction may be a therapeutic strategy, the degree of fluid restriction necessary for the best therapeutic outcome remains unknown partly due to the lack of proper experimental method to restrict water consumption in small animals. The traditional methods that allow animals to access water only in a limited time window or within pre-determined daily volume can be stressful because the animals may become thirsty during the time of water deprivation. To provide a less stressful water restriction paradigm, we designed a feedback-control system of drinking flow to modulate the drinking behavior of small animals. This system consisted of an infrared droplet sensor for monitoring the drinking flow and a computer controlled electric valve to regulate the water availability. A light signal which synchronized with the command for opening the valve was set to establish a conditioned reflex. An animal test indicated that rats were adaptable to a precisely programmed water supply. This system may warrant investigation into the consequences of fluid restriction in chronic experimental animal study.

  18. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) for Primary Animal Habitat Lighting in Highly Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Syrkin, N.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Significant alterations in Biological Clock responses have been reported following sidereal time changes (e.g., Jet-lag), and exposure to microgravity (e.g., daytime sleepiness). Additionally, light reduces circulating melatonin (spectral specificity greatest between 450-500 nm). It was hypothesized that LEDs can replace the current light sources used in zero gravity and terrestrial research laboratories because of their small size, low mass, low energy consumption and long functional life. This report evaluates the capacity of LEDs to entrain the circadian system of rats as judged by measurement of overt behavioral circadian rhythms (activity, feeding, drinking). These data were collected in highly controlled environments similar to the shuttle Animal Enclosure Modules. Two groups were compared: control - animals exposed to standard cool-white fluorescent lights, and test - animals exposed to LEDs with a spectral power distribution matching the fluorescent lights. Gross locomotor activity, feeding and drinking frequencies were continuously monitored and stored at 10 minute intervals. Animals were exposed to the following photoperiods: 28 days of 12L:12D, 19 days of 24L:0D and 16 days of 12L:12D. Light intensities tested varied between 0.1 to 100 lux. Rats received food and water ad libitum, and temperature and humidity were controlled throughout the study. The general health status of all rats was acceptable for each day of this study. No incidents of aggressive behavior were observed. Growth, locomotor activity, food and water consumption were comparable for all groups of animals, i.e, the circadian characteristics of the animals under these conditions were comparable. These results indicate that LED arrays are as effective in maintaining circadian rhythm stability as the commonly used cool-white fluorescent light sources. LEDs with their flexible spectrum, low energy requirements and minimal heat production have advantages for some chronopharmacology studies and

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  20. Precise control and animation creation over the DMD for projection-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudsi, Badia

    2014-03-01

    Digital micromirror devices (DMDs) are used in a variety of display and projection applications to produce high resolution images, both static and animated. A common obstacle to working with DMDs in research and development applications is the steep learning curve required to obtain proficiency in programming the boards that control the behavior of the DMDs. This can discourage developers who wish to use DMDs in new or novel research and development applications which might benefit from their light-control properties. A new software package called Light Animator has been developed that provides a user friendly and more intuitive interface for controlling the DMD. The software allows users to address the micromirror array by the drawing and animation of objects in a style similar to that of commercial drawing programs. Sequences and animation are controlled by dividing the sequence into frames which the user can draw individually or the software can fill in for the user. Examples and descriptions of the software operation are described and operational performance measures are provided. Potential applications include 3D volumetric displays, a 3D scanner when combining the DMD with a CCD camera, and most any 2D application for which DMDs are currently used. The software's capabilities allow scientists to develop applications more easily and effectively.

  1. The Control of Animate and Inanimate Components in Pretend Play and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    The cognitive skills required in pretend play and language were examined in two studies in which children imitated pretend-play behaviors and sentences. As hypothesized, the control of animate and inanimate components in play and language were significantly related. (Author/MP)

  2. Animal poisoning in Italy: 10 years of epidemiological data from the Poison Control Centre of Milan.

    PubMed

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Davanzo, F

    2012-04-21

    From 2000 to 2010, the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV), in collaboration with the University of Milan, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, Toxicology Section, collected epidemiological information related to animal poisoning and classified it in an organised and computerised data bank. Data recorded were predominantly related to small animals and to some extent to horses, ruminants and other food-production animals. Few calls were registered involving exotics and no information was recorded on wildlife. The dog was reported to be the most common species involved in animal poisoning, and pesticides constituted the primary group of toxicants. In the case of pets, 'drugs' including veterinary parasiticide and drugs for human use constituted the second class of toxicants responsible for poisoning followed by household products, plants, zootoxins and metals. With regard to horses and farm animals, the second group consisted of phytotoxins, even if only episodically. In Italy, published data on this subject are scarce but this information is crucial for better management of the poisoning of domestic animals in an effort to reduce mortality.

  3. Using Animated Agents in Learner-Controlled Training: The Effects of Design Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrend, Tara S.; Thompson, Lori Foster

    2012-01-01

    Animated agents have the potential to increase engagement and learning during online training by acting as personalized tutors. However, little is known about the conditions that make these agents most effective. In this study, 183 e-learners completed a Microsoft Excel training course. Approximately half were assigned an agent with predetermined…

  4. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  5. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases.

  6. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  7. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Chris M; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-10-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings.

  8. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Chris M.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-01-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings. PMID:26426854

  9. Control of canine rabies in developing countries: key features and animal welfare implications.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga Ceballos, N; Karunaratna, D; Aguilar Setién, A

    2014-04-01

    Over 90% of human deaths from rabies worldwide are caused by dog bites. Mass vaccination, along with the effective control of dog populations, has been used successfully in industrialised countries to control this disease. A lower success rate in developing countries is due to a number of factors, including vaccination campaigns that do not cover a sufficient number of animals or reach all communities, and a wide biodiversity that increases the number of reservoirs of the rabies virus. Educational programmes are needed, which focus on the commitment involved when acquiring a domestic animal, stating clearly what is required to provide it with a good quality of life. New technologies developed in the industrialised world will not always be successful in less developed countries. Approaches must be adapted to the particular conditions in each country, taking cultural and socio-economic issues into account. Authorities must promote research on dog population dynamics, the development of non-invasive methods to control dog populations and the most efficient, stable and low-cost options for vaccination. Under the One Health model, it is hoped that dog-transmitted human rabies will be accorded high priority as a zoonosis by human health authorities, international authorities and donor agencies to support ambitious eradication goals, particularly those being set in South-East Asia. Well-designed and adequately resourced vaccination programmes, based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines, will have significant animal welfare benefits, due to the availability of improved vaccines (in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity, ease of administration and lower cost), advances in dog population management and the more widespread implementation of the OIE Guidelines on Stray Dog Control. Animal welfare benefits include not only the elimination of pain and suffering caused by the clinical disease itself, but also the avoidance of the indirect impact of

  10. Control of canine rabies in developing countries: key features and animal welfare implications.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga Ceballos, N; Karunaratna, D; Aguilar Setién, A

    2014-04-01

    Over 90% of human deaths from rabies worldwide are caused by dog bites. Mass vaccination, along with the effective control of dog populations, has been used successfully in industrialised countries to control this disease. A lower success rate in developing countries is due to a number of factors, including vaccination campaigns that do not cover a sufficient number of animals or reach all communities, and a wide biodiversity that increases the number of reservoirs of the rabies virus. Educational programmes are needed, which focus on the commitment involved when acquiring a domestic animal, stating clearly what is required to provide it with a good quality of life. New technologies developed in the industrialised world will not always be successful in less developed countries. Approaches must be adapted to the particular conditions in each country, taking cultural and socio-economic issues into account. Authorities must promote research on dog population dynamics, the development of non-invasive methods to control dog populations and the most efficient, stable and low-cost options for vaccination. Under the One Health model, it is hoped that dog-transmitted human rabies will be accorded high priority as a zoonosis by human health authorities, international authorities and donor agencies to support ambitious eradication goals, particularly those being set in South-East Asia. Well-designed and adequately resourced vaccination programmes, based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines, will have significant animal welfare benefits, due to the availability of improved vaccines (in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity, ease of administration and lower cost), advances in dog population management and the more widespread implementation of the OIE Guidelines on Stray Dog Control. Animal welfare benefits include not only the elimination of pain and suffering caused by the clinical disease itself, but also the avoidance of the indirect impact of

  11. Randomised controlled trial of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins in the treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Christian; Reveley, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins, controlling for the influence of the natural setting, in the treatment of mild to moderate depression and in the context of the biophilia hypothesis. Setting The study was carried out in Honduras, and recruitment took place in the United States and Honduras. Design Single blind, randomised, controlled trial. Participants Outpatients, recruited through announcements on the internet, radio, newspapers, and hospitals. Results Of the 30 patients randomly assigned to the two groups of treatment, two dropped out of the treatment group after the first week and three withdrew their consent in the control group after they had been randomly allocated. For the participants who completed the study, the mean severity of the depressive symptoms was more reduced in the treatment group than in the control group (Hamilton rating scale for depression, P = 0.002; Beck depression inventory, P = 0.006). For the sample analysed by modified intention to treat and last observation carried forward, the mean differences for the Hamilton and Beck scores between the two groups was highly significant (P = 0.007 and P = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions The therapy was effective in alleviating symptoms of depression after two weeks of treatment. Animal facilitated therapy with dolphins is an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression, which is based on a holistic approach, through interaction with animals in nature. PMID:16308382

  12. Diode probes for spatiotemporal optical control of multiple neurons in freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Koos, Tibor; Buzsáki, György

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal control with high temporal precision is possible with optogenetics, yet currently available methods do not enable to control independently multiple locations in the brains of freely moving animals. Here, we describe a diode-probe system that allows real-time and location-specific control of neuronal activity at multiple sites. Manipulation of neuronal activity in arbitrary spatiotemporal patterns is achieved by means of an optoelectronic array, manufactured by attaching multiple diode-fiber assemblies to high-density silicon probes or wire tetrodes and implanted into the brains of animals that are expressing light-responsive opsins. Each diode can be controlled separately, allowing localized light stimulation of neuronal activators and silencers in any temporal configuration and concurrent recording of the stimulated neurons. Because the only connections to the animals are via a highly flexible wire cable, unimpeded behavior is allowed for circuit monitoring and multisite perturbations in the intact brain. The capacity of the system to generate unique neural activity patterns facilitates multisite manipulation of neural circuits in a closed-loop manner and opens the door to addressing novel questions. PMID:22496529

  13. Residue control of coccidiostats in food of animal origin in Poland during 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Małgorzata; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, Teresa; Jedziniak, Piotr; Sledzińska, Edyta; Szymanek-Bany, Iwona; Korycińska, Beata; Pietruk, Konrad; Zmudzki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Coccidiostats are widely used as feed additives to prevent coccidiosis. The off-label use of anticoccidials or feeding non-target animals with cross-contaminated feedingstuffs may result in the occurrence of coccidiostat residues in animal tissues and eggs. In EU countries, food of animal origin is subjected to official control of residues according to Council Directive 96/23/EC. In Poland, within the framework of the National Residue Control Plan, 3718 samples (3533 targeted and 185 suspect) of animal liver, eggs, drinking water and feed were tested for coccidiostats between 2007 and 2010. Violative residues of nicarbazin, lasalocid, maduramicin, salinomycin, semduramicin and robenidine were detected in 77 food samples (53 samples of chicken liver, 23 samples of eggs and 1 sample of turkey liver). A high percentage (31%) of non-compliant feed samples collected during follow-up investigations was observed, which confirms that feed cross-contamination may be the reason of the occurrence of coccidiostat residues in food. PMID:24786249

  14. National programme of official control of animal feedingstuffs under surveillance of veterinary inspection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K

    2004-01-01

    Poland as a new EC country is obliged in agree with Directive 95/53/EC to drawn up one, coherent and coordinated national programme of official inspection, irrespective of the organisational structure, and the number of inspection authorities in a country. Taking these facts into account the author has worked out the Polish National Programme of an official control conducted by the Veterinary Inspection in the field of animal feedingstuffs sector in Poland. The objective of the programme is to lay down the substantive scope of official inspections and laboratory control testing of animal feedingstuffs, appropriate for the surveillance exercised by the Veterinary Inspection. The programme is under implementation process which has begun in 2004. PMID:15478870

  15. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  16. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  17. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  18. 78 FR 63477 - Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... investigators who conduct studies using active controls and have a basic understanding of statistical principles... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal Drug for Use in Companion Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food...

  19. Assessment of human exposures to animal vaccines using poison control records, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Edison, L; Schulte, J; Schauben, J; Kay, R; Rubin, C

    2014-05-01

    To characterize human exposures to vaccines intended for animals, evaluate the human risk due to these exposures and determine whether there is sufficient surveillance in place to monitor them. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (2000-2009). Information collected by poison specialists during calls reporting human exposure to an animal vaccine product, made to one of the 57 United States Poison Control Centers. Data from the National Poison Data System were analysed to determine the number of calls due to human exposures to animal vaccines, and descriptive statistics were generated to characterize the exposures by age, gender, medical outcome, exposure site, exposure route, vaccine type and intended species, aetiologic agent, call date and exposure reason. Overall, the human health effects were minor, primarily due to unintentional parenteral exposure. Less than 15% of the reports were classified as occupational, and 80% of the exposures took place outside of a workplace or healthcare facility. Almost 60% of calls were due to exposure to the West Nile Virus vaccine; the others distributed among a variety of vaccines. Unintentional exposure to animal vaccines appears to occur almost exclusively among untrained individuals who may benefit from more effective education about the risks and benefits of administering vaccines. Improved reporting of adverse outcomes is essential to adequately define the extent of human exposure and risks associated with availability of new vaccines.

  20. Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Okada, Shinpei; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Park, Hyuntae; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi; Oshio, Takuya; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Honda, Takuya; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this review were to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of animal-assisted therapy (AAT). Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which AAT was applied. We searched the following databases from 1990 up to October 31, 2012: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ichushi Web, GHL, WPRIM, and PsycINFO. We also searched all Cochrane Database up to October 31, 2012. Eleven RCTs were identified, and seven studies were about "Mental and behavioral disorders". Types of animal intervention were dog, cat, dolphin, bird, cow, rabbit, ferret, and guinea pig. The RCTs conducted have been of relatively low quality. We could not perform meta-analysis because of heterogeneity. In a study environment limited to the people who like animals, AAT may be an effective treatment for mental and behavioral disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol/drug addictions, and is based on a holistic approach through interaction with animals in nature. To most effectively assess the potential benefits for AAT, it will be important for further research to utilize and describe (1) RCT methodology when appropriate, (2) reasons for non-participation, (3) intervention dose, (4) adverse effects and withdrawals, and (5) cost.

  1. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  2. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  3. A historical perspective on peripheral reflex cardiovascular control from animals to man.

    PubMed

    Sleight, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Although drug treatment of human hypertension has greatly improved, there is renewed interest in non-drug methods of blood pressure reduction. Animal experiments have now shown that arterial baroreflexes do control long-term blood pressure levels, particularly by nervously mediated renal excretion of sodium and water. This Paton Lecture provides a review of the historical development of knowledge of peripheral circulatory control in order to supplement prior Paton Lectures concerned with cerebral cortical and other areas of influence. I also discuss how improved understanding of nervous control of the circulation has led to current methods of non-drug blood pressure control in man by implanted carotid baroreceptor pacemakers or by renal denervation. Finally, the role of other therapy, particularly listening to music, is reviewed. PMID:24986973

  4. Understanding Rift Valley fever: contributions of animal models to disease characterization and control.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Gema; López-Gil, Elena; Warimwe, George M; Brun, Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis with devastating health impacts in domestic ruminants and humans. Effective vaccines and accurate disease diagnostic tools are key components in the control of RVF. Animal models reproducing infection with RVF virus are of upmost importance in the development of these disease control tools. Rodent infection models are currently used in the initial steps of vaccine development and for the study of virus induced pathology. Translation of data obtained in these animal models to target species (ruminants and humans) is highly desirable but does not always occur. Small ruminants and non-human primates have been used for pathogenesis and transmission studies, and for testing the efficacy of vaccines and therapeutic antiviral compounds. However, the molecular mechanisms of the immune response elicited by RVF virus infection or vaccination are still poorly understood. The paucity of data in this area offers opportunities for new research activities and programs. This review summarizes our current understanding with respect to immunity and pathogenesis of RVF in animal models with a particular emphasis on small ruminants and non-human primates, including recent experimental infection data in sheep.

  5. Doing Socrates experiment right: controlled rearing studies of geometrical knowledge in animals.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Chiandetti, Cinzia

    2009-02-01

    The issue of whether encoding of geometric information for navigational purposes crucially depends on environmental experience or whether it is innately predisposed in the brain has been recently addressed in controlled rearing studies. Non-human animals can make use of the geometric shape of an environment for spatial reorientation and in some circumstances reliance on purely geometric information (metric properties and sense) can overcome use of local featural information. Animals reared in home cages of different geometric shapes proved to be equally capable of learning and performing navigational tasks based on geometric information. The findings suggest that effective use of geometric information for spatial reorientation does not require experience in environments with right angles and metrically distinct surfaces.

  6. A Wirelessly Powered and Controlled Device for Optical Neural Control of Freely-Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists’ capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted LED, tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the high-frequency pulse trains often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 grams capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 gram) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be simultaneously controlled from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control. PMID:21701058

  7. A wirelessly powered and controlled device for optical neural control of freely-behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-08-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists' capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically, awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted light-emitting diode (LED), tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the extended illumination periods often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 g capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2 W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3 W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 g) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be controlled simultaneously from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control.

  8. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  9. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  10. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  11. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD.

  12. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study.

    PubMed

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  13. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen L.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  14. Neurologic effects of exogenous saccharides: A review of controlled human, animal, and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erika D.; Ramberg, Jane E.; Best, Talitha; Sinnott, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Current research efforts are centered on delineating the novel health benefits of naturally derived saccharides, including growing interest in their abilities to influence neurologic health. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to consolidate all controlled studies assessing various roles of exogenous saccharide compounds and polysaccharide-rich extracts from plants, fungi, and other natural sources on brain function, with a significant focus on benefits derived from oral intake. Methods Studies were identified by conducting electronic searches on PubMed and Google Scholar. Reference lists of articles were also reviewed for additional relevant studies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Results Six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were identified in which consumption of a blend of plant-derived polysaccharides showed positive effects on cognitive function and mood in healthy adults. A separate controlled clinical study observed improvements in well-being with ingestion of a yeast beta-glucan. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have demonstrated the ability of individual saccharide compounds and polysaccharide-rich extracts to modify behavior, enhance synaptic plasticity, and provide neuroprotective effects. Discussion Although the mechanisms by which exogenous saccharides can influence brain function are not well understood at this time, the literature suggests that certain naturally occurring compounds and polysaccharide-rich extracts show promise, when taken orally, in supporting neurologic health and function. Additional well-controlled clinical studies on larger populations are necessary, however, before specific recommendations can be made. PMID:22417773

  15. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  16. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects.

  17. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects. PMID:27672657

  18. Transcriptional Control of an Essential Ribozyme in Drosophila Reveals an Ancient Evolutionary Divide in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Sathiya N.; Lai, Lien B.; Gopalan, Venkat; Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential enzyme required for 5′-maturation of tRNA. While an RNA-free, protein-based form of RNase P exists in eukaryotes, the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) form is found in all domains of life. The catalytic component of the RNP is an RNA known as RNase P RNA (RPR). Eukaryotic RPR genes are typically transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III). Here we showed that the RPR gene in Drosophila, which is annotated in the intron of a pol II-transcribed protein-coding gene, lacks signals for transcription by pol III. Using reporter gene constructs that include the RPR-coding intron from Drosophila, we found that the intron contains all the sequences necessary for production of mature RPR but is dependent on the promoter of the recipient gene for expression. We also demonstrated that the intron-coded RPR copurifies with RNase P and is required for its activity. Analysis of RPR genes in various animal genomes revealed a striking divide in the animal kingdom that separates insects and crustaceans into a single group in which RPR genes lack signals for independent transcription and are embedded in different protein-coding genes. Our findings provide evidence for a genetic event that occurred approximately 500 million years ago in the arthropod lineage, which switched the control of the transcription of RPR from pol III to pol II. PMID:25569672

  19. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2008-01-01

    Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772

  20. Novel approach to control sulfamethazine misuse in food-producing animals by hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Castellari, M; Valero, A; Diaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A

    2006-10-01

    The presence of sulfamethazine residues in pig and calf hair was compared with the residual levels encountered in the corresponding edible tissues (liver and muscle) as a consequence of drug administration. Sulfamethazine up to 84.7 mg kg-1 was found in calf hair samples after a pharmacological treatment, with a significant effect of hair pigmentation. High concentrations of the parent drug were detected in calf hair for 4 weeks after administration, when sulfamethazine residues were no longer detectable in the corresponding edible tissues. In a similar way, pig hair also accumulated sulfamethazine residues up to 40.5 mg kg-1, which was more than the amount detected in the corresponding muscle and liver samples at slaughter. Hair analysis seems a suitable tool to improve the efficacy of regulatory controls, and thus the safety of the food chain and to discourage the improper use of sulfamethazine in animal farming.

  1. Body side-specific control of motor activity during turning in a walking animal.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bockemühl, Till; Büschges, Ansgar

    2016-04-27

    Animals and humans need to move deftly and flexibly to adapt to environmental demands. Despite a large body of work on the neural control of walking in invertebrates and vertebrates alike, the mechanisms underlying the motor flexibility that is needed to adjust the motor behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated optomotor-induced turning and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the differences between the leg movements of the two body sides in the stick insect Carausius morosus. We present data to show that the generation of turning kinematics in an insect are the combined result of descending unilateral commands that change the leg motor output via task-specific modifications in the processing of local sensory feedback as well as modification of the activity of local central pattern generating networks in a body-side-specific way. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the specificity of such modifications in a defined motor task.

