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Sample records for age-matched control population

  1. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  2. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  3. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  4. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  5. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  6. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  7. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  8. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  9. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  10. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  11. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  12. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  13. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  14. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  15. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  16. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  17. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  18. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  19. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  20. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  1. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  2. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  3. Cairo: repackaging population control.

    PubMed

    Simons, H

    1995-01-01

    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day.

  4. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  5. Population control II: The population establishment today.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Although population assistance represents a relatively small share of official development assistance, it influences many other aspects of development planning. The organizations that comprise the population establishment have a common purpose--the reduction of population growth in the Third World--but they are not homogeneous and sometimes have conflicting goals and strategies. National governments, multilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, academic centers, and pressure groups all contribute to creating and sustaining what has become a virtual population control industry. Through scholarships, travel grants, awards, and favorable publicity, Third World elites have been encouraged to join the population establishment. The World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities have pursued explicit strategies for pressuring Third World governments to design and implement population policies, most recently in Africa.

  6. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  7. Population Control and Scientific Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Zev

    1978-01-01

    Garrett Hardin, a trained biologist, made a plea for coercive population control in a prestigious scientific journal (Science, 1968). His theory on how to control population is examined, the net effects of a situational vs an absolute ethics is weighed, and the limits to science and its methodology are evaluated. (Author/RK)

  8. Population control in symbiotic corals

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G. ); Dubinsky, Z. ); Muscatine, L. ); McCloskey, L. )

    1993-10-01

    Stability in symbiotic association requires control of population growth between symbionts. The population density of zooxanthellae per unit surface area of most symbiotic corals is remarkably consistant. How is the population density of zooxanthellae maintained and what happens to the symbiotic association if the balance between algae and host is perturbed. The answers to these question, examined in this paper, provide a framework for understanding how the size of the component populations is controlled in symbiotic associations. The topic areas covered include the following: carbon economy in a symbiotic coral; effects of nutrient enrichment; the chemostat model of population control; the effects of exposure to ammonium levels. Ammonium ions and organic materials are the factors which maintain the density of zooxanthellae. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Outlining a Population "at Risk" of Parkinson's Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Martella, Giuseppina; D'Elia, Alessio; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; Imbriani, Paola; Madeo, Graziella; Monaco, Leonardo; Maltese, Marta; Pisani, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations "at risk" of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population "at risk" of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A sample of 65 patients and 65 controls also underwent serum dosing of iron, copper, mercury, and manganese by means of Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Positive family history, toxicants exposure, non-current-smoker, and alcohol nonconsumer status occurred as significant risk factors in our population. The number of concurring risk factors overlapping in the same subject impressively increased the overall risk. No significant differences were measured in the metal serum levels. Our findings indicate that combination of three to four concurrent PD-risk factors defines a condition "at risk" of PD. A simple stratification, based on these questionnaires, might be of help in identifying subjects suitable for neuroprotective strategies.

  11. Scientists reinforce population control policies.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1994-01-01

    In late October, 1993, 43 national scientific academies convened for 4 days in Delhi, India. This was the first time that so many academies had come together to discuss a topic of common interest: the controversial issue of population in conjunction with environment and development. The New Delhi gathering, known as the Population Summit, came up with a Conference Statement that earned the signatures of almost all participants. The statement proclaimed that ultimate success in dealing with global social, economic, and environmental problems cannot be achieved without stable world population. The goal should be zero population growth within the lifetime of our children. This goal will require prodigious planning efforts. If all couples were to decide right now that they would produce no more than 2 children, the world's population would still keep on growing through demographic momentum for another several decades. The source in shortest supply is probably not money but time. Said the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences in 1993, "If current predictions of population growth prove accurate and patterns of human activity on the planet remain unchanged, science and technology may not be able to prevent irreversible degradation of the natural environment and continued poverty for much of the world ... Some of the environmental changes may produce irreversible damage to the Earth's capacity to sustain life. The future of our planet is in the balance." The Delhi statement was backed by 25 professional papers on subjects such as population history, energy, and water.

