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Sample records for age-matched control participants

  1. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  2. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  3. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  4. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  5. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  6. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  7. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  8. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  9. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  10. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  11. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  12. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  13. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  14. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  15. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  16. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  17. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  18. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  19. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  20. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  2. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  3. Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M A; Rappaport, J

    1988-10-01

    The research integrates the citizen participation literature with research on perceived control in an effort to further our understanding of psychological empowerment. Eleven indices of empowerment representing personality, cognitive, and motivational measures were identified to represent the construct. Three studies examined the relationship between empowerment and participation. The first study examined differences among groups identified by a laboratory manipulation as willing to participate in personally relevant or community relevant situations. Study II examined differences for groups defined by actual involvement in community activities and organizations. Study III replicated Study II with a different population. In each study, individuals reporting a greater amount of participation scored higher on indices of empowerment. Psychological empowerment could be described as the connection between a sense of personal competence, a desire for, and a willingness to take action in the public domain. Discriminant function analyses resulted in one significant dimension, identified as pyschological empowerment, that was positively correlated with leadership and negatively correlated with alienation.

  4. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Conditions of Participation: Patient Care § 418.60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and...

  5. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  6. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  7. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 418...: Patient Care § 418.60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and...

  8. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of Participation: Patient Care § 418.60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and hospice personnel by...

  9. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  10. [Community participation and social control in the health system].

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Decsi Astrid

    2004-01-01

    In Colombia, the 1991 Constitution established the obligation of promoting social participation. However, the discussion regarding the significance and scope of social participation is far from being over with the promulgation of the Constitution since social participation has a high political component, i.e., social participation requires the transfer of a part of power to sectors previously excluded from decision taking. As long as the State has conceived the market strategy as the best way to allocate resources and the receptors of social policy are considered as consumers, the challenge is to establish a balance between supply and demand in order to guarantee efficiency and efficacy in the application of resources and transparency in the public administration. Thus, the community of users has the mission of monitoring the correct allocation of State resources. Upon evaluating some of the results of the application of this strategy of social participation in health, three features can be highlighted: there are important advances in the promotion of social participation but not in social control; social control is dispersed and atomized, and participation as institutional policy is weak. Regarding the first aspect, it can be concluded that there has been a favorable response of the municipalities to the obligation of promoting the organizational forms of the community as far as health is concerned. When the actions carried out for social control are taken into account, the outlook varies. The convoking capacity of the institutions of the system to community organizations is considerably low, as well as the discussion of the reports presented by such organizations. On the other hand, the lack of communication between the different instances involved in both promotion of participation and social control became evident, situation which reflects the presence of relationships of bilateral nature, i.e., only the most direct interlocutor is known.

  11. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a...) Standard: Responsibilities of chief executive officer, medical staff, and director of nursing services. The chief executive officer, the medical staff, and the director of nursing services must— (1) Ensure...

  12. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  13. Participation Bias among Suicidal Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Fox, Allison J.; Chohan, Mariam Zahid; Beck, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Although individuals who attempt suicide have poor compliance rates with treatment recommendations, the nature and degree of participation bias in clinical treatment research among these individuals is virtually unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine participation bias by comparing the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of adult…

  14. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  15. Workers' Participation and the Distribution of Control as Perceived by Members of Ten German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolke, Klaus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 601 managers and workers in 10 German manufacturing companies studied the implications of workers' participation for the exercise of control. Statistical analysis of data on control over work environments, production organization, personnel, and finance indicated that, in more participative companies, distribution of control is more…

  16. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and controlling infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Prevention. The hospice must follow accepted standards of practice to prevent the transmission of infections and communicable diseases... result in improvement and disease prevention. (c) Standard: Education. The hospice must provide...

  17. Is participation contagious? Evidence from a household vector control campaign in urban Peru

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Barbu, Corentin; Skovira, Christine; Calderón, Javier Quintanilla; Riveros, Lina Margot Mollesaca; Cornejo, Juan Oswaldo; Small, Dylan S.; Bicchieri, Christina; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High rates of household participation are critical to the success of door-to-door vector control campaigns. We used the Health Belief Model to assess determinants of participation, including neighbor participation as a cue to action, in a Chagas disease vector control campaign in Peru. Methods We evaluated clustering of participation among neighbors; estimated participation as a function of household infestation status, neighborhood type, and number of participating neighbors; and described reported reasons for refusal to participate in a district of 2911 households. Results We observed significant clustering of participation along city blocks (p< .0001). Participation was significantly higher for households in new vs. established neighborhoods, for infested households, and for households with more participating neighbors. The effect of neighbor participation was greater in new neighborhoods. Conclusions Results support a “contagion” model of participation, highlighting the possibility that one or two participating households can tip a block towards full participation. Future campaigns can leverage these findings by making participation more visible, by addressing stigma associated with spraying, and by employing group incentives to spray. PMID:24062411

  18. Annualized functional change in Alzheimer's disease participants and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myron; Fields, Julie; Hynan, Linda; Cullum, C M

    2008-09-01

    The rate of functional change in persons with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) was compared to that of cognitively normal elderly control subjects. A comparison of annualized rates of change on the Test of Everyday Functional Abilities (TEFA) was carried out, along with a brief measure of instrumental activities of daily living skills, in persons with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Exam score >20) and cognitively normal elderly controls. Persons with AD (N = 30) showed an 8.5 % (3.5 point) annualized decline in TEFA scores over an average of 1.2 years; there was no decline in a group of elderly normal controls (N = 20) over an average of 1.5 years. Persons with mild AD showed functional changes over the course of a year on a direct measure of instrumental activities of daily living; a comparable group of normally aging persons did not.

  19. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... investigation of infectious and communicable diseases that— (1) Is an integral part of the hospice's quality... infectious and communicable disease problems; and (ii) A plan for implementing the appropriate actions that... personnel by preventing and controlling infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Prevention....

  20. Community Participation or Control? From New York to Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of community control of public education, examining: sub-regional communities (New York City's community school boards and Detroit's regional decentralization); school-based decentralization (preserving professional privilege in Salt Lake City and local school councils in Chicago); balancing bottom-up and top-down; whether…

  1. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sanitary environment to avoid sources and transmission of infections and communicable diseases. There must be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Organization and policies. A person or persons must be designated as...

  2. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  3. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  4. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  5. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  6. Research on Control and Participation in Community Colleges, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Arnold S.; And Others

    Four papers are presented in this research report. Cooke and Tannenbaum present the theoretical background, methodology, and results of a study exploring the relation of formal and informal participation to the distribution of control in community colleges. Data, collected from students, faculty, and administrators of five "formally participative"…

  7. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for a covered hospital stay under either a State reimbursement control system approved under 1886(c)...

  8. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for a covered hospital stay under either a State reimbursement control system approved under 1886(c)...

  9. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.

  10. Patient-derived determinants for participation in placebo-controlled clinical trials for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Holman, Andrew J; Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Dryland, David D; Neiman, Richard A; Brown, Paul B; Ettlinger, Robert E

    2010-12-01

    Perspectives of patients with fibromyalgia influence their likelihood of participating in randomized placebo-controlled trials and potentially clash with current, well-established methodology of randomized controlled trial design. Mandates to use only acetaminophen for breakthrough pain and that require discontinuation of concomitant medications, especially in studies lacking an active comparator arm, could bias a trial cohort to thereby reduce the generalizability of study findings and conclusions. This study evaluates factors affecting willingness to participate in such clinical trials, including the impact of altruism, payment, study duration, forced discontinuation of specific medications, and subject demographics for patients seen by rheumatologists proficient and avidly interested in treating fibromyalgia.

  11. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  12. Knee moments of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and control participants during normal and inclined walking

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Raghav K; Duffell, Lynsey D; Nathwani, Dinesh; McGregor, Alison H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prior injury to the knee, particularly anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, is known to predispose one to premature osteoarthritis (OA). The study sought to explore if there was a biomechanical rationale for this process by investigating changes in external knee moments between people with a history of ACL injury and uninjured participants during walking: (1) on different surface inclines and (2) at different speeds. In addition we assessed functional differences between the groups. Participants 12 participants who had undergone ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma or injury were recruited into this study. Peak knee flexion and adduction moments were assessed during flat (normal and slow speed), uphill and downhill walking using an inclined walkway with an embedded Kistler Force plate, and a ten-camera Vicon motion capture system. Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to assess function. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in gait and KOOS outcomes. Results No significant difference was observed in the peak knee adduction moment between ACLR and control participants, however, in further analysis, MANOVA revealed that ACLR participants with an additional meniscal tear or collateral ligament damage (7 participants) had a significantly higher adduction moment (0.33±0.12 Nm/kg m) when compared with those with isolated ACLR (5 participants, 0.1±0.057 Nm/kg m) during gait at their normal speed (p<0.05). A similar (non-significant) trend was seen during slow, uphill and downhill gait. Conclusions Participants with an isolated ACLR had a reduced adductor moment rather an increased moment, thus questioning prior theories on OA development. In contrast, those participants who had sustained associated trauma to other key knee structures were observed to have an increased adduction moment. Additional injury concurrent with an ACL rupture may

  13. Sham Surgery Controls in Parkinson Disease Clinical Trials: Views of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y. H.; De Vries, Raymond; Holloway, Robert G.; Wilson, Renee; Parnami, Sonali; Kim, H. Myra; Frank, Samuel; Kieburtz, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Background Sham surgery controls are increasingly used in neurosurgical clinical trials in Parkinson disease (PD), but remain controversial. We interviewed participants of such trials, specifically examining their understanding and attitudes regarding sham surgery. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with participants of three sham surgery controlled trials for PD, focusing on their understanding of sham design, their reactions to it, its impact on decision-making, and their understanding of post-trial availability of the experimental intervention and its impact on decisions to participate. Results All subjects (N=90) understood the two-arm design; most (86%) described the procedural differences between the arms accurately. 92% referred to scientific or regulatory reasons as rationales for the sham control, with 62% specifically referring to the placebo effect. 91% said post-trial availability of the experimental intervention had a strong (48%) or some (43%) influence on their decision to participate but only 68% understood the conditions for post-trial availability. Conclusions Most subjects in sham surgery controlled PD trials comprehend the sham surgery design and its rationale. Although there is room for improvement, most subjects of sham surgery trials appear to be adequately informed. PMID:22927064

  14. People Participation Towards Opisthorchis viverrini Prevention and Control in Chaiyaphum Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phongsiripapat, Rutjirapat; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Rujirakul, Ratana; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Keawpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive and qualitative study was aimed to study the people participation and their approaches toward the human carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, prevention and control in Ban Chaun sub-district administrative organization (BCSAO) and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (BNSM), Bamnet Narong district, Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand between June 2013 and February 2014. Participants were purposive selected, included chiefs of sub-district administrative organizations, sub-district municipalities, sub-district health promotion hospitals (SHPHs), heads of village, and a further sample was selected with a multi- stage random sampling for public health volunteers, and villagers. The pre-designed questionnaire contained items for individualized status and the participatory steps of sharing ideas, decision-making, and planning, procession, evaluation, and mutual benefit, for the project O. viverrini prevention and control (POPC). In-depth interviews were used for collection of need approaches to POPC. With 375 participants who completed the questionnaire, it was found that people had a high level regarding to participate in the POPC, particularly in the process stage (X_ =3.78, S.D. = 0.56), but the lowest level was found in sharing ideas, decision making, and planning step (X_ =3.65, S.D. = 0.63). By comparison, participant status and organization did not significantly differ with people participation. In each step, Ban Chaun sub-district had a high level of participation in the step of sharing ideas, decision making, and planning toward POPC, more than Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (t=2.20, p=0.028). Approaches for POPC in Ban Chaun sub-district and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality included requirements for budget support, annual campaigns for liver fluke prevention and control, campaign promotion, risk group observation, home visiting, community rules regarding reducing raw fish consumption in their

  15. Community Participation, Dengue Fever Prevention and Control Practices in Swat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zahir, Abdul; Ullah, Asad; Shah, Mussawar; Mussawar, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the role of community participation in prevention of dengue fever in The Swat district located in the Northern area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which experienced a dengue fever outbreak in August, 2013. A total number of 8,963 dengue cases with 0.4% case fatality ratio were registered during the outbreak. Methods: A sample size of 354 respondents were proportionally allocated to each residential colony and then randomly selected. The association of independent variable (Community participation) and dependent variable (practices for control) were tested by using Chi Square test. Results: Results regarding perception of practices for dengue control with community participation showed that: practices for control had significant association with organization of people to eradicate dengue mosquitoes (p=0.00), community leaders (p=0.04), community efforts (p≤0.01), use of insecticides by community people (p=0.00) and involvement of community people in awareness campaign (p=0.00). Similarly, significant associations were found between practices for control and community shared information during dengue outbreak (p=0.00), community link with health department, NGO, Other agencies (p=0.02). Conclusion and Global Health Implications: We conclude that the spread of dengue epidemic was aided by the ignorance, laziness of the community people and government agencies. However, the people, religious scholars, leaders and government agencies were not organized to participate in dengue prevention and eradication, hence, the chances of dengue infection increased in community. The study recommends mobilizing local communities and activating local leadership with active participation of Government and non-government organizations for initiation of preventive strategies. PMID:28058191

  16. Community participation in the prevention and control of dengue: the patio limpio strategy in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Méndez-Galván, Jorge; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    Community participation is vital to prevent and control the spread of dengue in Latin America. Initiatives such as the integrated management strategy for dengue prevention and control (IMS-Dengue) and integrated vector management (IVM) incorporate social mobilisation and behavioural change at the community level as part of a wider strategy to control dengue. These strategies aim to improve the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, environmental impact and sustainability of vector control strategies. Community empowerment is a key aspect of the strategy as it allows the local population to drive eradication of the disease in their environment. Through the patio limpio campaign, the concept of community participation has been employed in Mexico to raise awareness of the consequences of dengue. patio limpio consists of training local people to identify, eliminate, monitor and evaluate vector breeding sites systematically in households under their supervision. A community participation programme in Guerrero State found that approximately 54% were clean and free of breeding sites. Households that were not visited and assessed had a 2·4-times higher risk of developing dengue than those that were. However, after a year, only 30% of trained households had a clean backyard. This emphasises the need for a sustainable process to encourage individuals to maintain efforts in keeping their environment free of dengue.

  17. Childhood Self-Control Predicts Smoking Throughout Life: Evidence From 21,000 Cohort Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Low self-control has been linked with smoking, yet it remains unclear whether childhood self-control underlies the emergence of lifetime smoking patterns. We examined the contribution of childhood self-control to early smoking initiation and smoking across adulthood. Methods: 21,132 participants were drawn from 2 nationally representative cohort studies; the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS) and the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS). Child self-control was teacher-rated at age 10 in the BCS and at ages 7 and 11 in the NCDS. Participants reported their smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day at 5 time-points in the BCS (ages 26–42) and 6 time-points in the NCDS (ages 23–55). Both studies controlled for socioeconomic background, cognitive ability, psychological distress, gender, and parental smoking; the NCDS also controlled for an extended set of background characteristics. Results: Early self-control made a substantial graded contribution to (not) smoking throughout life. In adjusted regression models, a 1-SD increase in self-control predicted a 6.9 percentage point lower probability of smoking in the BCS, and this was replicated in the NCDS (5.2 point reduced risk). Adolescent smoking explained over half of the association between self-control and adult smoking. Childhood self-control was positively related to smoking cessation and negatively related to smoking initiation, relapse to smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked in adulthood. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence that low childhood self-control predicts an increased risk of smoking throughout adulthood and points to adolescent smoking as a key pathway through which this may occur. PMID:27607137

  18. Entomological impact and social participation in dengue control: a cluster randomized trial in Fortaleza, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Andrea; De Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; Rocha Peixoto, Ana Carolina; Vasconcelos Motta, Cyntia Monteiro; Soares Nobre, Joana Mary; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background This study intended to implement a novel intervention strategy, in Brazil, using an ecohealth approach and analyse its effectiveness and costs in reducing Aedes aegypti vector density as well as its acceptance, feasibility and sustainability. The intervention was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the municipality of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. Methodology A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed by comparing ten intervention clusters with ten control clusters where routine vector control activities were conducted. The intervention included: community workshops; community involvement in clean-up campaigns; covering the elevated containers and in-house rubbish disposal without larviciding; mobilization of schoolchildren and senior inhabitants; and distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials in the community. Results Differences in terms of social participation, commitment and leadership were present in the clusters. The results showed the effectiveness of the intervention package in comparison with the routine control programme. Differences regarding the costs of the intervention were reasonable and could be adopted by public health services. Conclusions Embedding social participation and environmental management for improved dengue vector control was feasible and significantly reduced vector densities. Such a participatory ecohealth approach offers a promising alternative to routine vector control measures. PMID:25604760

  19. [The control of solid waste with the participation of a low-income population].

    PubMed

    de Abreu, J L

    1990-10-01

    Two studies were undertaken with a view to improving the health conditions of a shanty town area in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to modify littering behavior and to implement litter-control procedures with the participation of the inhabitants. Results demonstrated the adequacy of the procedures adopted and suggest a possible contribution on the part of psychology to public health.

  20. The architecture and effect of participation: a systematic review of community participation for communicable disease control and elimination. Implications for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community engagement and participation has played a critical role in successful disease control and elimination campaigns in many countries. Despite this, its benefits for malaria control and elimination are yet to be fully realized. This may be due to a limited understanding of the influences on participation in developing countries as well as inadequate investment in infrastructure and resources to support sustainable community participation. This paper reports the findings of an atypical systematic review of 60 years of literature in order to arrive at a more comprehensive awareness of the constructs of participation for communicable disease control and elimination and provide guidance for the current malaria elimination campaign. Methods Evidence derived from quantitative research was considered both independently and collectively with qualitative research papers and case reports. All papers included in the review were systematically coded using a pre-determined qualitative coding matrix that identified influences on community participation at the individual, household, community and government/civil society levels. Colour coding was also carried out to reflect the key primary health care period in which community participation programmes originated. These processes allowed exhaustive content analysis and synthesis of data in an attempt to realize conceptual development beyond that able to be achieved by individual empirical studies or case reports. Results Of the 60 papers meeting the selection criteria, only four studies attempted to determine the effect of community participation on disease transmission. Due to inherent differences in their design, interventions and outcome measures, results could not be compared. However, these studies showed statistically significant reductions in disease incidence or prevalence using various forms of community participation. The use of locally selected volunteers provided with adequate training, supervision and

  1. User participation in the development of the human/computer interface for control centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, Richard; Quick-Campbell, Marlene; Creegan, James; Dutilly, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Technological advances coupled with the requirements to reduce operations staffing costs led to the demand for efficient, technologically-sophisticated mission operations control centers. The control center under development for the earth observing system (EOS) is considered. The users are involved in the development of a control center in order to ensure that it is cost-efficient and flexible. A number of measures were implemented in the EOS program in order to encourage user involvement in the area of human-computer interface development. The following user participation exercises carried out in relation to the system analysis and design are described: the shadow participation of the programmers during a day of operations; the flight operations personnel interviews; and the analysis of the flight operations team tasks. The user participation in the interface prototype development, the prototype evaluation, and the system implementation are reported on. The involvement of the users early in the development process enables the requirements to be better understood and the cost to be reduced.

  2. Blood Pressure Treatment Adherence and Control after Participation in the ReHOT

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Nathália Silva; Nogueira, Armando da Rocha; Pachu, Cacilda Oliveira; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of adherence to pharmacological treatment is one of the main causes of low control rates in hypertension. Objective To verify treatment adherence and associated factors, as well as blood pressure (BP) control in participants of the Resistant Hypertension Optimal Treatment (ReHOT) clinical trial. Method Cross-sectional study including all 109 patients who had completed the ReHOT for at least 6 months. We excluded those participants who failed to respond to the new recruitment after three phone contact attempts. We evaluated the BP control by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; controlled levels: 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP < 130 x 80 mmHg) and analyzed the patients' treatment adherence using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) questionnaire validated by Bloch, Melo, and Nogueira (2008). The statistical analysis was performed with the software IBM SPSS statistics 21.0. We tested the normality of the data distribution with kurtosis and skewness. The variables tested in the study are presented with descriptive statistics. Comparisons between treatment adherence and other variables were performed with Student's t test for independent variables and Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. To conduct analyses among patients considering adherence to treatment and BP control, we created four groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3. We considered a 5% significance level in all tests. Results During the ReHOT, 80% of the patients had good BP control and treatment adherence. Of 96 patients reevaluated in the present study, only 52.1% had controlled hypertension when assessed by ABPM, while 31.3% were considered adherent by the MMAS. Regarding other ABPM measures, we observed an absence of a nocturnal dip in 64.6% of the patients and a white-coat effect and false BP control in 23% and 12.5%, respectively. Patients' education level showed a trend towards being a determinant factor associated with lack of adherence (p = 0.05). Resistant hypertension and number

  3. Participant experiences of an internet-based intervention and randomised control trial: interview study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of interventions being delivered online, and an expanding body of research to assess the effectiveness of such interventions. Yet, little is known about the motivations for participating in online research. Furthermore, internet interventions and online research studies are characterised by poor adherence and high attrition rates. This study aimed to explore participant motivations for taking part in an online trial of an internet intervention and the reasons for continuing. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with twenty members of the intervention arm of an internet-based randomised control trial evaluating an online cognitive behavioural tool to improve mental wellbeing. The qualitative interviews were analysed using the Framework Approach to identify themes and subthemes, through familiarization with the data, identifying a thematic framework, charting, indexing, mapping and interpreting the data. Results A number of key themes emerged. Trusted brands were key to participants feeling secure in engaging with the trial due to the association with institutions such as the UK National Health Service and the lead University conducting the research. Participants had a number of motivations for signing up with the study; altruism, low mood and as a replacement for a physical health professional. Participants felt the need for the language used in the intervention to be tailored to them as individuals. The majority of those interviewed also described multiple benefits from the intervention, which could have been a reason for them to persist. Conclusion The nascent field of research on internet delivered healthcare needs to take account of participant views, as have been identified in this trial and future studies would benefit from applying its findings. PMID:24165325

  4. COMPETITIVE ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION, THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH, AND BONE DENSITY IN ELITE SENIOR ATHLETES AND CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L.; Salacinski, Amanda J.; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (72.6±6.4yrs, 168.7±8.6cm, 72.6±13.5kg, 57M:47F) and 79 healthy controls (75.4±5.6yrs, 170.8±25.5cm, 79.5± 11.7kg, 46M:33F) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with DXA. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in four steps (α=0.10) to examine the contribution of (1) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake (2) group (elite senior athlete, control), (3) knee extension peak torque and (4) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p=0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all of the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors. PMID:23442279

  5. 34 CFR 685.309 - Administrative and fiscal control and fund accounting requirements for schools participating in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program. 685.309 Section 685.309 Education... Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.309 Administrative and fiscal control and fund accounting requirements for schools participating in the Direct Loan Program. (a) General. A participating school shall—...

  6. Functional ability perceived by individuals following total knee arthroplasty compared to age-matched individuals without knee disability.

    PubMed

    Finch, E; Walsh, M; Thomas, S G; Woodhouse, L J

    1998-04-01

    A comparison of function of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with healthy control subjects (controls) meaningfully describes outcome in these patients. Perception of function measured by two questionnaires, the Lower Extremity Activity Profile (LEAP) and the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and walking and stair performance was compared between 29 patients, 1 year after TKA, and 40 controls. There was significantly greater perceived difficulty with function in patients with TKA than in controls. In TKA men, LEAP and WOMAC scores correlated respectively with self-paced walk speed (r = -.71 and -.55) and stair performance time (r = 0.70 and 0.68). In TKA women, LEAP difficulty score correlated with self-paced walk speed (r = -.41) and stair performance time (r = -0.71). By 1 year, TKA subjects regained 80% of the function of controls. Perception of function after TKA can be measured by either questionnaire in men; however, the LEAP is the preferable questionnaire with women.

  7. Experimental control of Triatoma infestans in poor rural villages of Bolivia through community participation

    PubMed Central

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Depickère, Stéphanie; Aliaga, Claudia; Chavez, Tamara; Zambrana, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Methods Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestans were identified, and an eco-health intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. Results The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Conclusions Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. PMID:25604766

  8. Injury risk in runners using standard or motion control shoes: a randomised controlled trial with participant and assessor blinding

    PubMed Central

    Malisoux, Laurent; Chambon, Nicolas; Delattre, Nicolas; Gueguen, Nils; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim This randomised controlled trial investigated if the usage of running shoes with a motion control system modifies injury risk in regular leisure-time runners compared to standard shoes, and if this influence depends on foot morphology. Methods Recreational runners (n=372) were given either the motion control or the standard version of a regular running shoe model and were followed up for 6 months regarding running activity and injury. Foot morphology was analysed using the Foot Posture Index method. Cox regression analyses were used to compare injury risk between the two groups, based on HRs and their 95% CIs, controlling for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of motion control system in runners with supinated, neutral and pronated feet. Results The overall injury risk was lower among the participants who had received motion control shoes (HR=0.55; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.85) compared to those receiving standard shoes. This positive effect was only observed in the stratum of runners with pronated feet (n=94; HR=0.34; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84); there was no difference in runners with neutral (n=218; HR=0.78; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.37) or supinated feet (n=60; HR=0.59; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.73). Runners with pronated feet using standard shoes had a higher injury risk compared to those with neutral feet (HR=1.80; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.22). Conclusions The overall injury risk was lower in participants who had received motion control shoes. Based on secondary analysis, those with pronated feet may benefit most from this shoe type. PMID:26746907

  9. Identification of the origin of odour episodes through social participation, chemical control and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, E.; Soriano, C.; Roca, F. X.; Perales, J. F.; Alarcón, M.; Guardino, X.

    Odour episodes and environmental air quality are topics of worldwide concern, mainly due to the fact that industrial facilities are often located very close to inhabited areas. Several atmospheric pollutants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are responsible for odour episodes of varying degrees of annoyance. A methodology based on the simultaneous application of social participation (by building databases of odour episodes and acquiring air samples), chemical control and the computation of back trajectories allows us to identify the origin of odour episodes. A validated analytical method, based on thermal desorption (TD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS), is used to identify and determine a wide range of VOCs that cause odour nuisance and affect air quality in outdoor air. Back-trajectory modelling is used to track the origin of the air mass responsible for the discomfort backwards in time, mainly to find possible VOC sources outside the urban area. The procedure combines, on one hand, an analytical approach based on the acquisition of samples, which requires the participation of the affected population (which means that social participation is used as a scientific tool), and on the other hand, a modelling approach. Three examples are described to illustrate the methodology.

  10. Competitive athletic participation, thigh muscle strength, and bone density in elite senior athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (age: 72.6 ± 6.4 years, height: 168.7 ± 8.6 cm, mass: 72.6 ± 13.5 kg, 57 male:47 female) and 79 healthy controls (age: 75.4 ± 5.6 years, height: 170.8 ± 25.5 cm, mass: 79.5 ± 11.7 kg, 46 male:33 female) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque were measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in 4 steps (α = 0.10) to examine the contribution of (a) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake; (b) group (elite senior athlete, control); (c) knee extension peak torque; and (d) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p = 0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors.