  2. Novel approach to control sulfamethazine misuse in food-producing animals by hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Castellari, M; Valero, A; Diaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A

    2006-10-01

    The presence of sulfamethazine residues in pig and calf hair was compared with the residual levels encountered in the corresponding edible tissues (liver and muscle) as a consequence of drug administration. Sulfamethazine up to 84.7 mg kg-1 was found in calf hair samples after a pharmacological treatment, with a significant effect of hair pigmentation. High concentrations of the parent drug were detected in calf hair for 4 weeks after administration, when sulfamethazine residues were no longer detectable in the corresponding edible tissues. In a similar way, pig hair also accumulated sulfamethazine residues up to 40.5 mg kg-1, which was more than the amount detected in the corresponding muscle and liver samples at slaughter. Hair analysis seems a suitable tool to improve the efficacy of regulatory controls, and thus the safety of the food chain and to discourage the improper use of sulfamethazine in animal farming. PMID:16982519

  3. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders: effects on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The benefits of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) for humans with mental disorders have been well-documented using cats and dogs, but there is a complete lack of controlled studies using farm animals as therapeutic agents for psychiatric patients. The study was developed in the context of Green care, a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens, or the landscape in recreational or work-related interventions for different target groups of clients in cooperation with health authorities. The present study aimed at examining effects of a 12-week intervention with farm animals on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life among adult psychiatric patients with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial and follow-up. Ninety patients (59 women and 31 men) with schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders completed questionnaires to assess self-efficacy (Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale; GSE), coping ability (Coping Strategies Scale), and quality of life (Quality of Life Scale; QOLS-N) before, at the end of intervention, and at six months follow-up. Two-thirds of the patients (N = 60) were given interventions; the remaining served as controls. Results There was significant increase in self-efficacy in the treatment group but not in the control group from before intervention (SB) to six months follow-up (SSMA), (SSMA-SB; F1,55 = 4.20, p= 0.05) and from end of intervention (SA) to follow-up (SSMA-SA; F1,55 = 5.6, p= 0.02). There was significant increase in coping ability within the treatment group between before intervention and follow-up (SSMA-SB = 2.7, t = 2.31, p = 0.03), whereas no changes in quality of life was found. There were no significant changes in any of the variables during the intervention. Conclusion AAT with farm animals may have positive influences on self-efficacy and coping ability among psychiatric patients with long lasting psychiatric symptoms. PMID

  4. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Rabivac vaccine for animal rabies control in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To fight animal rabies, Moroccan veterinary authorities organize annual dog mass vaccination campaigns using Rabivac vaccine, an inactivated adjuvanted cell culture veterinary rabies vaccine. Two experiments were undertaken to assess the efficacy and immunogenicity of Rabivac. Materials and Methods The first experiment involved 13 caged dogs (8 vaccinated and 5 negative controls). Dogs were bled at day 0 (D0) and at days D7, D14, D21, D28, D35, D49, D56, D64, D70, D77, D84, D91, D98, D105, D112, and D119 post-vaccination. At D121, a virulent challenge was performed. After 70 days monitoring period, seven out of eight vaccinated dogs survived the challenge (one dog succumbed to a mesenteric torsion accident) and four out of five controls succumbed. All vaccinated dogs seroconverted and the control dogs remained negative. The second experiment consisted in a field study involving 919 owned dogs randomly selected in eight Moroccan districts located in different parts of the country. The dogs were identified and vaccinated by the parenteral route and bled on the vaccination day (D0) and on D30. Results Ninety-two percent of dogs developed a positive rabies virus neutralizing antibody response to vaccination and 24% were positive at D0, suggesting that dogs were previously vaccinated. The increase in rabies antibody titers was highly significant in all districts. No significant difference seemed occurring between the geographical status (rural, semiurban, or urban) of the districts on the results obtained. Conclusion Rabivac is efficacious both in experimental and field conditions. This supports its use in dog mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26866025

  5. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C L; Biskup, C S; Herpertz, S; Gaber, T J; Kuhn, C M; Hood, S H; Zepf, F D

    2015-05-19

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research.

  6. Programmes to control or eradicate Salmonella in animal production in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Flensburg, J

    1999-01-01

    The number of diagnosed cases of salmonella infections in humans has been increasing during the latest 10 years, for the last 5 years mainly because of an increase in infections with Salmonella Enteritidis. As far as Danish produced animal products is concerned, it is assumed that the most important sources of human salmonella infections are, in order of priority: eggs, poultry meat and pork. In Denmark there are at the moment public and voluntary salmonella pre-harvest reduction programmes in the production of pigs, broilers and eggs. The programme in the pig production is a control programme, that means that the aim is to maintain a generally low level of salmonella in pig herds. At the same time the goal of a low level of salmonella contamination of pork is also pursued through general and specific hygiene measures in the slaughterhouses. The programmes in the poultry production are limited to broilers and hens eggs. They are, at least in theory, eradication programmes where the aim is total freedom from salmonella. According to the rules of Council Directive 92/117/EEC, flocks of hens producing eggs for hatching must be free from Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium, whereas according to the Danish national requirements (Veterinary Service Orders to come into effect shortly), these two salmonella serotypes must be eradicated from flocks of hens producing eggs for sale to consumers and all salmonella serotypes must be eradicated from flocks of hens producing eggs for hatching. PMID:10783730

  7. The prosocial effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled studies in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-10-01

    Users of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others' positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  8. The Prosocial Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled Studies in Humans and Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-01-01

    Users of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’) report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others’ positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  9. The prosocial effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled studies in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-10-01

    Users of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others' positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use.

  10. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  11. Body side-specific control of motor activity during turning in a walking animal

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bockemühl, Till; Büschges, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans need to move deftly and flexibly to adapt to environmental demands. Despite a large body of work on the neural control of walking in invertebrates and vertebrates alike, the mechanisms underlying the motor flexibility that is needed to adjust the motor behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated optomotor-induced turning and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the differences between the leg movements of the two body sides in the stick insect Carausius morosus. We present data to show that the generation of turning kinematics in an insect are the combined result of descending unilateral commands that change the leg motor output via task-specific modifications in the processing of local sensory feedback as well as modification of the activity of local central pattern generating networks in a body-side-specific way. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the specificity of such modifications in a defined motor task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13799.001 PMID:27130731

  12. A mechanistic model of nutritional control of protein synthesis in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    El-Haroun, Ehab R; Bureau, Dominique P; Cant, John P

    2010-01-21

    Regulation of mRNA translation has been held responsible for effects of diet, age, alcohol, hormones, hibernation, disease and hypoxia on protein synthesis in animal tissues. Dietary effects are due to concentrations of amino acids and insulin in circulation that affect activities of two key translational regulators, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (F2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (Bp). To construct a platform for prediction of global protein synthesis to nutritional stimuli, a dynamic, mechanistic model of translational control in whole tissues was developed. The model was composed of a set of differential equations which describe the dynamics of 11 state variables: tRNA and acyl-tRNA for leucine (Leu), limiting (Laa) and other amino acids (Oaa), inactivated F2 with GDP (F2d), activated F2 with GTP (F2t), F4e, Bp and its complex with F4e (4eBp), available mRNA start codons (AUG), and active ribosomes (Arib). Material was assumed to flow from one variable to another according to mass-action kinetics or Michaelis-Menten form. Uncharged tRNA inhibit GTP exchange on eIF2, and free amino acids and insulin inhibit reversible sequestration of F4e by Bp. Initial conditions and parameters were set for a skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate of 10%/d and ribosome transit time of 80s. Between amino acid concentrations of 500 and 4000x10(3)nM, protein synthesis increased from 0.9 to 11.7%/d at 0microU/mL insulin, and from 5.0 to 12.8%/d at 30microU/mL insulin. Predicted responses to graded levels of a deficient amino acid were asymptotic. A single parameter accomodated differences between tissues in insulin sensitivity. Seven parameters must be changed to simulate initiation and elongation rates in more active tissues such as liver, or in tissues of older mature animals. An increase in uncharged tRNA during insulin stimulation highlighted the physiological importance of coordinated regulation of amino acid supply by insulin. In conclusion, the

  13. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  14. Evaluation of automotive mass airflow sensors for animal environment research and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass air flow is an important parameter to consider in animal research applications, especially for the generation of heat and moisture production data. The high flow rates and low operating pressures in animal research facilities present a unique and costly challenge for measurement of mass air fl...

  15. Investigation and control of anthrax outbreak at the human-animal interface, Bhutan, 2010.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Nirmal K; Tenzin; Wangdi, Karma; Dorji, Tshering; Migma; Dorjee, Jambay; Marston, Chung K; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-09-01

    In 2010, we investigated anthrax outbreak in Bhutan. A total of 43 domestic animals died, and cutaneous anthrax developed in 9 persons, and 1 died. All affected persons had contact with the carcasses of infected animals. Comprehensive preparedness and response guidelines are needed to increase public awareness of anthrax in Bhutan.

  16. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage

  17. The Conserved VPS-50 Protein Functions in Dense-Core Vesicle Maturation and Acidification and Controls Animal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Paquin, Nicolas; Murata, Yasunobu; Froehlich, Allan; Omura, Daniel T; Ailion, Michael; Pender, Corinne L; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Horvitz, H Robert

    2016-04-01

    The modification of behavior in response to experience is crucial for animals to adapt to environmental changes. Although factors such as neuropeptides and hormones are known to function in the switch between alternative behavioral states, the mechanisms by which these factors transduce, store, retrieve, and integrate environmental signals to regulate behavior are poorly understood. The rate of locomotion of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends on both current and past food availability. Specifically, C. elegans slows its locomotion when it encounters food, and animals in a food-deprived state slow even more than animals in a well-fed state. The slowing responses of well-fed and food-deprived animals in the presence of food represent distinct behavioral states, as they are controlled by different sets of genes, neurotransmitters, and neurons. Here we describe an evolutionarily conserved C. elegans protein, VPS-50, that is required for animals to assume the well-fed behavioral state. Both VPS-50 and its murine homolog mVPS50 are expressed in neurons, are associated with synaptic and dense-core vesicles, and control vesicle acidification and hence synaptic function, likely through regulation of the assembly of the V-ATPase complex. We propose that dense-core vesicle acidification controlled by the evolutionarily conserved protein VPS-50/mVPS50 affects behavioral state by modulating neuropeptide levels and presynaptic neuronal function in both C. elegans and mammals. PMID:26948874

  18. Risk factors for MRSA infection in companion animals: results from a case-control study within Germany.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Szilvia; Brandenburg, Anja G; Espelage, Werner; Stamm, Ivonne; Wieler, Lothar H; Kopp, Peter A; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Walther, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    Increasing numbers of companion animals suffering from infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported in the recent past. These infections are of particular concern because of the limited treatment options for MRSA and their transferability to humans. Since MRSA lineages isolated from infected companion animals often mirror typical human epidemic strains circulating in the same region, successful strategies to combat MRSA need strong and coordinated efforts from both, the human and the veterinary field according to the "One Health" concept. Hence, to identify potential risk factors related to MRSA infections in dogs, cats and horses, a case-control study was conducted, including data on 106 MRSA-infected animal patients as cases and 102 MSSA-infected animals as controls, originating from 155 different veterinary settings within Germany. Demographic data on animal patients, patient history and administration of antibiotics as well as practice/clinic specific parameters were assessed as putative risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression identified the following variables as risk factors for MRSA infection compared to MSSA infection: number of employees working at the veterinary setting (n>10; p<0.001), antibiotic treatment prior to sampling (systemic: p=0.002; local: p=0.049, both: p=0.011) and surgical site infection (p<0.001). Spa typing revealed predominantly clonal complexes well-known for hospital-associated lineages spreading in human health-care settings in Germany (CC5 and CC22) for isolates of dog and cat origin. CC398-MRSA dominated among equine isolates, a CC that was described as a nosocomial pathogen in equine clinical settings before. The identified risk factors and genotyping results are in accordance with numerous study outcomes from the field of human medicine and point towards reasonable problems with nosocomial spread of MRSA, especially within companion animal veterinary clinics. To define targeted

  19. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is

  20. Guidelines for development and application of aquatic animal health regulations and control programs. AVMA Aquaculture and Seafood Advisory Committee.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, H; Stoskopf, M K

    1999-06-15

    The creation of sound health regulations or disease control programs for any animal species is a complex endeavor. When the diverse stakeholder interests related to aquaculture are considered, this endeavor becomes daunting. The AVMA Aquaculture and Seafood Advisory Committee designed the following guidelines as a tool to assist aquatic animal health professionals who discuss potential regulations or control programs with government and industry entities. The guide focuses on determining whether a regulation or program is appropriate and, if so, developing a suitable and effective aquatic animal health plan. The Aquaculture and Seafood Advisory Committee was established in 1992 as an ad hoc committee of the AVMA Executive Board. The committee is composed of 9 veterinarians with diverse interests in aquaculture and seafood, and one non-veterinarian who represents the aquaculture industry. Participants from the USDA/APHIS and FDA serve as consultants to the Committee.

  1. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  2. [Surveillance and control of imported animal diseases. Role of the OIE and veterinary services].

    PubMed

    Angot, Jean-Luc

    2009-11-01

    Many animal diseases have received major media attention in recent years, including foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and avian influenza. Epizootics are on the increase, notably owing to globalization, ecological upheavals, and global warming. It is estimated that three-quarters of emerging and re-emerging diseases are zoonoses, i.e. diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Changes in eating habits, along with population growth and increasingly large populations at risk have all contributed to the upsurge of zoonoses. The fight against animal diseases is a major issue not only for animal health but also for human health, economics and politics. Veterinary services, whose work is recognized as an "international public good" by the World Bank, must be considered in terms of all those involved in animal health, including formal services, veterinarians and their assistants and organized livestock farmers, working together in close partnership. When veterinary services fail in a single country, it is the entire world that is threatened. Animal disease outbreaks are even more of a problem when they occur in countries that have no effective surveillance and preventive animal health network. Veterinary Services are an important instrument of public health and are necessary to protect the livestock economy. Industrialized countries must therefore help developing countries to eradicate their animal diseases, and countries with efficient veterinary infrastructures must encourage failing countries to adopt an effective early detection and rapid response system. OIE, the World Organization for Animal Health, has developed quality standards and norms for evaluating veterinary services, and provides an interactive tool (PVS, Performance of Veterinary Services) designed to facilitate their implementation. Assessments conducted by specifically trained experts allow international donors such as the World Bank to target investments where

  3. Macrocyclic lactones in the treatment and control of parasitism in small companion animals.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have many anti-parasitic applications in small companion animal medicine. They were first developed as chemoprophylactics against heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection to be applied monthly for retroactive killing of third- and fourth-stage larvae. ML-containing products formulated for oral (ivermectin, milbemycin oxime), topical (selamectin, moxidectin) or injectable sustained release (moxidectin, ivermectin) are approved for heartworm prevention in dogs or cats. Clearance of microfilariae and gradual or "soft" killing of adult heartworms constitute increasingly prevalent extra-label uses of MLs against D. immitis. Some commercial ML formulations contain sufficient levels of active ingredient (milbemycin oxime, selamectin, moxidectin) to support additional label claims against gastrointestinal nematode parasites such as hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) and ascarid round worms (Toxocara spp. and Toxascaris leonina). Beyond these approved applications, safe, extra-label uses of MLs against nematodes parasitizing the urinary tract, such as Capillaria spp., and parasites of the tissues, such as Dipetalonema reconditum, Dirofilaria repens, Thelazia spp. and Spirocerca lupi, in dogs and cats as well as exotic pets have been reported. MLs as a group have intrinsic insecticidal and acaricidal activity, and topical or otic formulations of certain compounds (selamectin, moxidectin, milbemycin oxime or ivermectin) are approved for treatment and control of fleas, certain ixodid ticks, sarcoptiform and demodectic mange mites and psoroptiform ear mites. Extra-label applications of MLs against ectoparasites include notoedric mange mites, dermanyssids such as Ornythonussus bacoti, numerous species of fur mite (e.g. Cheyletiella spp. and Lynxacarus) and trombiculids ("chiggers") in cats, dogs and nontraditional or exotic pets.

  4. A pilot-scale study on biofilters for controlling animal rendering process odours.

    PubMed

    Luo, J

    2001-01-01

    Heating of animal tissue during the process of rendering liberates a variety of odorous compounds. The performance of biofiltration in removing these odours was investigated using pilot-scale biofilters containing different media (sand, finely and coarsely crushed wood bark, and bark/soil mixture). Odour-removal performance of the biofilters was determined using olfactometry. Biofilter odour removal efficiencies of between 29.7% and 99.9% were measured at influent odour concentrations of between 143,100 and 890,000 odour units m(-3), and various air loading rates (0.074-0.592 m(-3) air m(-3) medium min(-1)). Biofilters with bark or bark/soil media and low air loading rates gave the best odour removal. The bark and sand biofilters generally maintained good odour reduction for about three years at an air loading rate of 0.148 m(-3) air m(-3) medium min(-1). Drainage from the biofilters contained significant concentrations of nitrogenous and organic compounds, suggesting that controlled leaching has the potential to remove accumulated substances in biofilter media from rendering gas emissions and increase the longevity of a biofilter system. High pressure drop across biofilter media can adversely affect the odour removal performance. Sand and fine bark, due to their small particle size, caused high pressure drops. Coarse bark showed negligible pressure drop at several examined air loading rates. Pressure drop also increased with moisture content, particularly in sand and fine bark biofilters. Overall pressure drop characteristics of the biofilters described in this paper were maintained without significant change over the three year operation.

  5. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  6. What Animated Illustrations Conditions Can Improve Technical Document Comprehension in Young Students? Format, Signaling and Control of the Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Guignard, Helene

    2005-01-01

    We study the comprehension of a multimedia technical document about gear functioning by young pupils. The research is focused on the effect of three factors on the construction of a mental model: illustration format (animated versus static) signaling cues (presence versus absence) learner-control of information delivery (three rhythms of…

  7. CONTROLLED DIESEL EXPOSURES: INTER-PHASING HUMAN AND ANIMAL STUDIES AND THEIR USE IN THE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled diesel exposures: Inter-phasing human and animal studies and their use in the risk assessment process.
    Michael C. Madden, US EPA.

    Particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with health effects (e.g., premature deaths, hospitalizations, lung ...

  8. Modelling, Simulation, Animation, and Real-Time Control (Mosart) for a Class of Electromechanical Systems: A System-Theoretic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Armando A.; Metzger, Richard P.; Cifdaloz, Oguzhan; Dhirasakdanon, Thanate; Welfert, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive modelling, simulation, animation, and real-time control (MoSART) environment for a class of 'cart-pendulum' electromechanical systems that may be used to enhance learning within differential equations and linear algebra classes. The environment is useful for conveying fundamental mathematical/systems concepts…

  9. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the opening of...

  10. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  11. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-09-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  12. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  13. Detection of cardiomyopathy in an animal model using quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, K.; Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Brill, A.B.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Atkins, H.L.; Sole, M.J.

    1988-10-01

    A fatty acid analog (15-p-iodophenyl)-3,3 dimethyl-pentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) was studied in cardiomyopathic (CM) and normal age-matched Syrian hamsters. Dual tracer quantitative wholebody autoradiography (QARG) with DMIPP and 2-(/sup 14/C(U))-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) or with FDG and /sup 201/Tl enabled comparison of the uptake of a fatty acid and a glucose analog with the blood flow. These comparisons were carried out at the onset and mid-stage of the disease before congestive failure developed. Groups of CM and normal animals were treated with verapamil from the age of 26 days, before the onset of the disease for 41 days. In CM hearts, areas of decreased DMIPP uptake were seen. These areas were much larger than the decrease in uptake of FDG or /sup 201/Tl. In early CM only minimal changes in FDG or /sup 201/Tl uptake were observed as compared to controls. Treatment of CM-prone animals with verapamil prevented any changes in DMIPP, FDG, or /sup 201/Tl uptake. DMIPP seems to be a more sensitive indicator of early cardiomyopathic changes as compared to /sup 201/Tl or FDG. The trial of DMIPP and SPECT in the diagnosis of human disease, as well as for monitoring the effects of drugs which may prevent it seems to be warranted.

  14. A Sensory-Motor Control Model of Animal Flight Explains Why Bats Fly Differently in Light Versus Dark

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Nadav S.; Skogestad, Sigurd; Marçal, Jose M.; Ulanovsky, Nachum; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Animal flight requires fine motor control. However, it is unknown how flying animals rapidly transform noisy sensory information into adequate motor commands. Here we developed a sensorimotor control model that explains vertebrate flight guidance with high fidelity. This simple model accurately reconstructed complex trajectories of bats flying in the dark. The model implies that in order to apply appropriate motor commands, bats have to estimate not only the angle-to-target, as was previously assumed, but also the angular velocity (“proportional-derivative” controller). Next, we conducted experiments in which bats flew in light conditions. When using vision, bats altered their movements, reducing the flight curvature. This change was explained by the model via reduction in sensory noise under vision versus pure echolocation. These results imply a surprising link between sensory noise and movement dynamics. We propose that this sensory-motor link is fundamental to motion control in rapidly moving animals under different sensory conditions, on land, sea, or air. PMID:25629809

  15. Sources of variation in baseline gene expression levels from toxicogenomics study control animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of gene expression profiling in both clinical and laboratory settings would be enhanced by better characterization ofvariance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis ofmicroarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the con...