  12. Population control I: Birth of an ideology.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Population control, as a major international development strategy, is a relatively recent phenomenon. However, its origins reach back to social currents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in an organized birth control movement in Europe and the United States. The conflicts and contradictions in that movement's history presage many of today's debates over population policy and women's rights. Eugenics had a deep influence on the U.S. birth control movement in the first half of the 20th century. After World War II private agencies and foundations played an important role in legitimizing population control as a way to secure Western control over Third World resources and stem political instability. In the late 1960s the U.S. government became a major funder of population control programs overseas and built multilateral support through establishment of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities. At the 1974 World Population Conference, Third World governments challenged the primacy of population control. While their critique led population agencies to change their strategies, population control remained a central component of international development and national security policies in the United States.

  13. Refugees, immigrants aggravate population controls.

    PubMed

    Struck, D

    1994-09-07

    The UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 will discuss the pressure of population growth, the increase in the numbers of refugees, and labor migration between developing and developed countries. Population movement has been estimated as 1/50 in the world, regardless of reason. The impact of movement can be to augment a declining work force or to strain resources in poor countries, such as Zaire or Thailand. Rich countries may also respond with resentment and political turmoil, as is currently occurring in Germany. The tendency is to respond after the fact. Rwanda could be used as an example of a country with population pressure on land resources, which has exacerbated ethnic conflict. If the world in 1994 shows this pattern, the concern is that the future prospects are likely to reflect even greater turmoil and migration. The number of refugees has already increased from 2.5 million in 1970 to 20 million today. The head of the UN Commission on Refugees views the end of the Cold War as responsible for exposed and heightened ethnic and tribal rivalry. Migration movement is viewed as the desire for an improvement in quality of life. Significant shifts are to developed countries such as the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The 1994 UN Plan of Action offers concrete recommendations about mass movements. Recommendations are made to assure host country's assurances of protection in work and safety for migrants, removal of restrictive banking practices that impede monetary transfers between countries, and arrangements for temporary migration. Host countries are urged to provide assistance for return migration. Rights and equal treatment with nationals should be extended to longterm migrants. Each country has a right to enact migration restrictions. Smuggling of immigrants should be stopped through international cooperation. Countries of origin have a responsibility to readmit nationals rejected by other countries. There are few recommendations

  14. Adaptive limiter control of unimodal population maps.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Hilker, Frank M

    2013-11-21

    We analyse the adaptive limiter control (ALC) method, which was recently proposed for stabilizing population oscillations and experimentally tested in laboratory populations and metapopulations of Drosophila melanogaster. We thoroughly explain the mechanisms that allow ALC to reduce the magnitude of population fluctuations under certain conditions. In general, ALC is a control strategy with a number of useful properties (e.g. being globally asymptotically stable), but there may be some caveats. The control can be ineffective or even counterproductive at small intensities, and the interventions can be extremely costly at very large intensities. Based on our analytical results, we describe recipes how to choose the control intensity, depending on the range of population sizes we wish to target. In our analysis, we highlight the possible importance of initial transients and classify them into different categories.

  15. Optimal birth control of population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chan, W L; Guo, B Z

    1989-11-01

    The authors studied optimal birth control policies for an age-structured population of McKendrick type which is a distributed parameter system involving 1st order partial differential equations with nonlocal bilinear boundary control. The functional analytic approach of Dubovitskii and Milyutin is adopted in the investigation. Maximum principles for problems with a free end condition and fixed final horizon are developed, and the time optimal control problems, the problem with target sets, and infinite planning horizon case are investigated.

  16. Progress and failure in population control.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, A P

    1972-04-01

    The enormous growth in world population over the last decades and the problems of over-population and trends in controlling it were discussed in an address before the Third Annual Meeting of the Family Planning Association of the Americas, Incorporated, held in Los Angeles and Palm Springs, California in 1971. 75% of the governments of the lesser developed nations are favorable to some form of population control and the International Planned Parenthood Federation has 74 nations as members and a rapidly increasing budget. Planned parenthood hopes to raise the status of women and help them become more meaningful members of society, to improve the quality of the environment and raise the standard of living and improve economic security. Birthrate has declined between the period of 1960-64 and 1968-69 in 42 out of 47 small countries where 90% of the births were recorded. These statistics were not applicable to the "giant" nations but provide optimism. 4 mechanisms exist for birth control: advancing the age of marriage, preconceptual contraception (pills, IUD) and post conceptual contraception (prostaglandins), abortion, and sterilization. In many countries the extreme Left and Right do not favor population control, and in newly developing nations population growth is seen as a pressing need.