  11. Factors affecting management changes on farms participating in a Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2015-11-01

    Modern Johne's disease programs aim to control Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection through implementation of management practices that reduce the probability of MAP introduction and within-herd transmission on dairy farms. Success of these programs depends on whether weaknesses in management are corrected through implementation of management improvements. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to (1) assess whether scores in risk-assessment (RA) questions predicted suggestions for management changes for the upcoming year; and (2) determine factors as assessed in an RA that motivated producers to make management improvements and assess whether management improvements were influenced by previously received test results. The RA determining on-farm management related to MAP introduction and transmission were conducted annually by herd veterinarians on 370 dairy farms participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. A maximum of 3 management changes that the farmer and the veterinarian agreed upon were recorded in a management plan. The MAP infection status of the herds was assessed through culture of 6 environmental samples. Whereas a management change was proposed for only 4% of questions with scores 1 or 2 (low risk), a change was proposed for 19% of questions with scores >2 [high risk; odds ratio (OR)=11.4]. Improvement in RA question scores was more likely between the first and second annual RA than between the second and third RA (OR=1.6). Farms with >3 culture-positive environmental samples collected in the previous year were more likely to improve their management than environmental sample culture-negative farms (OR=1.3). In conclusion, proposed management changes were oriented toward previously identified weaknesses in management practices, suggesting that the RA was properly used to design targeted management suggestions. Furthermore, improvements in management were not randomly distributed among farms participating in the

  12. The Sexunzipped Trial: Young People’s Views of Participating in an Online Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Angela; Stevenson, Fiona; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young people in the United Kingdom is increasing. The Internet can be a suitable medium for delivery of sexual health information and sexual health promotion, given its high usage among young people, its potential for creating a sense of anonymity, and ease of access. Online randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly being used to evaluate online interventions, but while there are many advantages to online methodologies, they can be associated with a number of problems, including poor engagement with online interventions, poor trial retention, and concerns about the validity of data collected through self-report online. We conducted an online feasibility trial that tested the effects of the Sexunzipped website for sexual health compared to an information-only website. This study reports on a qualitative evaluation of the trial procedures, describing participants’ experiences and views of the Sexunzipped online trial including methods of recruitment, incentives, methods of contact, and sexual health outcome measurement. Objective Our goal was to determine participants’ views of the acceptability and validity of the online trial methodology used in the pilot RCT of the Sexunzipped intervention. Methods We used three qualitative data sources to assess the acceptability and validity of the online pilot RCT methodology: (1) individual interviews with 22 participants from the pilot RCT, (2) 133 emails received by the trial coordinator from trial participants, and (3) 217 free-text comments from the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative, thematic analysis of all three data sources was conducted to identify common themes related to the acceptability and feasibility of the online trial methodology. Results Interview participants found the trial design, including online recruitment via Facebook, online registration, email

  13. The Role of Autonomous and Controlled Motivation in Exercise Intentions of Participants in a Mass Cycling Event

    PubMed Central

    Willem, Annick; De Rycke, Jens; Theeboom, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study used self-determination theory to examine the role of participants' autonomous and controlled motivation to exercise and to participate in a challenging mass cycling event and investigated whether the event enhanced intended and actual exercise behavior among the participants. Method: Two hundred and twenty-eight subjects, having participated in the cycling event, completed a questionnaire shortly after the event and again 4 months later. The questionnaire measured self-reported cycling and exercise activity, training in preparation of the event, motivation to participate in the event, motivation to exercise, and future exercise intentions due to the event. Results: Results showed that most participants were very active in cycling and other sports. The expected positive effect of autonomous motivation on exercise intentions and behavior could not be confirmed in our study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the event had an enhancing effect on exercise intentions shortly after the event among participants that scored higher on controlled motivation to exercise (β = 0.15) and to participate (β = 0.15); also, participants were more satisfied with the event (β = 0.19) and had followed a preparation program before the event (β = 0.15). However, intentions and exercise behavior distinctively dropped 4 months after the event. Conclusions: Events aiming to enhance their participants' exercise behavior need to attract less active participants and need to make additional efforts to prevent relapse in intentions and exercise behavior. PMID:28360871

  14. The Role of Autonomous and Controlled Motivation in Exercise Intentions of Participants in a Mass Cycling Event.

    PubMed

    Willem, Annick; De Rycke, Jens; Theeboom, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study used self-determination theory to examine the role of participants' autonomous and controlled motivation to exercise and to participate in a challenging mass cycling event and investigated whether the event enhanced intended and actual exercise behavior among the participants. Method: Two hundred and twenty-eight subjects, having participated in the cycling event, completed a questionnaire shortly after the event and again 4 months later. The questionnaire measured self-reported cycling and exercise activity, training in preparation of the event, motivation to participate in the event, motivation to exercise, and future exercise intentions due to the event. Results: Results showed that most participants were very active in cycling and other sports. The expected positive effect of autonomous motivation on exercise intentions and behavior could not be confirmed in our study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the event had an enhancing effect on exercise intentions shortly after the event among participants that scored higher on controlled motivation to exercise (β = 0.15) and to participate (β = 0.15); also, participants were more satisfied with the event (β = 0.19) and had followed a preparation program before the event (β = 0.15). However, intentions and exercise behavior distinctively dropped 4 months after the event. Conclusions: Events aiming to enhance their participants' exercise behavior need to attract less active participants and need to make additional efforts to prevent relapse in intentions and exercise behavior.

  15. A randomised controlled trial of nurse-managed trial conclusion following early phase cancer trial participation.

    PubMed

    Cox, K; Wilson, E; Arthur, A; Elkan, R; Armstrong, S

    2005-07-11

    The effect of a nurse-managed intervention, for early phase cancer trial participants at trial conclusion, on psychosocial outcomes was evaluated at two cancer centres in the Midlands, England using a randomised controlled trial. It involved 117 patients who were participating in an early phase cancer clinical trial. It was a nurse-managed trial exit, which included a trial exit interview, trial feedback information leaflet and telephone follow-up compared with standard care at trial conclusion. Psychological distress at 1 week and 4-6 weeks post-trial conclusion, patient's knowledge and understanding and patient's satisfaction were assessed. The results showed there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding scores for anxiety and depression at time one and time two. There is some suggestion that the intervention reduced anxiety from trial conclusion to follow-up (P=0.27). Patients in both groups felt they had contributed to cancer research through trial participation. However, intervention patients were more likely to feel that they knew how the trial was going (P<0.001), knew how other people in the trial were doing (P=0.001), had all the feedback they needed about the trial they took part in (P<0.01) and knew how they would be followed up (P=0.02). Patient satisfaction with the intervention was high (median score=4.5 where 5 is greatest satisfaction). In conclusion, nurse-managed trial conclusion led to positive outcomes for patients who had recently completed a clinical trial.

  16. [Control locus, stress resistance and personal growth of the participants in experiment Mars-500].

    PubMed

    Solcova, I; Vinokhodova, A G

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with positive personal transformations in a simulated space mission. The investigation was focused on the aspects of control locus, stamina, proactive behavior to overcome challenges, and stress-related personal growth. Besides, ingenious psychophysiological techniques designed to select Russian cosmonauts were used for assessing stress-resistance and ability to control own emotions voluntarily. Experiment Mars-500 simulated the basic features of a mission to Mars. The crew consisted of 6 males 27 to 38 years of age who volunteered to spend 520 days in isolation and confinement in the IBMP experimental facility (Moscow). To detect personality changes, the volunteers were tested before the experiment and after its completion. According to the test results, the participants commonly demonstrated the ability to see the bright side of the Mars-500 adversities, which most often was caused by their social growth. Positive changes were particularly pronounced in the crewmembers who possessed a better ability to control own emotions. The simulated challenges were also beneficial for personal growth of the volunteers.

  17. The implementation of community participation in the control of malaria in rural Tanjung Pinang, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Pribadi, W; Muzaham, F; Santoso, T; Rasidi, R; Rukmono, B; Soeharto

    1986-09-01

    A study was undertaken to involve a hyperendemic community in Berakit village near Tanjung Pinang to participate actively in the control of malaria. Weekly chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine was given to all villagers of RK I with a population of about 700 for a period of one year. Nine cadres were selected from the community by the villagers for the distribution of the drug and coordinated by the head of the village. About 14-19 families were supervised by one cadre who was responsible for the weekly distribution of the drug to these families. The weekly dosage of the drug was adjusted according to age. The drug was taken in the presence of the cadres to assure the intake, and recorded by each cadre. The results showed that 93.7% of the villagers have taken the drug regularly. The remaining 6.3% of them showed refusal and irregular intake, or moved to another village during the period of prophylaxis. Although the drug has a bitter taste, most of the children were able to tolerate it. In general, mild side effects were reported and infrequently observed. Implementation of community participation to control malaria in this village showed good results which was reflected in the results of the malariometric surveys carried out before and after one year chemoprophylaxis. The spleen rate of about 600 villagers of RK I examined was 54.3% and the parasite rate 13.2% before the drug intervention. After one year chemoprophylaxis the spleen rate decreased to 21.7% and the parasite rate to 4.5% showing a significant difference.

  18. T regulatory cells participate in the control of germinal centre reactions

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Carla-Maria; Tygrett, Lorraine T; Boyden, Alexander W; Wolniak, Kristy L; Legge, Kevin L; Waldschmidt, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centre (GC) reactions are central features of T-cell-driven B-cell responses, and the site where antibody-producing cells and memory B cells are generated. Within GCs, a range of complex cellular and molecular events occur which are critical for the generation of high affinity antibodies. These processes require exquisite regulation not only to ensure the production of desired antibodies, but to minimize unwanted autoreactive or low affinity antibodies. To assess whether T regulatory (Treg) cells participate in the control of GC responses, immunized mice were treated with an anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) to disrupt Treg-cell activity. In anti-GITR-treated mice, the GC B-cell pool was significantly larger compared with control-treated animals, with switched GC B cells composing an abnormally high proportion of the response. Dysregulated GCs were also observed regardless of strain, T helper type 1 or 2 polarizing antigens, and were also seen after anti-CD25 mAb treatment. Within the spleens of immunized mice, CXCR5+ and CCR7− Treg cells were documented by flow cytometry and Foxp3+ cells were found within GCs using immunohistology. Final studies demonstrated administration of either anti-transforming growth factor-β or anti-interleukin-10 receptor blocking mAb to likewise result in dysregulated GCs, suggesting that generation of inducible Treg cells is important in controlling the GC response. Taken together, these findings indicate that Treg cells contribute to the overall size and quality of the humoral response by controlling homeostasis within GCs. PMID:21635248

  19. Brassinosteroids participate in the control of basal and acquired freezing tolerance of plants.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Marina; Unterholzner, Simon J; Rathnayake, Ajith I; Castellanos, Marcos; Khan, Mamoona; Kugler, Karl G; May, Sean T; Mayer, Klaus F X; Rozhon, Wilfried; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2016-10-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting plant hormones that play a role in abiotic stress responses, but molecular modes that enable this activity remain largely unknown. Here we show that BRs participate in the regulation of freezing tolerance. BR signaling-defective mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana were hypersensitive to freezing before and after cold acclimation. The constitutive activation of BR signaling, in contrast, enhanced freezing resistance. Evidence is provided that the BR-controlled basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor CESTA (CES) can contribute to the constitutive expression of the C-REPEAT/DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) transcriptional regulators that control cold responsive (COR) gene expression. In addition, CBF-independent classes of BR-regulated COR genes are identified that are regulated in a BR- and CES-dependent manner during cold acclimation. A model is presented in which BRs govern different cold-responsive transcriptional cascades through the posttranslational modification of CES and redundantly acting factors. This contributes to the basal resistance against freezing stress, but also to the further improvement of this resistance through cold acclimation.

  20. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  1. The effects of practice on the concurrent performance of a speech and postural task in persons with Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Foreman, K Bo; Sondrup, Stuart; Dromey, Christopher; Jarvis, Eon; Nissen, Shawn; Dibble, Leland E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) demonstrate deficits in motor learning as well as bidirectional interference (the performance of one task concurrently interferes with the performance of another task) during dual-task performance. Few studies have examined the practice dosages necessary for behavioral change in rehabilitation relevant tasks. Therefore, to compare the effects of age and PD on motor learning during dual-task performance, this pilot study examined persons with PD as well as neurologically healthy participants during concurrent performance of postural and speaking tasks. Methods. Seven persons with PD and 7 healthy age-matched and 10 healthy young control subjects were tested in a motion capture facility. Task performances were performed concurrently and recorded during 3 time periods (acquisition (beginning and ending), 48-hour retention, and 1-week retention). Postural control and speech articulatory acoustic variables were measured. Results. Healthy young participants consistently performed better than other groups on all measured postural and speech variables. Healthy young participants showed decreased variability at retention, while persons with PD and healthy age-matched controls were unable to consistently improve their performance as a result of practice. No changes were noted in the speech variables. Conclusion. The lack of consistent changes in motor performance in any of the tasks, except in the healthy young group, suggests a decreased efficiency of motor learning in the age-matched and PD groups and argues for increased practice dosages during balance training.

  2. The Effects of Practice on the Concurrent Performance of a Speech and Postural Task in Persons with Parkinson Disease and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, K. Bo; Sondrup, Stuart; Dromey, Christopher; Jarvis, Eon; Nissen, Shawn; Dibble, Leland E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) demonstrate deficits in motor learning as well as bidirectional interference (the performance of one task concurrently interferes with the performance of another task) during dual-task performance. Few studies have examined the practice dosages necessary for behavioral change in rehabilitation relevant tasks. Therefore, to compare the effects of age and PD on motor learning during dual-task performance, this pilot study examined persons with PD as well as neurologically healthy participants during concurrent performance of postural and speaking tasks. Methods. Seven persons with PD and 7 healthy age-matched and 10 healthy young control subjects were tested in a motion capture facility. Task performances were performed concurrently and recorded during 3 time periods (acquisition (beginning and ending), 48-hour retention, and 1-week retention). Postural control and speech articulatory acoustic variables were measured. Results. Healthy young participants consistently performed better than other groups on all measured postural and speech variables. Healthy young participants showed decreased variability at retention, while persons with PD and healthy age-matched controls were unable to consistently improve their performance as a result of practice. No changes were noted in the speech variables. Conclusion. The lack of consistent changes in motor performance in any of the tasks, except in the healthy young group, suggests a decreased efficiency of motor learning in the age-matched and PD groups and argues for increased practice dosages during balance training. PMID:23841022

  3. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2014-01-01

    The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1) testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2) applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  4. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  5. Mental health and social participation skills of wheelchair basketball players: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between competitive wheelchair basketball participants and those non-participants. Forty-six wheelchair participants, 24 Basketball players (aged 35.60 ± 7.56) and 22 non-players (aged 36.20 ± 6.23), completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale [PWBS] and Symptom Checklist 90 R [SCL-90-R]. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score, evaluated by PS, was significantly higher in the non-basketball participants (p=0.00001) than the basketball participants. The PWB Scale showed significant differences in all 6 dimensions: positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life and self-acceptance (p<0.01), and autonomy (p<0.05), with better scores in the basketball participants. The SCL-90-R scores were significantly lower for the basketball group in the following 6 symptomatic dimensions: depression, phobic anxiety, and sleep disorder (p<0.01), somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism (with p<0.05). It was concluded that competitive wheelchair basketball participants showed better psychological well-being and social skills than those non-participants.

  6. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were < or =1.3 percentage points. Differences in infant characteristics were greater at centers that selected controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  7. Factors associated with participation of Alberta dairy farmers in a voluntary, management-based Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Kwong, G P S; Wolf, R; Pickel, C; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Mason, S; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Jansen, J; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2015-11-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a voluntary, management-based prevention and control program for Johne's disease (JD), a wasting disease in ruminants that causes substantial economic losses to the cattle industry. Despite extensive communication about the program's benefits and low cost to participating producers, approximately 35% of Alberta dairy farmers have not enrolled in the AJDI. Therefore, the objective was to identify differences between AJDI nonparticipants and participants that may influence enrollment. Standardized questionnaires were conducted in person on 163 farms not participating and 61 farms participating in the AJDI. Data collected included demographic characteristics, internal factors (e.g., attitudes and beliefs of the farmer toward JD and the AJDI), external factors (e.g., farmers' JD knowledge and on-farm goals and constraints), as well as farmers' use and influence of various information sources. Nonparticipants and participants differed in at least some aspects of all studied categories. Based on logistic regression, participating farms had larger herds, higher self-assessed knowledge of JD, better understanding of AJDI details before participation, and used their veterinarian more often to get information about new management practices and technologies when compared with nonparticipants. In contrast, nonparticipants indicated that time was a major on-farm constraint and that participation in the AJDI would take too much time. They also indicated that they preferred to wait and see how the program worked on other farms before they participated.

  8. Using Balance Tests to Discriminate Between Participants With a Recent Index Lateral Ankle Sprain and Healthy Control Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Hiller, Claire; Raymond, Jacqueline; Black, Deborah; Nightingale, Elizabeth; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The first step to identifying factors that increase the risk of recurrent ankle sprains is to identify impairments after a first sprain and compare performance with individuals who have never sustained a sprain. Few researchers have restricted recruitment to a homogeneous group of patients with first sprains, thereby introducing the potential for confounding. Objective:  To identify impairments that differ in participants with a recent index lateral ankle sprain versus participants with no history of ankle sprain. Design:  Cross-sectional study. Patients or Other Participants:  We recruited a sample of convenience from May 2010 to April 2013 that included 70 volunteers (age = 27.4 ± 8.3 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.5 cm, mass = 65.0 ± 12.5 kg) serving as controls and 30 volunteers (age = 31.1 ± 13.3 years, height = 168.3 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 13.7 kg) with index ankle sprains. Main Outcome Measure(s):  We collected demographic and physical performance variables, including ankle-joint range of motion, balance (time to balance after perturbation, Star Excursion Balance Test, foot lifts during single-legged stance, demi-pointe balance test), proprioception, motor planning, inversion-eversion peak power, and timed stair tests. Discriminant analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between explanatory variables and sprain status. Sequential discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most relevant variables that explained the greatest variance. Results:  The average time since the sprain was 3.5 ± 1.5 months. The model, including all variables, correctly predicted a sprain status of 77% (n = 23) of the sprain group and 80% (n = 56) of the control group and explained 40% of the variance between groups ( = 42.16, P = .03). Backward stepwise discriminant analysis revealed associations between sprain status and only 2 tests: Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior direction and foot lifts during single-legged stance ( = 15

  9. Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women.

    PubMed

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-04-13

    A high percentage of men and women are purported to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) in countries that are steeped in patriarchy even in the presence of programs such as microfinance that aim to address gender equity. This article examines two assertions that emerge from the literature on microfinance and its potential for positive outcomes for women who participate in it: (a) Microfinance participation is associated with reduced justification of IPV, and (b) microfinance participants with control over their own resources are less likely to justify IPV when compared with microfinance participants who do not have control over their resources. Couples data from a nationally representative survey, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, were used in the present study. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were conducted to reveal that (a) microfinance participation was not associated with justification of IPV and that (b) women who participated in microfinance were less likely to justify IPV when they had no control over their resources. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed.

  10. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  11. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  12. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  13. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  14. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... during the active duty call-up period pursuant to §§ 124.305(h)(1)(ii) and 124.305(h)(4). ... participation. (c) In the case of a limited liability company, one or more disadvantaged individuals must serve... exercise independent business judgment without great economic risk. (h) Notwithstanding the provisions...

  15. Evaluation of the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum: Participant-Control Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruchow, Harvey William; Brown, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although males are often the initiators of teen sexual activity, pregnancy prevention programs generally target females. To address this deficiency, the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum was developed to be delivered to adolescent males in weekly classroom sessions. Methods: Seventh grade participants (n = 124) in the Wise Guys…

  16. Telecommunications and Black Americans: A Survey of Ownership, Participation and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molden, Vaughncille

    A broad, panoramic study was conducted on the activities and the extent of participation of Black people in various telecommunications fields in the United States. The ways in which media technology can be and has been used as a means for educating Black people were examined. Briefly, the ideological perspective of Black education was discussed…

  17. Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  18. 13 CFR 124.515 - Can a Participant change its ownership or control and continue to perform an 8(a) contract, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section. (1) An 8(a) contract, whether in the base or an option year, must be terminated for the... Participant such that the Participant would no longer be controlled or at least 51% owned by...

  19. 13 CFR 124.515 - Can a Participant change its ownership or control and continue to perform an 8(a) contract, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section. (1) An 8(a) contract, whether in the base or an option year, must be terminated for the... Participant such that the Participant would no longer be controlled or at least 51% owned by...

  20. Quantifying the impact of participation in local tobacco control groups on the psychological empowerment of involved youth.

    PubMed

    Holden, Debra J; Crankshaw, Erik; Nimsch, Christian; Hinnant, Laurie W; Hund, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    A core component of Legacy's Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use is the ability of state and local initiatives to empower youth to effect change in their communities. The authors' conceptual framework proposes that youth empowerment is an outcome of the process by which youths become active participants in local efforts. Youths are proposed to attain specific skills (e.g., assertiveness, advocacy), attitudes (e.g., domain-specific self-efficacy, perceived sociopolitical control, participatory competence), and knowledge of relevant resources. All are proposed outcomes of their individual participation in these local efforts. Data collected in fall 2002 through a tested survey instrument designed to obtain data on key components of empowerment are presented. Regression modeling was used to examine the extent to which characteristics of empowerment are an outcome of individual participation in these groups. A summary of lessons learned pertaining to effectively measuring empowerment and enhancing the empowerment process through local initiatives is provided.

  1. The Influence of Two Different Invitation Letters on Chlamydia Testing Participation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoebe, Christian JPA; van Bergen, Jan EAM; Brouwers, Elfi EHG; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, screening for chlamydia (the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide) is a relatively simple and free procedure. Via an invitation letter sent by the public health services (PHS), people are asked to visit a website to request a test kit. They can then do a chlamydia test at home, send it anonymously to a laboratory, and, within two weeks, they can review their test results online and be treated by their general practitioner or the PHS. Unfortunately, the participation rates are low and the process is believed to be not (cost-) effective. Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether the low participation rate of screening for chlamydia at home, via an invitation letter asking to visit a website and request a test kit, could be improved by optimizing the invitation letter through systematically applied behavior change theories and evidence. Methods The original letter and a revised letter were randomly sent out to 13,551 citizens, 16 to 29 years old, in a Dutch municipality. Using behavior change theories, the revised letter sought to increase motivation to conduct chlamydia screening tests. The revised letter was tailored to beliefs that were found in earlier studies: risk perception, advantages and disadvantages (attitude), moral norm, social influence, and response- and self-efficacy. Revisions to the new letter also sought to avoid possible unwanted resistance caused when people feel pressured, and included prompts to trigger the desired behavior. Results No significant differences in test package requests were found between the two letters. There were also no differences between the original and revised letters in the rates of returned tests (11.80%, 581/4922 vs 11.07%, 549/4961) or positive test results (4.8%, 23/484 vs 4.1%, 19/460). It is evident that the new letter did not improve participation compared to the original letter. Conclusions It is clear that the approach of inviting the target

  2. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss.

  3. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Gomez, F; Alvarado, B; Guerra, R O; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J; Zunzunegui, M V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in the elderly populations of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Approximately 200 men and 200 women aged 65-74 years were recruited at each site (n=1995) during IMIAS' 2012 baseline survey at five cities: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken at participants' homes. Hypertension prevalence ranged from 53.4% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 83.5% in Tirana. Diabetes and obesity were identified as risk factors in all cities. More than two-thirds of hypertensive participants were aware of their condition (from 67.3% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 85.4% in Tirana); women were more aware than men. Awareness was positively associated with diabetes in Kingston, Manizales and Natal. Though most of those aware of their hypertensive condition were being treated pharmacologically, associations between awareness and physical activity and refraining from smoking were weak. Control among treated hypertensive participants was low, especially in Tirana and Natal. Diabetes and physical inactivity were associated with poor hypertension control. Hypertension is common in the older populations of IMIAS. Diabetes is strongly associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness and lack of control of hypertension. The fact that awareness is not strongly associated with healthy behaviours suggests that antihypertensive medication is not accompanied by non-pharmacological therapies. Improved health behaviours could strengthen hypertension control. Efforts should be made to increase men's awareness of hypertension. Hypertension control in diabetic patients is a challenge.

  4. Students' Quality Control Circle: A Case Study on Students' Participation in the Quality Control Circle at the Faculty of Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariff, Siti Halijjah

    1999-01-01

    A pilot study evaluated participation of 18 undergraduate students for one year in two Students' Quality Control Circles (SQCC) at the Faculty of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi MARA (Malaysia). Feedback from the students indicated that the SQCC was a suitable learning process and that it could be adopted as a subject. (DB)

  5. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses.

    PubMed

    Hagger, M S; Hardcastle, S J; Chater, A; Mallett, C; Pal, S; Chatzisarantis, N L D

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  6. Physiological evidence that the vestibular system participates in autonomic and respiratory control.

    PubMed

    Yates, B J; Miller, A D

    1998-01-01

    Electrical or natural stimulation of the vestibular system results in changes in blood pressure and respiratory motor output. An increase in excitatory drive on the sympathetic nervous system occurs during nose-up vestibular stimulation in cats; this response is appropriate to offset orthostatic hypotension that could result from nose-up body rotations during movements such as vertical climbing. In addition, transection of the vestibular nerves in anesthetized or awake cats compromises the ability to correct decreases in blood pressure that result from nose-up body tilt. The vestibular system also has influences on respiratory muscles; these effects are appropriate to participate in making adjustments in the activity of respiratory muscles that are necessary to offset mechanical constraints on these muscles that occur during changes in body position. These data thus suggest that the influences of the vestibular system on the autonomic and respiratory systems serve to maintain homeostasis during movement.

  7. Design and Participant Characteristics of a Randomized-Controlled Trial of Telemedicine for Smoking Cessation among Rural Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mussulman, Laura; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Cupertino, Paula; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Spaulding, Ryan; Catley, Delwyn; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Lambart, Leah; Hunt, Jamie J.; Nazir, Niaman; Shireman, Theresa; Richter, Kimber P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In rural America cigarette smoking is prevalent, few cessation services are available, and healthcare providers lack the time and resources to help smokers quit. This paper describes the design and participant characteristics of Connect2Quit (C2Q), a randomized control trial (RCT) that tests the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated telemedicine counseling delivered by 2-way webcams mounted on desktop computers in participant's physician office examining rooms (ITM) versus quitline counseling delivered by telephone in participant's homes (Phone) for helping rural smokers quit. Methods/Design C2Q was implemented in twenty primary care and safety net clinics. Integrated Telemedicine consisted of real-time video counseling, delivered to patients in their primary care physician's (PCP) office. Phone counseling, was delivered to patients in their homes. All participants received educational materials and guidance in selecting cessation medications. Results The 566 participants were predominantly Caucasian (92%); 9% were Latino. Most (65%) earned < 200% of federal poverty level. One out of three lacked home internet access, 40% were not comfortable using computers, and only 4% had been seen by a doctor via telemedicine in the past. Hypertension, chronic lung disease, and diabetes were highly prevalent. Participants smoked nearly a pack a day and were highly motivated to quit. Discussion C2Q is reaching a rural low-income population, with comorbid chronic diseases, that would benefit greatly from quitting smoking. ITM is a good delivery model, which integrates care by holding counseling sessions in the patient's PCP office and keeps the primary care team updated on patients’ progress. PMID:24768940

  8. The Influence of Task Difficulty and Participant Age on Balance Control in ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sarah A.; Abbott, Angela E.; Nair, Aarti; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Goble, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in sensorimotor integration are reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Poor control of balance in challenging balance tasks is one suggested manifestation of these impairments, and is potentially related to ASD symptom severity. Reported balance and symptom severity relationships disregard age as a potential covariate, however,…

  9. A Descriptive Survey of Weight Control Participants at a U.S. Army Community Hospital.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Relationship to Weight Reduction .............. 9 Behavior Modification and its Relationship to Weight Reduction...efforts. Behavior Modification and its Relationship to Weight Reduction The original idea of behavior modification dates back to Pavlov and his work...called stimulus control), as well as the act of eating (called contingency management). The ultimate goal of behavior modification is to teach patients

  10. Physicians among many participants in midst of Canada's emotional gun-control debate.

    PubMed Central

    LeBourdais, E

    1995-01-01

    Because they are seen as advocates for public health and safety, physicians are also widely believed to be supporters of aggressive gun-control measures, but in reality there are strong feelings on both sides of the issue. "People assume that more gun control will mean less violence, but there are no hard data to support that," says Vancouver psychiatrist Joseph Noone, who argues that Canada already has highly restrictive firearms laws. Other physicians are puzzled by colleagues' opposition to the changes. "I don't understand why it's such a big deal," says Dr. Stephen Corber, medical officer of health for the Ottawa-Carleton region. He argues that registration would not be a deterrent to responsible gun use and ownership. Images p2025-a p2026-a PMID:7780910

  11. A Phg2-Adrm1 Pathway Participates in the Nutrient-controlled Developmental Response in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Cherix, Nathalie; Froquet, Romain; Charette, Steve J.; Blanc, Cédric; Letourneur, François

    2006-01-01

    Dictyostelium amoebae grow as single cells but upon starvation they initiate multicellular development. Phg2 was characterized previously as a kinase controlling cellular adhesion and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report that Phg2 also plays a role during the transition between growth and multicellular development, as evidenced by the fact that phg2 mutant cells can initiate development even in the presence of nutrients. Even at low cell density and in rich medium, phg2 mutant cells express discoidin, one of the earliest predevelopmental markers. Complementation studies indicate that, in addition to the kinase domain, the core region of Phg2 is involved in the initiation of development. In this region, a small domain contiguous with a previously described ras-binding domain was found to interact with the Dictyostelium ortholog of the mammalian adhesion-regulating molecule (ADRM1). In addition, adrm1 knockout cells also exhibit abnormal initiation of development. These results suggest that a Phg2-Adrm1 signaling pathway is involved in the control of the transition from growth to differentiation in Dictyostelium. Phg2 thus plays a dual role in the control of cellular adhesion and initiation of development. PMID:16987957

  12. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN DISEASED AND CONTROL PARTICIPANTS

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Tippin, Jon; Lee, John D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated real world driver errors and sleepiness in 66 drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and 34 matched controls (24 younger and 22 older). Driving errors and driver state were derived from analyses of video data from “black-box” event recorders. Sleep fragmentation data in OSA was derived from actigraphy for 15 days prior to beginning standard treatment (positive airway pressure, PAP) and 15 days after beginning PAP treatment. Prior to starting PAP, OSAs appeared sleepier than controls in general and particularly at intersections, while making safety errors following nights with high levels of fragmented sleep compared to matched controls. Adverse effects of sleep fragmentation during the pre-PAP phase were reduced post-PAP. Greater hours of PAP-use were associated with lower sleepiness and errors on the road. PAP-use was associated with a decrease in high sleep fragmented nights. Findings suggest reduction in acute sleepiness is unlikely to be the only mediating factor that explains the driving safety benefits of PAP in OSA. PMID:26618204

  13. The effectiveness of community day-long CBT-I workshops for participants with insomnia symptoms: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Swift, Naomi; Stewart, Robert; Andiappan, Manoharan; Smith, Anna; Espie, Colin A; Brown, June S L

    2012-06-01

    Insomnia is a very common and disabling symptom. Whilst evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for people diagnosed with insomnia (CBT-I) is strong, few people seek help and not many services offer CBT-I. Less intensive adaptations of CBT-I have been shown to be valuable, and given the size of the problem and low rates of help-seeking, an accessible intervention with a large capacity is needed. Day-long CBT-I psycho-educational workshops (each for up to 30 people), to which members of the public with insomnia symptoms could self-refer, have been developed. This randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of these workshops. Baseline measures were taken from 151 participants, who were then randomised to experimental or waiting-list control groups. Scores of the experimental group and the control group were compared 3 months after baseline. Random effects models found a significant interaction between time and group, indicating differences between the control and experimental groups on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Post hoc analyses indicated that ISI scores decreased significantly in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Promising results were also found on corroborative sleep diary measures. Access to the workshops was good, with 50% of participants having never previously sought help for sleep difficulties from their GP. CBT-I workshops proved to be both accessible and effective in reducing insomnia symptoms in the medium term. They may represent a feasible brief intervention with the potential to address unmet treatment needs of adults complaining of insomnia symptoms.