  16. Tick-borne Diseases in Animals and USDA Research on Tick Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne diseases represent a major threat to animal health in the United States. The cattle industry in the United States has benefited greatly from the continued USDA efforts through the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in preventing the re-introduction of cattle ticks and associated pathog...

  17. Imaging dopaminergic dysfunction as a surrogate marker of neuropathology in a small-animal model of HIV.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dianne E; Reid, William C; Ibrahim, Wael G; Peterson, Kristin L; Lentz, Margaret R; Maric, Dragan; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M; Hammoud, Dima A

    2014-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is especially vulnerable to the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, rendering dopaminergic deficits early surrogate markers of HIV-associated neuropathology. We quantified dopamine D2/3 receptors in young HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) (n  =  6) and age-matched control rats (n  =  7) and adult Tg (n  =  5) and age-matched control rats (n  =  5) using [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET). Regional uptake was quantified as binding potential (BPND) using the two-tissue reference model with the cerebellum as the reference. Time-activity curves were generated for the ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Whereas BPND values were significantly lower in the ventral striatum (p < .001) and dorsal striatum (p  =  .001) in the adult Tg rats compared to controls rats, they were significantly lower only in the dorsal striatum (p < .05) in the young rats. Tg rats had smaller striatal volumes on magnetic resonance imaging. We also found lower expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase on immunohistochemistry in the Tg animals. Our findings suggest that progressive striatal D2/3 receptor deficits occur in Tg rats as they age and can be detected using small-animal PET imaging. The effectiveness of various approaches in preventing or halting this dopaminergic loss in the Tg rat can thus be measured preclinically using [18F]fallypride PET as a molecular imaging biomarker of HIV-associated neuropathology. PMID:25248756

  18. Contrasting views of animal healthcare providers on worm control practices for sheep and goats in an arid environment

    PubMed Central

    Saddiqi, H.A.; Jabbar, A.; Babar, W.; Sarwar, M.; Iqbal, Z.; Cabaret, J.

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the worm control practices and anthelmintic usage of 150 key respondents involved in sheep and goat production in the arid Thal area of Pakistan. The information was collected by visiting farms, and interviewing the key respondents which included veterinary officers (n = 15), veterinary assistants (n = 51), traditional practitioners (n = 24), and small and large scale sheep/goat farm herders and owners (n = 60). Among all interviewed animal healthcare providers, the veterinary officers had the highest level of awareness of parasitic infection and advocated the use of modern available anthelmintics according to the predefined schedule. The farmers on the other hand, had the lowest level of knowledge about parasitic infections. They used modern anthelmintics at low frequencies (every six months) following an unusual practice of diluting the medicine. Veterinary assistants had a medium level of awareness about the parasitic infections using anthelmintic treatments when they deemed necessary rather than following a predefined treatment schedule. Traditional practitioners were also aware of parasitic infections and used traditional anthelmintics or a combination of the traditional and modern anthelmintics. The animal health providers had a different awareness and knowledge of parasitic infections which resulted in contrasting proposals for its control. The farmers used worm control measures in accordance with their own views and those of animal healthcare advisors, combining modern and traditional treatments. This study provides the first insight into the differing views of those animal healthcare providers who form the basis for effective parasitic control within the sheep and goat industry of an arid region. PMID:22314240

  19. [The cerebral control of the somatosensory and auditory afferent projections to the cerebral cortex in man and animals].

    PubMed

    Liubimov, N N; Orlova, T V; Liubimov, S N

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper was consisted in studying of topology (spreading) of the somatosensory and auditory projections in cortex of both brain hemispheres in humans under different functional states conditions: during quiet walking state and during realization of the meditative programme. At the same time for the purpose of verification these steering mechanisms a number of experiments were realized in animals with neurosurgical cutting of brainstem ascending projections, which control the transfer of somatosensory and auditory sensibility. Experimental study was realized with two groups of subjects--8 subjects (age from 25 to 35 years old) and 25 (age from 25 to 40 years old) subjects practicing technique of Transcendental Meditation (TM). In addition to the mentioned above group some groups of animals were used in the experiments. Among them there were used the groups of monkeys (8 macaque rhesus and macaque nemestrina) and cats (10 animals) in conditions of acute experiment, under tiopenthal anesthesia. Two experimental methods were used in the study: electrophysiological for subjects and neurosurgical, additionally for animals. For evaluation of the brain reactivity in subjects registration of the somatosensory, to median nerve stimulation, and auditory, to bilateral application of auditory clicks, evoked potentials (EPs) in the symmetrical cortical structures of the brain was used. Registration of the somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials in animals was realized not only from the cortex, but from the brainstem somatosensory and auditory structures. SSEP in subjects-meditators were registered before and during meditation programme. In animals SSEP and AEP registration on the corresponding stimuli realized before and after neurosurgical operation--section of the midbrain tegmentum. Specific alterations of the early (up to 80 ms) and late components SSEP and AEP complexes in forms of topology spreading and diminution of registration areas of

  20. Cross-cultural management of pest animal damage: a case study of feral buffalo control in Australia's Kakadu National Park.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control.

  1. NAD kinase controls animal NADP biosynthesis and is modulated via evolutionarily divergent calmodulin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Love, Nick R; Pollak, Nadine; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Chen, Yaoyao; Oliveri, Paola; Amaya, Enrique; Patel, Sandip; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) is a critical cofactor during metabolism, calcium signaling, and oxidative defense, yet how animals regulate their NADP pools in vivo and how NADP-synthesizing enzymes are regulated have long remained unknown. Here we show that expression of Nadk, an NAD(+) kinase-encoding gene, governs NADP biosynthesis in vivo and is essential for development in Xenopus frog embryos. Unexpectedly, we found that embryonic Nadk expression is dynamic, showing cell type-specific up-regulation during both frog and sea urchin embryogenesis. We analyzed the NAD kinases (NADKs) of a variety of deuterostome animals, finding two conserved internal domains forming a catalytic core but a highly divergent N terminus. One type of N terminus (found in basal species such as the sea urchin) mediates direct catalytic activation of NADK by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM), whereas the other (typical for vertebrates) is phosphorylated by a CaM kinase-dependent mechanism. This work indicates that animal NADKs govern NADP biosynthesis in vivo and are regulated by evolutionarily divergent and conserved CaM-dependent mechanisms.

  2. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  3. Effect of Replacing Animal Protein with Plant Protein on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Stewart, Sarah E.; Jayalath, Viranda H.; Ng, Alena Praneet; Mirrahimi, Arash; de Souza, Russell J.; Hanley, Anthony J.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of replacing sources of animal protein with plant protein on glycemic control has been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of this replacement on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through 26 August 2015. We included RCTs ≥ 3-weeks comparing the effect of replacing animal with plant protein on HbA1c, fasting glucose (FG), and fasting insulin (FI). Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data, assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2-statistic). Thirteen RCTs (n = 280) met the eligibility criteria. Diets emphasizing a replacement of animal with plant protein at a median level of ~35% of total protein per day significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = −0.15%; 95%-CI: −0.26, −0.05%), FG (MD = −0.53 mmol/L; 95%-CI: −0.92, −0.13 mmol/L) and FI (MD = −10.09 pmol/L; 95%-CI: −17.31, −2.86 pmol/L) compared with control arms. Overall, the results indicate that replacing sources of animal with plant protein leads to modest improvements in glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Owing to uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for larger, longer, higher quality trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02037321. PMID:26633472

  4. Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava and Muenchen animal infections: Implications for epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Arent, Z; Frizzell, C; Gilmore, C; Allen, A; Ellis, W A

    2016-07-15

    Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars - Bratislava and Muenchen - have been associated with disease in domestic animals, in particular pigs, but also in horses and dogs. Similar strains have also been recovered from various wildlife species. Their epidemiology is poorly understood. Two hundred and forty seven such isolates, from UK domestic animal and wildlife species, were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. A representative sub-sample of 65 of these isolates was further examined by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and 22 by secY sequencing. Ten restriction pattern types were identified. The majority of isolates fell into one of three restriction endonuclease analysis pattern types designated B2a, B2b and M2a. B2a was ubiquitous and was isolated from 10 species and represented the majority of the horse and all dog isolates. B2b was very different, being isolated only from pigs, indicating that this type was maintained by pigs. The pattern M2a was reported for the majority of isolates from pigs but also was common in small rodents isolates. Five restriction pattern types were found only in wildlife suggesting that they are unlikely to pose a disease threat to domestic animals. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis identified six clusters. The REA types B2a and B2b were all found in one MLVA cluster while the majority of the M2a strains examined occurred in another cluster. The secY sequencing detected only one sequence type, clustered with other serovars of Leptospira interrogans. PMID:27283852

  5. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  6. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  7. [Questionnaire on the incidence and control of fleas in dogs and cats presented to German small animal practices].

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    2590 small animal practitioners in Germany have been asked by a questionnaire from which 1694 (65.4%) replied. 1186 of these veterinarians (70%) often see ectoparasite infestation. Fleas are predominant and occur on cats (1016/60%), followed by dogs (424/25%), small mammals and birds (254/15%). Flea infestations on dogs and cats are observed throughout the year, but the prevalences are generally higher during the summer season. The results reveal that topically administered spot-on formulations is the most popular method used for flea control. The most common applied antiparasitic substances both in dogs and in cats were fipronil (535/31.6%; 690/40.7%), imidacloprid (290/17.1%; 417/24.6%) and selamectin (267/15.8%; 319/18.8%). Due to 771 (45.5%) of the answering veterinarians the animal owner himself, and according 694 (41%) respectively 229 (13.5%) of the replies the veterinarian or the veterinary technician applies the antiparasiticide onto the skin. 1457 veterinarians (86%) administer compounds against adult fleas and their developmental stages also in the animal's environment. PMID:17009722

  8. Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease.

  9. Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.

    PubMed

    Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control.

  10. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed.

  11. How behavioral stress disrupts the endocrine control of reproduction in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Moberg, G P

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral stress can prevent animals from achieving normal reproductive success. Stressors associated with intensive livestock management may be responsible for reduced reproductive efficiency. However, before appropriate management decisions can be made to alleviate the effects of behavioral stress on reproduction, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms by which stress disrupts normal reproduction. The neuroendocrine regulation of follicular development and ovulation requires a complex and delicate interplay between the pituitary gonadotropins and the feedback actions of the major follicular steroid, estradiol. Because of this complexity, the regulation of the follicular stage of the estrous cycle and ovulation is especially vulnerable to the effects of stress. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms by which stress disrupts reproduction are not fully understood, the stress-induced secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids seems to be of special significance because these steroids can effect both the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Of additional importance may be the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  12. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  13. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE PAGES

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  14. Efficacy of intervertebral disc regeneration with stem cells - a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Perez-Terzic, Carman M; Smith, Jay; Mauck, William D; Shelerud, Randy A; Maus, Timothy P; Yang, Tai-Hua; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Gou, Shanmiao; Terry, Marisa J; Dauffenbach, Jason P; Pingree, Mathew J; Eldrige, Jason S; Mohammed, Khaled; Benkhadra, Khalid; van Wijnen, Andre J; Qu, Wenchun

    2015-06-10

    Management of intervertebral disc (IVD) degenerative disease is challenging, as it is accompanied by irreversible loss of IVD cells. Stem cell transplantation to the disc has shown promise in decelerating or arresting the degenerative process. Multiple pre-clinical animal trials have been conducted, but with conflicting outcomes. To assess the effect of stem cell transplantation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through Week 3, 2015. Inclusion criteria consisted of controlled animal trials. Two reviewers screened abstracts and full texts. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. Random effects models were constructed to pool standardized mean difference (SMD). Twenty two studies were included; nine of which were randomized. Statistically significant differences were found with the stem cell group exhibiting increased disc height index (SMD=3.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.49, 4.78; p<0.001), increased MRI T2 signal intensity (SMD=2.28, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.08; p<0.001), increased Type II collagen mRNA expression (SMD=3.68, 95% CI: 1.66, 5.70; p<0.001), and decreased histologic disc degeneration grade (SMD=-2.97, 95% CI: -3.97, -1.97; p<0.001). There was statistical heterogeneity between studies that could not be explained with pre-planned subgroup analyses based on animal species, study designs, and transplanted cell types. Stem cells transplanted to the IVD in quadruped animals decelerate or arrest the IVD degenerative process. Further studies in human clinical trials will be needed to understand if such benefit can be translated to bipedal humans.

  15. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  16. Antifungal nanofibers made by controlled release of sea animal derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Viana, Juliane F C; Carrijo, Jéssica; Freitas, Camila G; Paul, Arghya; Alcaraz, Jarib; Lacorte, Cristiano C; Migliolo, Ludovico; Andrade, César A; Falcão, Rosana; Santos, Nuno C; Gonçalves, Sónia; Otero-González, Anselmo J; Khademhosseini, Ali; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

    2015-04-14

    Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the scaffold. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy were used to measure the diameters, showing that Cm-p1 affects fiber morphology as well as the diameter and scaffold thickness. The Cm-p1 release behavior from the nanofibers demonstrated peptide release from 30 min to three days, leading to effective yeast control in the first 24 hours. Moreover, the biocompatibility of the fibers were evaluated through a MTS assay as well as ROS production by using a HUVEC model, showing that the fibers do not affect cell viability and only nanofibers containing 10% Cm-p1-PVA improved ROS generation. In addition, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α by the HUVECs was also slightly modified by the 10% Cm-p1-PVA nanofibers. In conclusion, the electrospinning technique applied here allowed for the manufacture of biodegradable biomimetic nanofibrous extracellular membranes with the ability to control fungal infection. PMID:25776264

  17. Improvements on Restricted Insecticide Application Protocol for Control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Picozzi, Kim; Hatendorf, Jan; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Susan Christina; Kabasa, John David; Waiswa, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomes constrain livestock and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, and aggravate poverty and hunger of these otherwise largely livestock-keeping communities. To solve this, there is need to develop and use effective and cheap tsetse control methods. To this end, we aimed at determining the smallest proportion of a cattle herd that needs to be sprayed on the legs, bellies and ears (RAP) for effective Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT/AAT) control. Methodology/Principal finding Cattle in 20 villages were ear-tagged and injected with two doses of diminazene diaceturate (DA) forty days apart, and randomly allocated to one of five treatment regimens namely; no treatment, 25%, 50%, 75% monthly RAP and every 3 month Albendazole drench. Cattle trypanosome re-infection rate was determined by molecular techniques. ArcMap V10.3 was used to map apparent tsetse density (FTD) from trap catches. The effect of graded RAP on incidence risk ratios and trypanosome prevalence was determined using Poisson and logistic random effect models in R and STATA V12.1 respectively. Incidence was estimated at 9.8/100 years in RAP regimens, significantly lower compared to 25.7/100 years in the non-RAP regimens (incidence rate ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22–0.65; P<0.001). Likewise, trypanosome prevalence after one year of follow up was significantly lower in RAP animals than in non-RAP animals (4% vs 15%, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08–0.44; P<0.001). Contrary to our expectation, level of protection did not increase with increasing proportion of animals treated. Conclusions/significance Reduction in RAP coverage did not significantly affect efficacy of treatment. This is envisaged to improve RAP adaptability to low income livestock keepers but needs further evaluation in different tsetse challenge, HAT/AAT transmission rates and management systems before adopting it for routine tsetse control programs. PMID:25356758

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis Exacerbates the Severity of Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice. A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Animal Study.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pretreated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund's adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8 weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT (µCT) and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by µCT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening, lamina dura loss, and cortex thinning. ZA prevented these changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could

  19. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the…

  20. Climate change: effects on animal disease systems and implications for surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    de La Rocque, S; Rioux, J A; Slingenbergh, J

    2008-08-01

    Climate driven and other changes in landscape structure and texture, plus more general factors, may create favourable ecological niches for emerging diseases. Abiotic factors impact on vectors, reservoirs and pathogen bionomics and their ability to establish in new ecosystems. Changes in climatic patterns and in seasonal conditions may affect disease behaviour in terms of spread pattern, diffusion range, amplification and persistence in novel habitats. Pathogen invasion may result in the emergence of novel disease complexes, presenting major challenges for the sustainability of future animal agriculture at the global level. In this paper, some of the ecological mechanisms underlying the impact of climatic change on disease transmission and disease spread are further described. Potential effects of different climatic variables on pathogens and host population dynamics and distribution are complex to assess, and different approaches are used to describe the underlying epidemiological processes and the availability of ecological niches for pathogens and vectors. The invasion process can disrupt the long-term co-evolution of species. Pathogens adhering to an r-type strategy (e.g. RNA viruses) may be more inclined to encroach on a novel niche resulting from climate change. However, even when linkage between disease dynamics and climate change are relatively strong, there are other factors changing disease behaviour, and these should be accounted for as well. Overall vulnerability of a given ecosystem is a key variable in this regard. The impact of climate-driven changes varies in different parts of the world and in the different agro-climatic zones. Perhaps priority should go to those geographical areas where the integrity of the ecosystem is most severely affected and the adaptability, in terms of robustness and sustainability of response, relatively low.

  1. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  2. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms.

  3. Climate change: effects on animal disease systems and implications for surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    de La Rocque, S; Rioux, J A; Slingenbergh, J

    2008-08-01

    Climate driven and other changes in landscape structure and texture, plus more general factors, may create favourable ecological niches for emerging diseases. Abiotic factors impact on vectors, reservoirs and pathogen bionomics and their ability to establish in new ecosystems. Changes in climatic patterns and in seasonal conditions may affect disease behaviour in terms of spread pattern, diffusion range, amplification and persistence in novel habitats. Pathogen invasion may result in the emergence of novel disease complexes, presenting major challenges for the sustainability of future animal agriculture at the global level. In this paper, some of the ecological mechanisms underlying the impact of climatic change on disease transmission and disease spread are further described. Potential effects of different climatic variables on pathogens and host population dynamics and distribution are complex to assess, and different approaches are used to describe the underlying epidemiological processes and the availability of ecological niches for pathogens and vectors. The invasion process can disrupt the long-term co-evolution of species. Pathogens adhering to an r-type strategy (e.g. RNA viruses) may be more inclined to encroach on a novel niche resulting from climate change. However, even when linkage between disease dynamics and climate change are relatively strong, there are other factors changing disease behaviour, and these should be accounted for as well. Overall vulnerability of a given ecosystem is a key variable in this regard. The impact of climate-driven changes varies in different parts of the world and in the different agro-climatic zones. Perhaps priority should go to those geographical areas where the integrity of the ecosystem is most severely affected and the adaptability, in terms of robustness and sustainability of response, relatively low. PMID:18819664

  4. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  5. Antifungal nanofibers made by controlled release of sea animal derived peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Juliane F. C.; Carrijo, Jéssica; Freitas, Camila G.; Paul, Arghya; Alcaraz, Jarib; Lacorte, Cristiano C.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Andrade, César A.; Falcão, Rosana; Santos, Nuno C.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Otero-González, Anselmo J.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2015-03-01

    Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the scaffold. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy were used to measure the diameters, showing that Cm-p1 affects fiber morphology as well as the diameter and scaffold thickness. The Cm-p1 release behavior from the nanofibers demonstrated peptide release from 30 min to three days, leading to effective yeast control in the first 24 hours. Moreover, the biocompatibility of the fibers were evaluated through a MTS assay as well as ROS production by using a HUVEC model, showing that the fibers do not affect cell viability and only nanofibers containing 10% Cm-p1-PVA improved ROS generation. In addition, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α by the HUVECs was also slightly modified by the 10% Cm-p1-PVA nanofibers. In conclusion, the electrospinning technique applied here allowed for the manufacture of biodegradable biomimetic nanofibrous extracellular membranes with the ability to control fungal infection.Candida albicans is a common human-pathogenic fungal species with the ability to cause several diseases including surface infections. Despite the clear difficulties of Candida control, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as an alternative strategy for fungal control. In this report, different concentrations of antifungal Cm-p1 (Cencritchis muricatus peptide 1) were electrospun into nanofibers for drug delivery. The nanofibers were characterized by mass spectrometry confirming the presence of the peptide on the

  6. Occupational exposures, animal exposure and smoking as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia evaluated in a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, M.; Hardell, L.; Magnuson, A.; Hagberg, H.; Rask-Andersen, A.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), a population-based case-control study on 121 male HCL patients and 484 controls matched for age and sex was conducted. Elevated odds ratio (OR) was found for exposure to farm animals in general: OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.2. The ORs were elevated for exposure to cattle, horse, hog, poultry and sheep. Exposure to herbicides (OR 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9), insecticides (OR 2.0, CI 1.1-3.5), fungicides (OR 3.8, CI 1.4-9.9) and impregnating agents (OR 2.4, CI 1.3-4.6) also showed increased risk. Certain findings suggested that recall bias may have affected the results for farm animals, herbicides and insecticides. Exposure to organic solvents yielded elevated risk (OR 1.5, CI 0.99-2.3), as did exposure to exhaust fumes (OR 2.1, CI 1.3-3.3). In an additional multivariate model, the ORs remained elevated for all these exposures with the exception of insecticides. We found a reduced risk for smokers with OR 0.6 (CI 0.4-1.1) because of an effect among non-farmers. PMID:9667691

  7. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed.