  17. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  18. Lysenkoism and the population control movement.

    PubMed

    Simon, J L

    1997-09-01

    The case of Lysenkoism in the Soviet Union helps us understand how people's wrong beliefs can be influenced by what the information they receive from outside, especially when there is a large volume of media coverage and there is no contrary information to be heard. The population control movement in contemporary United States has many parallels to the Lysenko episode.

  19. Outlining a Population “at Risk” of Parkinson's Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Martella, Giuseppina; D'Elia, Alessio; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; Imbriani, Paola; Madeo, Graziella; Monaco, Leonardo; Maltese, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations “at risk” of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population “at risk” of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A sample of 65 patients and 65 controls also underwent serum dosing of iron, copper, mercury, and manganese by means of Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Positive family history, toxicants exposure, non-current-smoker, and alcohol nonconsumer status occurred as significant risk factors in our population. The number of concurring risk factors overlapping in the same subject impressively increased the overall risk. No significant differences were measured in the metal serum levels. Our findings indicate that combination of three to four concurrent PD-risk factors defines a condition “at risk” of PD. A simple stratification, based on these questionnaires, might be of help in identifying subjects suitable for neuroprotective strategies. PMID:27651975

  20. Prospects for biological control of rodent populations*

    PubMed Central

    Wodzicki, Kazimierz

    1973-01-01

    Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population. PMID:4587482

  1. "Intermediate" population control and comprehensive community development.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1993-01-01

    China's fertility rapidly declined since the 1970s. Family planning efforts and rigorous population control were recognized as having a significant influence on the 50% decline in fertility to 2.25 in 1990. Little attention was given to intermediate level research on the determinants of fertility decline. The intermediate level is the community, which is a suitable level for analysis of Chinese fertility because income is relatively homogenous at the community level. Communities have common economic interests, and multiple births by one member encroaches on the resources of other members. Community social organization links the micro with the macro birth control of national government. Cultural values shape reproductive patterns in communities. A determinant of population control is the general level of development in the community. Several models of development are apparent: the traditional agricultural topology, the modern industrial structure topology, and the transitional industrial structure topology. Communities may vary in size from small, to medium, to large. Family planning core households can be effective in educating adjacent households and responding flexibly. The medium community has close spatial connections between population management and local economy and culture. A large community corresponds to a township in rural areas and neighborhood in urban areas. Historical period influences reflect the level and structure of social economic development. In the Hainan community with population of 6.5 million, there are still backward economic conditions and a high birth rate. An experimental zone development group was established in 1991 to enhance population and economic development in five agricultural communities. Within 2 years, progress had been made in market reform and communities were modeled on "little government and big societies." The experimental program expanded knowledge about population issues, promoted education and training, and secured

  2. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  3. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  4. Aspects of adiabatic population transfer and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirplak, Mustafa

    This thesis explores two different questions. The first question we answer is how to restore a given population transfer scenario given that it works efficiently in the adiabatic limit but fails because of lack of intensity and/or short duration. We derive a very simple algorithm to do this and apply it to both toy and realistic models. Two results emerge from this study. While the mathematical existence of the programme is certain it might not always be physically desirable. The restoration of adiabaticity is phase sensitive. The second question that is answered in this thesis is not how to invent new control paradigms, but rather what would happen to them in the presence of stochastic perturbers. We first use a phenomenological model to study the effect of stochastic dephasing on population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. The results of this Monte Carlo calculation are qualitatively explained with a perturbation theoretical result in the dressed state basis. The reliability of our phenomenological model is questioned through a more rigorous hybrid quantal-classical simulation of controlled population transfer in HCl in Ar.