  14. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  15. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Bunta, Ferenc

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish-English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish- versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege's Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification.

  16. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems. PMID:27195976

  17. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M

    2016-05-19

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems.

  18. Patient advocacy and patient centredness in participant recruitment to randomized‐controlled trials: implications for informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Zelda; deSalis, Isabel; Toerien, Merran; Donovan, Jenny L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  With the routinization of evidence‐based medicine and of the randomized‐controlled trial (RCT), more patients are becoming ‘sites of evidence production’ yet, little is known about how they are recruited as participants; there is some evidence that ‘substantively valid consent’ is difficult to achieve. Objective  To explore the views and experiences of nurses recruiting patients to randomized‐controlled trials and to examine the extent to which their recruitment practices were patient‐centred and patient empowering. Design  Semi‐structured in‐depth interviews; audio recording of recruitment appointments; thematic interactional analysis (drawing on discourse and conversation analysis). Setting and participants  Nurses recruiting patients to five publicly funded RCTs and patients consenting to the recording of their recruitment sessions. Main outcome measures  The views of recruiting nurses about their recruitment role; the extent to which nurse–patient interactions were patient‐centred; the nature of the nurses’ interactional strategies and the nature and extent of patient participation in the discussion. Results  The nurses had a keen sense of themselves as clinicians and patient advocates and their perceptions of the trial and its interventions were inextricably linked to those of the patients. However, many of their recruitment practices made it difficult for patients to play an active and informed part in the discussion about trial participation, raising questions over the quality of consent decisions. Conclusion  Nurses working in patient recruitment to RCTs need to reconcile two different worlds with different demands and ethics. Evidence production, a central task in evidence‐based medicine, poses a challenge to patient‐centred practice and more research and relevant training are needed. PMID:22712887

  19. The Importance of Long-Term Social Research in Enabling Participation and Developing Engagement Strategies for New Dengue Control Technologies

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, new strategies aimed at reducing the capacity of mosquito vectors to transmit dengue fever have emerged. As with earlier control methods, they will have to be employed in a diverse range of communities across the globe and into the main settings for disease transmission, the homes, businesses and public buildings of residents in dengue-affected areas. However, these strategies are notably different from previous methods and draw on technologies that are not without controversy. Public engagement and authorization are critical to the future success of these programs. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper reports on an Australian case study where long-term social research was used to enable participation and the design of an engagement strategy tailored specifically to the sociopolitical setting of a potential trial release site of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegytpi mosquitoes. Central themes of the social research, methods used and conclusions drawn are briefly described. Results indicate that different communities are likely to have divergent expectations, concerns and cultural sensibilities with regard to participation, engagement and authorization. Conclusions/Significance The findings show that a range of issues need to be understood and taken into account to enable sensitive, ethical and effective engagement when seeking public support for new dengue control methods. PMID:22953011

  20. A qualitative study of participant adherence in a randomized controlled trial of herpes suppressive therapy for HIV prevention in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Mary L; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Baisley, Kathy; Matari, Salma; Changalucha, John; Clayton, Tim; Mugeye, Kokugonza; Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A; Ross, David A; Hayes, Richard J

    2010-04-01

    Poor participant adherence to treatment may contribute to lack of impact in some biomedical HIV prevention trials. This qualitative study explored adherence in a randomized controlled trial of herpes suppressive therapy to reduce HIV acquisition and infectivity among 1305 Tanzanian women. The trial found participants completed 72% of visits on treatment; 52-56% of women on treatment had > or = 90% adherence by pill count estimate; and between six and nine months 30/86 (35%) of urine samples from acyclovir recipients tested acyclovir negative, and 7/86 (8%) from placebo recipients tested acyclovir positive. Twenty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted after 30 months with respondents randomly selected from "acyclovir negative" acyclovir recipients and "acyclovir positive" placebo recipients, or by preliminary pill count adherence categories ("under users," "good users," and "over users"). Almost all respondents reported appropriate adherence and positive trial attitudes, e.g., trusting staff, appreciating services, perceiving pills as beneficial. Fourteen understood placebo use, and six understood the trial purpose. Notably, 5/9 acyclovir recipients and 1/11 placebo recipients believed their pills had treated pre-existing sexually transmitted infections. Limited understanding did not negatively affect reported adherence. Reported adherence problems usually related to illness, travel, and/or family obligations (e.g., husband's disapproval). "Acyclovir positive" placebo recipients denied taking other participants' pills. The IDIs also did not resolve discrepant reports of pill loss or theft. Biomedical HIV interventions often have strong behavioral components that require close attention during intervention development, trial design, and process and impact evaluation. This study identified topics which warrant further consideration, including: information reinforcement and comprehension assessment throughout a trial for long-term participant understanding

  1. Wheelchair control by elderly participants in a virtual environment with a brain-computer interface (BCI) and tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Herweg, Andreas; Gutzeit, Julian; Kleih, Sonja; Kübler, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Tactile event-related potential (ERP) are rarely used as input signal to control brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) due to their low accuracy and speed (information transfer rate, ITR). Age-related loss of tactile sensibility might further decrease their viability for the target population of BCI. In this study we investigated whether training improves tactile ERP-BCI performance within a virtual wheelchair navigation task. Elderly subjects participated in 5 sessions and tactors were placed at legs, abdomen and back. Mean accuracy and ITR increased from 88.43%/4.5bitsmin(-1) in the 1st to 92.56%/4.98bitsmin(-1) in the last session. The mean P300 amplitude increased from 5.46μV to 9.22μV. In an optional task participants achieved an accuracy of 95,56% and a mean ITR of 20,73bitsmin(-1) which is the highest ever achieved with tactile stimulation. Our sample of elderly people further contributed to the external validity of our results.

  2. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W; Sanders, Carlijn; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined the potential exposure enhancing effect of yohimbine hydrochloride in claustrophobic humans. Participants (71% undergraduate students and 29% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (n=24) were treated with 2 1-h in vivo exposure sessions. Participants were randomly allocated to take 10.8mg yohimbine hydrochloride (n=12) or placebo (n=12) prior to each exposure session. Outcome measures included peak fear during a behavioral avoidance task, the Claustrophobia Questionnaire, and the Claustrophobic Concerns Questionnaire. Results showed that both conditions improved significantly at post-treatment with no significant difference between groups. Consistent with prediction the group that took yohimbine hydrochloride prior to exposure sessions showed significantly greater improvement in peak fear at the one-week follow-up behavioral assessment (d=1.68). This was also true across other outcome measures with large to very large effect sizes. These data provide initial support for exposure enhancing effect of single-dose yohimbine hydrochloride in a clinical application.

  3. Predictors of Retention Among African American and Hispanic Older Adult Research Participants in the Well Elderly 2 Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60–95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial, and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels. PMID:24652865

  4. A new strategy for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control with community participation using a new fumigant formulation.

    PubMed

    Harburguer, Laura; Beltrán, Gaston; Goldberg, Lucila; Goldberg, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Héctor

    2011-05-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to avoid epidemics. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new smoke-generating formulation containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin in Puerto Libertad, Misiones, Argentina. A fumigant tablet (FT) was applied inside the houses by the community members and compared with a professional application. A treatment combining the application of fumigant tablets indoors and ultralow volume fumigation outdoors was also assessed. The community perceptions and practices about dengue disease and the acceptance of this new nonprofessional FT were evaluated through surveys. Results show >90% adult emergence inhibition and 100% adult mortality with these treatments. More than 80% of the residents applied the FT and preferred participating in a vector control program by using a nonprofessional mosquito control tool, instead of attending meetings and workshops promoting cultural changes.

  5. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis

  6. Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The

  7. Effects of home-based exercise on postural control and sensory organization in individuals with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joe; Horvat, Michael; Ray, Christopher T

    2009-12-01

    Loss of function and postural instability occur in Parkinson disease (PD). Dynamic exercise interventions are successful in improving motor control and physical function. However, most programs are based in a health facility or physical therapy setting and involve travel. With the limitations associated with PD (e.g. health care and medication cost as well as travel limitations) these therapies may be inaccessible and exclude some individuals from maintaining or increasing their function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based exercise intervention on postural control in individuals with PD. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on individuals with PD (N = 10) and healthy aged-matched controls (N = 10). Participants were assessed utilizing computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) before and after a 10-week exercise intervention. Participants were instructed on proper technique prior to the intervention, were given an illustrated home program, and were monitored weekly concerning their progress. Pre-intervention assessment demonstrated that individuals with PD had statically lower scores on a Sensory Organization Test (p < .05). Following the intervention, results indicated no statistical difference between individuals with PD and aged match controls (p > .05). This initial study indicates that a home exercise intervention is an effective method of improving postural control in individuals with PD. Results from this investigation support further study to determine the extent to which both preventative and restorative home-based programs can improve postural control.

  8. [Community participation in dengue control: an analysis of the sensitivity of municipal health plans in the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irma Teresinha Rodrigues Neves; Veras, Maria Amélia de Sousa Mascena; Silva, Rubens Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Community participation in activities to combat the Aedes aegypti mosquito has been identified as one of the key thrusts in dengue control programs. This study aimed to verify the extent to which local health plans include community participation in dengue control activities in municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipal health plans were analyzed used a reading script covering their main sections: (i) introduction and analysis of the health situations, (ii) objectives and targets, and (iii) proposed interventions. A sensitivity index was constructed on the basis of affirmative answers. Only one of the 16 health plans showed medium sensitivity to community participation in dengue control, two had a low index, twelve showed a very low index, and one had a zero sensitivity index. The study indicated that community participation fails to occupy a privileged position in municipal health policy for dengue control.

  9. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  10. [Patient participation in medical decision making within an integrated health care system in Germany: results of a controlled cohort study].

    PubMed

    Hölzel, L P; Vollmer, M; Kriston, L; Siegel, A; Härter, M

    2012-11-01

    An integrated health care project called "Gesundes Kinzigtal" was conducted in a rural area in Germany. As part of the project, physicians were trained and other measures were taken to enhance patient involvement in medical decision making. As part of the external evaluation, various effects regarding patient involvement in medical decision making, patient involvement and information preference, decision confidence, patient satisfaction with ambulatory care and patient quality of life were examined. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire on an annual basis between 2007 and 2009. Effects were compared between patients who were participating in the integrated care project and two control groups. Analyses are based on the data of 1,205 patients. Over time all outcomes decreased slightly, except for information preference and physical quality of life. No statistically significant intervention effects on patient involvement in medical decision making or any other outcome variable could be found. The intensity of the training was presumably too low to establish an enduring change in the physician-patient interaction.

  11. Pilot study to determine interest of adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Asma; Roberts, Susan B; Young, Andrew J; McGraw, Susan; Dallal, Gerard E; Das, Sai Krupa

    2014-03-01

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weight control programs. We conducted a survey to determine the level of interest of adult civilian dependents of ADMP in participating in a group weight control program. Subjects were a convenience sample of 191 adult civilian dependents of ADMP (94% women, 6% men) based in Massachusetts and aged 33.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass index 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2). Overall, there was a significant effect of body mass index on interest in program participation (p = 0.004). Eighty five percent of overweight participants and 100% of obese participants reported being Moderately Likely or Very Likely to participate in a provided weight control program. In overweight and obese survey respondents there was no significant effect of ADMP rank on interest in program participation (p = 0.34). These findings suggest that overweight and obese adult civilian dependents of ADMP may be very receptive targets for programs to control overweight and obesity in military families.

  12. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  13. Psychological Well-Being and Social Participation Assessment in Visually Impaired Subjects Playing Torball: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Cagno, A.; Iuliano, E.; Aquino, G.; Fiorilli, G.; Battaglia, C.; Giombini, A.; Calcagno, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27 plus or minus 3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80 plus or minus 2.53), and…

  14. Aquaporin in different moult stages of a freshwater decapod crustacean: expression and participation in muscle hydration control.

    PubMed

    Foguesatto, Kamila; Boyle, Robert T; Rovani, Monique T; Freire, Carolina A; Souza, Marta M

    2017-03-09

    Crustaceans, during their moult cycle, at the stages of both pre-moult and post-moult, need water uptake. This movement of water creates a challenge for the regulation of cell volume. The cells of freshwater decapods require a high regulatory capacity to deal with hyposmotic stresses, given the need to face dilution of the haemolymph during their moult cycles. This study investigated the variation in the expression of water channels (aquaporins) along the moult cycle of a freshwater palaemonid shrimp, focusing on their role in cell volume regulation. Moults in Palaemonetes argentinus have been investigated along three stages of its moult cycle: intermoult, late pre-moult and recent post-moult. For the evaluation of tissue volume regulation, the weight of isolatedmuscle, subjected to isosmotic and hyposmotic salines, was followed for 60min. The expression of AQP during the different moult stages was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Muscle from the three moult stages in isosmotic conditions showed the same pattern of tissue volume regulation. When muscle from animals in pre-moult and intermoult were submitted to hyposmotic stress they swell, followed by volume regulation, while in post-moult the regulation is compromised. The difference in volume regulatory control between pre-moult and post-moult may be related to a possible regulation of water channels, as AQP expression was equal at these stages. This study presents novel findings for crustaceans in general, in the demonstration that AQP expression changes during the moult cycle of a decapod crustacean, together with the regulation of cell volume with the participation of AQPs.

  15. Factors associated with non-participation and dropout among cancer patients in a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roick, J; Danker, H; Kersting, A; Briest, S; Dietrich, A; Dietz, A; Einenkel, J; Papsdorf, K; Lordick, F; Meixensberger, J; Mössner, J; Niederwieser, D; Prietzel, T; Schiefke, F; Stolzenburg, J-U; Wirtz, H; Singer, S

    2017-01-30

    We investigated the impact of demographic and disease related factors on non-participation and dropout in a cluster-randomised behavioural trial in cancer patients with measurements taken between hospitalisation and 6 months thereafter. The percentages of non-participation and dropout were documented at each time point. Factors considered to be potentially related with non-participation and dropout were as follows: age, sex, marital status, education, income, employment status, tumour site and stage of disease. Of 1,338 eligible patients, 24% declined participation at baseline. Non-participation was higher in older patients (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.1, CI: 0.6-0.9) and those with advanced disease (OR 2.0, CI: 0.1-1.3). Dropout by 6 months was 25%. Dropout was more frequent with increased age (OR 2.8, CI: 0.8-1.2), advanced disease (OR 3.0, CI: 1.0-1.2), being married (OR 2.4, CI 0.7-1.1) and less frequent with university education (OR 0.4, CI -1.3 to -0.8) and middle income (OR 0.4, CI -0.9 to -0.7). When planning clinical trials, it is important to be aware of patient groups at high risk of non-participation or dropout, for example older patients or those with advanced disease. Trial designs should consider their special needs to increase their rate of participation.

  16. The promise of recovery: narratives of hope among homeless individuals with mental illness participating in a Housing First randomised controlled trial in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Maritt; Zerger, Suzanne; Wise Harris, Deborah; Plenert, Erin; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hope is widely embraced as an important factor in the recovery process. The role of housing in inspiring hope and facilitating recovery has been explored with homeless populations but is not well understood. This study explores perspectives on hopes for recovery and the role of housing on these hopes from the perspective of homeless adults experiencing mental illness participating in a multisite Housing First randomised controlled trial in Canada. The study draws on data from in-depth qualitative interviews with participants from the Toronto, Ontario site of the ‘At Home/Chez Soi’ Project. Design In-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of participants from a larger Housing First randomised controlled trial. Setting The research took place in Toronto, Canada. Participants 60 participants in the larger trial (36 from the Housing First group and 24 from the Treatment as Usual group) took part in in-depth interviews. Method Participants for the in-depth interviews were purposively selected from the larger trial sample in Toronto and participated in an interview at the beginning of the study (baseline). Data from the baseline interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method derived from grounded theory methods. Results Participants’ narratives show clear visualisation of goals for recovery, and emphasise that housing is an integral factor that can facilitate hope and support dimensions of recovery. However, some participants had difficulty adjusting to housing, and were concerned about feeling socially isolated, which could have negative implications for hopefulness and recovery. Conclusions Housing First interventions should explicitly incorporate hope-inspiring, recovery-oriented approaches and support participants while adjusting to housing in order to sustain hopefulness. PMID:24589826

  17. Factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research for urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in rural villages of Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Jacinta Wairimu; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W; Njenga, Sammy Michugu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction helminthic infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomes are among the most prevalent afflictions of humans who live in areas of poverty. An operational research was undertaken in 5 villages of Kwale County during a pilot control programme which included both the adults and school going children. Willingness of community members to participate in the treatment as well as in the research is critical. A cross sectional study sought to determine factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research and assess the treatment coverage for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms in rural villages of Kwale County. Methods cross-sectional survey utilized quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 220 households were recruited and household heads interviewed. Bivariate analysis was used to test association between different independent and dependent factors. Multivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression to control for confounders and effect modification. Qualitative data was transcribed, coded and analyzed thematically. Results religion and levels of income were significantly (P =0.04 and P = 0.026 respectively) associated with participation in the research and control programme, history of ever suffering from schistosomiasis and intestinal worms was found to be significantly (P = 0.008) associated with participation in the research. The study established that 82% (178) of the respondents received treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms and 67% (146) of the respondents had participated in the research. Conclusion this information will be useful in promoting health, enhancing learning and behaviour changes which will lead to increased community participation in similar disease control. PMID:27642474

  18. Effects of krill oil on endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in participants with type 2 diabetes, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lobraico, Jessika M; DiLello, Lauren C; Butler, Amber D; Cordisco, Marie Elena; Petrini, Joann R; Ahmadi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of krill oil supplementation, a source of ω-3 fatty acids, on cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood glucose control among participants with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods A randomized, double-blind controlled cross-over trial was employed. Outcomes assessed were: endothelial function, blood lipids, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum antioxidant level, C peptide, and calculated Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) scores. Participants were randomized to either krill oil or olive oil supplementation for 4 weeks, underwent a 2-week washout period, and then crossed to the other supplementation for 4 weeks. All participants were then offered an additional 17 weeks of krill supplementation. Testing occurred at 3 time points: baseline, after first supplementation, and after second supplementation. Testing also occurred after an optional 17 weeks of krill oil supplementation. Difference scores were calculated for each participant in both sequences (ie, differences in outcome measures in the first and second period of the sequence). The mean and SD of the scores in the 2 sequence groups were used to test for differences between treatment effects at a significance level of p<0.05. Results A total of 47 participants were included in the initial cross-over study. Participants who received krill oil for 4 weeks had an improvement in their endothelial function and a reduction in blood C peptide levels and HOMA scores as compared with the olive oil. A total of 34 participants completed the additional 17-week supplementation period. When compared with their respective baseline measures, these participants had a statistically significant improvement in endothelial function and blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Conclusions Krill oil may lead to moderate improvement of cardiovascular risks, specifically endothelial dysfunction and HDL in patients with type 2

  19. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Hall, Timothy M.; Yi, Yi; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Two previous randomized trials found an effect for bupropion in reducing methamphetamine use in the subgroup with lower frequency of methamphetamine use at baseline. This study aimed to replicate these results by comparing bupropion versus placebo in methamphetamine dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use at baseline. Methods Methamphetamine dependent volunteers reporting methamphetamine use on ≤ 29 of past 30 days were randomized to bupropion 150mg twice daily (N=41) or placebo (N=43) and outpatient counseling for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving end of treatment (EOT) methamphetamine abstinence (weeks 11 and 12) for bupropion versus placebo. A post hoc analysis compared EOT abstinence by medication adherence assessed via plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion level. Results There was no significant difference in EOT abstinence between bupropion (29%, 12/41) and placebo (14%, 6/43; p = 0.087). Among participants receiving bupropion, EOT abstinence was significantly higher in participants assessed as medication adherent by plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion levels (54%, 7/13) compared to non-adherent participants (18%, 5/28; p = 0.018). Medication adherence by plasma levels was low (32%). Conclusions Bupropion may be efficacious for methamphetamine dependence but only in a highly selected subgroup of medication adherent participants with less than daily baseline methamphetamine use. Even a single objective “snapshot” measure of medication adherence is highly associated with treatment outcomes. PMID:24894963

  20. Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

  1. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  2. Quantifying the Impact of Participation in Local Tobacco Control Groups on the Psychological Empowerment of Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Debra J.; Crankshaw, Erik; Nimsch, Christian; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Hund, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A core component of Legacy's Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use is the ability of state and local initiatives to empower youth to effect change in their communities. The authors' conceptual framework proposes that youth empowerment is an outcome of the process by which youths become active participants in local efforts. Youths are…

  3. The Neighborhood Voice: evaluating a mobile research vehicle for recruiting African Americans to participate in cancer control studies.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Weaver, Nancy L; Andresen, Elena M; Christopher, Kara; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2011-09-01

    The Neighborhood Voice is a vehicle customized for conducting health research in community settings. It brings research studies into neighborhoods affected most by health disparities and reaches groups often underrepresented in research samples. This paper reports on the experience and satisfaction of 599 African American women who participated in research on board the Neighborhood Voice. Using bivariate, psychometric, and logistic regression analyses, we examined responses to a brief post-research survey. Most women (71%) reported that they had never previously participated in research, and two-thirds (68%) rated their Neighborhood Voice experience as excellent. Satisfaction scores were highest among first-time research participants (p < .05). Women's ratings of the Neighborhood Voice on Comfort (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.0, 7.9) and Convenience (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9) significantly predicted having an excellent experience. Mobile research facilities may increase participation among disadvantaged and minority populations. Our brief survey instrument is a model for evaluating such outreach.

  4. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain. PMID:26927141

  5. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-02-24

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  6. Economic evaluation of participation in a voluntary Johne's disease prevention and control program from a farmer's perspective--The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Clement, F; Barkema, H W; Orsel, K

    2014-05-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a Johne's disease (JD) control program with the goal of reducing the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through implementation of best management practices. The objective was to estimate the economic benefit of participation in the AJDI. A decision tree was constructed in which disease prevalence, test characteristics, and probabilities for implementation of best management practices suggested by herd veterinarians were implemented. Analysis was performed using a Markov analysis, and input data were assigned using estimates from the AJDI and published data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed and the net benefit of participation (from the perspective of a dairy farmer) in the AJDI compared with no participation was calculated. A series of 1-way sensitivity analyses were used to control for uncertainty. Farms participating in the AJDI were estimated to have a net benefit of Can$74 per cow over the course of 10 yr. If project costs were covered by the participating farm, the net benefit was Can$27. In addition to the effects on MAP infection, a reduction in calf diarrhea was modeled for farms that improved their calf management through the use of pasteurizers. In that case, the additional costs outweighed additional revenues compared with the baseline analysis, resulting in a reduced net benefit of Can$19. Participation would not be cost effective if cows in early stages of MAP infection did not have decreased production and if prevalence of MAP infection did not increase on farms with poor management. A limitation of the study, despite high uncertainty in some input parameters, was the lack of knowledge regarding changes in prevalence on farms with various management strategies. In conclusion, participation in the AJDI was cost effective for the average Alberta dairy farm.

  7. The evaluation of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case controlled observational study.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Victoria C J; Ellis, Cathy M; Burman, Rachel; Knights, Catherine; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive paralysis. ALS is complicated by a number of non-motor symptoms including pain. Pain in ALS has been poorly studied and poorly managed. This study aimed to collate information regarding pain in ALS using standardized pain questionnaires. Forty-two patients with ALS participated in the study. Control subjects included 41 age-matched healthy volunteers and 42 age-matched patients with neurological conditions other than ALS. Data on pain were collected using the The Brief Pain Inventory and The painDetect Questionnaire. Eighty-five percent of subjects with ALS reported pain versus 50% of neurology clinic controls and 35% of healthy controls (p < 0.01). Pain in ALS included cramping, aching, tiring, sharp and tender, and was non-neuropathic. Pain impacted significantly on mood, general activity, relationships and general enjoyment of life. Fifty-four percent of people with painful ALS used regular analgesia and 29% regular opioids. Other non-motor symptoms suffered included tiredness, constipation, urinary problems, itching and drowsiness. In conclusion, these data support the fact that pain is a significant symptom in ALS which impacts on quality of life. These data can be used to educate clinicians and patients to promote better multidisciplinary management of ALS symptoms and a better quality of life.

  8. Who Follows eHealth Interventions as Recommended? A Study of Participants' Personal Characteristics From the Experimental Arm of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Daniela N; Crutzen, Rik; Kremers, Stef PJ; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Background Computer-tailored eHealth interventions to improve health behavior have been demonstrated to be effective and cost-effective if they are used as recommended. However, different subgroups may use the Internet differently, which might also affect intervention use and effectiveness. To date, there is little research available depicting whether adherence to intervention recommendations differs according to personal characteristics. Objective The aim was to assess which personal characteristics are associated with using an eHealth intervention as recommended. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted among a sample of the adult Dutch population (N=1638) testing an intervention aimed at improving 5 healthy lifestyle behaviors: increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity, reducing alcohol intake, and promoting smoking cessation. Participants were asked to participate in those specific online modules for which they did not meet the national guideline(s) for the respective behavior(s). Participants who started with fewer than the recommended number of modules of the intervention were defined as users who did not follow the intervention recommendation. Results The fewer modules recommended to participants, the better participants adhered to the intervention modules. Following the intervention recommendation increased when participants were older (χ2 1=39.8, P<.001), female (χ2 1=15.8, P<.001), unemployed (χ2 1=7.9, P=.003), ill (χ2 1=4.5, P=.02), or in a relationship (χ2 1=7.8, P=.003). No significant relevant differences were found between groups with different levels of education, incomes, or quality of life. Conclusion Our findings indicate that eHealth interventions were used differently by subgroups. The more frequent as-recommended intervention use by unemployed, older, and ill participants may be an indication that these eHealth interventions are attractive to people with a greater need for health care information

  9. Counselee participation in follow-up breast cancer genetic counselling visits and associations with achievement of the preferred role, cognitive outcomes, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control.