  8. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed. PMID:27624561

  9. Psychobiology of cocaine addiction: Contribution of a multi-symptomatic animal model of loss of control.

    PubMed

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Transition to addiction is the shift from controlled to uncontrolled drug use that occurs after prolonged drug intake in a limited number of drug users. A major challenge of addiction research in recent years has been to develop models for studying this pathological transition. Toward this goal, a DSM-IV/5-based multi-symptomatic model of cocaine addiction has been developed in the rat. It is based on an operational translation of the main features of the disease. 1. Addiction is not just taking drug; it is a non-adaptive drug use: The procedure models addiction in relation to its clinical definition. 2. All drug users do not face the same individual risk of developing addiction: The model includes an individual-based approach. 3. Addiction develops after protracted periods of controlled drug use: This procedure allows for the study of the long-term shift from controlled drug use to addiction. We describe this model in detail and show how it can contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  10. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-12-16

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT.

  11. An integrated system for synchronous culture of animal cells under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Pérez, Elena; Hernández, Vanessa; Palomares, Laura A; Serrato, José A

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle has fundamental effects on cell cultures and their products. Tools to synchronize cultured cells allow the study of cellular physiology and metabolism at particular cell cycle phases. However, cells are most often arrested by methods that alter their homeostasis and are then cultivated in poorly controlled environments. Cell behavior could then be affected by the synchronization method and culture conditions used, and not just by the particular cell cycle phase under study. Moreover, only a few viable cells are recovered. Here, we designed an integrated system where a large number of cells from a controlled bioreactor culture is separated by centrifugal elutriation at high viabilities. In contrast to current elutriation methods, cells are injected directly from a bioreactor into an injection loop, allowing the introduction of a large number of cells into the separation chamber without stressful centrifugation. A low pulsation peristaltic pump increases the stability of the elutriation chamber. Using this approach, a large number of healthy cells at each cell cycle phase were obtained, allowing their direct inoculation into fully instrumented bioreactors. Hybridoma cells synchronized and cultured in this system behaved as expected for a synchronous culture. PMID:27625207

  12. An integrated system for synchronous culture of animal cells under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Pérez, Elena; Hernández, Vanessa; Palomares, Laura A; Serrato, José A

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle has fundamental effects on cell cultures and their products. Tools to synchronize cultured cells allow the study of cellular physiology and metabolism at particular cell cycle phases. However, cells are most often arrested by methods that alter their homeostasis and are then cultivated in poorly controlled environments. Cell behavior could then be affected by the synchronization method and culture conditions used, and not just by the particular cell cycle phase under study. Moreover, only a few viable cells are recovered. Here, we designed an integrated system where a large number of cells from a controlled bioreactor culture is separated by centrifugal elutriation at high viabilities. In contrast to current elutriation methods, cells are injected directly from a bioreactor into an injection loop, allowing the introduction of a large number of cells into the separation chamber without stressful centrifugation. A low pulsation peristaltic pump increases the stability of the elutriation chamber. Using this approach, a large number of healthy cells at each cell cycle phase were obtained, allowing their direct inoculation into fully instrumented bioreactors. Hybridoma cells synchronized and cultured in this system behaved as expected for a synchronous culture.

  13. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

    PubMed

    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals.

  14. Real-time supervisor system based on trinary logic to control experiments with behaving animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Kutz, D F; Marzocchi, N; Fattori, P; Cavalcanti, S; Galletti, C

    2005-06-01

    A new method is presented based on trinary logic able to check the state of different control variables and synchronously record the physiological and behavioral data of behaving animals and humans. The basic information structure of the method is a time interval of defined maximum duration, called time slice, during which the supervisor system periodically checks the status of a specific subset of input channels. An experimental condition is a sequence of time slices subsequently executed according to the final status of the previous time slice. The proposed method implements in its data structure the possibility to branch like an if-else cascade and the possibility to repeat parts of it recursively like the while-loop. Therefore its data structure contains the most basic control structures of programming languages. The method was implemented using a real-time version of LabVIEW programming environment to program and control our experimental setup. Using this supervision system, we synchronously record four analog data channels at 500 Hz (including eye movements) and the time stamps of up to six neurons at 100 kHz. The system reacts with a resolution within 1 ms to changes of state of digital input channels. The system is set to react to changes in eye position with a resolution within 4 ms. The time slices, experimental conditions, and data are handled by relational databases. This facilitates the construction of new experimental conditions and data analysis. The proposed implementation allows continuous recording without an inter-trial gap for data storage or task management. The implementation can be used to drive electrophysiological experiments of behaving animals and psychophysical studies with human subjects.

  15. Animated sulfonated or sulformethylated lignins as cement fluid loss control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, P.

    1991-05-07

    This patent describes a method of cementing a zone in a well penetrating a subterranean formation comprising injecting down the well and positioning in the zone to be cemented a hydraulic aqueous cement slurry composition. It comprises: a hydraulic cement, and the following expressed as parts by weight per 100 parts of the hydraulic cement, water from about 25 to 105 parts, and a fluid loss control additive comprising from about 0.5 to 2.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of a sulfonated lignin and a sulfomethylated lignin, wherein the lignin has been aminated by reacting it with between about 2-5 moles of a polyamine and 2-5 moles of an aldehyde per 1,000g of the lignin, and 0.1 to 1.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, sodium phosphate, sodium sulfite and sodium naphthalene sulfonate and a combination thereof.

  16. Endovanilloid control of pain modulation by the rostroventromedial medulla in an animal model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Martins, D; Charrua, A; Piscitelli, F; Tavares, I; Morgado, C; Di Marzo, V

    2016-08-01

    The involvement of transient receptor vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels in pain modulation by the brain remains understudied. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) plays a key role in conveying to the spinal cord pain modulatory influences triggered in higher brain centres, with co-existence of inhibitory (antinociceptive) and facilitatory (pronociceptive) effects. In spite of some reports of TRPV1 expression in the RVM, it remains unknown if endovanilloid signalling plays a direct role in local pain modulation. Here we used a model of diabetic neuropathy, the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat, to study the role of endovanilloid signalling in RVM-mediated pain modulation during chronic pain. Four weeks after diabetes induction, the levels of TRPV1 mRNA and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a crucial enzyme for endovanilloid catabolism, in the RVM of STZ-diabetic rats were higher than control. The RVM of STZ-diabetic rats presented decreased levels of several TRPV1 endogenous ligands, namely anandamide (AEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). Administration of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) into the RVM decreased nociceptive behavioural responses in the inflammatory phase of the formalin test (phase 2). These findings suggest that diabetic neuropathy induces plastic changes of RVM endovanilloid signalling, indicating that TRPV1 may be a putative target for pain modulation in this chronic pain condition.

  17. Validation of an official control method for enumeration of authorised probiotic yeast in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Renata G K; Bew, Jan; Bertin, Gérard

    2003-03-01

    An official control method in the framework of Council Directive 70/524/EEC for probiotic yeast used as feed additives was validated in a collaborative study by twenty laboratories in 12 European Countries. A pour plate method following ISO 7954 using chloramphenicol glucose yeast extract (CGYE) and a plate count method using CHROMagar Candida were used. Precision data in terms of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the method using different feeding stuffs and three inoculation levels were determined. Yeast was present in the samples in mixtures with other probiotic feed additives at a lower, a higher concentration or not present. The enumeration of yeast on CGYE agar showed for the lower and higher concentration a RSD(r) of 2.4-4.9% and a RSD(R) of 7.7-8%, respectively and was preferred by the majority of labs. CHROMagar Candida had a RSD(r) of 1.9-2.8% and a RSD(R) of 1.9-5.9%. For routine analysis the use of the pour plate technique is recommended. CHROMagar Candida can be used for confirmation of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The methods are not recommended for mineral feeds. The results from this study are intended for consideration for adoption as CEN and ISO standards. PMID:12747423

  18. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  19. Visceral adiposity influences glucose and glycogen metabolism in control and hyperlipidic-fed animals.

    PubMed

    Kaiser de Souza, Danielle; de Souza, Fabiana A; de Fraga, Luciano Stürmer; Peres Konrad, Signorá; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Martins da Silva, Roselis Silveira; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que la ingesta de grasas, obesidad visceral y lípidos intracelulares están relacionados con resistencia a la acción de la insulina. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue correlacionar la obesidad visceral con alteraciones metabólicas en los animales controles (CTR) y alimentados con la dieta de cafeteria hiperlipidica (CFT). Metodos: Después de 6 meses de tratamiento con dieta, el hígado y lo musculo esqueletico de los ratones se utilizaron para determinar la captación de glucosa y el metabolismo del glucógeno después de la administración de la insulina 0.4 UI/kg in vivo y correlacionar la adiposidad visceral a estos dos parámetros. Resultados: Una amplia gama de respuestas fisiológicas a la composición corporal era encontrado. No se encontraron diferencias en la glucemia y triglicéridos después de la acción de la insulina en ambos grupos, sin embargo CFT grupo acumuló mayor adiposidad, principalmente adiposidad visceral, y mostraron menor contenido de glucógeno en el hígado. También se encontró una correlación inversa entre la adiposidad visceral y la captación de glucosa y una disminución de la forma activa de la enzima glucógeno sintasa en el hígado. Animales CTR demostrado una correlación inversa entre la captación de glucosa y la adiposidad visceral en el músculo. Discusión y conclusiones: Se observó una gran variabilidad de alteraciones metabólicas en los animales que se pueden relacionados con las tasas de acumulación de la adiposidad visceral y la ingestión de grasas dietéticas. Más estudios serán necesarios para aclarar las razones de las alteraciones observadas en el hígado de los animales CFT y las alteraciones musculares en animales CTR.

  20. Development of a novel self-medicating applicator for control of internal and external parasites of wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Burridge, M J; Simmons, L A; Ahrens, E H; Naudé, S A; Malan, F S

    2004-03-01

    Four trials, three in the United States and one in South Africa, were conducted to evaluate the potential value of a novel self-medicating applicator in the passive control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle and deer, and of files and ticks on cattle using oil-based treatments. The results of the trials demonstrated that this applicator is an effective and practical device for the passive treatment of both deer and cattle for trichostrongyle infections using the endectocide, moxidectin (Cydectin. Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA), of cattle for hom fly (Haemotobia irritans) infestations using the insecticide, cyfluthrin (CyLence, Bayer AG, Germany) and of cattle for tick infestations (in particular Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) using the acaricides deltamethrin and amitraz (Delete All, Intervet, South Africa). PMID:15185574

  1. Development of a novel self-medicating applicator for control of internal and external parasites of wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Burridge, M J; Simmons, L A; Ahrens, E H; Naudé, S A; Malan, F S

    2004-03-01

    Four trials, three in the United States and one in South Africa, were conducted to evaluate the potential value of a novel self-medicating applicator in the passive control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle and deer, and of files and ticks on cattle using oil-based treatments. The results of the trials demonstrated that this applicator is an effective and practical device for the passive treatment of both deer and cattle for trichostrongyle infections using the endectocide, moxidectin (Cydectin. Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA), of cattle for hom fly (Haemotobia irritans) infestations using the insecticide, cyfluthrin (CyLence, Bayer AG, Germany) and of cattle for tick infestations (in particular Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) using the acaricides deltamethrin and amitraz (Delete All, Intervet, South Africa).

  2. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided.

  3. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided. PMID:27137450

  4. Computational fluid dynamics model of avian tracheal temperature control as a model for extant and extinct animals.

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, N S; Arkali, F; Witzel, U; Perry, S F

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory evaporative cooling is an important mechanism of temperature control in bird. A computational simulation of the breathing cycle, heat and water loss in anatomical avian trachea/air sac model has not previously been conducted. We report a first attempt to simulate a breathing cycle in a three-dimensional model of avian trachea and air sacs (domestic fowl) using transient computational fluid dynamics. The airflow in the trachea of the model is evoked by changing the volume of the air sacs based on the measured tidal volume and inspiratory/expiratory times for the domestic fowl. We compare flow parameters and heat transfer results with in vivo data and with our previously reported results for a two-dimensional model. The total respiratory heat loss corresponds to about 13-19% of the starvation metabolic rate of domestic fowl. The present study can lend insight into a possible thermoregulatory function in species with long necks and/or a very long trachea, as found in swans and birds of paradise. Assuming the structure of the sauropod dinosaur respiratory system was close to avian, the simulation of the respiratory temperature control (using convective and evaporative cooling) in the extensively experimentally studied domestic fowl may also help in making simulations of respiratory heat control in these extinct animals.

  5. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the living animal. Both treatments were based on the self-determination theory. More than 400 pupils filled in pre-test, post-test and two follow-up-tests (with a delay of 6-8 weeks and 7-8 months). After each lesson, pupils rated the lesson on a short intrinsic motivation scale. In the meta-analysis, we found that the living animal treatments significantly scored better than a control group, but not when comparing living animals with alternative treatments. In the treatment-control study, both treatments led to a significant increase in knowledge but there were no differences between film and living animal treatment. Pre-test and previous grading had a significant influence on post- and both follow-up tests. In the mouse lesson, pupils of the living animal group showed higher values in interest and competence and lower values in pressure. Interest and competence correlated positively with achievement, while pressure correlated negatively.

  6. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  7. Animal control measures and their relationship to the reported incidence of dog bites in urban Canadian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nancy M; Fraser, David

    2013-02-01

    Various measures, including ticketing, licensing, and breed-specific legislation, are used by municipalities to control dog bites, but their effectiveness is largely unknown. Thirty-six urban Canadian municipalities provided information about their animal control practices, resourcing, and (for 22 municipalities) rate of reported dog bites. Municipalities differed widely in rates of licensing (4% to 75%) and ticketing (0.1 to 83 per 10,000 people), even where staffing and budgets were similar. Reported frequency of dog bites ranged from 0 to 9.0 (median 1.9) per 10,000 people. Rates were generally higher in municipalities with higher ticketing, licensing, staffing, and budget levels. However, in municipalities with very active ticketing the reported bite rate was much lower than predicted by a linear regression on ticketing rate (quadratic regression, R(2) = 0.52), likely reflecting a reduction in actual bites with very active enforcement. Municipalities with and without breed-specific legislation did not differ in reported bite rate. Ticketing appeared most effective in reducing dog bites, although it may also lead to increased reporting.

  8. Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Gondret, F; Baéza, E; Médale, F; Jurie, C; Pethick, D W

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays a key role in various quality traits of meat. IMF content varies between species, between breeds and between muscle types in the same breed. Other factors are involved in the variation of IMF content in animals, including gender, age and feeding. Variability in IMF content is mainly linked to the number and size of intramuscular adipocytes. The accretion rate of IMF depends on the muscle growth rate. For instance, animals having a high muscularity with a high glycolytic activity display a reduced development of IMF. This suggests that muscle cells and adipocytes interplay during growth. In addition, early events that influence adipogenesis inside the muscle (i.e proliferation and differentiation of adipose cells, the connective structure embedding adipocytes) might be involved in interindividual differences in IMF content. Increasing muscularity will also dilute the final fat content of muscle. At the metabolic level, IMF content results from the balance between uptake, synthesis and degradation of triacylglycerols, which involve many metabolic pathways in both adipocytes and myofibres. Various experiments revealed an association between IMF level and the muscle content in adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, the activities of oxidative enzymes, or the delta-6-desaturase level; however, other studies failed to confirm such relationships. This might be due to the importance of fatty acid fluxes that is likely to be responsible for variability in IMF content during the postnatal period rather than the control of one single pathway. This is evident in the muscle of most fish species in which triacylglycerol synthesis is almost zero. Genetic approaches for increasing IMF have been focused on live animal ultrasound to derive estimated breeding values. More recently, efforts have concentrated on discovering DNA markers that change the distribution of fat in the body (i.e. towards IMF at the expense of the carcass fatness

  9. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using human and animal trypanocidal drugs.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Beside typical human trypanosomes responsible of sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, there is a growing number of reported atypical human infections due to Trypanosoma evansi, a livestock parasite, or Trypanosoma lewisi, a rat parasite, especially in Asia. Drugs available for the treatment of T. brucei ssp. in humans are obviously of choice for the control of T. evansi because it is derived from T. brucei. However, concerning T. lewisi, there is an urgent need to determine the efficacy of trypanocidal drugs for the treatment in humans. In a recent study, pentamidine and fexinidazole were shown to have the best efficacy against one stock of T. lewisi in rats. In the present study suramin, pentamidine, eflornitine, nifurtimox, benznidazole and fexinidazole, were evaluated at low and high doses, in single day administration to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi recently isolated in Thailand. Because none of these treatments was efficient, a trial was made with the most promising trypanocide identified in a previous study, fexinidazole 100mg/kg, in 5 daily administrations. Results observed were unclear. To confirm the efficacy of fexinidazole, a mixed infection protocol was set up in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed rats. Animals were infected successively by T. lewisi and T. evansi, and received 10 daily PO administrations of 200mg/kg fexinidazole. Drastic effects were observed against T. evansi which was cleared from the rat's blood within 24 to 48h; however, the treatment did not affect T. lewisi which remained in high number in the blood until the end of the experiment. This mixed infection/treatment protocol clearly demonstrated the efficacy of fexinidazole against T. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. Since animal trypanocides were also recently shown to be inefficient, other protocols as well as other T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies.

  10. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using human and animal trypanocidal drugs.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Beside typical human trypanosomes responsible of sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, there is a growing number of reported atypical human infections due to Trypanosoma evansi, a livestock parasite, or Trypanosoma lewisi, a rat parasite, especially in Asia. Drugs available for the treatment of T. brucei ssp. in humans are obviously of choice for the control of T. evansi because it is derived from T. brucei. However, concerning T. lewisi, there is an urgent need to determine the efficacy of trypanocidal drugs for the treatment in humans. In a recent study, pentamidine and fexinidazole were shown to have the best efficacy against one stock of T. lewisi in rats. In the present study suramin, pentamidine, eflornitine, nifurtimox, benznidazole and fexinidazole, were evaluated at low and high doses, in single day administration to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi recently isolated in Thailand. Because none of these treatments was efficient, a trial was made with the most promising trypanocide identified in a previous study, fexinidazole 100mg/kg, in 5 daily administrations. Results observed were unclear. To confirm the efficacy of fexinidazole, a mixed infection protocol was set up in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed rats. Animals were infected successively by T. lewisi and T. evansi, and received 10 daily PO administrations of 200mg/kg fexinidazole. Drastic effects were observed against T. evansi which was cleared from the rat's blood within 24 to 48h; however, the treatment did not affect T. lewisi which remained in high number in the blood until the end of the experiment. This mixed infection/treatment protocol clearly demonstrated the efficacy of fexinidazole against T. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. Since animal trypanocides were also recently shown to be inefficient, other protocols as well as other T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies. PMID:27491458

  11. The CB(2) cannabinoid receptor controls myeloid progenitor trafficking: involvement in the pathogenesis of an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Javier; Davoust, Nathalie; Julien, Boris; Hatterer, Eric; Aguado, Tania; Mechoulam, Raphael; Benito, Cristina; Romero, Julian; Silva, Augusto; Guzmán, Manuel; Nataf, Serge; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2008-05-01

    Cannabinoids are potential agents for the development of therapeutic strategies against multiple sclerosis. Here we analyzed the role of the peripheral CB(2) cannabinoid receptor in the control of myeloid progenitor cell trafficking toward the inflamed spinal cord and their contribution to microglial activation in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE). CB(2) receptor knock-out mice showed an exacerbated clinical score of the disease when compared with their wild-type littermates, and this occurred in concert with extended axonal loss, T-lymphocyte (CD4(+)) infiltration, and microglial (CD11b(+)) activation. Immature bone marrow-derived CD34(+) myeloid progenitor cells, which play a role in neuroinflammatory pathologies, were shown to express CB(2) receptors and to be abundantly recruited toward the spinal cords of CB(2) knock-out EAE mice. Bone marrow-derived cell transfer experiments further evidenced the increased contribution of these cells to microglial replenishment in the spinal cords of CB(2)-deficient animals. In line with these observations, selective pharmacological CB(2) activation markedly reduced EAE symptoms, axonal loss, and microglial activation. CB(2) receptor manipulation altered the expression pattern of different chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5) and their receptors (CCR1, CCR2), thus providing a mechanistic explanation for its role in myeloid progenitor recruitment during neuroinflammation. These findings demonstrate the protective role of CB(2) receptors in EAE pathology; provide evidence for a new site of CB(2) receptor action, namely the targeting of myeloid progenitor trafficking and its contribution to microglial activation; and support the potential use of non-psychoactive CB(2) agonists in therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

  12. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  13. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  14. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  15. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  16. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  17. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  18. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  19. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  20. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  1. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  2. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  3. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  4. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication.

  5. Ischaemic heart disease and the proportions of hydrogenated fat and ruminant-animal fat in adipose tissue at post-mortem examination: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, L H; Scott, R G

    1981-01-01

    Fatty acids characteristic of ruminant-animal fat have been found to be present in significantly lower proportions in samples from the depot fat of persons dying of ischaemic heart disease (cases) than in specimens from persons dying of unrelated causes (controls). Although such acids are also present, in lesser amounts, in hydrogenated marine oils, this case-versus-control difference is difficult to explain other than on the basis that controls consumed a higher proportion of ruminant-animal fat in their total dietary fat than did the cases. The proportions of polyunsaturated acids and of certain higher (C20 and C22 mostly mono-enoic) acids in the depot fat of cases and controls are virtually identical. There is also no indication of any difference in degrees of saturation of fats between the case and control specimens. PMID:7338699

  6. Food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, K; Rajagunalan, S; Chakraborty, S; Verma, A K; Kumar, A; Tiwari, R; Kapoor, S

    2013-10-15

    The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance

  7. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  8. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  9. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... application and enforcement of all laws and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and...