  5. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  6. Anesthesia and Incident Dementia: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sprung, Juraj; Jankowski, Christopher J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Weingarten, Toby N.; Aguilar, Andrea L.; Runkle, Kayla J.; Tucker, Amanda K.; McLaren, Kathryn C.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Knopman, David S.; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Warner, David O.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia during adulthood is not significantly associated with incident dementia using a retrospective, population-based, nested case-controlled study design. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with dementia between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1994, were identified. For each incident case, a sex and age matched control was randomly selected from the general pool of Olmsted County residents who were dementia-free in the index year of dementia diagnosis. Medical records were reviewed to determine exposures to procedures requiring anesthesia after the age of 45 and prior to the index year. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results 877 cases of dementia, each with a corresponding control, were analyzed. Among dementia cases, 615 (70%) individuals underwent 1,681 procedures requiring general anesthesia, and 636 controls (73%) underwent 1,638 procedures. When assessed as a dichotomous variable, anesthetic exposure was not significantly associated with dementia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.73-1.10; P = 0.27). In addition, no significant association was found (P = 0.51) when exposure was quantified as number of procedures (OR = 0.87, 0.86, and 1.0 for 1, 2-3, and ≥4 exposures compared to none, respectively). Conclusion This study found no significant association between exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia after the age of 45 years and incident dementia. PMID:23642337

  7. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  8. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  9. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  10. Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Suissa, Samy; Rietbrock, Stephan; Katholing, Anja; Freedman, Ben; Cohen, Alexander T; Handelsman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with use of testosterone treatment in men, focusing particularly on the timing of the risk. Design Population based case-control study Setting 370 general practices in UK primary care with linked hospital discharge diagnoses and in-hospital procedures and information on all cause mortality. Participants 19 215 patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism (comprising deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and 909 530 age matched controls from source population including more than 2.22 million men between January 2001 and May 2013. Exposure of interest Three mutually exclusive testosterone exposure groups were identified: current treatment, recent (but not current) treatment, and no treatment in the previous two years. Current treatment was subdivided into duration of more or less than six months. Main outcome measure Rate ratios of venous thromboembolism in association with current testosterone treatment compared with no treatment were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for comorbidities and all matching factors. Results The adjusted rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.66) for current versus no testosterone treatment. In the first six months of testosterone treatment, the rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.63 (1.12 to 2.37), corresponding to 10.0 (1.9 to 21.6) additional venous thromboembolisms above the base rate of 15.8 per 10 000 person years. The rate ratio after more than six months’ treatment was 1.00 (0.68 to 1.47), and after treatment cessation it was 0.68 (0.43 to 1.07). Increased rate ratios within the first six months of treatment were observed in all strata: the rate ratio was 1.52 (0.94 to 2.46) for patients with pathological hypogonadism and 1.88 (1.02 to 3.45) for those without it, and 1.41 (0.82 to 2.41) for those with a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism and 1.91 (1

  11. 49 CFR 372.243 - Controlling distances and population data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlling distances and population data. 372.243... population data. In the application of § 372.241: (a) Air-line distances or mileages about corporate limits of municipalities shall be used. (b) The population of any municipality shall be deemed to be...

  12. 49 CFR 372.243 - Controlling distances and population data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlling distances and population data. 372.243... population data. In the application of § 372.241: (a) Air-line distances or mileages about corporate limits of municipalities shall be used. (b) The population of any municipality shall be deemed to be...

  13. 49 CFR 372.243 - Controlling distances and population data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlling distances and population data. 372.243... population data. In the application of § 372.241: (a) Air-line distances or mileages about corporate limits of municipalities shall be used. (b) The population of any municipality shall be deemed to be...

  14. 49 CFR 372.243 - Controlling distances and population data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controlling distances and population data. 372.243... population data. In the application of § 372.241: (a) Air-line distances or mileages about corporate limits of municipalities shall be used. (b) The population of any municipality shall be deemed to be...