    PubMed

    Albada, Akke; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the counselee participation in the follow-up visits, compared to the first visits, for breast cancer genetic counselling and to explore associations with counselees' achievement of their preferred role in decision making, information recall, knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control. First and follow-up visits for breast cancer genetic counselling of 96 counselees of a Dutch genetics center were videotaped (2008-2010). Counselees completed questionnaires before counselling (T1), after the follow-up visit (T2) and one year after the follow-up visit (T3). Consultations were rated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Counselee participation was measured as the percentage of counselee utterances, the percentage of counselee questions and the interactivity (number of turns per minute). Follow-up visits had higher levels of counselee participation than first visits as assessed by the percentage of counselee talk, the interactivity and counselee questions. More counselee talk in the follow-up visit was related to higher achievement of the preferred role (T2) and higher perceived personal control (T3). Higher interactivity in the follow-up visit was related to lower achievement of the preferred role in decision making and lower information recall (T2). There were no significant associations with the percentage of questions asked and none of the participation measures was related to knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control (T2). In line with the interviewing admonishment 'talk less and listen more', the only assessment of counselee participation associated to better outcomes is the percentage of counselee talk. High interactivity might be associated with lower recall in breast cancer genetic counselees who are generally highly educated. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and a heterogeneous group of counselees. Research is needed on the interactions

  10. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  11. Allowing Physicians to Choose the Value of Compensation for Participation in a Web-Based Survey: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    Background Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. Objective To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. Methods A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. Results The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Conclusions Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion. PMID:26223821

  12. Recruitment and retention of participants in randomised controlled trials: a review of trials funded and published by the United Kingdom Health Technology Assessment Programme

    PubMed Central

    Bonacho dos Anjos Henriques-Cadby, Inês; Bortolami, Oscar; Flight, Laura; Hind, Daniel; Knox, Christopher; Nadin, Ben; Rothwell, Joanne; Surtees, Michael; Julious, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    Background Substantial amounts of public funds are invested in health research worldwide. Publicly funded randomised controlled trials (RCTs) often recruit participants at a slower than anticipated rate. Many trials fail to reach their planned sample size within the envisaged trial timescale and trial funding envelope. Objectives To review the consent, recruitment and retention rates for single and multicentre randomised control trials funded and published by the UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. Data sources and study selection HTA reports of individually randomised single or multicentre RCTs published from the start of 2004 to the end of April 2016 were reviewed. Data extraction Information was extracted, relating to the trial characteristics, sample size, recruitment and retention by two independent reviewers. Main outcome measures Target sample size and whether it was achieved; recruitment rates (number of participants recruited per centre per month) and retention rates (randomised participants retained and assessed with valid primary outcome data). Results This review identified 151 individually RCTs from 787 NIHR HTA reports. The final recruitment target sample size was achieved in 56% (85/151) of the RCTs and more than 80% of the final target sample size was achieved for 79% of the RCTs (119/151). The median recruitment rate (participants per centre per month) was found to be 0.92 (IQR 0.43–2.79) and the median retention rate (proportion of participants with valid primary outcome data at follow-up) was estimated at 89% (IQR 79–97%). Conclusions There is considerable variation in the consent, recruitment and retention rates in publicly funded RCTs. Investigators should bear this in mind at the planning stage of their study and not be overly optimistic about their recruitment projections. PMID:28320800

  13. A comparison of impulsivity, depressive symptoms, lifetime stress and sensation seeking in healthy controls versus participants with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Cooper, Kimberly; Verrico, Christopher D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has focused on developing theories of addiction that may explain behavior in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals. The primary goal of this report was to compare and contrast the prevalence of self-reported measures of impulsivity, depression, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in healthy controls versus individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders. Twenty-nine individuals with cocaine use disorders and 31 individuals with methamphetamine use disorders were matched with 31 healthy control participants on several demographic variables. All participants were administered behavioral questionnaires including the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (assessing impulsivity), Beck Depression Inventory II (assessing depression), Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (assessing lifetime stress) and the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale (assessing sensation-seeking). When compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking. In addition, when compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine use disorders had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory II scores, while individuals with methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher Life Stressor Checklist-Revised scores. The results revealed that there were significantly higher levels of impulsivity, depression and sensation-seeking in cocaine users and significantly higher impulsivity, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in methamphetamine users when compared to healthy controls.

  14. Using virtual reality to support multi-participant human-centered design processes for control room design

    SciTech Connect

    Louka, M. N.; Gustavsen, M. A.; Edvardsen, S. T.

    2006-07-01

    We present an overview of a method of applying interactive 3D visualization techniques to support control room design activities, and summarize studies that supports it. In particular, we describe the software tools that we have developed and how these support a human-centered design (HCD) work-flow. We present some lessons learnt from using our tools in control room design projects, and outline our plans for extending the scope of our approach to support concurrent design and later phases of a plant's life-cycle. (authors)

  15. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  16. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor

  17. Beyond Binary: Using Propensity Scores to Account for Varying Levels of Program Participation in Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Warkentien, Siri; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current project is to explore the use of propensity scores to estimate the effects of interventions within randomized control trials, accounting for varying levels of implementation or fidelity. This work extends that of Jo and Stuart (2009) to settings with multiple or continuous measures of implementation. Rather than focus…

  18. Hand hygiene promotion and the participation of infection control link nurses: an effective innovation to overcome campaign fatigue.

    PubMed

    Seto, Wing Hong; Yuen, Shanny W S; Cheung, Christina W Y; Ching, Patricia T Y; Cowling, Benjamin J; Pittet, Didier

    2013-12-01

    Campaign fatigue was evident in a large hospital in Hong Kong when hand hygiene compliance remained just above 50% after 4 years of aggressive and varied promotional activities. A new innovative strategy was developed that directly involved the infection control link nurses both in formulating the strategy and in implementing the various proposed programs. The new strategy was successful in increasing hand hygiene compliance to 83%.

  19. From Online Randomized Controlled Trials to Participant Preference Studies: Morphing the San Francisco Stop Smoking Site into a Worldwide Smoking Cessation Resource

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet interventions have the potential to address many of the health problems that produce the greatest global burden of disease. We present a study illustrating this potential. The Spanish/English San Francisco Stop Smoking Internet site, which yielded quit rates of 20% or more at 12 months in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), was modified to make it accessible to Spanish- and English-speaking smokers 18 years of age or older anywhere in the world. Objective To illustrate that Internet interventions designed to conduct RCTs can be adapted to serve as universal health care resources. We also examine quit rates obtained in the current participant preference study (in which users could choose from all elements tested in previous RCTs) to determine whether they differ from the quit rates found in the RCTs. Methods We modified the San Francisco Stop Smoking Internet site so that, instead of being randomly assigned to a specific intervention, participants could personalize the site by choosing among nine site elements (eg, stop smoking guide, reminder emails, journal, mood management intervention, or virtual group). Participants completed a baseline assessment, and reported smoking and mood data at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. We assessed the modified website’s reach and outcomes (quit rates), and compared the quit rates of the current participant preference study with those of the previous RCTs. Results In the first year of recruitment, 94,158 individuals from 152 countries and territories visited the site; 13,488 participants left some data; 9173 signed consent; 7763 completed the baseline survey; and 1955, 1362, 1106, and 1096 left 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month data, respectively. Observed quit rates were 38.1% (n = 668), 44.9% (n = 546), 43.6% (n = 431), and 45.4% (n = 449), respectively. The current participant preference study yielded higher observed quit rates (odds ratio 1.30) than the previous RCT when controlling for

  20. Intra- and Inter-session Reliability of Static and Dynamic Postural Control in Participants with and without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akhbari, Behnam; Salavati, Mahyar; Mohammadi, Farshid; Safavi-Farokhi, Ziaeddin

    2015-08-01

    Objet : La présente étude avait pour objectif de déterminer la fiabilité intra et intersessionnelle de la performance de l'équilibre chez des sujets qui ont un syndrome fémoro-rotulien douloureux (SFRD) et chez un nombre équivalent de sujets en santé. Méthodes : Dans cette étude méthodologique, la performance lors d'un exercice debout sur une seule jambe a été examinée chez 15 sujets ayant un SFRD unilatéral et chez 15 témoins en santé, à l'aide d'un appareil Biodex Balance System (BBS) à quatre niveaux de difficulté différents (statique, dynamique, avec rétroaction visuelle et sans rétroaction visuelle). Le coefficient de corrélation intraclasse (CCI), l'erreur type de mesure (ETM) et le coefficient de variation (CV) ont été calculés pour l'indice de stabilité global (ISG), l'indice de stabilité antérieure et postérieure (ISAP) et l'indice de stabilité médio-latérale (ISML). Résultats : La performance de l'équilibre postural statique et dynamique lors d'un exercice debout sur une seule jambe a donné des résultats de fiabilité moyenne à très élevée chez les sujets ayant un SFRD (CCI=de 0,53 à 0,96) et les témoins en santé (CCI=de 0,51 à 0,91). Les mesures étaient plus fiables lorsque les participants avaient les yeux fermés comparativement à lorsqu'ils avaient les yeux ouverts. Conclusion : Les indices de stabilité calculés par l'appareil Biodex Balance System semblent présenter une fiabilité acceptable chez les sujets ayant un SFRD, surtout dans les conditions plus difficiles. Cet appareil pourrait être intégré dans l'évaluation et la réadaptation de ce groupe de patients.

  1. Participation of ghrelin signalling in the reciprocal regulation of hypothalamic NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ching-Han; Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2017-06-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared. Food intake, body weight and NPY expression decreased, while MC3R expression increased and expressed reciprocally to NPY expression during AMPH treatment. Plasma ghrelin and hypothalamic AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression decreased on Day 1 and Day 2, which was associated with the positive energy metabolism, and returned to normal levels on Day 3 and Day 4, which was associated with the negative energy metabolism; this expression pattern was similar to that of NPY. Infusion with a GHSR1a antagonist or an NPY antisense into the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression and the increase in MC3R expression compared to the AMPH-treated group. Peripheral ghrelin and the central ghrelin system participated in the regulation in AMPH-induced appetite control. These results shed light on the involvement of ghrelin signalling in reciprocal regulation of NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control and may prove useful for the development of anti-obesity drugs.

  2. Prospective Preference Assessment of Patients' Willingness to Participate in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anand; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Paly, Jonathan J.; Halpern, Scott D.; Bruner, Deborah W.; Christodouleas, John P.; Coen, John J.; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate patients' willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients' stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Results: Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients' WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either 'definitely' or 'probably' participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would 'definitely not' or 'probably not' enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.

  3. Participation of Kv1 Channels in Control of Membrane Excitability and Burst Generation in Mesencephalic V Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chie-Fang; Kaur, Gurvinder; Vong, Angela; Bawa, Harpreet; Chandler, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    The function and biophysical properties of low threshold Kv1 current in control of membrane resonance, subthreshold oscillations, and bursting in mesencephalic V neurons (Mes V) were examined in rat brain stem slices (P8–P12) using whole cell current and voltage patch-clamp methods. α-dendrotoxin application, a toxin with high specificity for Kv1.1, 1.2, and 1.6 channels, showed the presence of a low-threshold K+ current that activated rapidly around −50 mV and was relatively noninactivating over a 1-s period and had a V1/2max of −36.2 mV. Other toxins, specific for individual channels containing either Kv 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 α-subunits, were applied individually, or in combination, and showed that Kv1 channels are heteromeric, composed of combinations of subunits. In current-clamp mode, toxin application transformed the high-frequency resonant properties of the membrane into a low-pass filter and concomitantly reduced the frequency of the subthreshold membrane oscillations. During this period, rhythmical bursting was transformed into low-frequency tonic discharge. Interestingly, in a subset of neurons that did not show bursting, low doses of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX) sufficient to block 50% of the low threshold Kv1 channels induced bursting and increased the resonant peak impedance and subthreshold oscillations, which was replicated with computer simulation. This suggests that a critical balance between inward and outward currents is necessary for bursting. This was replicated with computer simulation. Single cell RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods confirmed the presence of Kv1.1, 1.2, and 1.6 α-subunits in Mes V neurons. These data indicate that low threshold Kv1 channels are responsible for membrane resonance, contribute to subthreshold oscillations, and are critical for burst generation. PMID:19144742

  4. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Calgranulin C Participates in Control of Helicobacter pylori Growth and Regulation of Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Kathryn P.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Mortensen, Brittany L.; Correa, Pelayo; Damo, Steven M.; Chazin, Walter J.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    During infectious processes, antimicrobial proteins are produced by both epithelial cells and innate immune cells. Some of these antimicrobial molecules function by targeting transition metals and sequestering these metals in a process referred to as “nutritional immunity.” This chelation strategy ultimately starves invading pathogens, limiting their growth within the vertebrate host. Recent evidence suggests that these metal-binding antimicrobial molecules have the capacity to affect bacterial virulence, including toxin secretion systems. Our previous work showed that the S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer (calprotectin, or calgranulin A/B) binds zinc and represses the elaboration of the H. pylori cag type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, there are several other S100 proteins that are produced in response to infection. We hypothesized that the zinc-binding protein S100A12 (calgranulin C) is induced in response to H. pylori infection and also plays a role in controlling H. pylori growth and virulence. To test this, we analyzed gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori-positive and -negative patients for S100A12 expression. These assays showed that S100A12 is induced in response to H. pylori infection and inhibits bacterial growth and viability in vitro by binding nutrient zinc. Furthermore, the data establish that the zinc-binding activity of the S100A12 protein represses the activity of the cag T4SS, as evidenced by the gastric cell “hummingbird” phenotype, interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion, and CagA translocation assays. In addition, high-resolution field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to demonstrate that S100A12 represses biogenesis of the cag T4SS. Together with our previous work, these data reveal that multiple S100 proteins can repress the elaboration of an oncogenic bacterial surface organelle. PMID:25964473

  5. Use of Economic Compensation to Increase Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Kenya: Qualitative Interviews With Male Participants in a Randomized Controlled Trial and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Michele; Murray, Kate; Rao, Samwel; Agot, Kawango; Omanga, Eunice; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventions to increase demand for medical male circumcision are urgently needed in eastern and southern Africa. Following promising evidence that providing economic compensation can increase male circumcision uptake in Kenya, there is a need to understand the role of this intervention in individuals' decision-making regarding circumcision and explore perceptions of the intervention and concerns such as coercion. Methods: As part of a randomized controlled trial in Kenya that found compensation in the form of food vouchers worth US $8.75–US $15.00 to be effective in increasing male circumcision uptake, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 45 circumcised and uncircumcised male participants and 19 female partners to explore how compensation provision influenced the decision to get circumcised. Interview transcripts were coded and an inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify patterns in decision-making. Results: Interviews revealed that compensation promoted circumcision uptake by addressing a major barrier to male circumcision uptake: lost wages during and after the circumcision procedure. Participants who did not get circumcised perceived the compensation amounts to be insufficient for offsetting their costs associated with getting circumcised or reported having nonfinancial barriers that were not addressed by the intervention, such as fear of pain. Participants also reported that they did not feel compelled to get circumcised for financial gain. Female partners of circumcised participants felt that the intervention helped to motivate their partners to get circumcised. Conclusions: The results suggest that the provision of economic compensation is an acceptable intervention that can address an important barrier to male circumcision uptake. Providing compensation to circumcision clients in the form of food vouchers warrants further consideration in voluntary medical male circumcision demand creation efforts. PMID:27404013

  6. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2). EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait. PMID:20128894

  7. Effects of the feeling of invulnerability and the feeling of control on motivation to participate in experience-based analysis, by type of risk.

    PubMed

    Mbaye, Safiétou; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2013-03-01

    Experience-based analysis (EBA) refers to a set of safety-management practices consisting of detecting, analyzing, and correcting the individual, material, and organizational causal factors of accidents in order to prevent their reoccurrence. Unfortunately, these practices do not always garner the adherence of employees. This article presents a study that examines the impact of risk perceptions on agents' motivation to participate in EBA in various production sectors. The study was conducted at two sites, a chemical factory and a nuclear power plant, by means of a questionnaire administered to 302 employees. The results indicated that the feeling of control was not only positively linked to the feeling of invulnerability, but that these two factors were negatively linked to risk perception. In addition, the actors in both production sectors were more motivated to participate in EBA of accidents linked to the core processes of their industry (which were more accurately perceived) than in EBA of ordinary accidents (accidents not specific to chemical or nuclear processes). Moreover, the agents' feeling of invulnerability and feeling of control both reduced EBA motivation for ordinary accidents to a greater extent than for chemical and radiation-related accidents. Recommendations are made in view of encouraging agents to get more involved in EBA.

  8. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (2) pre-control endemicity levels and estimated number infected

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The original aim of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed to achieve control, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO involved spatial sampling of villages to be surveyed, and examination of 30 to 50 adults per village for palpable onchocercal nodules. REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. A companion article reports the delineation of high risk areas based on expert analysis. The present article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods A model-based geostatistical analysis of the REMO data was undertaken to generate high-resolution maps of the predicted prevalence of nodules and of the probability that the true nodule prevalence exceeds the high risk threshold of 20%. The number infected was estimated by converting nodule prevalence to microfilaria prevalence, and multiplying the predicted prevalence for each location with local data on population density. The geostatistical analysis included the nodule palpation data for 14,473 surveyed villages. Results The generated map of onchocerciasis endemicity levels, as reflected in the prevalence of nodules, is a significant advance with many new endemic areas identified. The prevalence of nodules was > 20% over an area of 2.5 million km2 with an estimated population of 62 million people. The results were consistent with the delineation of high risk areas of the expert analysis except for borderline areas where the prevalence fluctuated around 20%. It is estimated that 36 million people would have been infected in the APOC countries by 2011 if there had been no ivermectin treatment. Conclusions The map of onchocerciasis endemicity levels has proven very valuable for

  9. A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration may be prevented if the mechanical stress transmitted to the plantar tissues is reduced. Insole therapy is one practical method commonly used to reduce plantar loads and ulceration risk. The type of insole best suited to achieve this is unknown. This trial compared custom-made functional insoles with prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for ulceration of neuropathic diabetic feet. Method A participant-blinded randomised controlled trial recruited 119 neuropathic participants with diabetes who were randomly allocated to custom-made functional or prefabricated insoles. Data were collected at issue and six month follow-up using the F-scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Primary outcomes were: peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area, forefoot rate of load, duration of load as a percentage of stance. Secondary outcomes were patient perceived foot health (Bristol Foot Score), quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life). We also assessed cost of supply and fitting. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results There were no differences between insoles in peak pressure, or three of the other four kinetic measures. The custom-made functional insole was slightly more effective than the prefabricated insole in reducing forefoot pressure time integral at issue (27% vs. 22%), remained more effective at six month follow-up (30% vs. 24%, p=0.001), but was more expensive (UK £656 vs. £554, p<0.001). Full compliance (minimum wear 7 hours a day 7 days per week) was reported by 40% of participants and 76% of participants reported a minimum wear of 5 hours a day 5 days per week. There was no difference in patient perception between insoles. Conclusion The custom-made insoles are more expensive than prefabricated insoles evaluated in this trial and no better in reducing peak pressure. We recommend that where clinically appropriate, the more cost effective prefabricated insole

  10. Analysis of operator participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarakovskiy, G. M.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of providing a psychological conception of the analysis of operator participation in a form that will allow the qualitative approach to be combined with the quantitative approach is examined. This conception is based on an understanding of the essence of human endeavor in automated control systems that now determine the development of society's productive forces and that are the main object of ergonomic research. Two main types of operator participation were examined; information retrieval with immediate service and information retrieval with delayed service.

  11. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  12. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  13. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control.

  14. Acceptability of the 6-PACK falls prevention program: A pre-implementation study in hospitals participating in a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Ayton, Darshini R; Hill, Keith D; Brand, Caroline A; Livingston, Patricia M; Botti, Mari

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in the acute hospital setting. The 6-PACK falls prevention program includes a fall-risk tool; 'falls alert' signs; supervision of patients in the bathroom; ensuring patients' walking aids are within reach; toileting regimes; low-low beds; and bed/chair alarms. This study explored the acceptability of the 6-PACK program from the perspective of nurses and senior staff prior to its implementation in a randomised controlled trial. A mixed-methods approach was applied involving 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including: Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention. Information on program acceptability (suitability, practicality and benefits) was obtained by surveys, focus groups and interviews. Survey data were analysed descriptively, and focus group and interview data thematically. The survey response rate was 60%. Twelve focus groups (n = 96 nurses) and 24 interviews with senior staff were conducted. Falls were identified as a priority patient safety issue and nurses as key players in falls prevention. The 6-PACK program was perceived to offer practical benefits compared to current practice. Nurses agreed fall-risk tools, low-low beds and alert signs were useful for preventing falls (>70%). Views were mixed regarding positioning patients' walking aid within reach. Practical issues raised included access to equipment; and risk of staff injury with low-low bed use. Bathroom supervision was seen to be beneficial, however not always practical. Views on the program appropriateness and benefits were consistent across nurses and senior staff. Staff perceived the 6-PACK program as suitable, practical and beneficial, and were open to adopting the program. Some practical concerns were raised highlighting

  15. Barriers and enablers to the implementation of the 6-PACK falls prevention program: A pre-implementation study in hospitals participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Caroline A.; Landgren, Fiona S.; Melhem, Mayer M.; Bian, Evelyn; Brauer, Sandra G.; Hill, Keith D.; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for effective falls prevention interventions in acute wards is limited. One reason for this may be suboptimal program implementation. This study aimed to identify perceived barriers and enablers of the implementation of the 6-PACK falls prevention program to inform the implementation in a randomised controlled trial. Strategies to optimise successful implementation of 6-PACK were also sought. A mixed-methods approach was applied in 24 acute wards from 6 Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention. Information on barriers and enablers of 6-PACK implementation was obtained through surveys, focus groups and interviews. Questions reflected the COM-B framework that includes three behaviour change constructs of: capability, opportunity and motivation. Focus group and interview data were analysed thematically, and survey data descriptively. The survey response rate was 60% (420/702), and 12 focus groups (n = 96 nurses) and 24 interviews with senior staff were conducted. Capability barriers included beliefs that falls could not be prevented; and limited knowledge on falls prevention in patients with complex care needs (e.g. cognitive impairment). Capability enablers included education and training, particularly face to face case study based approaches. Lack of resources was identified as an opportunity barrier. Leadership, champions and using data to drive practice change were recognised as opportunity enablers. Motivation barriers included complacency and lack of ownership in falls prevention efforts. Motivation enablers included senior staff articulating clear goals and a commitment to falls prevention; and use of reminders, audits and feedback. The information gained from this study suggests that regular practical face-to-face education and training for nurses

  16. Acceptability of the 6-PACK falls prevention program: A pre-implementation study in hospitals participating in a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Keith D.; Brand, Caroline A.; Livingston, Patricia M.; Botti, Mari

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in the acute hospital setting. The 6-PACK falls prevention program includes a fall-risk tool; ‘falls alert’ signs; supervision of patients in the bathroom; ensuring patients’ walking aids are within reach; toileting regimes; low-low beds; and bed/chair alarms. This study explored the acceptability of the 6-PACK program from the perspective of nurses and senior staff prior to its implementation in a randomised controlled trial. A mixed-methods approach was applied involving 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including: Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention. Information on program acceptability (suitability, practicality and benefits) was obtained by surveys, focus groups and interviews. Survey data were analysed descriptively, and focus group and interview data thematically. The survey response rate was 60%. Twelve focus groups (n = 96 nurses) and 24 interviews with senior staff were conducted. Falls were identified as a priority patient safety issue and nurses as key players in falls prevention. The 6-PACK program was perceived to offer practical benefits compared to current practice. Nurses agreed fall-risk tools, low-low beds and alert signs were useful for preventing falls (>70%). Views were mixed regarding positioning patients’ walking aid within reach. Practical issues raised included access to equipment; and risk of staff injury with low-low bed use. Bathroom supervision was seen to be beneficial, however not always practical. Views on the program appropriateness and benefits were consistent across nurses and senior staff. Staff perceived the 6-PACK program as suitable, practical and beneficial, and were open to adopting the program. Some practical concerns were raised

  17. Identification of a novel distal control region upstream of the human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene that participates in SF-1-dependent chromatin architecture.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yazawa, Takashi; Ju, Yunfeng; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Uesaka, Miki; Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Matsuura, Kaoru; Kamiki, Yasue; Oki, Masaya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2010-09-03

    StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the process of which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis. Transcriptional regulation of the proximal promoter of the human StAR gene has been well characterized, whereas analysis of its distal control region has not. Recently, we found that SF-1 (steroidogenic factor 1) induced the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into steroidogenic cells with the concomitant strong induction of StAR expression. Here, we show, using differentiated MSCs, that StAR expression is regulated by a novel distal control region. Using electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we identified novel SF-1 binding sites between 3,000 and 3,400 bp upstream of StAR. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that the region worked as a strong regulator to exert maximal transcription of StAR. ChIP analysis of histone H3 revealed that upon SF-1 expression, nucleosome eviction took place at the SF-1 binding sites, not only in the promoter but also in the distal SF-1 binding sites. Chromosome conformation capture analysis revealed that the region upstream of StAR formed a chromatin loop both in the differentiated MSCs and in KGN cells, a human granulosa cell tumor cell line, where SF-1 is endogenously expressed. Finally, SF-1 knockdown resulted in disrupted formation of this chromatin loop in KGN cells. These results indicate that the novel distal control region participate in StAR activation through SF-1 dependent alterations of chromatin structure, including histone eviction and chromatin loop formation.

  18. Preliminary results on the control of Aedes spp. in a remote Guatemalan community vulnerable to dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus: community participation and use of low-cost ecological ovillantas for mosquito control

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Gerard; Betanzos, Angel; Betanzos, Mireya; Rojas, Juan Jacobo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of an integrated intervention of health worker training, a low-cost ecological mosquito ovitrap, and community engagement on Aedes spp. mosquito control over 10 months in 2015 in an urban remote community in Guatemala at risk of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus transmission. Methods: We implemented a three-component integrated intervention consisting of: web-based training of local health personnel in vector control, cluster-randomized assignment of an ecological modified ovitrap (ovillantas: ovi=egg, llanta=tire) or standard ovitraps to capture Aedes spp. mosquito eggs (no efforts have been taken to determine the exact Aedes species at this moment), and community engagement to promote participation of community members and health personnel in the understanding and maintenance of ovitraps for mosquito control. The intervention was implemented in local collaboration with Guatemala’s  Ministry of Health’s Vector Control Programme, and in international collaboration with the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico. Findings: Eighty percent of the 25 local health personnel enrolled in the training programme received accreditation of their improved knowledge of vector control. When ovillantas were used in a cluster of ovitraps (several in proximity), significantly more eggs were trapped by  ecological ovillantas than standard ovitraps over the 10 month (42 week) study period (t=5.2577; p<0.05). Repetitive filtering and recycling of the attractant solution (or water) kept the ovillanta clean, free from algae growth. Among both community members and health workers, the levels of knowledge, interest, and participation in community mosquito control and trapping increased. Recommendations for enhancing and sustaining community mosquito control were identified. Conclusion: Our three-component integrated intervention proved beneficial to this remote community at risk of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and

  19. Adherence to Internet-Based Mobile-Supported Stress Management: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Three Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Dirk; Berking, Matthias; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to treatment is a prevalent issue in Internet interventions. Guidance from health care professionals has been found to increase treatment adherence rates in Internet interventions for a range of physical and mental disorders. Evaluating different guidance formats of varying intensity is important, particularly with respect to improvement of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Identifying predictors of nonadherence allows for the opportunity to better adapt Internet interventions to the needs of participants especially at risk for discontinuing treatment. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of different guidance formats (content-focused guidance, adherence-focused guidance, and administrative guidance) on adherence and to identify predictors of nonadherence in an Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (ie, GET.ON Stress) for employees. Methods The data from the groups who received the intervention were pooled from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of the same Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (N=395). The RCTs only differed in terms of the guidance format (content-focused guidance vs waitlist control, adherence-focused guidance vs waitlist control, administrative guidance vs waitlist control). Adherence was defined by the number of completed treatment modules (0-7). An ANOVA was performed to compare the adherence rates from the different guidance formats. Multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of nonadherence, which included gender, age, education, symptom-related factors, and hope for improvement. Results In all, 70.5% (93/132) of the content-focused guidance sample, 68.9% (91/132) of the adherence-focused guidance sample, and 42.0% (55/131) of the participants in the administrative guidance sample completed all treatment modules. Guidance had a significant effect on treatment

  20. Thigh muscle strength in senior athletes and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2009-12-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group x gender x age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables (alpha = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study.

  1. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD.

  2. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  3. Lack of participation of the GSTM1 polymorphism in cervical cancer development in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Settheetham, Dariwan; Ishida, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    The potential association between the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer was investigated in Northeastern Thailand. DNA was extracted from buffy coat specimens of 198 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 198 age-matched healthy controls. Genotyping of the GSTM1 was conducted by using two PCR methods, a short- and a long-PCR. Distribution of the GSTM1 genotypes in between the cases and the controls was not significantly different (p>0.5 by χ2 test). The results suggest that the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism is not a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in the northeast Thai women.

  4. Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18 months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18 months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a

  5. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  6. An Analysis of Citizen Participation Programs Relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500): Case Studies of the Washington County Project; State of Wisconsin; and Dane County, Wisconsin Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Elizabeth E.

    The thesis, which presents an analysis of three Wisconsin citizen participation programs relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), has identified the adult education role in teaching and applying skills, promoting growth in governmental understanding, assisting in public planning and…

  7. The ‘diverse, dynamic new world of global tobacco control’? An analysis of participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries’ ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. Methods We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. Results While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Conclusions Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation. PMID:23152101

  8. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings.

  9. Dissociation between working memory performance and proactive interference control in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Swick, Diane; Cayton, Julien; Ashley, Victoria; Turken, And U

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory. It is unclear whether this dissociation applies to WM, as no studies have used identical task parameters across material. Here we tested 29 combat Veterans with PTSD and 29 age-matched control Veterans on a recent probes WM task with words and visual patterns in separate blocks. Participants studied four-item sets, followed by a probe stimulus that had been presented in the previous set (recent probe) or not (nonrecent probe). Participants with PTSD made more errors than controls, and this decrement was similar for verbal and visual stimuli. Proactive interference from items recently presented, but no longer relevant, was not significantly different in the PTSD group and showed no relationship to re-experiencing symptom severity. These results demonstrate that PTSD is not reliably associated with increased intrusions of irrelevant representations into WM when non-emotional stimuli are used. Future studies that use trauma-related material may provide insight into the flashbacks and intrusive thoughts that plague those with PTSD.