  10. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... application and enforcement of all laws and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and...

  11. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... application and enforcement of all laws and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and...

  12. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    PubMed

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P < 0.05). CAP with unknown aetiology was not associated with the presence of animal farms (P > 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease.

  13. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    PubMed

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P < 0.05). CAP with unknown aetiology was not associated with the presence of animal farms (P > 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease. PMID:26214299

  14. [BVD/MD and its control in Lower Saxony (after the support of the Lower Saxony animal epidemic fund)].

    PubMed

    Flebbe, U; Mehrkens, L

    1992-05-01

    A report is given on the development of the subsidies granted by the "Niedersächsische Tierseuchenkasse" für BVD/MD since 1973. The article shows the cyclic procedure and regional differences as well as the participation of vaccinations and embryo transfer at the frequent occurrence of persistent viraemic animals in single herds. According to the authors' opinion the struggle against BVD/MD must have two aims: 1. to search for and to cull out persistent viraemic animals 2. to prevent the arise of new persistent viraemic animals.

  15. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from toxicogenomics study control animals to identify sources of variation and predict responses to chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control ...

  16. Pronociception from the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is mediated by the rostral ventromedial medulla in healthy controls but is absent in arthritic animals.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa; Amorim, Diana; David-Pereira, Ana; Monteiro, Ana Maria; Costa, Patricio; Pertovaara, Antti; Almeida, Armando

    2013-10-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) has been proposed to participate in stress-induced hyperalgesia through facilitation of pronociceptive cells in the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM). We hypothesized that the DMH participates in hyperalgesia induced by arthritis. The DMH was pharmacologically manipulated while assessing heat-evoked nociceptive behavior or the discharge rates of pronociceptive RVM ON- and antinociceptive RVM OFF-like cells in NAIVE, SHAM and monoarthritic (ARTH) animals. In NAIVE and SHAM animals, the changes in nociceptive behavior induced by activation of the DMH by glutamate and inhibition by lidocaine were in line with earlier evidence indicating that the DMH has a nociceptive facilitating role. However, in ARTH animals, neither activation nor inhibition of the DMH influenced pain-like behavior evoked by stimulation of an uninflamed skin region (paw and tail). In accordance with these behavioral results, activation or inhibition of the DMH induced pronociceptive changes in the discharge rates of RVM cells in NAIVE and SHAM animals, which suggests that the DMH has a pronociceptive role mediated by the RVM in normal animals. However, in ARTH animals, both glutamate and lidocaine in the DMH failed to influence either pain-like behavior or noxious stimulation-evoked responses of RVM cells, while blocking the DMH increased spontaneous activity in the pronociceptive RVM ON cells. Our data indicate that the DMH participates in descending facilitation of cutaneous nociception in healthy controls, but it is not engaged in the regulation of cutaneous nociception in monoarthritic animals, while a minor role in tonic suppression of nociception in arthritis cannot be discarded.

  17. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  18. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Animated models explicating how a problem is solved and why a particular method is chosen are expected to be effective learning tools for novices, especially when abstract cognitive processes or concepts are involved. Cognitive load theory was used to investigate how learners could be stimulated to engage in genuine learning activities. It was…

  19. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...

  20. Monitoring systemic oxidative stress in an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miana-Mena, Francisco Javier; González-Mingot, Cristina; Larrodé, Pilar; Muñoz, María Jesús; Oliván, Sara; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique; Reiter, Russel J; Osta, Rosario; García, Joaquín José

    2011-05-01

    A mutant form of the ubiquitous copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein has been found in some patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We monitored oxidative stress in an animal model of ALS, the SOD(G93A) mouse, which develops a disease similar to ALS with an accelerated course. The aim of this work was to show that ALS damages several organs and tissues, from an oxidative stress point of view. We measured lipid and protein oxidative damage in different tissue homogenates of SOD(G93A) mice. The biomarkers that we analyzed were malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenal (MDA + 4-HDA) and carbonyls, respectively. The spinal cord and brain of SOD(G93A) mice showed increased lipid peroxidation after 100 or 130 days compared to age-matched littermate controls. The CNS was most affected, but lipid peroxidation was also detected in the skeletal muscle and liver on day 130. No changes were observed in protein carbonylation in the homogenates. Our results are consistent with a multisystem etiology of ALS and suggest that oxidative stress may play a primary role in ALS pathogenesis. Thus, oxidative stress represents a potential biomarker that might be useful in developing new therapeutic strategies for ALS.

  1. Animal studies of life shortening and cancer risk from space radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    The U. S. Air Force study of the delayed effects of single, total body exposures to simulated space radiation in rhesus monkeys is now in its 21st year. Observations on 301 irradiated and 57 age-matched control animals indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be expressed as a logarithmic function of the dose. The primary causes of life shortening are cancer and endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Life shortening estimates permit comparison of the risk associated with space radiation exposures to be compared with that of other occupational and environmental hazards, thereby facilitating risk/benefit decisions in the planning and operational phases of manned space missions. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of human is, therefore, critical to the assessment of life-time cancer risk.

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. Animal welfare and animal rights.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1988-05-01

    Animal liberationists tend to divide into two mutually antagonistic camps: animal welfarists, who share a utilitarian moral outlook, and animal rightists, who presuppose a structure of basic rights. However, the gap between these groups tends to be exaggerated by their allegiance to oversimplified versions of their favored moral frameworks. For their part, animal rightists should acknowledge that rights, however basic, are also defeasible by appeals to consequences. Contrariwise, animal welfarists should recognize that rights, however derivative, are capable of constraining appeals to consequences. If both sides move to more defensible theoretical positions, their remaining differences on that level may be compatible with a broad area of convergence on practical issues.

  4. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  5. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  6. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  7. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. PMID:25802363

  8. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens.

  9. Diffusion Tensor and Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Measures as Biomarkers of Brain Damage in a Small Animal Model of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Margaret R.; Peterson, Kristin L.; Ibrahim, Wael G.; Lee, Dianne E.; Sarlls, Joelle; Lizak, Martin J.; Maric, Dragan; Reid, William C.; Hammoud, Dima A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no widely accepted neuro-HIV small animal models. We wanted to validate the HIV-1 Transgenic rat (Tg) as an appropriate neuro-HIV model and then establish in vivo imaging biomarkers of neuropathology, within this model, using MR structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods Young and middle-aged Tg and control rats were imaged using MRI. A subset of middle-aged animals underwent longitudinal repeat imaging six months later. Total brain volume (TBV), ventricular volume (VV) and parenchymal volume (PV = TBV–VV) were measured. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values of the corpus callosum (CC) were calculated from DTI data. Results TBV and PV were smaller in Tg compared to control rats in young and middle-aged cohorts (p<0.0001). VV increased significantly (p = 0.005) over time in the longitudinal Tg cohort. There were lower FA (p<0.002) and higher MD (p<0.003) values in the CC of middle-aged Tg rats compared to age-matched controls. Longitudinally, MD significantly decreased over time in Tg rats (p<0.03) while it did not change significantly in the control cohort over the same period of time (p>0.05). Conclusions We detected brain volume loss in the Tg rat, probably due to astrocytic dysfunction/loss, loss of structural/axonal matrix and striatal neuronal loss as suggested by immunofluorescence. Increased MD and decreased FA in the CC probably reflect microstructural differences between the Tg and Control rats which could include increased extracellular space between white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, among other pathologies. We believe that the Tg rat is an adequate model of neuropathology in HIV and that volumetric MR and DTI measures can be potentially used as biomarkers of disease progression. PMID:25144656

  10. Comments on event driven animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    1987-01-01

    Event driven animation provides a general method of describing controlling values for various computer animation techniques. A definition and comments are provided on genralizing motion description with events. Additional comments are also provided about the implementation of twixt.

  11. Control of material strength in a fluidized bed to discover principles of animal foot impact during locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, D. I.; Korff, W. L.; Full, R. J.

    2004-11-01

    We study the impact of flat disks (≈ 1 cm diameter) into a deep (800 particle diameters) bed of 250 μ m glass spheres of fixed volume fraction φ, and use a vertical flow of air (a fluidized bed) to change the material properties of the medium. By applying a series of air pulses to the bed we can achieve 0.57<φ<0.64; increasing the number of pulses increases φ, strengthening the material. A constant flow Q below the onset of bed fluidization weakens the solid: at fixed φ the penetration depth of a disk increases with increasing Q. We use this discovery to address a long-standing issue in animal locomotion -- the interaction of feet with the ground. We measure the average speed, foot impact depth, and foot contact time as a function of material strength for the desert-dwelling lizard Callisaurus draconoides (length 16 cm, mass=20 g) during rapid running on sand. The animal maintains high speed (1.4 m/sec) even when foot penetration depth varies as we manipulate material strength.

  12. Demonstrating comparative in vitro bioequivalence for animal drug products through chemistry and manufacturing controls and physicochemical characterization: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn N; Fahmy, Raafat

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) of nonsystemically absorbed drug products has been a longstanding challenge facing drug manufacturers and regulators of human or animal health products. Typically, in situations where blood level BE studies are not feasible, clinical endpoint BE trials have provided the only option for generating interproduct comparisons. Given the imprecision and logistic challenges associated with these studies, there has been an effort to identify alternative pathways that can reliably ensure the equivalence of product performance and quality. This commentary provides a proposal for an in vitro approach for evaluating the in vivo BE of veterinary drug products that are either nonsystemically absorbed or that act both locally and systemically but where the local site of action is proximal to the absorption window. The assumption underlying this approach is that equivalence in product physicochemical attributes and in vitro product performance translates to equivalence in product in vivo behavior. For sponsors with a right of reference to underlying safety and effectiveness data, this approach could be used to support pre and post-approval changes. When comparing a generic test product to the pioneer (reference listed new animal drug, RLNAD) product, a demonstration of sameness across a battery of in vitro test procedures could be used to confirm that the test and RLNAD products are bioequivalent.

  13. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  14. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  15. The use of a remote-controlled minivalve, carried by freely moving animals on their head, to achieve instant pharmacological effects in intracerebral drug-perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Nandor; Kovacs, Lorant; Kando, Laszlo; Medveczky, Geza; Tang, Hai M; Eberle, Lawrence P; Lemon, Charles R

    2002-02-01

    Intracerebral drug-perfusion studies in animals can be very efficiently performed with the 'reverse-dialysis' procedure. In this procedure, drugs are delivered into the brain via an intracerebrally implanted microdialysis probe. Traditionally, in reverse-dialysis studies the flow of control and drug solutions in the microdialysis site is alternated by large and heavy valves placed far from the experimental animal. In this arrangement, the drugs travel from the fluid-alternating device for a long (20--60 min) period before reaching the brain. This can obscure the onset of drug action, makes it difficult to deliver drugs into the extracellular space during short-lasting behavioral episodes, and considerably limits the number of drug solutions that can be perfused within an experimental session. This report describes the use of a miniature (15 mm long and 8 mm diameter), lightweight (1.4 g) minivalve (patent pending) for combined neuronal recording--intracerebral microdialysis studies in freely moving rats. The device is activated remotely and carried by the animals on their head. This allows the experimenter to alternate the control and drug solutions in the intracerebral recording/dialysis site rapidly and to detect the drug-induced neuronal firing pattern changes instantly, without interfering with the animal's behavior. It is demonstrated that with this novel device the onset of drug actions on hippocampal neurons can be clearly defined and that these actions occur within 2 min after minivalve activation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the minivalve allows one to test a large number of drug solutions, successively, within the same experimental session. The described protocol offers a high-throughput method for testing the neuron-specific pharmacological effects of intracerebrally perfused drugs during various behaviors.

  16. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  17. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  19. Adaptability of Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) for Weed Control in Site of Animals Buried after Foot-and-Mouth Disease Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Iki, Yusuke; Inoue, Kouhei; Nagata, Shuhei; Idota, Sachiko; Yokota, Masato; Nishiwaki, Aya

    2016-01-01

    After the infection of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010, cattle and swine were slaughtered and buried in a site of 100 ha, where weed control is difficult and costly since lands are unlevelled and prohibited to be plowed for 3 years. To consider the adaptability of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) to the animal burial site for weed control, two napiergrass varieties, normal Wruk wona (WK) and dwarf late-heading variety (DL), were transplanted, compared with sowing of maize (MZ) and sorghum (SR) in both burial (BU) and neighboring bordered area (BO) in mid-June 2011. Even though several weed control methods were subjected to lands, MZ and SR failed to be established stably at only 1/3–1/2 due to the suppression of growth by indigenous weeds, while WK and DL successfully established as high as 82–91% and 73–85%, respectively, in 2011. The poor establishment of MZ and SR after sowing tended to be increased with the year from establishment. Plant dry matter yield and cellulose concentration were the highest in WK in 2011, while overwintering ability was constantly higher in DL in the 3 years. It is necessary to consider the utilization of forage plants on the animal burial site. PMID:27274886

  20. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  1. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  2. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  3. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  4. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  5. The endocrine system controlling sexual reproduction in animals: Part of the evolutionary ancient but well conserved immune system?

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-15

    Drastic changes in hormone titers, in particular of steroid hormones, are intuitively interpreted as necessary and beneficial for optimal functioning of animals. Peaks in progesterone- and estradiol titers that accompany the estrus cycle in female vertebrates as well as in ecdysteroids at each molt and during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects are prominent examples. A recent analysis of insect metamorphosis yielded the view that, in general, a sharp rise in sex steroid hormone titer signals that somewhere in the body some tissue(s) is undergoing programmed cell death/apoptosis. Increased steroid production is part of this process. Typical examples are ovarian follicle cells in female vertebrates and invertebrates and the prothoracic gland cells, the main production site of ecdysteroids in larval insects. A duality emerges: programmed cell death-apoptosis is deleterious at the cellular level, but it may yield beneficial effects at the organismal level. Reconciling both opposites requires reevaluating the probable evolutionary origin and role of peptidic brain hormones that direct steroid hormone synthesis. Do e.g. Luteinizing Hormone in vertebrates and Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH: acting through the Torso receptor) in insects still retain an ancient role as toxins in the early immune system? Does the functional link of some neuropeptides with Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis make sense in endocrine archeology? The endocrine system as a remnant of the ancient immune system is undoubtedly counterintuitive. Yet, we will argue that such paradigm enables the logical framing of many aspects, the endocrine one inclusive of both male and female reproductive physiology.

  6. Role of growth hormone and prolactin in the control of reproduction: what are we learning from transgenic and knock-out animals?

    PubMed

    Bartke, A

    1999-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and prolactin (PRL) can influence various aspects of reproductive functions in both females and males. However, the physiological role of PRL and the GH-IGF-I axis in the control of reproduction has been difficult to define, and the recent availability of knock-out (KO) animals allows re-examination of this issue. PRL-receptor (R)-KO and PRL-KO females are sterile because of luteal failure. In addition, these mice have severe deficits in the development of oocytes and early embryos. However, male fertility is not affected in the PRL-KO and in most of the PRL-R-KO animals. IGF-KO animals have an infantile reproductive system and are sterile. GH-R-KO mice can reproduce, but their breeding performance is reduced, particularly in females. These data indicate that IGF-I signaling is required for normal reproductive development and confirm the requirement for PRL for fertility in the female mouse. GH resistance leads to quantitative deficits in reproductive development and functions, but does not preclude fertility in either sex. We suspect that PRL and the GH-IGF-I axis provide partially overlapping (redundant) regulatory inputs to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and consequently, targeted disruption of either signaling pathway has relatively mild consequences on many functions related to reproduction. Overexpression of heterologous or homologous GH in transgenic animals can lead to severe reproductive deficits, including female sterility in some of the lines. Studies in GH transgenics should allow the identification of mechanisms that mediate the effects of chronic overexposure to GH on reproduction.

  7. Essential role of eIF5-mimic protein in animal development is linked to control of ATF4 expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translational control of ATF4 through upstream ORFs (uORFs) plays an important role in eukaryotic gene regulation. While ATF4 translation is typically induced by inhibitory phosphorylation of eIF2, ATF4 translation can be also induced by expression of a new translational inhibitor protein, eIF5-mimi...

  8. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... reopening the comment period for the notice, published in the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767), FDA published a notice with... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and...

  9. Central command: control of cardiac sympathetic and vagal efferent nerve activity and the arterial baroreflex during spontaneous motor behaviour in animals.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Feedforward control by higher brain centres (termed central command) plays a role in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system during exercise. Over the past 20 years, workers in our laboratory have used the precollicular-premammillary decerebrate animal model to identify the neural circuitry involved in the CNS control of cardiac autonomic outflow and arterial baroreflex function. Contrary to the traditional idea that vagal withdrawal at the onset of exercise causes the increase in heart rate, central command did not decrease cardiac vagal efferent nerve activity but did allow cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve activity to produce cardiac acceleration. In addition, central command-evoked inhibition of the aortic baroreceptor-heart rate reflex blunted the baroreflex-mediated bradycardia elicited by aortic nerve stimulation, further increasing the heart rate at the onset of exercise. Spontaneous motor activity and associated cardiovascular responses disappeared in animals decerebrated at the midcollicular level. These findings indicate that the brain region including the caudal diencephalon and extending to the rostral mesencephalon may play a role in generating central command. Bicuculline microinjected into the midbrain ventral tegmental area of decerebrate rats produced a long-lasting repetitive activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity that was synchronized with the motor nerve discharge. When lidocaine was microinjected into the ventral tegmental area, the spontaneous motor activity and associated cardiovascular responses ceased. From these findings, we conclude that cerebral cortical outputs trigger activation of neural circuits within the caudal brain, including the ventral tegmental area, which causes central command to augment cardiac sympathetic outflow at the onset of exercise in decerebrate animal models. PMID:21984731

  10. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  11. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  12. Synthesis and quality control of fluorodeoxyglucose and performance assessment of Siemens MicroFocus 220 small animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaterpekar, Siddhesh Nitin

    The scope of this article is to cover the synthesis and quality control procedures involved in production of Fludeoxyglucose (18F--FDG). The article also describes the cyclotron production of 18F radioisotope and gives a brief overview on operations and working of a fixed energy medical cyclotron. The quality control procedures for FDG involve radiochemical and radionuclidic purity tests, pH tests, chemical purity tests, sterility tests, endotoxin tests. Each of these procedures were carried out for multiple batches of FDG with a passing rate of 95% among 20 batches. The article also covers the quality assurance steps for the Siemens MicroPET Focus 220 Scanner using a Jaszczak phantom. We have carried out spatial resolution tests on the scanner, with an average transaxial resolution of 1.775mm with 2-3mm offset. Tests involved detector efficiency, blank scan sinograms and transmission sinograms. A series of radioactivity distribution tests are also carried out on a uniform phantom, denoting the variations in radioactivity and uniformity by using cylindrical ROIs in the transverse region of the final image. The purpose of these quality control tests is to make sure the manufactured FDG is biocompatible with the human body. Quality assurance tests are carried on PET scanners for efficient performance, and to make sure the quality of images acquired is according to the radioactivity distribution in the subject of interest.

  13. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    PubMed

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  14. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir How can you prevent rabies in animals? There are several things you can do to ... properly cared for or vaccinated regularly. Finally, call animal control to remove all stray animals from your ...

  15. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    SciTech Connect

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  16. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  17. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  18. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  19. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  20. Longitudinal design for sonographic measurement of median nerve swelling with controlled exposure to physical work using an animal model.

    PubMed

    Roll, Shawn C; Evans, Kevin D; Volz, Kevin R; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2013-12-01

    In the study described here, we examined the feasibility of a longitudinal design to measure sonographically swelling of the median nerve caused by controlled exposure to a work task and to evaluate the relationship of changes in morphology to diagnostic standards. Fifteen macaques, Macaca fascicularis, pinched a lever in various wrist positions at a self-regulated pace (8 h/d, 5 d/wk, 18-20 wk). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured every 2 wk from baseline through working and a 6-wk recovery. Trending across all subjects revealed that NCV slowed and CSA at the carpal tunnel increased in the working arm, whereas no changes were observed in CSA either at the forearm or for any measure in the non-working arm. There was a small negative correlation between NCV and CSA in the working arm. This study provides validation that swelling can be observed using a longitudinal design. Longitudinal human studies are needed to describe the trajectory of nerve swelling for early identification of median nerve pathology.