  15. 49 CFR 372.243 - Controlling distances and population data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controlling distances and population data. 372.243... population data. In the application of § 372.241: (a) Air-line distances or mileages about corporate limits of municipalities shall be used. (b) The population of any municipality shall be deemed to be...

  16. [The necessity of controlling population growth in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Sari, D

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for controlling Algeria's rapid rate of population growth. The author notes that at the present rate of growth the population is doubling every 20 years. The decline in the labor market and increases in unemployment and underemployment are also examined. The need for strong population policies and programs is stressed.

  17. [On some theoretic issues about planned control of population].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q

    1981-01-01

    There are basic differences between Marxian and Malthusian population thought: 1) For Marx, population is a social phenomenon--human reproduction belongs to social production and population laws are social laws influenced by the means of production. Marx recognized that human reproduction had both a natural and a social relationship, but Malthus population theory only acknowledges the natural relationship of human reproduction. Malthus believed that if population grows without interference, it will double every 25 years, or geometrically. It is evident Malthus substituted biological possibilities for the objective inevitability of population evolution, and natural population laws for social population laws. 2) Marx believed that social production is the unification of material production and human reproduction. Material production is controlled and necessitates control of human reproduction. For Malthus, the growth of the means of subsistence never catches up with the growth of the population, but Marx said that even though land is limited, the development of production forces is limitless. Marxist theory postulates that man is basically a producer, but that population must be planned because not everyone is a producer (e.g., children and the unskilled). 3) Malthus believed that in capitalistic countries unemployment, famine, and poverty stem from too many births by the laboring class, i.e., population determines the economy. The only solution to population problems is to have fewer children. For Marx, economics determines population problems.

  18. Spatial variation in mortality risk for haematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. Material and methods A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied. We mapped (1) adptive kernel density relative risk estimation (KDE) for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls’ densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using generalized additive models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. Results No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2–6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Conclusion Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. PMID:26073202

  19. [THE ORGANIZATION OF CONTROLLING QUALITY OF ORTHODONTIC CARE OF POPULATION].

    PubMed

    Chaban, A V; Schepin, V O; Korablev, V N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents originally developed model of quality of orthodontic care of population on the level of subject of the Russian Federation. The model includes the following elements: demand of population in orthodontic care, mission of orthodontic service, regulations of orthodontic service, table of facilities, staff list, standards of evaluation of effectiveness and audit of effectiveness of orthodontic care of population, and standards of quality control. The developed standards of quality control exemplified by typical stomatological polyclinic, demonstrated reserves of further development of quality and accessibility of orthodontic service to population in functioning of medical organization.

  20. Population control and the women of India.

    PubMed

    Batra, B K

    1973-01-01

    14% of the world's population, (547,000,000 people) live on 2.4% of its land in India. 18% of the population of India live in 2690 cities, the rest in rural villages, with roughly an average of 700 people per village. The woman's role in India was mainly to produce children, most importantly sons. In 1956 India began the program of planned parenthood at a governmental level, aiming at restricting births. This met with some negativism on the part of the older generation especially due to its depriving them of the privilege and benefits of large families, and the lesser guarantee of a male heir. But due to the effects of agricultural and industrial reforms, rapid urbanization has occurred bringing better communication and helping to spread the ideas and information about family planning to the village. Urbanization also brought about a crashing economic situation. Motivation for planned parenthood has its most persuasive impetus when social and economic pressures are at their peak. Thus the message that a "small family is a happy family" has from necessity become accepted. The poor housing conditions with a total lack of privacy has contributed to the inability of Indian women to use more sophisticated methods of contraception. The pill is too expensive for most Indian women. The IUD therefore was the most practical to start with in 1956 and thereafter has been freely available. India's national leadership is committed to the success of the planned parenthood program which aims at the adoption of the norm of a small family as a social and personal ideal. The 2 facets of the program have been to persuade people to accept the new norms and to provide contraceptive services within easy reach. If the birth rate declines from its present level of 39 to 30 per 1000 by 1986, the population will still reach 792,000,000 by 1991, and 941,000,000 by 2001. The reason for the past increase in growth has been due to the rapidly declining death rate. Legislation has been passed to