  10. Parent Reflections of Experiences of Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Intervention for Infants at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freuler, Ashley C.; Baranek, Grace T.; Tashjian, Christene; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the mounting evidence of efficacy of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders, there is little research that considers the various perceptions and resources with which parents respond to the pressures and opportunities associated with participation in early intervention. Research is particularly lacking…

  11. Macular Pigment Imaging in AREDS2 Participants: An Ancillary Study of AREDS2 Subjects Enrolled at the Moran Eye Center

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Ahmed, Faisal; Liu, Aihua; Allman, Susan; Sheng, Xiaoming; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor; Gellermann, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is a randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to determine whether supplementation with 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin per day can slow the rate of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although some biomarkers of response to carotenoid supplementation such as serum concentrations are part of the AREDS2 protocol, measurement of carotenoid concentrations in the eye and other tissues is not. In this approved ancillary study, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), macular pigment distributions, and skin carotenoid levels at enrollment and at each annual visit were measured to assess baseline carotenoid status and to monitor response to assigned interventions. Methods. All subjects enrolled at the Moran Eye Center had MPOD and macular pigment spatial distributions measured by dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging and total skin carotenoids measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results. Baseline MPOD in enrolled subjects was unusually high relative to an age-matched control group that did not consume carotenoid supplements regularly, consistent with the high rate of habitual lutein and zeaxanthin consumption in Utah AREDS2 subjects prior to enrollment. MPOD did not correlate with serum or skin carotenoid measurements. Conclusions. Useful information is provided through this ancillary study on the ocular carotenoid status of AREDS2 participants in the target tissue of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: The macula. When treatment assignments are unmasked at the conclusion of the study, unique tissue-based insights will be provided on the progression of AMD in response to long-term, high-dose carotenoid supplementation versus diet alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.) PMID:22879423

  12. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  13. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors and exercise performance in healthy participants: a randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.; Munir, Nimrah; Iniesta, Raquel Revuelta

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Evidence suggests associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension and excessive cortisol levels. Also, vitamin D levels may impact exercise performance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D intake on cardiovascular risk factors, free urinary cortisol and exercise performance. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded parallel trial was conducted in healthy participants (n = 15). They received 2000 IU (50 µg) vitamin D3 per day (n = 9) or placebo (lactose) (n = 6) for 14 days. Body composition, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and arterial elasticity (as measured by pulse wave velocity, PWV) were recorded at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of intervention. A total of two 24-hour urine samples were collected to estimate free cortisol and cortisone levels. Exercise performance was assessed at the baseline and day 14 of the intervention using a bike ergometer in which BP and PWV were measured before and after exercise. The distance cycled in 20 minutes and the Borg Scale rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results: In the intervention arm, at day 14, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced SBP and DBP from 115.8 ± 17.1 and 75.4 ± 10.3 at baseline to 106.3 ± 10.9 (p = 0.022) and 68.5 ± 10.1 mmHg (p = 0.012) respectively. Also arterial stiffness was markedly reduced in the vitamin D group (from 7.45 ± 1.55 to 6.11 ± 1.89, p = 0.049). Urinary free cortisol levels and cortisol/cortisone ratio were significantly reduced from 162.65 ± 58.9 nmol/day and 2.22 ± 0.7 to 96.4 ± 37.2 (p = 0.029) and 1.04 ± 0.4 (p = 0.017) respectively. Exercise-induced SBP and DBP were significantly reduced post vitamin D intake from 130.7 ± 12.2 to 116.1 ± 8.1 (p = 0.012) and from 76.2 ± 8.4 to 70.5 ± 7.7 mmHg (p = 0.042) respectively. The distance cycled in 20 minutes significantly increased from 4.98 ± 2.65 to 6

  14. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    PubMed

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Overcoming recruitment barriers revealed high readiness to participate and low dropout rate among people with schizophrenia in a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of a Guided Self-Determination intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment is one of the most serious challenges in performing randomized controlled trials. Often clinical trials with participants diagnosed with schizophrenia are terminated prematurely because of recruitment challenges resulting in a considerable waste of resources in the form of time, funding, and the participants’ efforts. Dropout rates in schizophrenia trials are also high. Recruitment challenges are often due to patients not wanting to participate in research but can also be due to clinicians’ concerns regarding individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia as participants in research. This paper reports how overcoming recruitment challenges not related to patients revealed high readiness to take part and low dropout rates in a one year long randomized controlled trial testing Guided Self-Determination (GSD) among outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment in Assertive Outreach Teams in the northern part of Denmark. Methods GSD is a shared decision-making and mutual problem-solving method using reflection sheets, which was developed in diabetes care and adjusted for this study and utilized by patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive data on strategies to overcome recruitment challenges were derived from notes and observations made during the randomized controlled trial testing of GSD in six outpatient teams. Results Three types of recruitment challenges not related to patients were identified and met during the trial: 1) organizational challenges, 2) challenges with finding eligible participants and 3) challenges with having professionals invite patients to participate. These challenges were overcome through: 1) extension of time, 2) expansion of the clinical recruitment area and 3) encouragement of professionals to invite patients to the study. Through overcoming these challenges, we identified a remarkably high patient-readiness to take part (101 of 120 asked accepted) and a low dropout rate (8%). Conclusion Distinction between

  16. 21 CFR 1404.980 - Participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participant. 1404.980 Section 1404.980 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.980 Participant. Participant means any person who submits a proposal for or who enters...

  17. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  18. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  19. Federal participation in LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2004-11-10

    The federal government has been an active participant in the development and use of USGBC's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (LEED). This paper presents a review of this participation and some expectations for ongoing partnership.

  20. The Effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial Intervention on Dietary Patterns in Obese Pregnant Women Participating in a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Angela C.; Schneeberger, Caroline; Seed, Paul T.; Barr, Suzanne; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) behavioral intervention on dietary patterns in obese pregnant women. METHODS Dietary patterns were derived from Food Frequency Questionnaires using principal component analysis in 183 UPBEAT pilot study participants. RESULTS Two unhealthy dietary patterns, processed and traditional, predominantly characterized by foods high in sugar and fat, improved [processed −0.54 (−0.92 to −0.16), P = 0.006 and traditional −0.83 (−1.20 to −0.45), P < 0.001] following the intervention, while a cultural pattern that was found to be associated with the Black African/Caribbean participants did not change [−0.10 (−0.46 to 0.26), P = 0.589]. CONCLUSION Unhealthy dietary patterns are evident in obese pregnant women. The UPBEAT intervention was effective in improving maternal dietary patterns; however, obese pregnant women from minority ethnic groups may be less receptive to intervention. PMID:27385914

  1. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  2. School Lunch Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchino, Lori; Ranney, Christine K.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in participation in National School Lunch Program in 1981-82 are of concern to hunger groups and legislators. Extent to which Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA) of 1980-81 contributes to participation decline was measured by simulation model in New York State. Results suggest that OBRA increased participation; declining…

  3. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  4. Challenges in demonstrating the effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatment on quality of life, participation and health care utilisation in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Kroese, Mariëlle; Tan, Frans; Boonen, Annelies; Bessems-Beks, Monique; Landewé, Robert

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention with aftercare (MD) compared to aerobic exercise (AE) and usual care (UC) in recently diagnosed patients with fibromyalgia (FM). In a Zelen-like design, eligible patients from the outpatient rheumatology clinics of three medical centres in the South of the Netherlands were consecutively recruited and pre-randomised to MD (n = 108), AE (n = 47) or UC (n = 48). MD consisted of a 12-week course of sociotherapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy and creative arts therapy (three half days per week), followed by five aftercare meetings in 9 months. AE was given twice a week in a 12-week course. UC varied but incorporated at least education and lifestyle advice. Primary outcomes were health-related quality of life (HR-Qol), participation and health care utilisation. Secondary outcome was the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Total follow-up duration of the study was 21-24 months. As willingness to participate in AE was limited, this group has been analysed but interpretation of the data is considered arguable. Within the MD group, a statistically significantly improved HR-Qol and a statistically significant reduction in number of hours sick leave, number of contacts with general practitioners and number of contacts with medical specialists was found. Moreover, statistically significant improvements were found on the FIQ, which increased after the intervention. However, no statistically significant between-group differences were found at the endpoint of the study. MD seemed to yield positive effects, but firm conclusions with regard to effectiveness cannot be formulated due to small between-group differences and limitations of the study.

  5. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  6. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  7. Error types and error positions in neglect dyslexia: comparative analyses in neglect patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to healthy controls. This question has been difficult to answer so far, given the usually low number of reading errors in healthy controls. Therefore, the present study compared single word reading of 18 patients with left-sided neglect, due to right-hemisphere stroke, and 11 age-matched healthy controls, and adjusted individual task difficulty (by varying stimulus presentation times in participants) in order to reach approximately equal error rates between neglect patients and controls. Results showed that, while both omission and substitution errors were frequently produced in neglect patients and controls, only omissions appeared neglect-specific when task difficulty was adapted between groups. Analyses of individual letter positions within words revealed that the spatial distribution of reading errors in the neglect dyslexic patients followed an almost linear increase from the end to the beginning of the word (right-to-left-gradient). Both, the gradient in error positions and the predominance of omission errors presented a neglect-specific pattern. Consistent with current models of visual word processing, these findings suggest that ND reflects sublexical, visuospatial attentional mechanisms in letter string encoding.

  8. Nutrient patterns and asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, G; Amirjannati, N; Rashidkhani, B; Sadeghi, M-R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2017-04-01

    The association of dietary nutrient patterns and sperm motility is not yet well elucidated, and previous studies have just focused on the isolated nutrients. This case-control study examined the association of nutrient patterns with asthenozoospermia among Iranian men. In total, 107 incident asthenozoospermic men and 235 age-matched controls were interviewed through the infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2012 to November 2013. Semen quality data were analysed according to the fifth edition of WHO guideline. Nutrient patterns were identified using principal component analysis based on semiquantitative 168-item food frequency questionnaires. All nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted by the residual method. In principal component analysis, three dietary patterns emerged. The first pattern, which was high in vitamin E, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, folate, total fibre, selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly associated with lower risk of asthenozoospermia. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores had 51% lower risk of asthenozoospermia compared with those in the lowest (p-trend: .004). Our findings suggest that adherence to the pattern comprising mainly of antioxidant nutrients may be inversely associated with asthenozoospermia.

  9. Psychodrama Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Peter Felix

    1987-01-01

    Administered questionnaire to 40 psychodrama participants and 42 controls with no psychotherapy experience to assess which specific events they would find helpful in psychotherapy. Psychodrama participants perceived emotional abreaction and cognitive insight most helpful while controls considered nonspecific healing aids most helpful. Suggests…

  10. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HHS participation. 41.6 Section 41.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The...

  11. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HHS participation. 41.6 Section 41.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The...

  12. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true HHS participation. 41.6 Section 41.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The...

  13. Investigation of Color Constancy in 4.5-Month-Old Infants under a Strict Control of Luminance Contrast for Individual Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined color constancy in infants using a familiarization paradigm. We first obtained isoluminance in each infant as defined by the minimum motion paradigm and used these data to control the luminance of stimuli in the main experiments. In the familiarization phase of the main experiment, two identical smiling face patterns…

  14. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Fresh Start randomized controlled trial: Baseline participant characteristics and reliability of measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Fresh Start (WFS) is a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (F/V) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in WIC. Our objectives were to describe the ...

  15. A case-control study of cholecystectomy and right-side colon cancer: the influence of alternative data sources and differential interview participation proportions on odds ratio estimates.

    PubMed

    Vernick, L J; Kuller, L H

    1982-07-01

    One hundred fifty patients with right-side colon cancer (i.e., patients with adenocarcinoma of the cecum or ascending colon) were compared to 150 matched left-side colon cancer controls (i.e., patients with adenocarcinoma of the descending or sigmoid colon) and to 123 neighborhood controls, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, 1975-1978. The gastrointestinal surgical history was ascertained for all study subjects so that the presence or absence of a history of cholecystectomy could be noted. Cholecystectomy history was obtained through telephone interviews and whenever possible subsequently validated from operative and pathology reports at time of cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy history for the colon cancer patients was also abstracted from hospital records at time of colon cancer diagnosis with an attempt to confirm the gallbladder's status through operative reports, cholecystograms, and physical examinations. Hospital records and interviews for the colon cancer patients appeared to provide accurate exposure history. Point estimates of the odds ratios and confidence intervals for intra- and inter-data source comparisons (i.e., hospital records, interviews, and hospital records and interviews combined) were comparable with similar measures of effect. Consistent odds ratio estimates appeared in both left-side colon cancer controls (1.9) and neighborhood controls (1.89). The authors suggest that changes in bile acid metabolism following cholecystectomy may be associated an increased risk of right-side colon cancer.

  16. Patterns of public participation.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies.

  17. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  18. Parkinsonian deficits in context-dependent regulation of standing postural control.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lesley A; Doan, Jon B; Whishaw, Ian Q; Suchowersky, Oksana

    2007-05-18

    This study explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease alter the regulation of upright standing according to constraints imposed by the environmental context. The provision of context-dependent adaptations was inferred from the presence of adjustments to standing postural control that would serve to reduce fall risk when balance was challenged by a threatening environmental context. Participants were asked to stand as still as possible in two environmental context conditions that differed in the level of imposed postural threat: LOW threat and HIGH threat. Eight levodopa dependent patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and eight age-matched control subjects (CTRL) provided the subject sample. PD patients were tested following a 12-h withdrawal of anti-Parkinsonian medications and approximately 1h post-medication. The CTRL group showed altered postural control in the HIGH threat condition, in a manner that was indicative of appropriate context-dependent regulation of standing. PD patients, in the non-medicated or medicated states, did not modify stance regulation when the environmental context heightened postural threat. Our results extend the current understanding of Parkinsonian deficits in the context-dependent regulation of postural control to include upright standing.

  19. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  20. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants12

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. Design: A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. Conclusion: The structural integrity of wheat

  1. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Andreia G.; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  2. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations.

  3. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population.

  4. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (1) priority areas for ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was created to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. Its main strategy is community directed treatment with ivermectin. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. The present article reports the mapping of high risk areas where onchocerciasis was a public health problem. The companion article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods REMO consists of three stages: exclusion of areas that are unsuitable for the vector, selection of sample villages to be surveyed in each river basin, and examination of 30 to 50 adults for the presence of palpable onchocercal nodules in each selected village. The survey results and other relevant information were processed in a geographical information system. A panel of experts interpreted the data taking the river-based sampling into account and delineated high risk areas where the prevalence of nodules is greater than 20%. Results Unsuitable areas were identified in eight countries. In the remaining areas surveys were done in a total of 14,473 sample villages in which more than half a million people were examined. High-risk areas were identified in 18 APOC countries, ranging from small isolated foci to a vast contiguous endemic area of 2 million km2 running across seven countries. In five countries the high risk area covered more than 48% of the total surface area, and 31% to 48% of the population. It is estimated that 86 million people live in high risk areas in the APOC countries. Conclusions The REMO maps have played a significant role in onchocerciasis control in the 20 APOC countries. All high-risk areas where onchocerciasis used to be a serious public

  5. A block randomized controlled trial of a brief smoking cessation counselling and advice through short message service on participants who joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophia S C; Wong, David C N; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y P; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-08-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received eight text messages through mobile phone and (iii) The CONTROL group (n = 330) did not receive the above interventions. Participants with biochemically verified abstinence at 6-month follow-up could receive cash incentive. The primary outcome was the self-reported 7-day point prevalence (PP) of tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The abstinence rate in the TEL, SMS and CONTROL group was 22.2, 20.6 and 20.3%, respectively (P for TEL versus CONTROL = 0.32; P for SMS versus CONTROL = 0.40). When abstinence at 2-, 6- and 12-month follow-up was modelled simultaneously, the TEL group had a higher abstinence than the CONTROL group (Adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01-1.88, P = 0 .04). In the Quit to Win Contest, the brief telephone counselling might have increased abstinence, but the text messages had no significant effect. Further studies on intensive intervention and interactive messaging services are warranted.

  6. A block randomized controlled trial of a brief smoking cessation counselling and advice through short message service on participants who joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Wong, David C. N.; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received eight text messages through mobile phone and (iii) The CONTROL group (n = 330) did not receive the above interventions. Participants with biochemically verified abstinence at 6-month follow-up could receive cash incentive. The primary outcome was the self-reported 7-day point prevalence (PP) of tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The abstinence rate in the TEL, SMS and CONTROL group was 22.2, 20.6 and 20.3%, respectively (P for TEL versus CONTROL = 0.32; P for SMS versus CONTROL = 0.40). When abstinence at 2-, 6- and 12-month follow-up was modelled simultaneously, the TEL group had a higher abstinence than the CONTROL group (Adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01–1.88, P = 0 .04). In the Quit to Win Contest, the brief telephone counselling might have increased abstinence, but the text messages had no significant effect. Further studies on intensive intervention and interactive messaging services are warranted. PMID:26116584

  7. The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT), a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of green tea extract on biomarkers of breast cancer risk: Study rationale, design, methods, and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Samavat, Hamed; Dostal, Allison M.; Wang, Renwei; Bedell, Sarah; Emory, Tim H.; Ursin, Giske; Torkelson, Carolyn J.; Gross, Myron D.; Le, Chap T.; Yu, Mimi C.; Yang, Chung S.; Yee, Douglas; Wu, Anna H.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial investigating the effect of daily green tea extract consumption for 12 months on biomarkers of breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were healthy postmenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer due to dense breast tissue with differing catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes. The intervention was a green tea catechin extract containing 843.0 ± 44.0 mg/day epigallocatechin gallate or placebo capsules for one year. Annual digital screening mammograms were obtained at baseline and month 12, and fasting blood and 24-hour urine samples were provided at baseline, months 6, and 12. Primary endpoints included changes in percent mammographic density, circulating endogenous sex hormones and insulin-like growth factor axis proteins; secondary endpoints were changes in urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and circulating F2-isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidative stress. Results The MGTT screened more than 100,000 mammograms and randomized 1075 participants based on treatment (green tea extract vs. placebo), stratified by COMT genotype activity (high COMT vs. low/intermediate COMT genotype activity). 937 women successfully completed the study and 138 dropped out (overall dropout rate= 12.8%). Conclusions In this paper we report the rationale, design, recruitment, participant characteristics, and methods for biomarker and statistical analyses. PMID:26206423

  8. Sleep disorders in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease): a controlled polysomnographic and self-reported questionnaires study.

    PubMed

    Romigi, Andrea; Liguori, Claudio; Placidi, Fabio; Albanese, Maria; Izzi, Francesca; Uasone, Elisabetta; Terracciano, Chiara; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Ludovisi, Raffaella; Massa, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    No data are available regarding the occurrence of sleep disorders in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). We investigated the sleep-wake cycle in SBMA patients compared with healthy subjects. Nine SBMA outpatients and nine age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated. Subjective quality of sleep was assessed by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used in order to evaluate excessive daytime sleepiness. All participants underwent a 48-h polysomnography followed by the multiple sleep latency test. Time in bed, total sleep time and sleep efficiency were significantly lower in SBMA than controls. Furthermore, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly higher in SBMA than controls. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA: AHI >5/h) was evident in 6/9 patients (66.6 %). REM sleep without atonia was evident in three patients also affected by OSA and higher AHI in REM; 2/9 (22.2 %) SBMA patients showed periodic limb movements in sleep. The global PSQI score was higher in SBMA versus controls. Sleep quality in SBMA is poorer than in controls. OSA is the most common sleep disorder in SBMA. The sleep impairment could be induced both by OSA or/and the neurodegenerative processes involving crucial areas regulating the sleep-wake cycle.

  9. Impact of different privacy conditions and incentives on survey response rate, participant representativeness, and disclosure of sensitive information: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anonymous survey methods appear to promote greater disclosure of sensitive or stigmatizing information compared to non-anonymous methods. Higher disclosure rates have traditionally been interpreted as being more accurate than lower rates. We examined the impact of 3 increasingly private mailed survey conditions—ranging from potentially identifiable to completely anonymous—on survey response and on respondents’ representativeness of the underlying sampling frame, completeness in answering sensitive survey items, and disclosure of sensitive information. We also examined the impact of 2 incentives ($10 versus $20) on these outcomes. Methods A 3X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial of 324 representatively selected, male Gulf War I era veterans who had applied for United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Men were asked about past sexual assault experiences, childhood abuse, combat, other traumas, mental health symptoms, and sexual orientation. We used a novel technique, the pre-merged questionnaire, to link anonymous responses to administrative data. Results Response rates ranged from 56.0% to 63.3% across privacy conditions (p = 0.49) and from 52.8% to 68.1% across incentives (p = 0.007). Respondents’ characteristics differed by privacy and by incentive assignments, with completely anonymous respondents and $20 respondents appearing least different from their non-respondent counterparts. Survey completeness did not differ by privacy or by incentive. No clear pattern of disclosing sensitive information by privacy condition or by incentive emerged. For example, although all respondents came from the same sampling frame, estimates of sexual abuse ranged from 13.6% to 33.3% across privacy conditions, with the highest estimate coming from the intermediate privacy condition (p = 0.007). Conclusion Greater privacy and larger incentives do not necessarily result in higher disclosure rates of sensitive information

  10. Participative Management at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Business Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This interview with the chief executive of Donnelly Mirrors, Inc. explains the basis of the company's leadership in participative management and discusses why it is more successful than traditional authority-based management styles. (Author/JG)

  11. Control of angular momentum during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Kaat, Desloovere; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Children with hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (CP) walk with marked asymmetries. For instance, we have recently shown that they have less arm swing on the affected side, and more arm swing at the unaffected side. Such an increase in arm swing at the unaffected side may be aimed at controlling total body angular momentum about the vertical axis, although it was never investigated in this respect. In the current study, we thus investigated if participants with hemiparetic CP control angular momentum by compensatory movements of the unaffected arm. We measured gait kinematics of 11 CP children, and 24 age matched typically developing (TD) children, walking at both self-selected and fast walking speeds, and calculated angular momenta. We found that children with hemiparetic CP did not have a reduced angular momentum of the affected arm. However, they showed substantial increases in angular momentum generated by the legs, which were compensated by increased angular momentum of the unaffected arm. As a result, there were no differences in total body angular momentum between TD and CP children. Moreover, walking speed had no effect on total body angular momentum in both groups. These findings support the idea that angular momentum during walking is a controlled variable, even in children with hemiplegic CP.

  12. Factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a case-control study of Belgrade women.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Anita; Gledovic, Zorana; Vujasinovic-Stupar, Nada

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors related to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Belgrade. A case-control study was conducted during 2006-2007. The study group consisted of 100 newly diagnosed osteoporosis patients and 100 age-matched controls (± 2 years). The inclusion criteria for the case group were newly diagnosed osteoporosis confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and being menopausal (at least 2 years of amenorrhea). The inclusion criteria for the control group were postmenopausal women with confirmed normal bone mineral density of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The following factors were significantly independently related to osteoporosis: low body weight (P < 0.001), thin constitution in childhood (P = 0.002), history of previous fracture (P = 0.033), menopause at age <47 years (P < 0.001), family history of fracture (P = 0.005), and less frequent consumption of cheese (P = 0.027) and fish (P = 0.020). The majority of factors identified may be modifiable and could be influenced to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. General practitioner notes as a source of information for case-control studies in young women. UK National Case-Control Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, C E; Pike, M C; Taylor, C N; Hermon, C; Crossley, B; Smith, S J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The UK National Case-Control Study was carried out to investigate the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk. This study investigates whether general practitioner notes could be used as the sole data source for epidemiological studies of young women and what the effect would be on non-response and recall bias. DESIGN--Case-control study with data on gynaecological, obstetric, and contraceptive history collected at interview and from general practitioners' notes. Information from these two sources was compared. SETTING--This was a population-based study. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 755 women with breast cancer aged under 36 years at diagnosis, each with an age-matched control, participated in the study. Response rates at interview were 72% and 89% for cases and controls but GP data were available for 90% of the 1049 case and first-selected control pairs. MAIN RESULTS--There was generally good agreement between the two data sources with respect to obstetric history and gynaecological procedures (hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and tubal ligation). The use of intra-uterine devices, or diaphragm, and partner's vasectomy were not reliably recorded in the GP's notes. The overall results of the UK study would have been qualitatively the same with respect to the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk if GP notes only had been used, in spite of the fact that only about half of all oral contraceptive usage was recorded in the notes. Response rates would have been higher, recall bias eliminated, and the cost of the study halved. CONCLUSIONS--When planning case-control studies in young women, the possibility of using GP notes as the primary data source should be considered. Lack of data on potential confounding factors is a possible drawback to such use. The practice of destroying GP's notes shortly after the death of patients seriously restricts the possibility of using these notes when studying rapidly fatal

  14. Examination of central gait control mechanisms in Parkinson's disease using movement-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Shoushtarian, Mehrnaz; Murphy, Anna; Iansek, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Gait disorders are common in people with Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology of these disorders is not fully understood. Movement-related potentials reflect supplementary motor area activity associated with the preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Our aim was to investigate movement-related potentials associated with gait disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease, as reflected by gait hypokinesia and initiation difficulties, in order to better understand the role of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Movement-related potentials were back-averaged from electroencephalography recordings performed on 11 participants with Parkinson's disease with no gait initiation difficulties, 9 participants with Parkinson's disease who suffered from gait initiation difficulties, 12 young healthy adults, and 8 healthy older adults. Participants took 3 steps forward, stepping off a force plate. Trigger signals from the force plate and electromyographic activity of the tibialis anterior muscle were used to identify gait initiation time. Participants' stride length was also measured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Movement-related potentials showed significant group differences between the healthy young adults and the 2 Parkinson's disease groups as well as the Parkinson's disease group as a whole. No significant difference was found between the participants with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. A significant inverse relationship between movement-related potentials and stride length was found in patients with Parkinson's disease who did not experience gait initiation difficulties but not in those who did have this symptom. Gait-generated movement-related potentials appear to show electrical evidence of cortical disturbances correlated with stride length reduction in patients with Parkinson's disease without gait initiation difficulties.

  15. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling M.; Tassone, Flora; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs) have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the FMR1 gene and are at increased risk of developing fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB) task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18–48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (n = 19) and age-matched male controls (n = 20). We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of executive working memory. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, in control participants we replicated a previously observed effect and demonstrated that it persists under more stringent theoretical constraints, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared. PMID:25698960

  16. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies.

  17. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Sonya L.; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F.; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E.; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S.; Kwa, Suefen

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Median age was 38 years, median pre-ART HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156 PMID

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  19. Patterns of Somatic Diagnoses in Older People with Intellectual Disability: A Swedish Eleven Year Case-Control Study of Inpatient Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Magnus; Ahlström, Gerd; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about diagnoses patterns in older people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Methods: The case group (n = 7936) comprised people with intellectual disabilities aged 55 years and older. The control group (n = 7936) was age matched and sex matched. Somatic inpatient diagnoses (2002-2012) were collected retrospectively.…

  20. The Effect of Task-Irrelevant Fearful-Face Distractor on Working Memory Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment versus Healthy Controls: An Exploratory fMRI Study in Female Participants

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Chung, Jun Ku; Arena, Amanda; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Mitchell, Derek G. V.

    2016-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk state for Alzheimer's disease, patients have objective cognitive deficits with relatively preserved functioning. fMRI studies have identified anomalies during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with MCI. The effect of task-irrelevant emotional face distractor on WM processing in MCI remains unclear. We aim to explore the impact of fearful-face task-irrelevant distractor on WM processing in MCI using fMRI. Hypothesis. Compared to healthy controls (HC), MCI patients will show significantly higher BOLD signal in a priori identified regions of interest (ROIs) during a WM task with a task-irrelevant emotional face distractor. Methods. 9 right-handed female participants with MCI and 12 matched HC performed a WM task with standardized task-irrelevant fearful versus neutral face distractors randomized and counterbalanced across WM trials. MRI images were acquired during the WM task and BOLD signal was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to identify signal patterns during the task response phase. Results. Task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor resulted in higher activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and frontal areas, in MCI participants compared to HC. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests altered WM processing as a result of fearful-face distractor in MCI. PMID:26949290

  1. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed…

  2. Participative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 6 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter makes a case for the use of participative decision-making (PDM) at the school-site level, outlines guidelines for its implementation, and describes the experiences of some schools with PDM systems. It begins by citing research indicating the advantages of PDM, including better decisions,…

  3. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  4. Family Participation in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

  5. Increasing Participation through Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Bridget; Wager, Anita A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many challenges teachers face is trying to differentiate instruction so all students have equal opportunities to participate, learn, and engage. To provide guidelines for differentiated instruction in mathematics, staff from the Madison Metropolitan School District in Wisconsin created a pedagogical framework for teaching called…

  6. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…

  7. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  8. [Discourses and practices concerning the social participation process in health education activities: community mobilization in the PCDEN/PE. Programa de Controle das Doenças Endêmicas do Nordeste/Pernambuco].

    PubMed

    Acioli, M D; de Carvalho, E F

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzes and compares several social participation concepts in health education processes to practical experiences with schistosomiasis prevention measures under the Northeast Endemic Disease Control Program (Brazilian Ministry of Health/World Bank, 1987). Using qualitative methods, institutional documents and discourses were interpreted (Sucam, FNS, and Ministry of Health). A field study was also performed (using interviews with community-based health agents and the general population) in the Zona da Mata region of Pernambuco (a historically endemic area for schistosomiasis), focused in the county of Amaraji. Comparing discourses and educational practices, we found factors that explain respective points of convergence and divergence, as well as elements linked to the social and historical process of the target population which systematically limit the efficacy of such educational measures.