  1. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  2. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  3. Longitudinal design for sonographic measurement of median nerve swelling with controlled exposure to physical work using an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Evans, Kevin D.; Volz, Kevin R.; Sommerich, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a longitudinal design to sonographically measure swelling of the median nerve due to controlled exposure to a work task and to evaluate the relationship of changes in morphology to diagnostic standards. Fifteen macaca fascicularis pinched a lever in various wrist positions at a self-regulated pace (8 hours/day, 5 days/week, 18–20 weeks). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and cross-sectional area (CSA) were obtained every two weeks from baseline through working and a 6-week recovery. Trending across all subjects showed that NCV slowed and CSA at the carpal tunnel increased in the working arm, while no changes were observed in CSA either at the forearm or for any measure in the non-working arm. There was a small negative correlation between NCV and CSA in the working arm. This study provides validation that swelling can be observed using a longitudinal design. Longitudinal human studies are needed to describe the trajectory of nerve swelling for early identification of median nerve pathology. PMID:24139197

  4. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. “One-session treatment” guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants’ expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  5. COLLABORATIVE APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES FOR A NEUROPROSTHETIC ARM: TRANSLATION FROM ANIMAL MODELS TO HUMAN CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Collinger, Jennifer; Kryger, Michael; Barbara, Richard; Betler, Timothy; Bowsher, Kristen; Brown, Elke HP; Clanton, Samuel T.; Degenhart, Alan; Foldes, Stephen; Gaunt, Robert A; Gyulai, Ferenc E; Harchick, Elizabeth A; Harrington, Deborah; Helder, John B; Hemmes, Timothy; Johannes, Matthew S; Katyal, Kapil D; Ling, Geoffrey SF; McMorland, Angus JC; Palko, Karina; Para, Matthew P; Scheuermann, Janet; Schwartz, Andrew; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Solzbacher, Florian; Srikameswaran, Anita V.; Swanson, Dennis P; Swetz, Scott; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Velliste, Meel; Wang, Wei; Weber, Douglas J; Wodlinger, Brian; Boninger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Our research group recently demonstrated that a person with tetraplegia could use a brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a sophisticated anthropomorphic robotic arm with skill and speed approaching that of an able-bodied person. This multi-year study exemplifies important principles in translating research from foundational theory and animal experiments into a clinical study. We present a roadmap that may serve as an example for other areas of clinical device research as well as an update on study results. Prior to conducting a multi-year clinical trial, years of animal research preceded BCI testing in an epilepsy monitoring unit, and then in a short term (28 days) clinical investigation. Scientists and engineers developed the necessary robotic and surgical hardware, software environment, data analysis techniques, and training paradigms. Coordination among researchers, funding institutes and regulatory bodies ensured that the study would provide valuable scientific information in a safe environment for the study participant. Finally, clinicians from neurosurgery, anesthesiology, physiatry, psychology and occupational therapy all worked in a multidisciplinary team along with the other researchers to conduct a multi-year BCI clinical study. This teamwork and coordination can be used as a model for others attempting to translate basic science into real-world clinical situations. PMID:24528900

  6. Collaborative approach in the development of high-performance brain-computer interfaces for a neuroprosthetic arm: translation from animal models to human control.

    PubMed

    Collinger, Jennifer L; Kryger, Michael A; Barbara, Richard; Betler, Timothy; Bowsher, Kristen; Brown, Elke H P; Clanton, Samuel T; Degenhart, Alan D; Foldes, Stephen T; Gaunt, Robert A; Gyulai, Ferenc E; Harchick, Elizabeth A; Harrington, Deborah; Helder, John B; Hemmes, Timothy; Johannes, Matthew S; Katyal, Kapil D; Ling, Geoffrey S F; McMorland, Angus J C; Palko, Karina; Para, Matthew P; Scheuermann, Janet; Schwartz, Andrew B; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Solzbacher, Florian; Srikameswaran, Anita V; Swanson, Dennis P; Swetz, Scott; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Velliste, Meel; Wang, Wei; Weber, Douglas J; Wodlinger, Brian; Boninger, Michael L

    2014-02-01

    Our research group recently demonstrated that a person with tetraplegia could use a brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a sophisticated anthropomorphic robotic arm with skill and speed approaching that of an able-bodied person. This multiyear study exemplifies important principles in translating research from foundational theory and animal experiments into a clinical study. We present a roadmap that may serve as an example for other areas of clinical device research as well as an update on study results. Prior to conducting a multiyear clinical trial, years of animal research preceded BCI testing in an epilepsy monitoring unit, and then in a short-term (28 days) clinical investigation. Scientists and engineers developed the necessary robotic and surgical hardware, software environment, data analysis techniques, and training paradigms. Coordination among researchers, funding institutes, and regulatory bodies ensured that the study would provide valuable scientific information in a safe environment for the study participant. Finally, clinicians from neurosurgery, anesthesiology, physiatry, psychology, and occupational therapy all worked in a multidisciplinary team along with the other researchers to conduct a multiyear BCI clinical study. This teamwork and coordination can be used as a model for others attempting to translate basic science into real-world clinical situations.

  7. Comparative aspects of the endotoxin- and cytokine-induced endocrine cascade influencing neuroendocrine control of growth and reproduction in farm animals.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Daniel, J A; Wilborn, R R; Elsasser, T H; Carroll, J A; Sartin, J L

    2008-07-01

    Disease in animals is a well-known inhibitor of growth and reproduction. Earlier studies were initiated to determine the effects of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion. These studies found that in sheep, growth hormone (GH) concentration was elevated, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was inhibited, as was luteinizing hormone (LH). Examination of the site of action of endotoxin in sheep determined that somatotropes expressed the endotoxin receptor (CD14) and that both endotoxin and interleukin-I beta activated GH secretion directly from the pituitary. In the face of elevated GH, there is a reduction of IGF-I in all species examined. As GH cannot activate IGF-I release during disease, there appears to be a downregulation of GH signalling at the liver, perhaps related to altered nitration of Janus kinase (JAK). In contrast to GH downregulation, LH release is inhibited at the level of the hypothalamus. New insights have been gained in determining the mechanisms by which disease perturbs growth and reproduction, particularly with regard to nitration of critical control pathways, with this perhaps serving as a novel mechanism central to lipopolysaccharide suppression of all signalling pathways. This pathway-based analysis is critical to the developing novel strategies to reverse the detrimental effect of disease on animal production.

  8. Small-Animal PET Imaging of Tau Pathology with 18F-THK5117 in 2 Transgenic Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Probst, Federico; Overhoff, Felix; Korzhova, Viktoria; Lindner, Simon; Carlsen, Janette; Bartenstein, Peter; Harada, Ryuichi; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Haass, Christian; Van Leuven, Fred; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of tau aggregates in the brain is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We visualized tau deposition in vivo with the previously developed 2-arylquinoline derivative (18)F-THK5117 using small-animal PET in conjunction with autoradiography and immunohistochemistry gold standard assessment in 2 transgenic mouse models expressing hyperphosphorylated tau. Small-animal PET recordings were obtained in groups of P301S (n = 11) and biGT mice (n = 16) of different ages, with age-matched wild-type (WT) serving as controls. After intravenous administration of 16 ± 2 MBq of (18)F-THK5117, a dynamic 90-min emission recording was initiated for P301S mice and during 20-50 min after injection for biGT mice, followed by a 15-min transmission scan. After coregistration to the MRI atlas and scaling to the cerebellum, we performed volume-of-interest-based analysis (SUV ratio [SUVR]) and statistical parametric mapping. Small-animal PET results were compared with autoradiography ex vivo and in vitro and further validated with AT8 staining for neurofibrillary tangles. SUVRs calculated from static recordings during the interval of 20-50 min after tracer injection correlated highly with estimates of binding potential based on the entire dynamic emission recordings (R = 0.85). SUVR increases were detected in the brain stem of aged P301S mice (+11%; P < 0.001) and in entorhinal/amygdaloidal areas (+15%; P < 0.001) of biGT mice when compared with WT, whereas aged WT mice did not show increased tracer uptake. Immunohistochemical tau loads correlated with small-animal PET SUVR for both P301S (R = 0.8; P < 0.001) and biGT (R = 0.7; P < 0.001) mice, and distribution patterns of AT8-positive neurons matched voxelwise statistical parametric mapping analysis. Saturable binding of the tracer was verified by autoradiographic blocking studies. In the first dedicated small-animal PET study in 2 different transgenic tauopathy mouse models using the tau tracer

  9. Small-Animal PET Imaging of Tau Pathology with 18F-THK5117 in 2 Transgenic Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Probst, Federico; Overhoff, Felix; Korzhova, Viktoria; Lindner, Simon; Carlsen, Janette; Bartenstein, Peter; Harada, Ryuichi; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Haass, Christian; Van Leuven, Fred; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of tau aggregates in the brain is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We visualized tau deposition in vivo with the previously developed 2-arylquinoline derivative (18)F-THK5117 using small-animal PET in conjunction with autoradiography and immunohistochemistry gold standard assessment in 2 transgenic mouse models expressing hyperphosphorylated tau. Small-animal PET recordings were obtained in groups of P301S (n = 11) and biGT mice (n = 16) of different ages, with age-matched wild-type (WT) serving as controls. After intravenous administration of 16 ± 2 MBq of (18)F-THK5117, a dynamic 90-min emission recording was initiated for P301S mice and during 20-50 min after injection for biGT mice, followed by a 15-min transmission scan. After coregistration to the MRI atlas and scaling to the cerebellum, we performed volume-of-interest-based analysis (SUV ratio [SUVR]) and statistical parametric mapping. Small-animal PET results were compared with autoradiography ex vivo and in vitro and further validated with AT8 staining for neurofibrillary tangles. SUVRs calculated from static recordings during the interval of 20-50 min after tracer injection correlated highly with estimates of binding potential based on the entire dynamic emission recordings (R = 0.85). SUVR increases were detected in the brain stem of aged P301S mice (+11%; P < 0.001) and in entorhinal/amygdaloidal areas (+15%; P < 0.001) of biGT mice when compared with WT, whereas aged WT mice did not show increased tracer uptake. Immunohistochemical tau loads correlated with small-animal PET SUVR for both P301S (R = 0.8; P < 0.001) and biGT (R = 0.7; P < 0.001) mice, and distribution patterns of AT8-positive neurons matched voxelwise statistical parametric mapping analysis. Saturable binding of the tracer was verified by autoradiographic blocking studies. In the first dedicated small-animal PET study in 2 different transgenic tauopathy mouse models using the tau tracer

  10. Colored Indicator Undergloves Increase the Detection of Glove Perforations by Surgeons During Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Oliver P.; Parsons, Kevin J.; Burton, Neil J.; Langley‐Hobbs, Sorrel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of colored indicator gloves affects perforation detection rate and to identify risk factors for glove perforation during veterinary orthopedic surgery. Study Design Prospective randomized controlled trial. Sample Population 574 double pairs of gloves worn during 300 orthopedic surgical procedures (2,296 gloves). Methods Primary and assistant surgeons double‐gloved for all orthopedic surgical procedures. Type of inner glove (standard or colored indicator) was randomized for the first 360 double pairs of gloves worn by surgeons during 180 procedures. Perforations detected by surgeons were recorded and gloves changed if requested. For a further 120 procedures, indicator gloves were used exclusively. All gloves were leak‐tested after surgery to identify perforations. Association between potential risk factors and perforation was explored using multivariate logistical regression analysis. Results Glove perforations occurred during 43% of surgeries with a mean of 2.3 holes/surgery. Inner gloves were intact in 63% of glove pairs where an outer perforation occurred. Intraoperative perforation detection was improved when colored indicator gloves were worn (83% sensitivity) vs. standard gloves (34% sensitivity; P<.001). Independent risk factors for perforation were placement of plates and/or screws (P=.001; OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.0), placement of an external skeletal fixator (P=.002; OR=7.0; 95% CI, 2.1–23.8), use of orthopedic wire (P=.011; OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7), and primary surgeon being board‐certified (P=.016; OR=1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1). Conclusion Increased surgeon recognition of glove perforations through use of colored indicator gloves enables prompt change of gloves if perforation occurs and may reduce potential contamination of the surgical site. PMID:27412490

  11. Hydrogen Improves Glycemic Control in Type1 Diabetic Animal Model by Promoting Glucose Uptake into Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Cheng, Kaichun; Amitani, Marie; Kaimoto, Kaori; Nakano, Masako; Ushikai, Miharu; Li, Yingxiao; Tsai, Minglun; Li, Jiang-Bo; Terashi, Mutsumi; Chaolu, Huhe; Kamimura, Ryozo; Inui, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant. However, there are few reports on H2 function in other capacities in diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of H2 in glucose transport by studying cultured mouse C2C12 cells and human hepatoma Hep-G2 cells in vitro, in addition to three types of diabetic mice [Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice, high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice, and genetically diabetic db/db mice] in vivo. The results show that H2 promoted 2-[14C]-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) uptake into C2C12 cells via the translocation of glucose transporter Glut4 through activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although it did not stimulate the translocation of Glut2 in Hep G2 cells. H2 significantly increased skeletal muscle membrane Glut4 expression and markedly improved glycemic control in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice after chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) administration. However, long-term p.o. administration of H2 had least effect on the obese and non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mouse models. Our study demonstrates that H2 exerts metabolic effects similar to those of insulin and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus that can be administered orally. PMID:23326534

  12. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  13. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  14. Myoelectric control of a computer animated hand: a new concept based on the combined use of a tree-structured artificial neural network and a data glove.

    PubMed

    Sebelius, F; Eriksson, L; Balkenius, C; Laurell, T

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new learning set-up in the field of control systems for multifunctional hand prostheses. Two male subjects with a traumatic one-hand amputation performed simultaneous symmetric movements with the healthy and the phantom hand. A data glove on the healthy hand was used as a reference to train the system to perform natural movements. Instead of a physical prosthesis with limited degrees of freedom, a virtual (computer-animated) hand was used as the target tool. Both subjects successfully performed seven different motoric actions with the fingers and wrist. To reduce the training time for the system, a tree-structured, self-organizing, artificial neural network was designed. The training time never exceeded 30 seconds for any of the configurations used, which is three to four times faster than most currently used artificial neural network (ANN) architectures.

  15. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed. PMID:20003615

  16. Immunogenetically controlled autoimmune reactions induced by mercury, gold and D-penicillamine in laboratory animals: a review from the vantage point of premarketing safety studies.

    PubMed

    Balazs, T

    1987-09-01

    Mercury and gold salts as well as d-penicillamine can cause glomerulonephritis by an autoimmune mechanism in man. The susceptibility to this effect of these chemicals is controlled by the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The presence of certain alleles confers sensitivity. The role of MHC-linked genes has been demonstrated also in the rat and mouse in the development of autoimmunity induced by these chemicals. While Brown Norway rats and ASW mice were sensitive, several other strains were resistant. Also an interaction of MHC with background genes has been shown in determination of the response to HgCl2. In conventional toxicity studies, use of a single inbred strain of laboratory animals obviously handicaps the detection of a reaction of this nature.

  17. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  18. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B₁₂, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement.

  19. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. Methods and analysis A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants’ demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. Ethics and dissemination The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial

  20. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to evaluate "Animal Fun" - a program designed to enhance physical and mental health in young children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with poor motor ability have been found to engage less in physical activities than other children, and a lack of physical activity has been linked to problems such as obesity, lowered bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, if children are confident with their fine and gross motor skills, they are more likely to engage in physical activities such as sports, crafts, dancing and other physical activity programs outside of the school curriculum which are important activities for psychosocial development. The primary objective of this project is to comprehensively evaluate a whole of class physical activity program called Animal Fun designed for Pre-Primary children. This program was designed to improve the child's movement skills, both fine and gross, and their perceptions of their movement ability, promote appropriate social skills and improve social-emotional development. Methods The proposed randomized and controlled trial uses a multivariate nested cohort design to examine the physical (motor coordination) and psychosocial (self perceptions, anxiety, social competence) outcomes of the program. The Animal Fun program is a teacher delivered universal program incorporating animal actions to facilitate motor skill and social skill acquisition and practice. Pre-intervention scores on motor and psychosocial variables for six control schools and six intervention schools will be compared with post-intervention scores (end of Pre-Primary year) and scores taken 12 months later after the children's transition to primary school Year 1. 520 children aged 4.5 to 6 years will be recruited and it is anticipated that 360 children will be retained to the 1 year follow-up. There will be equal numbers of boys and girls. Discussion If this program is found to improve the child's motor and psychosocial skills, this will assist in the child's transition into the first year of school. As a result of these changes, it is anticipated that

  1. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R.; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L.; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human–animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6–month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre–program with post–program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre–session with post–session salivary cortisol and alpha–amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty–two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6–month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT–treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice–weekly 1–h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT–treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT–treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology

  2. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human-animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre-program with post-program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre-session with post-session salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty-two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6-month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT-treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice-weekly 1-h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT-treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT-treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology. Adherence to the AAT

  3. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human-animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre-program with post-program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre-session with post-session salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty-two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6-month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT-treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice-weekly 1-h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT-treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT-treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology. Adherence to the AAT

  4. Nonantibiotic interventions to control pathogens and undesired microbial activities in mixed microbial populations residing in the gut of food-producing animals and their excreted wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intensification and industrialization of animal agriculture throughout the world has led to considerable increases in animal production efficiencies but has also led to concerns that microbial pathogens, antibiotic residues, and other chemical contaminants could be concentrated in the environmen...

  5. Seventy-year-old habitual volleyball players have larger tibial cross-sectional area and may be differentiated from their age-matched peers by the osteogenic index in dynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Linnamo, V; Komi, P V; Selänne, H; Heinonen, A

    2010-07-01

    The osteogenicity of a given exercise may be estimated by calculating an osteogenic index (OI) consisting of magnitude and rate of strain. Volleyball involves repetitive jumping and requires high power output and thus may be expected to be beneficial to bone and performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine if habitual volleyball playing is reflected in OI. Ten elderly habitual volleyball players [age 69.9 (SD 4.4) years] and ten matched controls volunteered [age 69.7 (4.2) years] as subjects. Distal tibia (d), tibial mid-shaft (50) and femoral neck (FN) bone characteristics were measured using pQCT and DXA. To estimate skeletal rigidity, cross-sectional area (ToA(50)), and compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (SSImax(50)) were calculated. Maximal performance was assessed with eccentric ankle plantar flexion, isometric leg press and countermovement jump (CMJ). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was calculated from the acceleration of the center of mass during the CMJ. Maximal acceleration (MAG) and mean magnitude frequency (MMF) were selected to represent the constituents of OI. OI was calculated as the sum of the products of magnitudes and corresponding frequencies. Volleyball players had 7% larger ToA(50) and 37% higher power in CMJ, 15% higher MAG and 36% higher OI (P controls. No difference was observed in leg press, plantar flexion or the MMF (P >or= 0.646). In conclusion, habitual volleyball players may be differentiated from their matched peers by their dynamic jumping performance, and the differences are reflected in the magnitude but not rate of loading.

  6. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  7. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  8. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  9. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  10. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  11. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  12. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  13. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  14. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  15. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  16. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  17. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

  18. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. [Laboratory animal; allergy; asthma].

    PubMed

    Corradi, M; Romano, C; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) may develop when susceptible persons are exposed to allergens produced by laboratory animals. LAA is associated with exposure to urine, fur, and salivae of rats, guinea pigs, dogs and rabbits. Approximately 30% of persons who are exposed to laboratory animals may develop LAA and some will also develop asthma. LAA is most likely to occur in persons with previously known allergies, especially to domestic pets. The majority of LAA sufferers experience symptoms within six months their first exposure to laboratory animals; almost all develop symptoms within three years. The most common symptoms are watery eyes and an itchy, runny nose, although skin symptoms and lower respiratory tract symptoms may also occur. Feeding and handling laboratory animals or cleaning their cages generates ten times the amount of allergens compared with undisturbed conditions. Prevention of animal allergy depends on control of allergenic material in the work environment and on organizational and individual protection measures. Pre-placement evaluation and periodic medical surveillance of workers are important pieces of the overall occupational health programme. The emphasis of these medical evaluations should be on counselling and early disease detection.

  20. Using Animal Models to Determine the Role of Gustatory Neural Input in the Control of Ingestive Behavior and the Maintenance of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ciullo, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Decades of research have suggested that nutritional intake contributes to the development of human disease, mainly by influencing the development of obesity and obesity-related conditions. A relatively large body of research indicates that functional variation in human taste perception can influence nutritional intake as well as body mass accumulation. However, there are a considerable number of studies that suggest that no link between these variables actually exists. These discrepancies in the literature likely result from the confounding influence of a variety of other, uncontrolled, factors that can influence ingestive behavior. Strategy In this review, the use of controlled animal experimentation to alleviate at least some of these issues related to the lack of control of experimental variables is discussed. Specific examples of the use of some of these techniques are examined. Discussion and conclusions The review will close with some specific suggestions aimed at strengthening the link between gustatory neural input and its putative influence on ingestive behaviors and the maintenance of body weight. PMID:26557212

  1. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.

  2. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight.

  3. 76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ..., monitor, control, or eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the Committee will.... Tentative topics for discussion at the upcoming meeting include: Animal disease traceability. Aquaculture... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health;...