  9. Postural control in bipolar disorder: increased sway area and decreased dynamical complexity.

    PubMed

    Bolbecker, Amanda R; Hong, S Lee; Kent, Jerillyn S; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2011-01-01

    Structural, neurochemical, and functional abnormalities have been identified in the brains of individuals with bipolar disorder, including in key brain structures implicated in postural control, i.e. the cerebellum, brainstem, and basal ganglia. Given these findings, we tested the hypothesis that postural control deficits are present in individuals with bipolar disorder. Sixteen participants with bipolar disorder (BD) and 16 age-matched non-psychiatric healthy controls were asked to stand as still as possible on a force platform for 2 minutes under 4 conditions: (1) eyes open-open base; (2) eyes closed-open base; (3) eyes open-closed base; and (4) eyes closed-closed base. Postural sway data were submitted to conventional quantitative analyses of the magnitude of sway area using the center of pressure measurement. In addition, data were submitted to detrended fluctuation analysis, a nonlinear dynamical systems analytic technique that measures complexity of a time-series, on both the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The bipolar disorder group had increased sway area, indicative of reduced postural control. Decreased complexity in the medio-lateral direction was also observed for the bipolar disorder group, suggesting both a reduction in dynamic range available to them for postural control, and that their postural corrections were primarily dominated by longer time-scales. On both of these measures, significant interactions between diagnostic group and visual condition were also observed, suggesting that the BD participants were impaired in their ability to make corrections to their sway pattern when no visual information was available. Greater sway magnitude and reduced complexity suggest that individuals with bipolar disorder have deficits in sensorimotor integration and a reduced range of timescales available on which to make postural corrections.

  10. Effects of nurse-led motivational interviewing of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in preparation of rehabilitation treatment (PREPARE) on societal participation, attendance level, and cost-effectiveness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence and drop-out are major problems in pain rehabilitation. For patients with various health problems, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising effects to tackle these problems. In chronic pain patients, the effectiveness of MI is however unknown. Therefore, a MI-based pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) addressing motivation, expectations, and beliefs has been developed to prepare eligible patients for rehabilitation treatment. Methods/design Study design: A parallel randomized controlled trial including two interventions: a motivational interviewing pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) and a usual care (UC) control arm. Follow-up will be 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Study population: One hundred and sixty (n = 80 per arm) patients with chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain visiting an outpatient rehabilitation department, who are eligible to participate in an outpatient cognitive behavioral pain rehabilitation program. Intervention: MIP consists of two sessions to prepare and motivate the patient for pain rehabilitation treatment and its bio psychosocial approach. UC consists of information and education about the etiology and the general rehabilitation approach of chronic pain. Both the MIP and UC contain two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes each. Objective: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MIP compared to UC in terms of an increase in the long-term level of societal participation and decrease of drop-out during rehabilitation treatment. Main study endpoints: Primary outcome is the change in level of participation (according to the ICF-definition: ‘involvement in a life situation’) 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Secondary outcomes are adherence and treatment drop-out, disability, pain intensity, self-reported main complaints, (pain-specific) self-efficacy, motivation, and quality of life. Costs are calculated including the costs

  11. Poverty, health and participation.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, S

    2007-09-01

    Poverty is an important influence on health and despite continuing economic growth, poverty and health inequalities persist. Current public policy aims to reduce the inequalities in the health, by focussing on the social factors influencing health, improving access to health and personal social services for those who are poor or socially excluded and by improving the information and research base in respect of the health status and service access for the poor and socially excluded groups. It is important that processes for target setting and evaluation involve people experiencing poverty, at all levels through consultative and participative structures and processes and in the roll-out of primary care teams. A number of projects throughout the country aim to address health inequalities using community development. These are essentially about widening participation in the development, planning and delivery of health services and ensuring that the community is actively involved in the decision making process about health services in their area.

  12. Low bone mineral density is two to three times more prevalent in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes: a comprehensive controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Wark, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare bone mineral density (BMD), investigate factors associated with BMD, and examine the prevalence of low BMD in athletes and non-athletic controls. Methods: The study included a questionnaire (part I), measurement of BMD (part II), and a clinical interview (part III). All Norwegian female athletes on national teams (n = 938) and an aged matched random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 900) were invited to participate. The questionnaire was completed by 88% of athletes and 70% of controls. A random sample of these athletes (n = 300) and controls (n = 300) was invited to participate in parts II and III. All parts were completed by 186 athletes (62%) and 145 controls (48%). Results: Mean (standard deviation) total body (TB) BMD was higher (p<0.001) in athletes (1.21 (0.09) g/cm2) than in controls (1.18 (0.08) g/cm2), and higher (p<0.001) in high impact (HI) sports athletes than in medium impact (MI) and low impact (LI) sports athletes. In athletes, body weight and impact loading sports were positively associated, and percent body fat and eating disorders were negatively associated with TB BMD. Body weight and weight bearing activities were positively associated and menstrual dysfunction was negatively associated with TB BMD in controls. A higher percentage of controls (28.3%) than athletes (10.7%) had low BMD (p<0.001). Conclusion: Female elite athletes have 3–20% higher BMD than non-athletic controls and HI sports athletes have 3–22% higher BMD compared with MI and LI sports athletes. Low BMD is two to three times more common in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes. PMID:15849292

  13. Neuropsychological evidence for the functional role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic control.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Denise Y; Wei, Tao; Ellmore, Timothy M; Hamilton, A Cris; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2013-04-01

    Understanding a word requires mapping sounds to a word-form and then identifying its correct meaning, which in some cases necessitates the recruitment of cognitive control processes to direct the activation of semantic knowledge in a task appropriate manner (i.e., semantic control). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies identify a fronto-temporal network important for word comprehension. However, little is known about the connectional architecture subserving controlled retrieval and selection of semantic knowledge during word comprehension. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in aphasic individuals with varying degrees of word comprehension deficits to examine the role of three white matter pathways within this network: the uncinate fasciculus (UF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). Neuroimaging data from a group of age-matched controls were also collected in order to establish that the patient group had decreased structural and functional connectivity profiles. We obtained behavioral data from aphasic participants on two measures of single word comprehension that involve semantic control, and assessed pathway functional significance by correlating patients' performance with indices of pathway structural integrity and the functional connectivity profiles of regions they connect. Both the structural integrity of the UF and the functional connectivity strength of regions it connects predicted patients' performance. This result suggests the semantic control impairment in word comprehension resulted from poor neural communication between regions the UF connects. Inspections of other subcortical and cortical structures revealed no relationship with patients' performance. We conclude that the UF mediates semantic control during word comprehension by connecting regions specialized for cognitive control with those storing word meanings. These

  14. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this subpart, and to provide the Director with technical assistance in conducting such feasibility... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The...

  15. 9 CFR 54.21 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF SCRAPIE Scrapie Flock Certification Program § 54.21 Participation. Any owner of a sheep or goat flock may apply to enter the Scrapie Flock Certification Program by sending a written request to a State scrapie certification board or...

  16. Community-Academic Partnership Participation.

    PubMed

    Meza, Rosemary; Drahota, Amy; Spurgeon, Emily

    2016-10-01

    Community-academic partnerships (CAPs) improve the research process, outcomes, and yield benefits for the community and researchers. This exploratory study examined factors important in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community stakeholders, previously contacted to participate in a CAP (n = 18), completed the 15-item Decision to Participate Questionnaire (DPQ). The DPQ assessed reasons for participating or declining participation in the ASD CAP. CAP participants rated networking with other providers, fit of collaboration with agency philosophy, and opportunity for future training/consultations as factors more important in their decision to participate in the ASD CAP than nonparticipants. Nonparticipants reported the number of requests to participate in research as more important in their decision to decline participation than participants. Findings reveal important factors in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs that may provide guidance on increasing community engagement in CAPs and help close the science-to-service gap.

  17. [Women's participation in science].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men.

  18. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents.

  19. Baseline characteristics of participants in the JUPITER trial, a randomized placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among individuals with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Ridker, Paul M; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M; Kastelein, John J P; Khurmi, Nardev S; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T; Glynn, Robert J

    2007-12-01

    The Justification for the Use of statins in Primary prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among persons with average to low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol who are at increased cardiovascular risk due to elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). A total of 17,802 persons with LDL cholesterol<130 mg/dl (3.36 mmol/L) and hs-CRP>or=2 mg/L were recruited from 26 countries and randomly allocated to 20 mg/day rosuvastatin or placebo. In contrast to previous studies of statin therapy in primary prevention, JUPITER is evaluating a group with modest plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol (median 108 mg/dl, interquartile range 94 to 119). Further, the trial includes 6,801 women (38.2%) and 5,577 participants with metabolic syndrome (32.1%). Thus, in addition to broadening our understanding of statin therapy and inflammation, the JUPITER trial will provide important and clinically relevant information on primary prevention among patients who do not currently qualify for lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, as 20 mg of rosuvastatin can reduce LDL cholesterol by up to 50%, JUPITER will also provide crucial safety data for several thousand patients who should achieve LDL cholesterol levels<50 mg/dl on a long-term basis.

  20. Comparison of post-treatment effects of conventional and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS): A randomised placebo-controlled study using cold-induced pain and healthy human participants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Richard P; Marchant, Paul R; Johnson, Mark I

    2011-11-01

    TENS can be administered in conventional (high frequency, low intensity) or acupuncture-like (AL-TENS: low frequency, high intensity) formats. It is claimed that AL-TENS produces stronger and longer-lasting hypoalgesia than conventional TENS, although evidence is lacking. This randomised controlled parallel group study compared the effects of 30 minutes of AL-TENS, conventional TENS, and placebo (no current) TENS, on cold-pressor pain threshold (CPT), in 43 healthy participants. Results showed a greater increase in mean log(e) cold-pressor pain threshold relative to baseline for both AL-TENS and conventional TENS vs. placebo TENS, and for AL-TENS vs. placebo 5 and 15 minutes after TENS was switched off. There were no statistically significant differences between conventional TENS vs. placebo or between AL-TENS vs. conventional TENS at 5 or 15 minutes after TENS was switched off. In conclusion, AL-TENS but not conventional TENS prolonged post-stimulation hypoalgesia compared to placebo TENS. However, no differences between AL-TENS and conventional TENS were detected in head-to-head comparisons.

  1. Developmental vision determines the reference frame for the multisensory control of action.

    PubMed

    Röder, Brigitte; Kusmierek, Anna; Spence, Charles; Schicke, Tobias

    2007-03-13

    Both animal and human studies suggest that action goals are defined in external coordinates regardless of their sensory modality. The present study used an auditory-manual task to test whether the default use of such an external reference frame is innately determined or instead acquired during development because of the increasing dominance of vision over manual control. In Experiment I, congenitally blind, late blind, and age-matched sighted adults had to press a left or right response key depending on the bandwidth of pink noise bursts presented from either the left or right loudspeaker. Although the spatial location of the sounds was entirely task-irrelevant, all groups responded more efficiently with uncrossed hands when the sound was presented from the same side as the responding hand ("Simon effect"). This effect reversed with crossed hands only in the congenitally blind: They responded faster with the hand that was located contralateral to the sound source. In Experiment II, the instruction to the participants was changed: They now had to respond with the hand located next to the sound source. In contrast to Experiment I ("Simon-task"), this task required an explicit matching of the sound's location with the position of the responding hand. In Experiment II, the congenitally blind participants showed a significantly larger crossing deficit than both the sighted and late blind adults. This pattern of results implies that developmental vision induces the default use of an external coordinate frame for multisensory action control; this facilitates not only visual but also auditory-manual control.

  2. Public Participation in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    In the past several years The Planetary Society has created several innovative opportunities for general public participation in the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life. The conduct of such exploration has traditionally been the province of a few thousand, at most, of professionally involved scientists and engineers. Yet the rationale for spending resources required by broad and far-reaching exploration involves a greater societal interest - it frequently being noted that the rationale cannot rely on science alone. This paper reports on the more notable of the opportunities for general public participation, in particular: 1) Visions of Mars: a CD containing the works of science fiction about Mars, designed to be placed on Mars as the first library to be found by eventual human explorers; 2) MAPEX: a Microelectronics And Photonics Experiment, measuring the radiation environment for future human explorers of Mars, and containing a electron beam lithograph of names of all the members of The Planetary Society at a particular time; 3) Naming of spacecraft: Involvement in the naming of spacecraft: Magellan, Sojourner; 4) The Mars Microphone: the first privately funded instrument to be sent to another world; 5) Red Rover Goes to Mars: the first commercial-education partnership on a planetary mission; 6) Student designed nanoexperiments: to fly on a Mars lander; and 7) SETI@home: a tool permitting millions to contribute to research and data processing in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A brief description of each of the projects will be given, and the opportunity it provided for public participation described. The evolving complexity of these projects suggest that more opportunities will be found, and that the role of public participation can increase at the same time as making substantive contributions to the flight missions. It will be suggested that these projects presage the day that planetary exploration will be truly

  3. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  4. Effect of visual attention on postural control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Seassau, Magali; Larger, Sandrine; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2014-06-01

    We compared the effect of oculomotor tasks on postural sway in two groups of ADHD children with and without methylphenidate (MPH) treatment against a group of control age-matched children. Fourteen MPH-untreated ADHD children, fourteen MPH-treated ADHD children and a group of control children participated to the study. Eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system and postural sway measured with a force platform simultaneously. Children performed fixation, pursuits, pro- and anti-saccades. We analyzed the number of saccades during fixation, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits, the latency of pro- and anti-saccades; the occurrence of errors in the anti-saccade task and the surface and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). During the postural task, the quality of fixation was significantly worse in both groups of ADHD children with respect to control children; in contrast, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits, the latency of pro-/anti-saccades and the rate of errors in the anti-saccade task did not differ in the three groups of children. The surface of the CoP in MPH-treated children was similar to that of control children, while MPH-untreated children showed larger postural sway. When performing any saccades, the surface of the CoP improved with respect to fixation or pursuits tasks. This study provides evidence of poor postural control in ADHD children, probably due to cerebellar deficiencies. Our study is also the first to show an improvement on postural sway in ADHD children performing saccadic eye movements.

  5. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P < 0.05). In this study, vapor of perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  6. Participation in Quality Measurement Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Jennifer Lynn

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of improving patient care quality and reducing costs, many hospitals across the nation participate in quality measurements. The three programs most applicable to colon and rectal surgery are the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), and the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Participation in each is variable, although many hospitals are eligible and welcome to participate. Currently, SCIP is the only one with a financial incentive to participate. This article will focus on participation; however, the motivation for such is elusive in the literature. It is likely that a combination of resource utilization and faith in the concept that participation results in improvements in patient care actually drive participation. PMID:24587700

  7. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  8. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  9. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  10. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  11. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  12. Enhanced Public Participation - A State's Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wingard, R.W.; Jenkins, S.E.

    2008-07-01

    An initiative was started in 2004 to enhance public participation across all of the environmental programs within South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The initiative originated as a result of public meetings that created distrust of our Agency within the State's communities. The effort to enhance public participation focused on ways to involve the public more in decisions effecting their health and environment within their communities. Tools and techniques were created and are now used by SCDHEC and continuously evaluated in the process known as enhanced public participation. Enhanced public participation efforts are required for all significant permitting, environmental cleanup and corrective action activities affecting communities within South Carolina. We recognized that public participation is essential to the ability of the SCDHEC to provide outstanding customer service as well as to establish and maintain trust within the community. This paper will describe the development of the program and the results of the implementation of the enhanced public participation using examples of facilities that manage hazardous wastes, high-level radioactive wastes, low-level radioactive wastes as well as mixed waste. (authors)

  13. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  14. Statins decrease all-cause mortality only in CKD patients not requiring dialysis therapy--a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 21,295 participants.

    PubMed

    Barylski, Marcin; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Salari, Pooneh; Ray, Kausik K; Pencina, Michael J; Rizzo, Manfredi; Rysz, Jacek; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nicholls, Stephen J; Banach, Maciej

    2013-06-01

    The available studies have reported the benefits of statins on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However studies in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis and provide the most reliable trial data to date on the impact of statin therapy on cardiovascular events and death from all causes in CKD patients. Data from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for the years 1966 to October 2012 were searched. The final meta-analysis included 11 randomized controlled trials involving 21,295 participants with CKD. Among them 6857 were on dialysis. The use of statins in subjects with non-dialysis-dependent CKD resulted in a marked reduction in death from all causes (relative risk [RR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.79; p<0.0001), cardiac causes (RR: 0.69; 95%CI: 0.55-0.68; p=0.0012), cardiovascular events (RR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.4-0.75; p=0.0001) and stroke (RR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.5-0.88; p=0.0022). The use of statins in dialysis-dependent CKD patients resulted in a non-significant effect on death from all causes (RR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.88-1.11; p=0.85) and stroke (RR: 1.31; 95%CI: 0.9-1.89; p>0.05), but had the effect of reducing death from cardiac causes (RR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.64-0.98; p<0.05) and cardiovascular events (RR: 0.81; 95%CI: 0.7-0.94; p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of statins should be indicated in cardiovascular disease prevention especially in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. According to the very limited data the obtained results suggest caution in expecting a reduction in cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis.

  15. A post-trial survey to assess the impact of dissemination of results and unmasking on participants in a 13-year randomised controlled trial on age-related cataract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract was designed to assess the impact of a multivitamin-mineral supplement on age-related cataract. Trial results showed evidence of a beneficial effect of the supplement on all types of cataract combined, opposite effects on two of the three types of cataract (beneficial for nuclear opacities and harmful for posterior sub-capsular opacities) and no statistically significant effect on cortical opacities. No treatment recommendations were made. A post-trial survey was conducted on 817 surviving elderly participants to assess their satisfaction, their understanding of treatment assignment to supplement or placebo and the success of masking. Methods Trial results were communicated by letter and the level of satisfaction and of understanding of the results was assessed by a questionnaire. Participants were offered the option of being unmasked: a second questionnaire was administered to this subset to assess their understanding of the randomisation process and the success of masking. Results 610 participants (74.7%) responded to the survey: 94.6% thought the description of the results was "very clear" or "quite clear", 5.4% "not clear" or "do not know"; 89.8% considered the results "very interesting" or "quite interesting", 10.2% "not interesting" or "do not know"; 60.3% expressed "satisfaction", 17.2% "both satisfaction and concern", 2.6% "concern", 19.9% "indifference" or "do not know". 480 participants (78.7%) accepted the offer to be unmasked to their treatment assignment: 395 (82.3%) recalled/understood the possibility of assignment to vitamins or placebo, 85 (17.7%) did not. 68 participants (17.2%) thought they had taken vitamins (79.4% were correct; p = 0.0006), 47 (11.9%) thought they had taken placebo (59.6% were correct; p = 0.46) and 280 (70.9%) declared they did not know. Conclusions The results were made difficult to explain to study participants by the

  16. MRI-based comparative study of different mild cognitive impairment subtypes: protocol for an observational case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Zhao, Weina; Li, Siou; Yin, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) comprise the 2 main types of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The first condition generally progresses to Alzheimer's disease, whereas the second is likely to develop into vascular dementia (VD). The brain structure and function of patients with MCI differ from those of normal elderly individuals. However, whether brain structures or functions differ between these 2 MCI subtypes has not been studied. This study is designed to analyse neuroimages of brain in patients with VaMCI and aMCI using multimodality MRI (structural MRI (sMRI), functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)). Methods and analysis In this study, 80 participants diagnosed with aMCI, 80 participants diagnosed with VaMCI, and 80 age-matched, gender-matched and education-matched normal controls (NCs) will be recruited to the Hongqi Hospital of Mudanjiang Medical University, Heilongjiang, China. All participants will undergo neuroimaging and neuropsychological evaluations. The primary outcome measures will be (1) microstructural alterations revealed by multimodal MRIs, including sMRI, resting-state functional MRI and DTI; and (2) a neuropsychological evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Memory and Executive Screening (MES), trail making test, Stroop colour naming condition and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, to evaluate global cognition, memory function, attention, visuospatial skills, processing speed, executive function and emotion, respectively. Trial registration number NCT02706210; Pre-results. PMID:28274963

  17. Craigslist versus print newspaper advertising for recruiting research participants for alcohol studies: Cost and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gioia, Christopher J.; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B.; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Technology has transformed our lifestyles in dramatic and significant ways, including new and less expensive options for recruiting study participants. This study examines cost and participant differences between two recruitment sources, Craigslist (CL), and print newspapers (PNs). This paper also reviewed and compared studies involving clinical trials published since 2010 that recruited participants using CL alone or in combination with other methods. Method Secondary data analyses from a parent study involving a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention to promote self-change with problem drinkers. Results Significant differences were found between CL and PN participants on most demographic and pretreatment drinking variables. While all participants had AUDIT scores suggestive of an alcohol problem and reported drinking at high-risk levels, CL participants had less severe drinking problem histories, were considerably younger, and had a higher socioeconomic status than PN participants. The total advertising costs for the 65 CL ads ($275) were significantly less than the 69 PN ads ($33, 311). The recruiting cost per eligible participant was vastly less expensive using CL ($1.46) compared to print newspaper ads ($116.88). Conclusions Using CL is a viable recruitment method for soliciting participants, particularly those that are younger, for alcohol intervention studies. It is also less expensive than newspaper ads. When CL participants were recruited, they reported being slightly more confident to change their drinking than PN participants. Limitations of using CL are discussed, including that some initial ad responders gave inconsistent answers to similar questions and a few tried to enter the study more than once. PMID:26675247

  18. Political participation of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p < .001) of political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p < .001). Resources (time/money/civic skills) significantly contributed to political participation (p < .001). Less than half (40%) felt they could impact local decisions, and fewer (32%) felt they could impact state or national government decisions. Most respondents (80%) indicated their nursing courses lacked political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  19. Physical fitness assessment in multiple sclerosis patients: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, E; di Cagno, A; Mancini, P; Sperandii, F; Quaranta, F; Ciminelli, E; Fagnani, F; Giombini, A; Pigozzi, F

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence to show the effectiveness of physical exercise for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic capacity, strength, balance, and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) after exercise, in ambulatory patients with mild MS and matched control healthy participants. Seventeen MS patients aged 48.09 ± 10.0 years, with mild MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale: EDSS 1.5 to 4.5) and 10 healthy sedentary age matched (41.9 ± 11.2 years) subjects volunteered for the study. MS patients underwent medical examination with resting electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, EDSS, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS. Both groups also underwent physical assessment with the Berg Balance Scale(,) test (Berg), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of forearm, lower limb, shoulder strength test, and the Borg 10-point scale test. The one-way ANOVA showed significant differences for MFIS (F1.19=9.420; p<0.01), Berg (F1.19=13.125; p<0.01), handgrip MIVC (F1.19=4.567; p<0.05), lower limbs MIVC (F1.19=7.429; p<0.01), and 6MWT (F1.19=28.061; p<0.01) between groups. EDSS, Berg test and Borg scores explained 80% of 6MWT variation. Mild grade EDSS patients exhibited impaired balance, muscle strength, and low self pace-6MWT scores, whereas RPE response after the exercise was similar to that of sedentary individuals. Both groups showed similar global physiological adjustments to exercise.

  20. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

  1. [Social participation after childhood craniopharyngioma].

    PubMed

    Olivari-Philiponnet, C; Roumenoff, F; Schneider, M; Chantran, C; Picot, M; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C; Bernard, J-C; Vuillerot, C

    2016-12-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign central nervous system tumor, which may be a source of multiple complications, from endocrinology to vision, neurology and neurocognitive functions. This morbidity can lead to reduced participation in life activities, as described in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The primary objective of this study was to measure participation in life activities in a population of children and young adults affected by childhood craniopharyngioma, using the LIFE-H questionnaire (Assessment of Life Habits), validated as a social participation measurement tool in various pediatric disabilities. We also describe complications in our population and examined the potential links between tumor characteristics, complications, and participation in life activities.

  2. Fiscal Management Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document is the participant's guide for fiscal management training for administrators managing an institution's Title IV program funds. The workshop is designed to prepare participants to understand an institution's responsibilities with regard to Title IV. It describes the recordkeeping requirements of the Title IV program and the accounting…

  3. Educational Participation and Inmate Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahm, Karen F.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of extant literature on correctional education focuses on the relationship between program participation and recidivism while ignoring the possible relationship between educational program participation and inmate misconduct. The present study sought to fill in this gap in the literature by investigating the effect of several types of…

  4. Automatic classification of gait in children with early-onset ataxia or developmental coordination disorder and controls using inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Mannini, Andrea; Martinez-Manzanera, Octavio; Lawerman, Tjitske F; Trojaniello, Diana; Croce, Ugo Della; Sival, Deborah A; Maurits, Natasha M; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2017-02-01

    Early-Onset Ataxia (EOA) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two conditions that affect coordination in children. Phenotypic identification of impaired coordination plays an important role in their diagnosis. Gait is one of the tests included in rating scales that can be used to assess motor coordination. A practical problem is that the resemblance between EOA and DCD symptoms can hamper their diagnosis. In this study we employed inertial sensors and a supervised classifier to obtain an automatic classification of the condition of participants. Data from shank and waist mounted inertial measurement units were used to extract features during gait in children diagnosed with EOA or DCD and age-matched controls. We defined a set of features from the recorded signals and we obtained the optimal features for classification using a backward sequential approach. We correctly classified 80.0%, 85.7%, and 70.0% of the control, DCD and EOA children, respectively. Overall, the automatic classifier correctly classified 78.4% of the participants, which is slightly better than the phenotypic assessment of gait by two pediatric neurologists (73.0%). These results demonstrate that automatic classification employing signals from inertial sensors obtained during gait maybe used as a support tool in the differential diagnosis of EOA and DCD. Furthermore, future extension of the classifier's test domains may help to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of pediatric coordination impairment. In this sense, this study may provide a first step towards incorporating a clinically objective and viable biomarker for identification of EOA and DCD.

  5. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  6. [ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PLACEMENT AND ACCOMMODATION OF PARTICIPANTS ATTENDANTS AND GUESTS OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES OF 2014 IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI].

    PubMed

    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V

    2015-01-01

    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers.

  7. Overcoming Addictions, a Web-Based Application, and SMART Recovery, an Online and In-Person Mutual Help Group for Problem Drinkers, Part 2: Six-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Feedback From Participants

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Reid K; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Delaney, Harold D

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite empirical evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for problem drinking, much remains unknown about factors that influence their effectiveness. Objective We evaluated the performance of 2 resources for people who want to achieve and maintain abstinence: SMART Recovery (SR) and Overcoming Addictions (OA). OA is a Web application based on SR. We also examined participant and intervention-related factors hypothesized to impact clinical outcomes of Web-based interventions. Methods We recruited 189 heavy drinkers through SR’s website and in-person meetings throughout the United States. We began by randomly assigning participants to (1) SR meetings alone, (2) OA alone, and (3) OA and SR (OA+SR). Recruitment challenges compelled us to assign participants only to SR (n=86) or OA+SR (n=102). The experimental hypotheses were as follows: (1) Both groups will reduce their drinking and alcohol-related consequences at follow-up compared with their baseline levels, and (2) The OA+SR condition will reduce their drinking and alcohol or drug-related consequences more than the SR only condition. Additionally, we derived 3 groups empirically (SR, OA, and OA+SR) based on the participants’ actual use of each intervention and conducted analyses by comparing them. Primary outcome measures included percent days abstinent (PDA), mean drinks per drinking day (DDD), and alcohol or drug-related consequences. Postbaseline assessments were conducted by phone at 3 and 6 months. Secondary analyses explored whether clinical issues (eg, severity of alcohol problems, level of distress, readiness to change) or intervention-related factors (eg, Internet fluency, satisfaction with site) affected outcomes. Results Both intent-to-treat analyses and the actual-use analyses showed highly significant improvement from baseline to follow-ups for all 3 groups. Mean within-subject effect sizes were large (d>0.8) overall. There was no significant difference between groups in

  8. Advancing the measurement of participation.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Bogner, Jennifer A; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-04-01

    The authors of 3 articles in this issue have collaborated in an effort to advance the conceptualization and measurement of participation. These articles offer (1) a new tool for measuring participation, the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O), which combines items from widely used instruments in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation research; (2) 2 methods of scoring 17 items of PART-O, assessing relatively objective social role performance and yielding 3 subscale scores, as well as 2 alternative total scores (including 1 incorporating the concept of balance among types of participation), and (3) 19 enfranchisement items assessing the degree to which people with disability perceive they have the freedom to engage in social roles of their choosing while being accepted and valued by others.

  9. Gender differences in prison-based drug treatment participation.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A

    2012-08-01

    Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed.