  4. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  5. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  6. "Carbon in Underland": A multidisciplinary approach to producing an informative animated video for the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geological CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Cappuccio, J. A.; Berry, I.; Miller, J.; Bourg, I. C.; Kelly, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the 'Science for Our Nation's Energy Future, Summit and Forum', each of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) created in 2009 by the US Department of Energy was invited to design a short, engaging film with the central goal to educate, inspire, and entertain an intelligent but not expert audience about the extraordinary science, innovation and people in their center. The Center for Nanoscale Control of Geological CO2 (NCGC) is an EFRC that is building a next generation understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes critical to controlling the flow,transport, and ultimate mineralization in porous rock media, in particular as applied to geologic sequestration of CO2. In response to the invitation, the NCGC assembled a team that included several young scientists, the Center project manager, and members from the Public Affairs and Creative Services Office of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the objective of preparing a submission. A videographer from the Creative Services Office was responsible for overall management including production, art direction, and editing, while scientists from the Center were responsible for scientific content and original storyline concept. The Center project manager facilitated the communication between team members. A group of scientists together with the project manager developed the original idea, which was refined and given shape as a script in dialogue form by a science writer from Public Affairs. The objective was to communicate scientific content in an entertaining manner with a simple storyline. In a second phase, the script was revised further by scientists for content. Clips from experiments and modeling simulations were requested from the Center's scientists to illustrate the scientific content. Video production and animation were done by the videographer and an animator in an iterative process that involve feedback from the Center team. The final cut was edited to meet the maximum length

  7. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  8. A review of 29 incidents involving 4-aminopyridine in non-target species reported to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2013-12-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is an avicide used in products that are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to control populations of various birds. Pharmaceutical 4-AP is also used in humans to treat neural and muscular dysfunctions associated with multiple sclerosis. Although strict restrictions for its use are in place, exposures to 4-AP bait by non-target species still occur. Twenty-nine exposures of 4-AP bait involving non-target species were identified and retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center medical record database. Canines were the most commonly exposed (86 %) species followed by felines (10 %). The highest frequency of exposures was reported from Colorado (22 %). Most commonly reported clinical signs in canines were tremors, hypersalivation, seizures, tachycardia, and ataxia. The onset time of signs ranged from 5 to 300 min with an average of 89 min. Clinical signs lasted from 15 to 84 h with an average of 37 h. Patient outcome was known in six cases; one dog died 4 h after the exposure and five made full recovery with supportive care. Treatment of five surviving patients included administration of activated charcoal, use of anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants like diazepam and methocarbamol, and intravenous fluids. Diagnosis of 4-AP toxicosis can be supported by testing the gastric contents of the exposed patient. Due to the rapid absorption, samples need to be collected and frozen/chilled promptly. For successful patient outcome, treatment must be implemented quickly after an exposure.

  9. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  10. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  11. Animal models of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  12. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  13. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  14. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  15. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C.; Yuan, David C.; Gold, David A.; Jacobs, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  16. Alpha 2A adrenergic receptor agonist, guanfacine, attenuates cocaine-related impairments of inhibitory response control and working memory in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alvin V.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Schade, Rosann; Kille, Nancy J.; Plagenhoef, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that centrally acting α2A adrenergic receptor agonists can attenuate impairments in executive function that result from dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. Such positive effects resulted in the recent approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the α2A agonists clonidine and guanfacine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but also suggest that they could have beneficial effects in substance abuse disorders and other neuropsychiatric conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate guanfacine for its ability to attenuate behavioral alterations associated with acute cocaine exposure in rats trained to perform a task of sustained attention, the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) and monkeys trained to perform a task of working/short term memory, the delayed match to sample task (DMTS). In the rodent 5C-SRTT acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cocaine (3.5–15.0 mg/kg) did not affect accuracy, but was associated with dose-dependent increases in premature responses and timeout responses. Guanfacine (0.1–1.0 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently decreased premature responses and timeout responses associated with cocaine and it attenuated similar deficits in inhibitory response control observed in a variable ITI version of the 5C-SRTT. In the DMTS task in monkeys, acute intramuscular (i.m.) administration of cocaine (4.0 mg/kg) was associated with impairments in accuracy at long delay intervals, an effect that was attenuated by guanfacine (0.4 mg/kg). These animal studies suggest that guanfacine may have therapeutic potential for treating impairments of executive function that are associated with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:25242808

  17. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  18. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  19. New "light" for one-world approach toward safe and effective control of animal diseases and insect vectors from leishmaniac perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang Poo; Kolli, Bala K

    2016-01-01

    Light is known to excite photosensitizers (PS) to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of oxygen. This modality is attractive for designing control measures against animal diseases and pests. Many PS have a proven safety record. Also, the ROS cytotoxicity selects no resistant mutants, unlike other drugs and pesticides. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) refers to the use of PS as light activable tumoricides, microbicides and pesticides in medicine and agriculture.Here we describe "photodynamic vaccination" (PDV) that uses PDT-inactivation of parasites, i.e. Leishmania as whole-cell vaccines against leishmaniasis, and as a universal carrier to deliver transgenic add-on vaccines against other infectious and malignant diseases. The efficacy of Leishmania for vaccine delivery makes use of their inherent attributes to parasitize antigen (vaccine)-presenting cells. Inactivation of Leishmania by PDT provides safety for their use. This is accomplished in two different ways: (i) chemical engineering of PS to enhance their uptake, e.g. Si-phthalocyanines; and (ii) transgenic approach to render Leishmania inducible for porphyrinogenesis. Three different schemes of Leishmania-based PDV are presented diagrammatically to depict the cellular events resulting in cell-mediated immunity, as seen experimentally against leishmaniasis and Leishmania-delivered antigen in vitro and in vivo. Safety versus efficacy evaluations are under way for PDT-inactivated Leishmania, including those further processed to facilitate their storage and transport. Leishmania transfected to express cancer and viral vaccine candidates are being prepared accordingly for experimental trials.We have begun to examine PS-mediated photodynamic insecticides (PDI). Mosquito cells take up rose bengal/cyanosine, rendering them light-sensitive to undergo disintegration in vitro, thereby providing a cellular basis for the larvicidal activity seen by the same treatments. Ineffectiveness of

  20. Depressive-like behavior in adolescents after maternal separation: sex differences, controllability, and GABA.

    PubMed

    Leussis, Melanie P; Freund, Nadja; Brenhouse, Heather C; Thompson, Britta S; Andersen, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during development is an identified risk factor for depression later in life. In humans, early adversity accelerates the onset of depressive symptoms, which manifest during adolescence. Animal studies have used maternal separation as a model of early adversity to produce adult depressive-like behaviors, but have yet to examine these behaviors during adolescence. Moreover, the nature of depressive-like behaviors has not been well characterized in this model. Here, we used the triadic model of learned helplessness to understand controllability, helplessness, and motivational factors following maternal separation in male and female adolescent rats. We found sex-dependent changes in the effects of separation, with males demonstrating loss of controllability in an escapable shock condition, whereas females demonstrated motivational impairment in a no-shock condition. The effect, however, did not endure as adult females were no longer helpless. Reductions in parvalbumin, a GABAergic marker, in the prefrontal cortex of separated subjects relative to age-matched controls were evident and paralleled depressive-like behavior. Understanding the risk factors for depression, the nature of depressive-like behaviors, and their unique sex dependency may ultimately provide insight into improved treatments. PMID:22776911

  1. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. PMID:27033924

  2. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described.

  3. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  4. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  5. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  6. Prolonged weightlessness (300 plus days) and cardiac performance in primates. 1: Neuro-humoral mechanisms in the control of cardiac and vascular performance in conscious animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Research during the period 1 Oct. 1971 to 1 Oct. 1972 is reported. Studies discussed include: development of techniques for instrumentation of dogs and other animals, effects of temporary application of lower body negative pressure, and effect of infusing selected drugs on ventricular performance.

  7. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    PubMed

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  8. Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

  9. Economics of animal vaccination.

    PubMed

    McLeod, A; Rushton, J

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the steps that might be used in assessing the economic justification for using vaccination to control animal disease, and the way that vaccination is financed and administered. It describes decisions that have been taken with respect to preserving international trade, and issues related to protection of livelihoods. Regardless of the motivation for vaccination, its costs can usually be shared between the public and private sectors. Cost-effective vaccination requires methods of delivery to be adapted to livestock production systems. The paper concludes by suggesting questions around the use of vaccination that would merit further economic analysis.

  10. [Sexual reproduction in animals].

    PubMed

    Jordana, R; Herrea, L

    1974-01-01

    Both asexual and sexual reproduction are described, with most attention given the latter, and all basic aspects of reproduction are discussed including gender, gametogenesis, genes and chromosomes, fecundation, and hormonal control. Female and male reproductive hormones and their modes of operation are given special attention. Innate reproductive and sexual behavior in various species is detailed and a discussion of the role of sexual attraction in human and animal reproduction is included. Contraception and abortion are described as human efforts to separate sexuality and reproduction unique in the biological world.

  11. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  12. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    PubMed

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  13. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    PubMed

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  14. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  16. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  17. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  18. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  19. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  20. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central...

  1. User-controlled photographic animations, photograph-based questions, and questionnaires: three Internet-based instruments for measuring drivers' risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Horswill, M S; Coster, M E

    2001-02-01

    The Internet has been exploited successfully in the past as a medium for behavioral research. This paper presents a series of studies designed to assess Internet-based measures of drivers' risk-taking behavior. First, we compared responses from an Internet sample with a traditional pencil-and-paper sample using established questionnaire measures of risk taking. No significant differences were found. Second, we assessed the validity of new Internet-based instruments, involving photographs and photographic animations, that measured speed, gap acceptance, and passing. Responses were found to reflect known demographic patterns of actual behavior to some degree. Also, a roadside survey of speeds was carried out at the locations depicted in the photographic measure of speeding and, with certain exceptions, differences between the two appeared to be constant. Third, a between-subject experimental manipulation involving the photographic animation measure of gap acceptance was used to demonstrate one application of these techniques.

  2. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  3. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  4. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  5. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  6. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  7. Novel Radiopaque UHMWPE Sublaminar Wires in a Growth-Guidance System for the Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis: Feasibility in a Large Animal Study.

    PubMed

    Bogie, R; Roth, Ak; Faber, S; de Jong, Jja; Welting, Tjm; Willems, Pc; Arts, Jj; van Rhijn, Lw

    2014-09-29

    Study Design. In vivo analysis in an ovine model.Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of radiopaque UHMWPE sublaminar wires in a growth-guidance spinal system by assessing stability, biocompatibility and growth potential.Summary of Background Data. Several growth-guidance systems have been developed for the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). The use of gliding pedicle screws and metal sublaminar wires during these procedures can cause metal-on-metal debris formation and neurological deficits. Novel radiopaque UHMWPE wires are introduced to safely facilitate longitudinal growth and provide stability in a growth-guidance system for EOS.Methods. Twelve immature sheep received posterior segmental spinal instrumentation; pedicle screws were inserted at L5 and radiopaque UHWMPE (bismuth trioxide) wires were passed sublaminarly at each level between L3 and T11 and fixed to dual cobalt-chromiun rods. Four age-matched, unoperated animals were evaluated to serve as a control group. Radiographs were taken to measure growth of the instrumented segment. After 24 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the spines were harvested for histological evaluation and high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) analysis.Results. No neurological deficits occurred and all instrumentation remained stable. One animal died from an unknown cause. Substantial growth occurred in the instrumented segments (L5-T11) in the intervention group (27± 2 mm), which was not significantly different to the control group, (30 ± 4mm, p = 0.42). HR-pQCT analysis clearly showed safe routing and fixation of the UHMWPE wires and instrumentation. Despite the noted growth, ectopic bone formation with the formation of bony bridges was observed in all animals. Histology revealed no evidence of chronic inflammation or wear debris.Conclusions. This study shows the first results of radiopaque UHMWPE sublaminar wires as part of a growth guidance spinal system. UHMWPE sublaminar wires

  8. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  10. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  11. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  12. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  13. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  14. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  15. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  17. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

  18. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  19. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  20. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  1. The Great Ape Project: legislating for the control of the use of non-human hominids in research, testing and teaching--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    PubMed

    Wells, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand), which commenced on January 1 2000, provides that the use of non-human hominids in research, testing or teaching is not permitted unless the Director-General of Agriculture approves the use, and then, only if the use is in the interests of the non-human hominid itself or its species. The Animal Welfare Act 1999 originated with two parliamentary bills. The first, a private member's bill in the name of Pete Hodgson MP, was tabled in 1997, and the second, a Government measure, was tabled a year later. Neither bill made any reference to non-human hominids. The Great Ape Project made submissions that non-human hominids be afforded similar rights to humans, i.e. not to be deprived of life, not to be subjected to torture or cruel treatment and not to be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation. Proponents and opponents of the measure argued for and against the tenet of introducing "rights" issues into what was essentially "welfare" legislation. These arguments are analysed, and the legislative process that enabled this modification is examined.

  2. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  3. Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Matthew W.; Carter, J. Devyn; Proctor, Darby; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2009-01-01

    People empathize with fictional displays of behaviour, including those of cartoons and computer animations, even though the stimuli are obviously artificial. However, the extent to which other animals also may respond empathetically to animations has yet to be determined. Animations provide a potentially useful tool for exploring non-human behaviour, cognition and empathy because computer-generated stimuli offer complete control over variables and the ability to program stimuli that could not be captured on video. Establishing computer animations as a viable tool requires that non-human subjects identify with and respond to animations in a way similar to the way they do to images of actual conspecifics. Contagious yawning has been linked to empathy and poses a good test of involuntary identification and motor mimicry. We presented 24 chimpanzees with three-dimensional computer-animated chimpanzees yawning or displaying control mouth movements. The apes yawned significantly more in response to the yawn animations than to the controls, implying identification with the animations. These results support the phenomenon of contagious yawning in chimpanzees and suggest an empathic response to animations. Understanding how chimpanzees connect with animations, to both empathize and imitate, may help us to understand how humans do the same. PMID:19740888

  4. Risk of infectious gastroenteritis in young children living in Québec rural areas with intensive animal farming: results of a case-control study (2004-2007).

    PubMed

    Levallois, P; Chevalier, P; Gingras, S; Déry, P; Payment, P; Michel, P; Rodriguez, M

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of severe gastroenteritis in children living in Québec rural areas with intensive livestock activities. From September 2005 through June 2007, 165 cases of gastroenteritis in children aged from 6 months to 5 years, hospitalized or notified to the public health department were enrolled, and 326 eligible controls participated. The parents of cases and controls were asked questions about different gastroenteritis risk factors. The quality of the drinking water used by the participants was investigated for microbial indicators as well as for four zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Yersinia spp) and two enteric parasites (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia spp). From 134 stool specimen analysed, viruses were detected in 82 cases (61%), while 28 (21%) were found with at least one of the bacteria investigated, and five cases were infected by parasites. Campylobacteriosis was the main bacterial infection (n = 15), followed by Salmonella sp (n = 7) and E. coli O157:H7 (n = 5) among cases with bacterial gastroenteritis. No significant difference was found between cases and controls regarding the quality of water consumed; the frequency of faecal contamination of private wells was also similar between cases and controls. Considering the total cases (including those with a virus), no link was found between severe gastroenteritis and either being in contact with animals or living in a municipality with the highest animal density (4th quartile). However, when considering only cases with a bacterial or parasite infection (n = 32), there was a weak association with pig density that was not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Contact with domestic, zoo or farm animals were the only environmental factor associated with the disease.

  5. Development of a community-based intervention for the control of Chagas disease based on peridomestic animal management: an eco-bio-social perspective

    PubMed Central

    De Urioste-Stone, Sandra M.; Pennington, Pamela M.; Pellecer, Elizabeth; Aguilar, Teresa M.; Samayoa, Gabriela; Perdomo, Hugo D.; Enríquez, Hugo; Juárez, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management strategies depend on local eco-bio-social conditions, community participation, political will and inter-sectorial partnership. Previously identified risk factors for persistent Triatoma dimidiata infestation include the presence of rodents and chickens, tiled roofs, dirt floors, partial wall plastering and dog density. Methods A community-based intervention was developed and implemented based on cyclical stakeholder and situational analyses. Intervention implementation and evaluation combined participatory action research and cluster randomized pre-test post-test experimental designs. The intervention included modified insecticide application, education regarding Chagas disease and risk factors, and participatory rodent control. Results At final evaluation there was no significant difference in post-test triatomine infestation between intervention and control, keeping pre-test rodent and triatomine infestations constant. Knowledge levels regarding Chagas disease and prevention practices including rodent control, chicken management and health service access increased significantly only in intervention communities. The odds of nymph infection and rat infestation were 8.3 and 1.9-fold higher in control compared to intervention communities, respectively. Conclusion Vector control measures without reservoir control are insufficient to reduce transmission risk in areas with persistent triatomine infestation. This integrated vector management program can complement house improvement initiatives by prioritizing households with risk factors such as tiled roofs. Requirement for active participation and multi-sectorial coordination poses implementation challenges. PMID:25604767

  6. Mechanisms of reduced contractility in an animal model of hypertensive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marie-Louise; Crossman, David J; Cannell, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    1. Alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis have frequently been implicated as underlying the contractile dysfunction of failing hearts. Contraction in cardiac muscle is due to a balance between sarcolemmal (SL) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) transport, which has been studied in single cells and small tissue samples. However, many studies have not used physiological temperatures and pacing rates, and this could be problematic given different temperature dependencies and kinetics for transport processes. 2. Spontaneously-hypertensive rats (SHR) and their age-matched Wistar Kyoto controls (WKY) provide an animal model of hypertensive failure with many features in common to heart failure in humans. Steady-state measurements of Ca(2+) and force showed that peak stress was reduced in trabeculae from failing SHR hearts in comparison to WKY, although the Ca(2+) transients were bigger and decayed more slowly. 3. Dynamic Ca(2+) cycling was investigated by determining the recirculation fraction (RF) of activator Ca(2+) through the SR between beats during recovery from experimental protocols that potentiated twitch force. No difference in RF between rat strains was found, although the RF was dependent on the potentiation protocol used. 4. Superfusion with 10 mmol/L caffeine and 0 mmol/L [Ca(2+)](o) was used to measure SL Ca(2+) extrusion. The caffeine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient decayed more slowly in SHR trabeculae, suggesting that SL Ca(2+) extrusion was slower in SHR. 5. An ultrastructural immunohistochemical analysis of left ventricular free wall sections using confocal microscopy showed that t-tubule organization was disrupted in myocytes from SHR, with reduced labelling of the SR Ca(2+) -ATPase and Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger in comparison to WKY, with the latter possibly related to a lower fraction of t-tubules per unit cell volume. 6. We suggest that although Ca(2+) transport is altered in the progression to heart failure, force development is not

  7. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  8. Primary immunodeficiencies of food animals.

    PubMed

    McVey, D S; Tizard, I

    1993-03-01

    Although there are few, well-characterized PIDs of food animals, these diseases are important because they tend to be severe and with no cure. Most animals with PID do not receive the intensive and aggressive care required for survival: Veterinarians may be consulted only when the animals are in the terminal stages of illness; it is generally not economically practical for livestock producers or practitioners to pay for the exhaustive laboratory tests required to detect and characterize these anomalies. Another reason for the small numbers of characterized clinical cases of PID is that they are rare. It is possible, however, that intensive artificial insemination and embryo transfer could select for heterozygous carriers of these autosomal traits. As seen with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, as the frequency of an allele increases in the population, the numbers of affected animals increase. Furthermore, other immunodeficient syndromes are likely to exist. Veterinarians therefore should be aware of these disorders and should seek laboratory assistance to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Because of the inheritable nature of PID, livestock producers need assistance from veterinarians to identify carriers and establish sound breeding and control programs. One positive outcome from studies of PID is that research scientists and veterinarians learn much about immune systems from these afflicted animals. In fact, these animals may become models for gene therapy or marrow reconstruction procedures. PMID:8457931

  9. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  10. The animal health foresight project.

    PubMed

    Willis, Norman G

    2007-01-01

    The Animal Health Foresight Project was co-sponsored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This study is the most recent of a series of four international workshops of the International Working Group on Animal Disposal Alternatives (IWADA), created to determine alternative options for effective disease control without mass animal destruction. The study employed foresight technology to stimulate new thinking using the future perspective tools of challenge questions and scenario development. A total of 43 Canadian and American participants from industry, academia, the public and government made their contributions over the duration of four meetings. The group developed and analysed eight pictures of possible futures. Ten conclusions were formulated. Fundamental to these conclusions was the recognition of a need for a conceptual change to the management of animal health, a new paradigm. This paradigm was a policy change to the management of risks rather than disease elimination, a change in the roles for the establishment of policy and a convergence of animal health and public health. The new paradigm was incorporated into a hierarchy of decision-making options, out of which five principles for alternatives to mass animal destruction were identified.

  11. Animal models in myopia research.

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita

    2015-11-01

    Our current understanding of the development of refractive errors, in particular myopia, would be substantially limited had Wiesel and Raviola not discovered by accident that monkeys develop axial myopia as a result of deprivation of form vision. Similarly, if Josh Wallman and colleagues had not found that simple plastic goggles attached to the chicken eye generate large amounts of myopia, the chicken model would perhaps not have become such an important animal model. Contrary to previous assumptions about the mechanisms of myopia, these animal models suggested that eye growth is visually controlled locally by the retina, that an afferent connection to the brain is not essential and that emmetropisation uses more sophisticated cues than just the magnitude of retinal blur. While animal models have shown that the retina can determine the sign of defocus, the underlying mechanism is still not entirely clear. Animal models have also provided knowledge about the biochemical nature of the signal cascade converting the output of retinal image processing to changes in choroidal thickness and scleral growth; however, a critical question was, and still is, can the results from animal models be applied to myopia in children? While the basic findings from chickens appear applicable to monkeys, some fundamental questions remain. If eye growth is guided by visual feedback, why is myopic development not self-limiting? Why does undercorrection not arrest myopic progression even though positive lenses induce myopic defocus, which leads to the development of hyperopia in emmetropic animals? Why do some spectacle or contact lens designs reduce myopic progression and others not? It appears that some major differences exist between animals reared with imposed defocus and children treated with various optical corrections, although without the basic knowledge obtained from animal models, we would be lost in an abundance of untestable hypotheses concerning human myopia. PMID:26769177

  12. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  13. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  14. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  15. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  16. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  17. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  18. The xylan utilization system of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris controls epiphytic life and reveals common features with oligotrophic bacteria and animal gut symbionts.