  10. Attitudes toward Potential Participant Registries.

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Holbrook, Andrew; Pierce, Aimee; Hoang, Dan; Gillen, Daniel L

    2017-01-01

    Difficult participant recruitment is a consistent barrier to successful medical research. Potential participant registries represent an increasingly common intervention to overcome this barrier. A variety of models for registries exist, but few data are available to instruct their design and implementation. To provide such data, we surveyed 110 cognitively normal research participants enrolled in a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. Seventy-four (67%) individuals participated in the study. Most (78%, CI: 0.67, 0.87) participants were likely to enroll in a registry. Willingness to participate was reduced for registries that required enrollment through the Internet using a password (26%, CI: 0.16, 0.36) or through email (38%, CI: 0.27, 0.49). Respondents acknowledged their expectations that researchers share information about their health and risk for disease and their concerns that their data could be shared with for-profit companies. We found no difference in respondent preferences for registries that shared contact information with researchers, compared to honest broker models that take extra precautions to protect registrant confidentiality (28% versus 30%; p = 0.46). Compared to those preferring a shared information model, respondents who preferred the honest broker model or who lacked model preference voiced increased concerns about sharing registrant data, especially with for-profit organizations. These results suggest that the design of potential participant registries may impact the population enrolled, and hence the population that will eventually be enrolled in clinical studies. Investigators operating registries may need to offer particular assurances about data security to maximize registry enrollment but also must carefully manage participant expectations.

  11. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  12. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  13. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  14. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  15. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  16. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  17. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  18. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation...

  19. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involve data mining as defined in § 1007.1; (3) The routine notification of providers that fraudulent... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19... SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation...

  20. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involve data mining as defined in § 1007.1; (3) The routine notification of providers that fraudulent... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19... SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation...

  1. Factors associated with conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia: A case control study

    SciTech Connect

    Napora, C.; Cohen, E.J.; Genvert, G.I.; Presson, A.C.; Arentsen, J.J.; Eagle, R.C.; Laibson, P.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Familial and environmental factors may play a role in the development of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Nineteen patients with biopsy-proven CIN completed a questionnaire to evaluate possible predisposing factors. Nineteen age-matched and sex-matched controls completed questionnaires and received slit-lamp examinations. Factors associated with a relatively increased risk of developing CIN included exposure to petroleum products, heavy cigarette smoking, light hair and ocular pigmentation, and family origin in the British Isles, Austria or Switzerland. Non-office and nonprofessional workers were more likely to develop conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (p = .05), as were those who were not college graduates (p = .07).

  2. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  3. De-identified genomic data sharing: the research participant perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Deborah; Johnson, Catherine O; Bowen, Deborah; Smith, Megan; Wenzel, Lari; Edwards, Karen

    2017-04-05

    Combining datasets into larger and separate datasets is becoming increasingly common, and personal identifiers are often removed in order to maintain participant anonymity. Views of research participants on the use of de-identified data in large research datasets are important for future projects, such as the Precision Medicine Initiative and Cancer Moonshot Initiative. This quantitative study set in the USA examines participant preferences and evaluates differences by demographics and cancer history. Study participants were recruited from the Northwest Cancer Genetics Registry and included cancer patients, their relatives, and controls. A secure online survey was administered to 450 participants. While the majority participants were not concerned about personal identification when participating in a genetic study using de-identified data, they expressed their concern that researchers protect their privacy and information. Most participants expressed a desire that their data should be available for as many research studies as possible, and in doing so, they would increase their chance of receiving personal health information. About 20% of participants felt that a link should not be maintained between the participant and their de-identified data. Reasons to maintain a link included an ability to return individual health results and an ability to support further research. Knowledge of participants' attitudes regarding the use of data into a research repository and the maintenance of a link to de-identified data is critical to the success of recruitment into future genomic research projects.

  4. Participation levels in 25 Community-based participatory research projects.

    PubMed

    Spears Johnson, C R; Kraemer Diaz, A E; Arcury, T A

    2016-10-01

    This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with professional and community researchers from 25 CBPR projects in the Southeast US. Interview topics focused on participants' experiences with the nature and conduct of their CBPR project. Projects were rated on community participation in 13 components of research. Projects varied substantially in community participation. Some projects had community participation in only two to three components; others had participation in every component. Some professional researchers were deliberate in their inclusion of community participation in all aspects of research, others had community participation in some aspects, and others were mainly concerned that community members had the opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest a need for a standardized rubric for community-based research that facilitates delineation of approaches and procedures that are effective and efficient. Little actual community participation may also result in negative social impacts for communities.

  5. Participants' responsibilities in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enroll in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one's self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements.

  6. Aberrant Function of Learning and Cognitive Control Networks Underlie Inefficient Cognitive Flexibility in Anorexia Nervosa: A Cross-Sectional fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lao-Kaim, Nick P.; Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Simmons, Andrew; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa. Method Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning. Results Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how

  7. Part 2: Adaptation of Gait Kinematics in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Demonstrates Preserved Independent Neural Control of Each Limb

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2017-01-01

    Motor adaptation, or alteration of neural control in response to a perturbation, is a potential mechanism to facilitate motor learning for rehabilitation. Central nervous system deficits are known to affect locomotor adaptation; yet we demonstrated that similar to adults following stroke, children with unilateral brain injuries can adapt step length in response to unilateral leg weighting. Here, we extend our analysis to explore kinematic strategies underlying step length adaptation and utilize dynamical systems approaches to elucidate how neural control may differ in those with hemiplegic CP across legs and compared to typically developing controls. Ten participants with hemiplegic CP and ten age-matched controls participated in this study. Knee and hip joint kinematics were analyzed during unilateral weighting of each leg in treadmill walking to assess adaptation and presence and persistence of after-effects. Peak joint angle displacement was used to represent changes in joint angles during walking. We examined baseline and task-specific variability and local dynamic stability to evaluate neuromuscular control across groups and legs. In contrast to controls, children with unilateral CP had asymmetries in joint angle variability and local dynamic stability at baseline, showing increased variability and reduced stability in the dominant limb. Kinematic variability increased and local stability decreased during weighting of ipsilateral and contralateral limbs in both groups compared to baseline. After weight removal both measures returned to baseline. Analogous to the temporal-spatial results, children with unilateral CP demonstrated similar capability as controls to adapt kinematics to unilateral leg weighting, however, the group with CP differed across sides after weight removal with dominant limb after-effects fading more quickly than in controls. The change in kinematics did not completely return to baseline in the non-dominant limb of the CP group, producing a

  8. To Participate or Not to Participate: That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Stone, Margaret R.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in issues pertaining to how a young person chooses to participate (or not) in youth programs, both school based (for example, sports, drama, yearbook) and community based (for example, Boys and Girls Clubs, Scouts, 4-H, sports, faith-based programs). Scholars, youth workers, policymakers, national organizations,…

  9. 24 CFR 200.227 - Multifamily Participation Review Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Sales Registration. The Participation Control Officer is the Executive Secretary to the Committee and is... minutes, and to perform other duties assigned by the Chairman or directed by the Committee. (b)...

  10. Critical Consciousness Development and Political Participation among Marginalized Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Given associations between critical consciousness and positive developmental outcomes, and given racial, socioeconomic, and generational disparities in political participation, this article examined contextual antecedents of critical consciousness (composed of sociopolitical control and social action) and its consequences for 665 marginalized…

  11. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  12. Research participation as a contract.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Craig

    1995-01-01

    In this article, I present a contractualist conception of human-participant research ethics, arguing that the most appropriate source of the rights and responsibilities of researcher and participant is the contractual understanding between them. This conception appears to explain many of the more fundamental ethical incidents of human-participant research. I argue that a system of contractual rights and responsibilities would allow a great deal of research that has often been felt to be ethically problematic, such as research involving deception, concealed research, and research on dependent populations. However, in defining the conditions under which such research should be permissible, my contractualist theory also makes it clear that there are limits -- and explains what those limits are -- to the propriety of such research.

  13. Entrofy: Participant Selection Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Selection participants for a workshop out of a much larger applicant pool can be a difficult task, especially when the goal is diversifying over a range of criteria (e.g. academic seniority, research field, skill levels, gender etc). In this talk I am presenting our tool, Entrofy, aimed at aiding organizers in this task. Entrofy is an open-source tool using a maximum entropy-based algorithm that aims to select a set of participants out of the applicant pool such that a pre-defined range of criteria are globally maximized. This approach allows for a potentially more transparent and less biased selection process while encouraging organizers to think deeply about the goals and the process of their participant selection.

  14. Sport participation by physically and cognitively challenged young athletes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Greydanus, Donald E

    2010-06-01

    Many physically and cognitively challenged athletes participate in organized and recreational sports. Health benefits of sport participation by athletes with disabilities have been well recognized. A careful preparticipation evaluation and proper classification of athletes ensures safe sports participation by athletes with disabilities. Some conditions in these athletes, such as problems with thermoregulation, autonomic control, neurogenic bladder and bowel, latex allergy, and many associated and secondary complications deserve special consideration. This article reviews common medical issues that relate to sport participation by athletes with physical and cognitive disabilities.

  15. Parents' perspectives on participating in genetic research in autism.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Magan; Roberts, Wendy; Drmic, Irene; Scherer, Stephen W; Weksberg, Rosanna; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chitayat, David; Shuman, Cheryl; Miller, Fiona A

    2013-03-01

    Genetic research in autism depends on the willingness of individuals with autism to participate; thus, there is a duty to assess participants' needs in the research process. We report on families' motives and expectations related to their participation in autism genetic research. Respondents valued having a genetic result, as it alleviates guilt, promotes awareness, and may be used to tailor interventions and for family planning. The act of participating was distinctly significant, as it provided personal control, a connection to autism experts, networking with families, and hope for the future. The results of this study highlight complex factors involved in families' decisions to participate in autism genetic research and provide points to consider for this population of research participants.

  16. Outcome-based and Participation-based Wellness Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Barleen, Nathan A.; Marzec, Mary L.; Boerger, Nicholas L.; Moloney, Daniel P.; Zimmerman, Eric M.; Dobro, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether worksite wellness program participation or achievement of health improvement targets differed according to four incentive types (participation-based, hybrid, outcome-based, and no incentive). Methods: The study included individuals who completed biometric health screenings in both 2013 and 2014 and had elevated metrics in 2013 (baseline year). Multivariate logistic regression modeling tested for differences in odds of participation and achievement of health improvement targets between incentive groups; controlling for demographics, employer characteristics, incentive amounts, and other factors. Results: No statistically significant differences between incentive groups occurred for odds of participation or achievement of health improvement target related to body mass index, blood pressure, or nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Given the null findings of this study, employers cannot assume that outcome-based incentives will result in either increased program participation or greater achievement of health improvement targets than participation-based incentives. PMID:28146041

  17. Children's Participation at Junior Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Otter, Annica, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes of Swedish junior high students concerning student participation in deciding matters that affect them. Over 100 students and their teachers were interviewed, class committees and school meetings were observed, and the students completed a short questionnaire. To illustrate the pitfalls that a study of pupils'…

  18. Citizen Participation: Antagonists or Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.

    1976-01-01

    If participation does not include an openness to the issues that are of real concern to the community and an opportunity to influence policy relating to those issues, it becomes an empty public relations gesture fostering apathy, disinterest, resistance, or counter-organization. (MB)

  19. Strategic Planning: A Participative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Don; Jonas, Peter M.

    This paper describes a participative model of strategic planning for use by higher education institutions. First it reviews five principles or assumptions of a participatory model: the person doing the job is the expert; that which is strategic must be validated by the operation; accountability, authority, and information are always equal and…

  20. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  1. Ethnicity and Nonelectoral Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrinkle, Robert D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes data from the Latino National Political Survey to examine whether nonelectoral political participation by Latino subgroups (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans) can be explained on the basis of culture, socioeconomic status, or mobilization (political activism). Mobilization offered the strongest explanation for…

  2. Choosing to Participate: Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Phyllis; Strom, Adam

    2009-01-01

    "Choosing to Participate" focuses on civic choices--the decisions people make about themselves and others in their community, nation, and world. The choices people make, both large and small, may not seem important at the time, but little by little they shape them as individuals and responsible global citizens. "Choosing to…

  3. Student Motivation and Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert C.; Bertoch, Sara Cummings

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between goal instability and participation in a career planning program (course) using the goal instability scale (GIS) and a completed course performance contract. Specifically, this study addressed the following question: What is the relationship between motivation, as measured by goal instability,…

  4. Students Participate in Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jimmie Nell

    1997-01-01

    The Agricultural Research Service provides "hands-on" work experience in a research laboratory to college students interested in agriculture, science, math, and other related fields. Three Native American college students describe how participating in this summer intern program has helped them pursue their educational goals. (TD)

  5. Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czekanski, Kathleen E.; Wolf, Zane Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Many faculty interpret student responses to faculty questions as evidence of an actively engaged classroom. Because of this conviction, class participation, whether graded or ungraded, appears in many course syllabi in colleges and universities and is often promoted as the responsibility of students to contribute to the learning environment. Class…

  6. A Rationale for Participant Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boody, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    There are many different models or approaches to doing program evaluation. Fitzpatrick, Sanders, and Worthen classify them into five general approaches: (a) objectives oriented, (b) management oriented, (c) consumer oriented, (d) expertise oriented, and (e) participant oriented. Within each of these general categories, of course, reside many…

  7. Road to Reconciliation: Participant's Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This workbook is intended to assist schools that participate in the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program gain the necessary skills to reconcile their loan records with U.S. Department of Education data each month. After an introduction that offers general information, establishes course goals and objectives, and sets out the course agenda, the…

  8. Training Alcoholism Trainers. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook is to be used in conjunction with the Trainer Manual entitled Training Alcoholism Trainers. The program was developed to upgrade training design and delivery skills of inservice trainers in the field of alcoholism. The workbook contains all the handout sheets necessary for participant sessions. (Author/BMW)

  9. Citizen Participation in Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.; Sferra, Bobbie A.

    This handbook for parents defines and describes the process of citizen participation in educational decision making. After describing the history of citizen involvement, the booklet answers questions regarding why and how community members can become involved in policy formation. Problems in participatory decision making and strategies for…

  10. Motivation and frustration in cardiology trial participation: The patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Meneguin, Silmara; César, Luiz Antônio Machado

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The participation of humans in clinical cardiology trials remains essential, but little is known regarding participant perceptions of such studies. We examined the factors that motivated participation in such studies, as well as those that led to participant frustration. METHODS: Patients who had participated in hypertension and coronary arterial disease (phases II, III, and IV) clinical trials were invited to answer a questionnaire. They were divided into two groups: Group I, which included participants in placebo-controlled clinical trials after randomization, and Group II, which included participants in clinical trials in which the tested treatment was compared to another drug after randomization and in which a placebo was used in the washout period. RESULTS: Eighty patients (47 patients in Group I and 33 patients in Group II) with different socio-demographic characteristics were interviewed. Approximately 60% of the patients were motivated to participate in the trial with the expectation of personal benefit. Nine participants (11.2%) expressed the desire to withdraw, which was due to their perception of risk during the testing in the clinical trial (Group I) and to the necessity of repeated returns to the institution (Group II). However, the patients did not withdraw due to fear of termination of hospital treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study had a small patient sample, the possibility of receiving a benefit from the new tested treatment was consistently reported as a motivation to participate in the trials. PMID:22760899

  11. A Block Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Smoking Cessation Counselling and Advice through Short Message Service on Participants Who Joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Wong, David C. N.; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received…

  12. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation.

  13. Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L

    2012-04-01

    Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs.

  14. 48 CFR 752.7019 - Participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participant training. 752... Participant training. For use in any USAID direct contract involving training of USAID participants. Participant Training (JAN 1999) (a) Definitions. (1) Participant training is the training of any...

  15. NITARP: Effects on Student Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Odden, Caroline; Hall, Garrison; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    NITARP (NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program) is a teacher mentorship program designed to give educators experiences in authentic research in the area of astronomy. While the main focus of the program is aimed at giving educators experience working with and publishing scientific research, teachers are encouraged to involve students with the experience. NITARP funds up to two students to travel along with the educator while allowing an additional two students to attend but with no additional financial assistance. Teachers are welcome to have more student participants but no more than 4 may travel with the teacher to Caltech and the AAS meeting. Given that the focus of the NITARP program is on the educators, little is known about the effects of the program on the student participants other than anecdotal evidence. In order to better understand the impact on the students, we have designed a survey to be administered to past student participants. The survey was constructed with a goal to determine if the NITARP experience had an impact on students' views of science and influenced their educational paths. While the NITARP project has assembled some evidence of the impact on students, this is the first formal attempt to capture that impact. This poster will present the results of that survey.

  16. Effects of Resveratrol on Crosstalk between Canonical Β-Catenin/Wnt and FOXO Pathways in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shanaki, Mehrnoosh; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Meshkani, Reza; Beigy, Maani; Shirzad, Mahmoud; Pasalar, Parvin; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of resveratrol (RES) on Canonical β-catenin/Wnt and forkhead box O (FOXO) pathways in CAD patients. We performed this study on 10 metabolic syndrome patients with three-vessel CAD and 10 sex-aged matched healthy subjects. The effects of RES on β-Catenin, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) expression were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of participants. RES could increase the MnSOD expression in CAD patients (38%, p < 0.0001). After RES treatment, the MnSOD expression of patients is still non-significantly lower than controls. In both blank and RES treatments, a significant positive correlation between β-catenin and MnSOD mRNA expressions was found in controls, whereas no correlation between these gene expressions was found in untreated PBMCs of CAD patients. However, RES could modestly improve this pathway in CAD. RES could increase the MnSOD activity in healthy and CAD subjects (p = 0.051 and p = 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, in both blank and RES treatments, the significant correlation was found between total β-catenin protein and the MnSOD activity in PBMCs of the controls but not in patients. The cross-talk between β-catenin/Wnt and FOXO pathways was impaired in PBMCs of CAD patients. RES treatment could lead to a modest increase in the MnSOD activity independent of β-catenin/FOXO pathway. Despite a modest improvement in the β-catenin/FOXO pathway after RES treatment, this pathway was not completely repaired in CAD patients. PMID:27980591

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-related components and the risk of liver cancer in a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasushi; Nojima, Masanori; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Akutsu, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Endo, Takao; Kurozawa, Youichi; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potent mitogen. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) binds and inhibits IGF1. High circulating IGF1 levels and low IGFBP3 levels are associated with increased risk of several cancers. We examined relationships between serum levels of these factors and hepatoma risk in a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort study (the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study)). A baseline survey was conducted from 1988 to 1990, and 39,242 subjects donated blood samples. Participants diagnosed with hepatoma by 1997 were considered cases for nested case-control studies. Ninety-one cases and 263 sex- and age-matched controls were analyzed. A conditional logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the incidence of hepatoma associated with serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels. Neither IGF1 nor the molar ratio of IGF1/IGFBP3 was correlated with hepatoma risk. After adjustment for hepatitis viral infection, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake, a higher molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1) was associated with a decreased hepatoma risk more than IGFBP3 alone (p for trend <0.001 and = 0.003, respectively). People in the highest quartile had a lower risk (OR = 0.098; 95 % confidence interval = 0.026-0.368). In subgroup analyses of males and females, the molar difference was associated with a decreased hepatoma risk (p for trend <0.05). In non-elderly individuals, the difference was inversely correlated with the incidence of hepatoma (p for trend <0.01). The molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1) may be inversely associated with the incidence of hepatoma.

  18. 9 CFR 145.52 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Exhibition Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.52 Participation. Participating flocks of hobbyist and exhibition waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game...

  19. 9 CFR 145.52 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Exhibition Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.52 Participation. Participating flocks of hobbyist and exhibition waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game...

  20. 9 CFR 145.52 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Exhibition Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.52 Participation. Participating flocks of hobbyist and exhibition waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game...

  1. Sports participation during teenage years.

    PubMed

    Galas, James M

    2014-02-01

    Ensuring the safety of young athletes is a priority among health care providers. Controversy remains as to the best method of preparticipation screening. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association currently recommend screening with history and physical examination, without routine electrocardiogram or echocardiography. Meticulous conduction of a cardiac focused history and exam during the preparticipation evaluation can help identify those who may be at risk for sudden cardiac arrest. Understanding presenting signs of the most common cardiac diseases is useful in recognizing those in need of a directed cardiac evaluation before sports participation.

  2. Attitudinal and motivational antecedents of participation in voluntary employee development activities.

    PubMed

    Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates.

  3. [Participative health diagnosis in Cotacachi].

    PubMed

    Buitron, M; Velasco, N

    1997-09-01

    Social participation may be understood as a process in which the population itself assumes responsibility for identifying, carrying out, and evaluating actions necessary for solving problems. The Ecuadorian canton of Cotacachi, under the guidance of the mayor, created mechanisms for identifying and resolving problems through collective work. Assemblies were held in September and October 1996 in the canton and zone to discuss problems. Health problems identified by participants included toxic effects of pesticides used by flower plantations, absence of environmental protection, lack of health education, and poor medical attention. The community proposed a series of solutions: educational programs, potable water and sewage services, municipal ordinances, and an inter-institutional committee. The Intersectorial Health Committee of Cotacachi was formed in December 1996 and immediately formed a Diagnostic Commission consisting of representatives of the health and educational sectors, the local peasant syndicate, and other organizations, with technical assistance from Cepar. The representatives made available the information on Cotacachi from their organizations, but the Commission concluded that existing information was incomplete and failed to reflect the viewpoints of the local community. A survey was planned to fill in the gaps. Community members were trained as interviewers for the survey, which was based on the problems identified by community members. The organizations provided logistical assistance and conducted a campaign to explain the survey to the population and request cooperation. The results will serve as the basis for proposing solutions once data processing is complete.

  4. The Effect of Intensive Glycemic Treatment on Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetic Participants of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Genuth, Saul; Wong, Nathan D.; Detrano, Robert; Backlund, Jye-Yu C.; Zinman, Bernard; Jacobson, Alan; Sun, Wanjie; Lachin, John M.; Nathan, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, an observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) type 1 diabetes cohort, measured coronary artery calcification (CAC), an index of atherosclerosis, with computed tomography (CT) in 1,205 EDIC patients at ~7–9 years after the end of the DCCT. We examined the influence of the 6.5 years of prior conventional versus intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT, as well as the effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors, on CAC. The prevalences of CAC >0 and >200 Agatston units were 31.0 and 8.5%, respectively. Compared with the conventional treatment group, the intensive group had significantly lower geometric mean CAC scores and a lower prevalence of CAC >0 in the primary retinopathy prevention cohort, but not in the secondary intervention cohort, and a lower prevalence of CAC >200 in the combined cohorts. Waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, before or at the time of CT, were significantly associated with CAC in univariate and multivariate analyses. CAC was associated with mean HbA1c (A1C) levels before enrollment, during the DCCT, and during the EDIC study. Prior intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT was associated with less atherosclerosis, largely because of reduced levels of A1C during the DCCT. PMID:17130504

  5. No association between level of vitamin D and chronic low back pain in Swedish primary care: a cross-sectional case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Thörneby, Andreas; Nordeman, Lena Margareta; Johanson, Else Hellebö

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assessment of vitamin D levels and deficiency status in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) in a Swedish general population, compared with controls matched for sex and age. Design Cross-sectional case-control study. Setting Primary care, southern Sweden. Subjects Participants (n = 44) with self-reported low back pain for at least 3 months and individually sex- and age-matched controls without a chronic pain condition (n = 44), recruited from the general population by random letter of invitation. Main outcome measure Association between vitamin D level and CLBP when adjusting for possible confounders in a multivariate forward conditional logistic regression model. Results Mean S-25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 81 and 80 nmol/L in the CLBP and control group, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low and similar in the CLBP group and the control group. Vitamin D level was not associated with CLBP when potential confounders were taken into account. Conclusions No difference in vitamin D levels between participants with CLBP and matched controls could be demonstrated in the present sample. Assessment of vitamin D level and deficiency status may be of questionable value in the management of CLBP in primary care settings at similar latitudes, unless there are additional risk factors for deficiency or specific indicators of osteomalacia. Key pointsVitamin D deficiency is common and reported in many chronic pain conditions, including chronic low back pain (CLBP), but evidence for an association and causality is insufficient.• The present study found no association between vitamin D levels and CLBP in a case-control sample of 44 + 44 individuals from the Swedish general population.• Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low and comparable in individuals with CLBP and controls without chronic pain, matched for sex and age.• Assessment of vitamin D status, for the purpose of finding and treating an underlying

  6. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  7. Dietary high oleic canola oil supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid attenuates plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels in participants with cardiovascular disease risk: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel circulating protein which plays an important role in regulation of cholesterol metabolism by promoting hepatic LDL receptor degradation. However, the action of dietary fat composition on PCSK9 levels remains to be fully elucidated. The objective was to investigate the action of different dietary oils on circulating PCSK9 levels in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT). COMIT employed a double-blinded crossover randomized control design, consisting of five 30-d treatment periods. Diets were provided based on a 3000Kcal/d intake, including a 60g/d treatment of conventional canola oil (Canola), a high oleic canola/DHA oil blend (CanolaDHA), a corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff), a flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff) or a high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic). Plasma PCSK9 levels were assessed using ELISA at the end of each phase. Lipid profiles (n=84) showed that CanolaDHA feeding resulted in the highest (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol (TC, 5.06±0.09mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol levels (3.15±0.08mmol/L) across all five treatments. CanolaDHA feeding also produced the lowest (P<0.05) plasma PCSK9 concentrations (216.42±8.77ng/mL) compared to other dietary oil treatments. Plasma PCSK9 levels positively correlated (P<0.05) with serum TC, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B levels but did not correlate to HDL-cholesterol levels. Results indicate that post-treatment response in PCSK9 may be altered with the CanolaDHA diet. In conclusion, the elevated LDL-C levels from a DHA oil treatment may not be relevant for the observed decline in PCSK9 levels.

  8. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  9. Systematic Review: Representativeness of Participants in RCTs of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, Anne; Koponen, Marjaana; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there are differences in age and sex distribution and presence of comorbidities between participants included in randomized controlled trials of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and nationwide cohort of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were searched for original articles from their inception to January 4, 2015. Double-blind randomized controlled trials with donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine compared to placebo in participants with Alzheimer’s disease were included. Data from a nationwide cohort of persons with clinically verified diagnoses of Alzheimer’s disease was defined as a reference population. Results 128 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, 31 of them fulfilled criteria. Mean age of participants in randomized controlled trials (n = 15,032) was 5.8 years lower (95% CI 5.7 to 5.9, P < 0.001), compared to the mean age of 79.7 years in the reference population with Alzheimer’s disease (n = 28,093). Most of the articles did not report age distribution of participants. The proportion of women was 63.2% (9,475/14,991) in randomized controlled trials and 67.8% (19,043/28,093) (P < 0.001) in the reference population. Information on comorbidities and use of concomitant drugs were lacking or poorly reported in most articles. Conclusions There is a discrepancy between participants in randomized controlled trials of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and real-life population with Alzheimer’s disease. Participants in randomized controlled trials were significantly younger. Further, more detailed reporting of age distribution, comorbidities and concomitant drugs would be important information for clinicians when evaluating conclusions from randomized controlled trials to real-life practice. The existing recommendations of inclusion of older people should be followed to ensure safe pharmacotherapy for older people. PMID:25933023

  10. 12 CFR 701.22 - Loan participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan participation. 701.22 Section 701.22 Banks... OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.22 Loan participation. (a) For purposes of this section: (1) Participation loan means a loan where one or more eligible organizations participates pursuant to a...

  11. 12 CFR 701.22 - Loan participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan participation. 701.22 Section 701.22 Banks... OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.22 Loan participation. (a) For purposes of this section: (1) Participation loan means a loan where one or more eligible organizations participates pursuant to a...

  12. 15 CFR 930.42 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 930.42 Section... Activities § 930.42 Public participation. (a) Management programs shall provide for public participation in the State agency's review of consistency determinations. Public participation, at a minimum,...

  13. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.17 Federal participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in 75 percent of the... Interstate and primary highways, the FHWA may approve Federal participation in the costs of applying...

  14. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan participations. 614.4330 Section 614.4330... Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation interest... requirements of this section. (a) Participation agreements. Agreements to purchase or sell a...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.954 - State participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true State participation. 1940.954 Section 1940.954....954 State participation. (a) Application. If a State desires to participate in this pilot program, the... 424.1: (1) A narrative signed by the Governor including reasons for State participation in...

  16. 23 CFR 750.305 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal participation. 750.305 Section 750.305 Highways... participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in: (1) Payments made to a sign owner for his right, title and... personnel on a force account basis or by contract. Documentation for Federal participation in such...

  17. 15 CFR 930.42 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public participation. 930.42 Section... Activities § 930.42 Public participation. (a) Management programs shall provide for public participation in the State agency's review of consistency determinations. Public participation, at a minimum,...

  18. 7 CFR 1940.954 - State participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State participation. 1940.954 Section 1940.954....954 State participation. (a) Application. If a State desires to participate in this pilot program, the... 424.1: (1) A narrative signed by the Governor including reasons for State participation in...

  19. 49 CFR 22.21 - Participation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation criteria. 22.21 Section 22.21... § 22.21 Participation criteria. A lender who participates in the STLP must meet the following criteria... debarred or suspended from participation in a government contract or delinquent on a government debt....

  20. 18 CFR 50.4 - Stakeholder participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participation. 50.4 Section 50.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.4 Stakeholder participation. A Project Participation Plan is required... permit application process. (a) Project Participation Plan. An applicant must develop a...

  1. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.17 Federal participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in 75 percent of the... Interstate and primary highways, the FHWA may approve Federal participation in the costs of applying...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan participations. 614.4330 Section 614.4330... Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation interest... requirements of this section. (a) Participation agreements. Agreements to purchase or sell a...