    PubMed

    Déjean, Guillaume; Blanvillain-Baufumé, Servane; Boulanger, Alice; Darrasse, Armelle; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Girard, Anne-Laure; Carrére, Sébastien; Jamet, Stevie; Zischek, Claudine; Lautier, Martine; Solé, Magali; Büttner, Daniela; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Arlat, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Xylan is a major structural component of plant cell wall and the second most abundant plant polysaccharide in nature. Here, by combining genomic and functional analyses, we provide a comprehensive picture of xylan utilization by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) and highlight its role in the adaptation of this epiphytic phytopathogen to the phyllosphere. The xylanolytic activity of Xcc depends on xylan-deconstruction enzymes but also on transporters, including two TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs) which belong to operons necessary for efficient growth in the presence of xylo-oligosaccharides and for optimal survival on plant leaves. Genes of this xylan utilization system are specifically induced by xylo-oligosaccharides and repressed by a LacI-family regulator named XylR. Part of the xylanolytic machinery of Xcc, including TBDT genes, displays a high degree of conservation with the xylose-regulon of the oligotrophic aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Moreover, it shares common features, including the presence of TBDTs, with the xylan utilization systems of Bacteroides ovatus and Prevotella bryantii, two gut symbionts. These similarities and our results support an important role for TBDTs and xylan utilization systems for bacterial adaptation in the phyllosphere, oligotrophic environments and animal guts.

  19. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  20. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  1. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Animals of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on how desert animals have adapted to dryness and heat, how and when animals move on the desert, and nocturnal/diurnal animals. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy pages are included for a…

  3. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  4. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  5. Student Attitudes Towards Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The attitudes of 127 college students toward 30 different animals was assessed via a like/dislike questionnaire. Results indicated that female students disliked more animals than did males, and that non-Biology majors disliked more animals than did Biology majors. (SL)

  6. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  7. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  8. [About animal allergy].

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari

    2016-01-01

    Although the opinions about animals and animal allergies may be extreme, animals can even be indispensable for the well-being of humans. The immune tolerance of many modern city dwellers is insufficiently developed, predisposing the skin and mucous membranes to allergic inflammation. There is no need in infancy to avoid animals, and animal contacts in early childhood rather protect from the development of allergies. Pet allergens are present in small amounts everywhere, not only in places where they live. General instructions on avoidance do not exist. New forms of desensitization therapy may in the future bring relief for those having strong symptoms. PMID:27522834

  9. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... prevent, conduct surveillance on, monitor, control, or eradicate animal diseases of national importance... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  10. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  11. Venomous animals: clinical toxinology.

    PubMed

    White, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Venomous animals occur in numerous phyla and present a great diversity of taxa, toxins, targets, clinical effects and outcomes. Venomous snakes are the most medically significant group globally and may injure >1.25 million humans annually, with up to 100 000 deaths and many more cases with long-term disability. Scorpion sting is the next most important cause of envenoming, but significant morbidity and even deaths occur following envenoming with a wide range of other venomous animals, including spiders, ticks, jellyfish, marine snails, octopuses and fish. Clinical effects vary with species and venom type, including local effects (pain, swelling, sweating, blistering, bleeding, necrosis), general effects (headache, vomiting, abdominal pain, hypertension, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias and arrest, convulsions, collapse, shock) and specific systemic effects (paralytic neurotoxicity, neuroexcitatory neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, interference with coagulation, haemorrhagic activity, renal toxicity, cardiac toxicity). First aid varies with organism and envenoming type, but few effective first aid methods are recommended, while many inappropriate or frankly dangerous methods are in widespread use. For snakebite, immobilisation of the bitten limb, then the whole patient is the universal method, although pressure immobilisation bandaging is recommended for bites by non-necrotic or haemorrhagic species. Hot water immersion is the most universal method for painful marine stings. Medical treatment includes both general and specific measures, with antivenom being the principal tool in the latter category. However, antivenom is available only for a limited range of species, not for all dangerous species, is in short supply in some areas of highest need, and in many cases, is supported by historical precedent rather than modern controlled trials.

  12. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals.

  13. Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is used frequently to treat musculoskeletal complaints. Little is known about the intervention's biomechanical characteristics that determine its clinical benefit. Using an animal preparation, we determined how neural activity from lumbar muscle spindles during a lumbar HVLA-SM is affected by the type of thrust control and by the thrust's amplitude, duration, and rate. A mechanical device was used to apply a linear increase in thrust displacement or force and to control thrust duration. Under displacement control, neural responses during the HVLA-SM increased in a fashion graded with thrust amplitude. Under force control neural responses were similar regardless of the thrust amplitude. Decreasing thrust durations at all thrust amplitudes except the smallest thrust displacement had an overall significant effect on increasing muscle spindle activity during the HVLA-SMs. Under force control, spindle responses specifically and significantly increased between thrust durations of 75 and 150 ms suggesting the presence of a threshold value. Thrust velocities greater than 20–30 mm/s and thrust rates greater than 300 N/s tended to maximize the spindle responses. This study provides a basis for considering biomechanical characteristics of an HVLA-SM that should be measured and reported in clinical efficacy studies to help define effective clinical dosages. PMID:23401713

  14. Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate.

    PubMed

    Reed, William R; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R; Kawchuk, Gregory N; Pickar, Joel G

    2013-01-01

    High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is used frequently to treat musculoskeletal complaints. Little is known about the intervention's biomechanical characteristics that determine its clinical benefit. Using an animal preparation, we determined how neural activity from lumbar muscle spindles during a lumbar HVLA-SM is affected by the type of thrust control and by the thrust's amplitude, duration, and rate. A mechanical device was used to apply a linear increase in thrust displacement or force and to control thrust duration. Under displacement control, neural responses during the HVLA-SM increased in a fashion graded with thrust amplitude. Under force control neural responses were similar regardless of the thrust amplitude. Decreasing thrust durations at all thrust amplitudes except the smallest thrust displacement had an overall significant effect on increasing muscle spindle activity during the HVLA-SMs. Under force control, spindle responses specifically and significantly increased between thrust durations of 75 and 150 ms suggesting the presence of a threshold value. Thrust velocities greater than 20-30 mm/s and thrust rates greater than 300 N/s tended to maximize the spindle responses. This study provides a basis for considering biomechanical characteristics of an HVLA-SM that should be measured and reported in clinical efficacy studies to help define effective clinical dosages.

  15. Epidemiological evaluations of the efficacy of slow-released praziquantel-medicated bars for dogs in the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis in man and animals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiao; Cheng, Fu; Qun, Qu; Nurbek; Xu, Shi-Dong; Sun, Li-Feng; Han, Xin-Kui; Muhan; Han, Ling-Ling; Irixiati; Jie, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Jiu; Islayin; Chai, Jun-jie

    2005-12-01

    To assess the epidemiological efficacy of type SRP III slow-released praziquantel-medicated bars for dogs in the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis in man and livestock, praziquantel-medicated bars were implanted subcutaneously in over 90% of dogs in villages in north Xinjiang, China, where cystic echinococcosis is highly endemic. After implantation, infection rate of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs, specific antibodies in children and prevalence of echinococcosis in one-year-old lambs were observed for 3 years. Coproantigen of E. granulosus was positive in 41.2% of the dogs at the start of experiment. In the second and third year after medicated-bar implantation, coproantigen was undetectable in any dogs examined, while 3.0% of dogs were positive at the end of the fourth year. The antibody positive rate in 7-year-old pupils, that was 41.2% before the experiment, declined gradually and it was 5.4% in the fourth year, while children in the non-intervention control area showed 30.6% seropositivity. The prevalence of hydatid disease in children aged 7-16 years also declined significantly. The prevalence of hydatidosis in lambs one year of age was 44.8% in the first year, dropping to 10.7% in the fourth year, while in the non-intervention control area the level of infection was 46.4%. These results demonstrated not only that the slow released praziquantel-medicated bars efficiently blocked reinfection in dogs at least for 2 years, but also the measure was effective in preventing transmission of cystic echinococcosis to both man and livestock.

  16. [The first Polish animal contagious disease act of 1844].

    PubMed

    Frymus, T; Tropiło, J

    1991-05-01

    The Veterinary Control Act of 1844 was the first to regulate in entirety the control of infectious diseases in animals and questions of sanitary inspection of animal food products in the Kingdom of Poland. The act listed explicit procedures regarding diagnostics, control and eradication of diseases as well as concerning animal food product inspection. The act required that animal owners become familiar with symptoms of animal diseases, their methods of control and that they prevent their spreading. The obligations of veterinarians, state physicians and administrative control bodies in the control of animal diseases were specified by the act. Besides the main text on the control of diseases and meat inspection the act also contains elements of food law, some norms concerning public law and order (e.g. requirements concerning dogs) and even some regulations on animal protection.

  17. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. PMID:26868238

  18. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  19. Children's Knowledge about Animates and Inanimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgin, Kim G.; Behrend, Douglas A.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 12 three, four, five, seven, and nine year olds and 12 adult control subjects were asked 20 questions about two exemplars of each of 16 categories of animate beings and inanimate objects. Children's responses indicated that animism is not a pervasive phenomenon and does not appear to be the most primitive mode of conceptualization.…

  20. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of hypnosis with 3-D virtual reality animation on tiredness, mood, and salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevor; Steffert, Tony; Steed, Anthony; Gruzelier, John

    2011-01-01

    Case studies suggest hypnosis with a virtual reality (VR) component may be an effective intervention; although few follow-up randomized, controlled trials have been performed comparing such interventions with standard hypnotic treatments. Thirty-five healthy participants were randomized to self-hypnosis with VR imagery, standard self-hypnosis, or relaxation interventions. Changes in sleep, cortisol levels, and mood were examined. Self-hypnosis involved 10- to 20-min. sessions visualizing a healthy immune scenario. Trait absorption was also recorded as a possible moderator. Moderated regression indicated that both hypnosis interventions produced significantly lower tiredness ratings than relaxation when trait absorption was high. When trait absorption was low, VR resulted in significantly higher engagement ratings, although this did not translate to demonstrable improvement in outcome. Results suggest that VR imagery may increase engagement relative to traditional methods, but further investigation into its potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy is required. PMID:21104488

  1. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Heiene, Reidun; Kristiansen, Veronica; Teige, Jon; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure. PMID:17480218

  2. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  3. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  4. Zoo animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B

    1994-03-01

    The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource.

  5. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  6. Our love for animals.

    PubMed

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  7. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  8. Reproductive technology in animal production.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J N

    1990-09-01

    Research into physiology and embryology has provided a basis for the development of technologies that increase productivity of farm animals through enhanced control of reproductive function. Progestagens, alone or in combination with luteolysins, are used to control the time of oestrus in cattle, sheep and pigs, thus permitting better use of artificial insemination, providing synchronised recipients for embryos and facilitating management strategies. Treatment with progestagens and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or with gonadotrophin releasing hormone induces breeding activity in sheep and goats before the commencement of the breeding season and reduces the duration of postpartum anoestrus in cattle. In pigs, gonadotrophins are used to hasten puberty in gilts, control the time of oestrus in sows and gilts and reduce the interval between farrowing and oestrus. Implants of melatonin hasten the onset of the breeding season in sheep and goats. Success in increasing litter size in sheep and cattle with PMSG has been limited because of the large variation in response between animals. Likewise, immunisation against steroids has not given consistent results. Immunisation against inhibin appears to offer the possibility of increasing farm animal fecundity. Induction of twinning in cattle by embryo transfer is practicable, and recent developments suggest that in vitro fertilisation may provide a source of embryos for this purpose. Real-time ultrasonic scanning has proved to be a reliable method for diagnosing pregnancy in small ruminants and pigs. The identification of pregnancy-specific proteins in cattle and sheep may provide a cheap and practical serological test for pregnancy in these species. Partial segregation of spermatozoa into X- and Y-bearing components has been reported, but the method is not yet practicable for use in conventional artificial insemination of farm animals. The sex of bovine and ovine embryos can be determined reliably by DNA probes

  9. Disease and Injury from Companion Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Philip M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy related to common pet-associated diseases and injuries. Discusses transmission of pet-related health hazards and methods of treatment. Describes preventive measures aimed at safe animal care and control. (RJC)

  10. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  11. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    PubMed

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  12. Animal research facility for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated animal research facility is planned by NASA for Space Station Freedom which will permit long-term, man-tended experiments on the effects of space conditions on vertebrates. The key element in this facility is a standard type animal habitat which supports and maintains the animals under full bioisolation during transport and during the experiment. A holding unit accommodates the habitats with animals to be maintained at zero gravity; and a centrifuge, those to be maintained at artificial gravity for control purposes or for gravity threshold studies. A glovebox permits handling of the animals for experimental purposes and for transfer to a clean habitat. These facilities are described, and the aspects of environmental control, monitoring, and bioisolation are discussed.

  13. Using robots to understand animal cognition.

    PubMed

    Frohnwieser, Anna; Murray, John C; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, robotic animals and humans have been used to answer a variety of questions related to behavior. In the case of animal behavior, these efforts have largely been in the field of behavioral ecology. They have proved to be a useful tool for this enterprise as they allow the presentation of naturalistic social stimuli whilst providing the experimenter with full control of the stimulus. In interactive experiments, the behavior of robots can be controlled in a manner that is impossible with real animals, making them ideal instruments for the study of social stimuli in animals. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the field and considers the impact that the use of robots could have on fundamental questions related to comparative psychology: namely, perception, spatial cognition, social cognition, and early cognitive development. We make the case that the use of robots to investigate these key areas could have an important impact on the field of animal cognition.

  14. Ode to an Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  15. Lights, Camera, Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Joan M.

    1984-01-01

    A fifth-grade class was taught how animated films are made by actually making some. Each cartoon involved four parts: title, artwork, credits, and storyboard. In addition to learning about animation, they had the experience of thinking in logical sequence and of working cooperatively. (CS)

  16. Plant or Animal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  17. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  18. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  19. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  20. Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  1. Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveen, Lois

    2007-01-01

    It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet. This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating…

  2. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  3. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  4. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  5. Cognition and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-05-01

    Animals exhibit species-typical adaptations of behavior and may suffer stress in captivity if they are prevented from performing these patterns of behavior. This article considers whether these particular 'needs' rely on cognitive processes or are performed without complex cognition despite their appearance of behavioral complexity. Emotion and cognition in animals are also discussed, particularly whether animals can feel emotions and, if so, what ranges of emotions they might feel. Cognitive capacities that would contribute to suffering include empathy with the suffering of others, memories of negative events and suffering in anticipation of future events. Cognitive bias of individual animals toward positive or negative feelings is related to dominance of the left or right hemisphere, respectively. These biases might be reflected in the animal's preferred limb to pick up food. Hence, limb preference could be a useful measure of cognitive bias. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a cognitive condition that, it is suggested, might involve dominance of the right hemisphere. This debilitating condition is experience-dependent and not infrequently seen in animals in captivity. In conclusion, it is argued that there is an obvious need for more research on cognition as it relates to animal welfare and as a basis for changing legislature to protect animals from suffering. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271384

  6. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  7. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  8. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  9. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  10. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  11. Art, Animals and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Children enjoy learning experiences that revolve around animals. Describes a course in which middle-grade students took a field trip to the zoo and sketched various animals. When the students returned to class, they had to do a highly detailed painting based on their favorite sketch. (RM)

  12. Ways Animals Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  13. Conceiving Animal Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauner, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Ethics and Animals" (Miller & Williams, 1983). Maintains that this collection of essays is an excellent example of applied philosophy, showing a profile of philosophy as a force for enlightenment. Reviews the rights of animals and the bases of moral behavior toward them. (JDH)

  14. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  15. Workshop on Molecular Animation

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary February 25–26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for: producing high quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories. PMID:20947014

  16. Workshop on molecular animation.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  17. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  18. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of “animal enhancement”, at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  19. Animal mindreading: what's the problem?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    Research on mindreading in animals has the potential to address fundamental questions about the nature and origins of the human capacity to ascribe mental states, but it is a research programme that seems to be in trouble. Between 1978 and 2000 several groups used a range of methods, some with considerable promise, to ask whether animals can understand a variety of mental states. Since that time, many enthusiasts have become sceptics, empirical methods have become more limited, and it is no longer clear what research on animal mindreading is trying to find. In this article I suggest that the problems are theoretical and methodological: there is difficulty in conceptualising alternatives to 'full-blown' mindreading, and reluctance to use the kinds of empirical methods necessary to distinguish mindreading from other psychological mechanisms. I also suggest ways of tackling the theoretical and methodological problems that draw on recent studies of mindreading in humans, and the resources of experimental psychology more generally. In combination with the use of inanimate control stimuli, species that are unlikely to be capable of mindreading, and the 'goggles method', these approaches could restore both vigour and rigour to research on animal mindreading. PMID:25102928

  20. Research with animals: requirement, responsibility, welfare.

    PubMed

    Uvarov, O

    1985-01-01

    Recognition of unacceptable cruelty to animals in pasttimes such as bull-baiting, dates in Britain from the early 19th century. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded in 1824. Several bills to curb cruelty were discussed in Parliament, and the Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle Act was passed in 1822. Other Acts have followed over the years. Cruelty in the form of painful scientific experiments, including dissection of living, conscious animals, vivisection, was proscribed by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1876. That Act required anyone wishing to experiment with animals to obtain a licence from the Secretary of State. Conditions for issue of licences were strict and remain so to this day. The Act is still valid, and is enforced by the Home Office, with its medical and veterinary Inspectors. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1876 allows experiments on animals under strictly controlled conditions. Experiments must have the clear objective of improving the welfare of man and/or animals. Benefits from experiments carried out under the Act have been enormous, covering every aspect of diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis in human and veterinary medicine. Coincidentally, the welfare of laboratory animals has also been greatly improved. There has always been some opposition to the use of animals in biomedical research. The subject is emotive but, by and large, discussion has been rational and within the law. In recent years, however, the morality of using experimental animals has been examined more closely. The possibility of replacing them by alternative methods has been investigated. Where these alternatives are applicable, they are used and further research on them continues. The questioning of animal experiments has emphasized the need to look constantly at animal welfare to ensure humane treatment of all animals, especially those restricted in a laboratory or on a farm. Attention has been drawn in this work to our existing laws protecting animals

  1. [Exotic animals in the animal business and husbandry: poultry in view of welfare and health].

    PubMed

    Vinke, C M; Spruijt, B M

    1999-09-01

    The market for exotic animals is very diverse. Because it is often not known what happens to the animals during their capture, transport, and storage, in 1997 we carried out a study on the health and welfare of these animals. During the course of this study we controlled the transport of exotic animals and visited several dealers and owners. Many of the health problems of these animals can be related to the accumulation of stressors that the animals experience during the trade process. Examples of these stressors are physical injury, overcrowding, dehydration, and long journeys. Transport in itself is an important emotional stressor. Health problems caused by stress, which can lead to premature death, often become apparent only after the animal has been sold as pet.

  2. Windows on animal minds.

    PubMed

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  3. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  4. Magnetic resonance propulsion, control and tracking at 24 Hz of an untethered device in the carotid artery of a living animal: an important step in the development of medical micro- and nanorobots.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Our recent demonstration of a ferromagnetic bead being navigated automatically inside the carotid artery of a living animal at an average speed of 10 cm/s using a clinical MRI system may be considered as a significant step in the field of medical micro- and nanorobotics. This is particularly true when we consider that an appropriate tracking method was embedded in the closed-loop control process allowing the blood vessels to be considered as navigational routes, providing maximum access for conducting operations inside the human body. But more importantly, this demonstration not only validates preliminary theoretical models but provides us with initial insights about the strategies and approaches that are likely to be used to navigate under computer control, micro- and nanodevices including nanorobots from the largest to the smallest diameter blood vessels that could be used to reach targets inside the human body. Here, based on these initial experimental data obtained in vivo, such strategies and methods are briefly described with some initial design concepts of medical interventional micro- and nanorobots.

  5. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  6. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  7. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  8. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  9. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  10. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...

  11. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top How do you determine if a veterinary drug is safe to market? As mandated by the ... to the top How does CVM remove unsafe veterinary drugs from the market? See Withdrawal of New Animal ...

  12. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  13. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  14. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  15. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  16. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the physical and physiological characteristics of fruit flies. Explains their role and function in the study of heredity. Upholds their value as a manageable and safe laboratory animal. (ML)

  17. MMS Orbit Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)mission, a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising of fouridentically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth’sm...

  18. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  19. Occupation and malignant lymphoma: a population based case control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Mester, B; Nieters, A; Deeg, E; Elsner, G; Becker, N; Seidler, A

    2006-01-01

    Aims To identify occupations suspected to be associated with malignant lymphoma and to generate new hypotheses about occupational risks in a multicentre, population based case control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710) aged 18–80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a sex, region, and age matched control was drawn from the population registers. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for major occupations and industries were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack‐years) and alcohol consumption. Patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results The following economic/industrial sectors were positively associated with lymphoma: food products, beverages, tobacco; paper products, publishing and printing; and metals. Chemicals; real estate, renting, and business activities were negatively associated with lymphoma diagnosis. The authors observed an increased overall lymphoma risk among architects; maids; farmers; glass formers; and construction workers. Shoemaking and leather goods making was negatively associated with the lymphoma diagnosis (although based on small numbers). In the occupational group analysis of lymphoma subentities, Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly associated only with rubber and plastic products making; diffuse large B cell lymphoma risk was considerably increased among metal processors; follicular lymphoma showed highly significant risk increases for several occupational groups (medical, dental, and veterinary workers; sales workers; machinery fitters; and electrical fitters); and multiple myeloma showed a particularly pronounced risk increase for farmers as well as for agriculture and animal husbandry workers. Conclusions The results partly confirm previously

  20. Animal and human influenzas.

    PubMed

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.