  3. 34 CFR 690.7 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Institutional participation. 690.7 Section 690.7... Definitions § 690.7 Institutional participation. (a) An institution may not participate in the Federal Pell... participation in the Federal Pell Grant Program during an award year, a student enrolled and attending...

  4. 23 CFR 750.305 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal participation. 750.305 Section 750.305 Highways... participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in: (1) Payments made to a sign owner for his right, title and... personnel on a force account basis or by contract. Documentation for Federal participation in such...

  5. 18 CFR 50.4 - Stakeholder participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participation. 50.4 Section 50.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.4 Stakeholder participation. A Project Participation Plan is required... permit application process. (a) Project Participation Plan. An applicant must develop a...

  6. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.17 Federal participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in 75 percent of the... Interstate and primary highways, the FHWA may approve Federal participation in the costs of applying...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan participations. 614.4330 Section 614.4330... Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation interest... requirements of this section. (a) Participation agreements. Agreements to purchase or sell a...

  8. 18 CFR 50.4 - Stakeholder participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participation. 50.4 Section 50.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.4 Stakeholder participation. A Project Participation Plan is required... permit application process. (a) Project Participation Plan. An applicant must develop a...

  9. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.17 Federal participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in 75 percent of the... Interstate and primary highways, the FHWA may approve Federal participation in the costs of applying...

  10. 34 CFR 690.7 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Institutional participation. 690.7 Section 690.7... Definitions § 690.7 Institutional participation. (a) An institution may not participate in the Federal Pell... participation in the Federal Pell Grant Program during an award year, a student enrolled and attending...

  11. 23 CFR 750.305 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal participation. 750.305 Section 750.305 Highways... participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in: (1) Payments made to a sign owner for his right, title and... personnel on a force account basis or by contract. Documentation for Federal participation in such...

  12. 9 CFR 146.3 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation. 146.3 Section 146.3... Participation. (a) Any table-egg producer, raised-for-release upland game bird premises, and raised-for-release...) Participation in the Plan shall entitle the participant to use the Plan emblem reproduced as follows:...

  13. 12 CFR 701.22 - Loan participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan participation. 701.22 Section 701.22 Banks... OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.22 Loan participation. (a) For purposes of this section: (1) Participation loan means a loan where one or more eligible organizations participates pursuant to a...

  14. 49 CFR 22.21 - Participation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation criteria. 22.21 Section 22.21... § 22.21 Participation criteria. A lender who participates in the STLP must meet the following criteria... debarred or suspended from participation in a government contract or delinquent on a government debt....

  15. 15 CFR 930.42 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public participation. 930.42 Section... Activities § 930.42 Public participation. (a) Management programs shall provide for public participation in the State agency's review of consistency determinations. Public participation, at a minimum,...

  16. 34 CFR 690.7 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Institutional participation. 690.7 Section 690.7... Definitions § 690.7 Institutional participation. (a) An institution may not participate in the Federal Pell... participation in the Federal Pell Grant Program during an award year, a student enrolled and attending...

  17. 34 CFR 690.7 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Institutional participation. 690.7 Section 690.7... Definitions § 690.7 Institutional participation. (a) An institution may not participate in the Federal Pell... participation in the Federal Pell Grant Program during an award year, a student enrolled and attending...

  18. 12 CFR 701.22 - Loan participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan participation. 701.22 Section 701.22 Banks... OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.22 Loan participation. (a) For purposes of this section: (1) Participation loan means a loan where one or more eligible organizations participates pursuant to a...

  19. 15 CFR 930.42 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public participation. 930.42 Section... Activities § 930.42 Public participation. (a) Management programs shall provide for public participation in the State agency's review of consistency determinations. Public participation, at a minimum,...

  20. 18 CFR 50.4 - Stakeholder participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participation. 50.4 Section 50.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.4 Stakeholder participation. A Project Participation Plan is required... permit application process. (a) Project Participation Plan. An applicant must develop a...

  1. 18 CFR 50.4 - Stakeholder participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participation. 50.4 Section 50.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.4 Stakeholder participation. A Project Participation Plan is required... permit application process. (a) Project Participation Plan. An applicant must develop a...

  2. 23 CFR 750.305 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal participation. 750.305 Section 750.305 Highways... participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in: (1) Payments made to a sign owner for his right, title and... personnel on a force account basis or by contract. Documentation for Federal participation in such...

  3. 23 CFR 750.305 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal participation. 750.305 Section 750.305 Highways... participation. (a) Federal funds may participate in: (1) Payments made to a sign owner for his right, title and... personnel on a force account basis or by contract. Documentation for Federal participation in such...

  4. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan participations. 614.4330 Section 614.4330... Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation interest... requirements of this section. (a) Participation agreements. Agreements to purchase or sell a...

  5. 15 CFR 930.42 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public participation. 930.42 Section... Activities § 930.42 Public participation. (a) Management programs shall provide for public participation in the State agency's review of consistency determinations. Public participation, at a minimum,...

  6. 49 CFR 22.21 - Participation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation criteria. 22.21 Section 22.21... § 22.21 Participation criteria. A lender who participates in the STLP must meet the following criteria... debarred or suspended from participation in a government contract or delinquent on a government debt....

  7. 7 CFR 1940.954 - State participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true State participation. 1940.954 Section 1940.954....954 State participation. (a) Application. If a State desires to participate in this pilot program, the... 424.1: (1) A narrative signed by the Governor including reasons for State participation in...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan participations. 614.4330 Section 614.4330... Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation interest... requirements of this section. (a) Participation agreements. Agreements to purchase or sell a...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.954 - State participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State participation. 1940.954 Section 1940.954....954 State participation. (a) Application. If a State desires to participate in this pilot program, the... 424.1: (1) A narrative signed by the Governor including reasons for State participation in...

  10. Cognitive and Affective Predictors of Rehabilitation Participation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Holm, Margo B.; Becker, James T.; Butters, Meryl A.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Munin, Michael C.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between cognitive and affective impairments and rehabilitation participation during stroke rehabilitation. Design Secondary analyses of stroke patients who received acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during inpatient rehabilitation. Setting University-affiliated inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Patients Individuals admitted to inpatient stroke rehabilitation with impairment in attention, memory or executive functions (N=44). Interventions Secondary analysis of individuals receiving inpatient stroke rehabilitation care plus random assignment to one of two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or no drug at rehabilitation admission. Main Outcome Measure(s) Correlations between measures of cognitive (Digit Span, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and Executive Interview) and affective impairments (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Apathy Evaluation Scale) and participation (Pittsburgh Rehabilitation and Participation Scale) were examined. Significant correlates of participation were examined in a linear multiple regression model. Results Executive functions and depressive symptoms were significant correlates of participation. After controlling for baseline disability, executive functions predicted participation, but depressive symptoms did not, F4,32=9.35; R2=.54, P<.001. Conclusions These findings are an important first step toward understanding potentially modifiable clinical factors that contribute to rehabilitation participation, and overall functional status after rehabilitation. A better understanding of cognitive impairment and rehabilitation participation may be used to develop strategies for improving functional outcomes after stroke. PMID:20159122

  11. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (“freezing”) individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance. PMID:25191284

  12. Sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, mood profile, and levels of serum melatonin in migraine patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Boysan, Murat; Uca, Ali Ulvi; Aydın, Adem; Kılınç, İbrahim; Genç, Emine; Altaş, Mustafa; Güngör, Dilara Cari; Turgut, Keziban; Özer, Nejla

    2017-03-01

    The melatonin as the pineal gland's secretory product is implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. Melatonin has critical functions in human physiology, and research underscores the importance of melatonin in circadian rhythm, sleep, and mood regulation. Clinical observations have indicated that migraine attacks have a seasonal, menstrual, and circadian timing, suggesting that chronobiological mechanisms and their alterations may causally involve in the etiology of the disease. However, the topic has received relatively little attention in the migraine literature. Associations between melatonin, circadian preference, sleep, and mood states were investigated in the current study. Fifty-five patients (47 females and 8 males) were compared to 57 gender and age-matched control subjects (40 females and 17 males). A socio-demographical questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire were administered to volunteers. Blood samples were taken from all participants at about 1:00 AM in an unlit room not to hamper melatonin secretion, and blood melatonin levels were measured using quantitative ELISA test. In comparison with controls, melatonin levels were significantly lower among migraine patients. Migraineurs reported significantly greater scores on the BAI, confusion-bewilderment subscale of the POMS, and total and sleep latency subscale of the PSQI. Migraine patients who had nausea during the migraine attacks and who reported bouts relevant to certain food consumption, such as cheese or chocolate, had significantly lower levels of melatonin. Contrarily, groups did not reveal statistically substantial difference in circadian preferences.

  13. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  14. Predicting scientists' participation in public life.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities.

  15. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  16. Disentangling Public Participation In Science and Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article provides a framework for disentangling the concept of participation, with emphasis on participation in genomic medicine. We have derived seven ‘dimensions’ of participation that are most frequently invoked in the extensive, heterogeneous literature on participation. To exemplify these dimensions, we use material from a database of 102 contemporary cases of participation, and focus here on cases specific to science and medicine. We describe the stakes of public participation in biomedical research, with a focus on genomic medicine and lay out the seven dimensions. Discussion We single out five cases of participation that have particular relevance to the field of genomic medicine, we apply the seven dimensions to show how we can differentiate among forms of participation within this domain. Summary We conclude with some provocations to researchers and some recommendations for taking variation in participation more seriously. PMID:24479693

  17. Preconceptional ancestry-based carrier couple screening for cystic fibrosis and haemoglobinopathies: what determines the intention to participate or not and actual participation?

    PubMed Central

    Lakeman, Phillis; Plass, Anne Marie Catharina; Henneman, Lidewij; Bezemer, Pieter Dirk; Cornel, Martina Cornelia; ten Kate, Leo Pieter

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores determinants of the intention to participate or not and of actual participation in preconceptional ancestry-based carrier couple screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) and haemoglobinopathies (HbPs). In total, 9453 individuals from a multi-ethnic population were invited. Invitees who had a partner and who were planning a pregnancy were the target population (33–36%). Test participation was conditional on survey participation. Those who refrained from test participation were asked to participate in the survey only. The questionnaire was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which explains behaviour through intention. It was completed by 418 survey participants: 171 who intended to participate in the testing, and 247 who refrained from test participation. Both test intenders and offer decliners generally had a positive attitude towards test participation, and perceived high behavioural control. This applied to Western and non-Western survey participants equally. Offer decliners, however, perceived less control in terms of the time and effort needed for participation. Still, 68% of them intended to participate in the future if the screening would be offered routinely. Test intenders more often would draw reproductive consequences from test results, perceived a higher risk of being a carrier, more benefits and less adverse psychological outcomes. Feelings of stigmatisation were not an important issue, but 14% thought that there would be discrimination against carriers: among them more were non-Western survey participants. Preconceptional ancestry-based CF and HbPs carrier screening was evaluated as positive and desirable among Western and non-Western survey participants. The effort and time needed for participation were important reasons for declining participation, which might be overcome by improving access to the screening. PMID:19223934

  18. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  19. A case control study of environmental and occupational exposures associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in patients admitted to a rural tertiary care hospital in a high density swine region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distinct strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been identified on livestock and livestock workers. Industrial food animal production may be an important environmental reservoir for human carriage of these pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate environmental and occupational exposures associated with nasal carriage of MRSA in patients hospitalized at Vidant Medical Center, a tertiary hospital serving a region with intensive livestock production in eastern North Carolina. Methods MRSA nasal carriage was identified via nasal swabs collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. MRSA carriers (cases) were gender and age matched to non-carriers (controls). Participants were interviewed about recent environmental and occupational exposures. Home addresses were geocoded and publicly available data were used to estimate the density of swine in residential census block groups of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Presence of the scn gene in MRSA isolates was assessed. In addition, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates was performed, and the Diversilab® system was used to match the isolates to USA pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. Results From July - December 2011, 117 cases and 119 controls were enrolled. A higher proportion of controls than cases were current workforce members (41.2% vs. 31.6%) Cases had a higher odds of living in census block groups with medium densities of swine (OR: 4.76, 95% CI: 1.36-16.69) and of reporting the ability to smell odor from a farm with animals when they were home (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80-2.86). Of 49 culture positive MRSA isolates, all were scn positive. Twenty-two isolates belonged to clonal complex 5. Conclusions Absence of livestock workers in this study precluded evaluation of occupational exposures. Higher odds of MRSA in medium swine density

  20. Tracking club sport participation from childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally used correlation coefficients, summary statistics (intraclass correlations; ICC) from random effect models and stability coefficients from generalized estimating equations (GEE) were calculated using all the longitudinal data and controlling for the influence of covariates on tracking strength. Correlation coefficients revealed statistically significant tracking of club sport participation (7-21 years) at low levels (r = .07-0.28). The ICC summary statistic (0.23) was consistent with this, while the GEE suggested moderate tracking (0.59). The results of this study suggest that encouraging sport participation during childhood and adolescence may result in a modest increase in the likelihood of participation later in life. However, the substantial movement into and out of sport participation observed here and in other studies cautions against relying solely on sport promotion among youth as a strategy to promote lifelong participation.

  1. Neuropsychological functioning in depressed versus nondepressed participants with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wefel, J S; Hoyt, B D; Massma, P J

    1999-08-01

    Differences in cognitive functioning between participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) reporting depressive symptomatology (AD-Dep; n = 37) and a control group of nondepressed participants with AD (AD-Con; n = 98) were investigated based on hypothesized impairments of attention/concentration, psychomotor speed, and simple motor speed. Groups did not differ in age, education, overall severity of dementia, auditory comprehension, or use of psychotropic medications. AD-Dep participants performed significantly more poorly than AD-Con participants on 3 of the 13 measures on which they were hypothesized to exhibit greater impairment (WAIS-R Block Design, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, and speeded motor programming); and there were trends toward poorer performance on four additional measures (WAIS-R Object Assembly, WAIS-R Picture Arrangement, WAIS-R Digit Span-backward, and letter fluency). There was only one significant effect for the 13 measures on which no group differences were hypothesized; the AD-Dep participants unexpectedly obtained better WMS-R Logical Memory delayed recall scores than the AD-Con participants. Finally, AD-Dep participants exhibited an unexpected pattern of greater right hand advantage on the Finger Tapping Test.

  2. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  3. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.

  4. Research Participation Among Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among older adults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others. PMID:19692549

  5. Effects of Participation in a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program on Psychological Distress following Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…

  6. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  7. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resource or both meet the requirements of the standard. (d) Standard: Linen. The organization has available at all times a quantity of linen essential for proper care and comfort of patients. Linens...

  8. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resource or both meet the requirements of the standard. (d) Standard: Linen. The organization has available at all times a quantity of linen essential for proper care and comfort of patients. Linens...

  9. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resource or both meet the requirements of the standard. (d) Standard: Linen. The organization has available at all times a quantity of linen essential for proper care and comfort of patients. Linens...

  10. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resource or both meet the requirements of the standard. (d) Standard: Linen. The organization has available at all times a quantity of linen essential for proper care and comfort of patients. Linens...

  11. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resource or both meet the requirements of the standard. (d) Standard: Linen. The organization has available at all times a quantity of linen essential for proper care and comfort of patients. Linens...

  12. 34 CFR 200.65 - Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determining equitable participation of teachers and... Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school children. (a)(1... LEA shall ensure that teachers and families of participating private school children participate on...

  13. 34 CFR 200.65 - Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determining equitable participation of teachers and... Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school children. (a)(1... LEA shall ensure that teachers and families of participating private school children participate on...

  14. 34 CFR 200.65 - Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determining equitable participation of teachers and... Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school children. (a)(1... LEA shall ensure that teachers and families of participating private school children participate on...

  15. 34 CFR 200.65 - Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining equitable participation of teachers and... Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school children. (a)(1... LEA shall ensure that teachers and families of participating private school children participate on...

  16. 34 CFR 200.65 - Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determining equitable participation of teachers and... Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school children. (a)(1... LEA shall ensure that teachers and families of participating private school children participate on...

  17. 42 CFR 425.306 - Participation agreement and exclusivity of ACO participant TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participant TINs. 425.306 Section 425.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... participant TINs. (a) For purposes of the Shared Savings Program, each ACO participant TIN is required to commit to a participation agreement with CMS. (b) Each ACO participant TIN upon which...

  18. 42 CFR 425.306 - Participation agreement and exclusivity of ACO participant TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participant TINs. 425.306 Section 425.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... participant TINs. (a) For purposes of the Shared Savings Program, each ACO participant TIN is required to commit to a participation agreement with CMS. (b) Each ACO participant TIN upon which...

  19. 42 CFR 425.306 - Participation agreement and exclusivity of ACO participant TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participant TINs. 425.306 Section 425.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... participant TINs. (a) For purposes of the Shared Savings Program, each ACO participant TIN is required to commit to a participation agreement with CMS. (b) Each ACO participant TIN upon which...

  20. 32 CFR 705.17 - Participation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... character, and there is no reason to believe that the views to be expressed by the participants will be.... (r) Navy participation in professional sports events and post-season bowl games will frequently...

  1. 32 CFR 705.17 - Participation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... character, and there is no reason to believe that the views to be expressed by the participants will be.... (r) Navy participation in professional sports events and post-season bowl games will frequently...

  2. Women's Political Participation and Policy Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Susan B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the consequences of women's participation in politics. Sex differences in participation and social attitudes are compared, and the political impact of the views of women Democrats and Republicans are discussed. (Author/RM)

  3. US participation in the International Energy Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issues relating to the international energy program, including issues concerning U.S. participation are considered. Extending participation of U.S. oil companies in the international energy program is also considered.

  4. 34 CFR 690.7 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purposes of the National SMART Grant Program, as defined in 34 CFR 691.2(d), but does not participate in the National SMART Grant Program. (b) If an institution begins participation in the Federal Pell...

  5. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  6. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  7. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  8. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  9. 9 CFR 145.52 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.52 Participation. Participating flocks of waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game birds, and the eggs and baby poultry...

  10. 9 CFR 145.52 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.52 Participation. Participating flocks of waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game birds, and the eggs and baby poultry...

  11. 32 CFR 37.1320 - Participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1320 Participant. A consortium...-profit participant may be a firm or a segment of a firm (e.g., a division or other business unit)....

  12. 22 CFR 513.510 - Participants' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... principals. In addition, each participant may, but is not required to, check the Nonprocurement List for its... principals. In addition, a participant may, but is not required to, check the Nonprocurement List for...

  13. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  14. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  15. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  16. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  17. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  18. Olfactory deficits and sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease: a case–control survey

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J; Lu, Y; Wang, S; Cartwright, H; Halliday, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information about olfactory and sleep deficits preceding the onset of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Subjects: 38 community dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease (73% response rate) and 32 age matched controls (60% response rate). Methods: Using a questionnaire survey, the frequencies, timing, and relations between olfactory and sleep disturbances, drug treatment, mood, and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease were compared with those in age matched controls. Reliability of information was validated by informant interview in 9% of the sample. Interdependency of factors was assessed using Fisher's fourfold table test, and differences between populations were analysed using χ2 and unpaired t tests. Results: Microsmia was reported by 26 patients (68%) (and only one control), on average within a year of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. More patients than controls had excessive daytime somnolence (45% v 6%), restless legs (50% v 19%), and abnormal movements during sleep (34% v 0%), which generally occurred three to five years after diagnosis and were independent of mood disorders and drug treatment. Conclusions: Many patients with Parkinson's disease have microsmia at the onset of motor deficits, but some sleep disorders are a subsequent occurrence. PMID:12810790

  19. 5 CFR 919.980 - Participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participant. 919.980 Section 919.980 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.980 Participant. Participant means...

  20. Child Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…

  1. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  2. 9 CFR 146.32 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation. 146.32 Section 146.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.32 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type chicken...

  3. 9 CFR 146.32 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation. 146.32 Section 146.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.32 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type chicken...

  4. 9 CFR 146.32 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation. 146.32 Section 146.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.32 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type chicken...

  5. Studying Participants' Experiences Using Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, Derek; Paulson, Barbara L.; Everall, Robin D.

    1999-01-01

    Concept mapping is a participant-based methodology that involves three processes: participant generation of ideas or experiences about a specific question, grouping together responses through an unstructured card sort by participants, and statistical analysis of card-sort results using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A research…

  6. 38 CFR 52.70 - Participant rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.70 Participant rights. The participant has a right to a dignified existence, self-determination, and communication with and access to... they can understand of their total health status. (4) Participants have the right to refuse...

  7. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  8. 49 CFR 1110.4 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation. 1110.4 Section 1110.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Participation. Any person may participate in rulemaking proceedings by submitting written information or...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.135 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 4280.135 Section 4280.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.135 Participation. All participation must be...

  10. 24 CFR 1003.604 - Citizen participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation. 1003.604... Requirements § 1003.604 Citizen participation. (a) In order to permit residents of Indian tribes and Alaska.... Meetings shall be scheduled in ways and at times that will allow participation by residents. (3)...

  11. 34 CFR 300.709 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public participation. 300.709 Section 300.709 Education... Interior § 300.709 Public participation. In fulfilling the requirements of § 300.708 the Secretary of the Interior must provide for public participation consistent with § 300.165. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1411(h))...

  12. 49 CFR 1110.4 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation. 1110.4 Section 1110.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Participation. Any person may participate in rulemaking proceedings by submitting written information or...

  13. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program participation. 149.2 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.2 Program participation. A producer's initial enrollment and continued participation in the Trichinae Certification Program...

  14. 7 CFR 4279.76 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 4279.76 Section 4279.76 Agriculture... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.76 Participation. The lender may obtain participation in the loan under its normal operating procedures; however, the...

  15. 34 CFR 300.165 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public participation. 300.165 Section 300.165 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.165 Public participation. (a) Prior to... under this part, a State must comply with the public participation requirements in paragraph (a) of...

  16. 40 CFR 300.185 - Nongovernmental participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nongovernmental participation. 300.185... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.185 Nongovernmental participation. (a) Industry... from on-scene operations. (d) Nongovernmental participation must be in compliance with the...

  17. 49 CFR 511.17 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 511.17 Section 511.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Documents § 511.17 Public participation. Participant Status. Any person interested in a proceeding...

  18. 24 CFR 570.431 - Citizen participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation. 570.431... CDBG Grants in Hawaii and Insular Areas Programs § 570.431 Citizen participation. (a) General. An... comply with the citizen participation requirements described in this section, including requirements...

  19. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 146.22 Section 146.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer...

  20. 49 CFR 1012.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 1012.4 Section 1012.4... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS MEETINGS OF THE BOARD § 1012.4 Public participation... the public will be admitted as observers only. Active participation, as by asking questions...

  1. 9 CFR 146.32 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 146.32 Section 146.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.32 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type chicken...

  2. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 146.22 Section 146.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer...

  3. 49 CFR 511.17 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 511.17 Section 511.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Documents § 511.17 Public participation. Participant Status. Any person interested in a proceeding...

  4. 40 CFR 35.3035 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public participation. 35.3035 Section 35.3035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... participation. (a) Public participation during the development, review, approval, and substantial revision...

  5. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  6. 34 CFR 300.709 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 300.709 Section 300.709 Education... Interior § 300.709 Public participation. In fulfilling the requirements of § 300.708 the Secretary of the Interior must provide for public participation consistent with § 300.165. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1411(h))...

  7. 12 CFR 370.5 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 370.5 Section 370.5 Banks and... LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.5 Participation. (a) Initial period. All eligible entities are covered...) Subject to, and to comply with, any FDIC request to provide information relevant to participation in...

  8. 34 CFR 300.165 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 300.165 Section 300.165 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.165 Public participation. (a) Prior to... under this part, a State must comply with the public participation requirements in paragraph (a) of...

  9. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program participation. 149.2 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.2 Program participation. A producer's initial enrollment and continued participation in the Trichinae Certification Program...

  10. 28 CFR 544.73 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program participation. 544.73 Section 544... EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.73 Program participation. (a) The Warden or designee shall assign to an... program review sessions shall meet with the inmate to encourage continued participation in the...

  11. 24 CFR 1003.604 - Citizen participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citizen participation. 1003.604... Requirements § 1003.604 Citizen participation. (a) In order to permit residents of Indian tribes and Alaska.... Meetings shall be scheduled in ways and at times that will allow participation by residents. (3)...

  12. 9 CFR 146.32 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 146.32 Section 146.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.32 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type chicken...

  13. 29 CFR 11.13 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public participation. 11.13 Section 11.13 Labor Office of... PROCEDURES Administrative Procedures § 11.13 Public participation. (a) When an agency has determined that... prepare an environmental impact statement in the Federal Register and shall invite public participation...

  14. 42 CFR 422.202 - Participation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation procedures. 422.202 Section 422.202... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.202 Participation... MSA plan must provide for the participation of individual physicians, and the management and...

  15. 29 CFR 11.13 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public participation. 11.13 Section 11.13 Labor Office of... PROCEDURES Administrative Procedures § 11.13 Public participation. (a) When an agency has determined that... prepare an environmental impact statement in the Federal Register and shall invite public participation...

  16. 40 CFR 68.83 - Employee participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee participation. 68.83 Section...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.83 Employee participation. (a... employee participation required by this section. (b) The owner or operator shall consult with employees...

  17. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  18. 43 CFR 426.22 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 426.22 Section 426... THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.22 Public participation. (a) Notification... participation. (1) Reclamation can provide, as appropriate: meetings, workshops, or hearings to provide...

  19. 32 CFR 775.11 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public participation. 775.11 Section 775.11... FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.11 Public participation. The importance of public participation (40 CFR 1501.4(b)) in preparing environmental assessments is...

  20. 16 CFR 1018.27 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public participation. 1018.27 Section 1018... Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.27 Public participation. (a) The Commission is committed to a policy of encouraging public participation in its activities and will hold all advisory committee...

  1. 7 CFR 4279.76 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 4279.76 Section 4279.76 Agriculture... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.76 Participation. The lender may obtain participation in the loan under its normal operating procedures; however, the...

  2. 36 CFR 801.8 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public participation. 801.8... PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.8 Public participation. (a) The Council encourages maximum public participation in the process established by these...

  3. 40 CFR 35.3035 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 35.3035 Section 35.3035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... participation. (a) Public participation during the development, review, approval, and substantial revision...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.135 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 4280.135 Section 4280.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.135 Participation. All participation must be...

  5. 36 CFR 801.8 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 801.8... PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.8 Public participation. (a) The Council encourages maximum public participation in the process established by these...

  6. 15 CFR 930.2 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 930.2 Section 930.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... participation. State management programs shall provide an opportunity for public participation in the...

  7. 40 CFR 300.185 - Nongovernmental participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nongovernmental participation. 300.185... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.185 Nongovernmental participation. (a) Industry... from on-scene operations. (d) Nongovernmental participation must be in compliance with the...

  8. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  9. 49 CFR 1012.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 1012.4 Section 1012.4... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS MEETINGS OF THE BOARD § 1012.4 Public participation... the public will be admitted as observers only. Active participation, as by asking questions...

  10. 7 CFR 247.19 - Dual participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual participation. 247.19 Section 247.19 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.19 Dual participation. (a) What must State and local agencies do to prevent and detect dual participation? The State agency must work...

  11. 17 CFR 10.34 - Limited participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited participation. 10.34 Section 10.34 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Parties and Limited Participation § 10.34 Limited participation. (a) Petitions for leave to be heard....

  12. 24 CFR 330.15 - Participation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participation requirements. 330.15 Section 330.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... MULTICLASS SECURITIES § 330.15 Participation requirements. To participate in the Multiclass...

  13. 34 CFR 691.7 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Institutional participation. 691.7 Section 691.7... Definitions § 691.7 Institutional participation. (a) An institution that offers one or more eligible programs... the National SMART Grant Program. (c) If an institution begins participation in the ACG or...

  14. 30 CFR 840.15 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public participation. 840.15 Section 840.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... ENFORCEMENT § 840.15 Public participation. Each State program shall provide for public participation...

  15. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parent participation. 300.322 Section 300.322 Education... Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency responsibility....321(a)(6) and (c) (relating to the participation of other individuals on the IEP Team who...

  16. 40 CFR 68.83 - Employee participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee participation. 68.83 Section...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.83 Employee participation. (a... employee participation required by this section. (b) The owner or operator shall consult with employees...

  17. 40 CFR 93.156 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 93.156 Section... General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.156 Public participation. (a) Upon... Public participation. (a) Upon request by any person regarding a specific Federal action, a...

  18. 28 CFR 544.73 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program participation. 544.73 Section 544... EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.73 Program participation. (a) The Warden or designee shall assign to an... program review sessions shall meet with the inmate to encourage continued participation in the...

  19. 15 CFR 923.134 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public participation. 923.134 Section... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Review of Performance § 923.134 Public participation... participation, including holding public meetings in the State being evaluated and providing opportunities...

  20. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parent participation. 300.322 Section 300.322 Education... Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency responsibility....321(a)(6) and (c) (relating to the participation of other individuals on the IEP Team who...