  1. Population-based case–control study of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Q; Shu, X-O; Jin, F; Potter, J D; Kushi, L H; Teas, J; Gao, Y-T; Zheng, W

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the association of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in a population-based case–control study among Chinese women in Shanghai. Included in the study were 1459 cases and 1556 age-matched controls, with respective response rates of 91.1% and 90.3%. Usual soyfood intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Separate analyses were performed for all subjects and for the subset who reported no recent change in soyfood intake. The intake levels of soyfoods among women in Shanghai are high, with 96.6% women reporting soyfood consumption at least once a week. A statistically non-significant reduced risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78 95% CI = 0.52–1.16) of breast cancer was observed among those who reported eating soyfood at least once a week. Compared to those in the lowest decile intake group, women in the highest decile intake group had a 30% reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.95), but no monotonic dose–response relation was observed (P for trend, 0.28). Stratified analyses showed that the inverse association was restricted primarily among women who had a high body mass index (BMI), with an adjusted OR of 0.30 (95% CI = 0.10–0.94) observed for the highest intake group. The reduction in risk was stronger for breast cancer positive for both oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25–0.78) than those with other ER/PR status. More pronounced inverse associations were observed in analyses among those who reported no recent change in soyfood intake than those conducted in all subjects. A dose–response relation between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk was observed in this subset of women (P for trend, 0.02), with an OR of 0.46 (95%CI = 0.28–0.75) for those in the highest decile intake group. No clear monotonic dose–response relation was found between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk among regular soy eaters, but nevertheless the results suggest that regular

  2. High Intake of Energy and Fat in Southwest Chinese Women with PCOS: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhou, Lingling; Tang, Liulin; Zhuang, Jing; Guo, Wenqi; Hu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinological disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Obesity contributes to the increased prevalence and severity of PCOS. Whether the intakes of major nutrients are higher in Chinese PCOS patients is still unknown. Objectives To study the intakes of total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Methods 1854 women were included in the cross-sectional study. A population-based case-control study was conducted. The dietary habits and nutrients intake status of 169 PCOS patients and 338 age-matched controls were investigated by the method of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results The actual intake of total energy (P = 0.01) and fat (P = 0.01) were higher, but carbohydrate was lower (P = 0.01) in PCOS patients as compared with the controls. The energy percentage supplied by protein (12.33%±2.27% vs. 19.26%±5.91%, P<0.001) and carbohydrate (48.72%±6.41% vs. 68.31%±8.37%, P<0.001) were lower in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients than those of control, however, the energy percentage supplied by fat was higher (38.95%±5.71% vs. 12.42%±5.13%, P<0.001) in PCOS. Conclusions Limit the intake of total energy and fat shall be recommended to the Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Women with PCOS in Southwest China shall consult with the nutritionist for improving the dietary structure. PMID:25993656

  3. [Five recommendations for controlling population growth in China].

    PubMed

    Lui, Z; Wu, C P; Lin, F D

    1980-10-01

    The rapid population growth rate (2% annually from 1949 to 1978) caused great difficulties for China's national economy because it increased the burden of families, communities, and government. It caused employment problems and slowed increases in living standards and educational levels. The best way to control population growth is based on a combination of political education and effective economic measures. The recommendations are: 1) coordinate employment, food rationing, salaries, bonuses, health treatment, age and condition of retirement, preschool care and education with family planning programs, maintain the elderly's living standard, and give preference to childless and single child families; 2) educate people about family planning and incorporate population growth and family planning into political and economics courses in high school and college; 3) incorporate population control into national economic plans; 4) prohibit families with 3 children and advocate 1 child per couple; and 5) establish a permanent population committee to plan, develop, and implement population policies and related research.

  4. The demography of free-roaming dog populations and applications to disease and population control

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Restif, Olivier; Conlan, Andrew J K; Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie; Whay, Helen R; Damriyasa, I Made; Wood, James L N

    2014-01-01

    1. Understanding the demography of domestic dog populations is essential for effective disease control, particularly of canine-mediated rabies. Demographic data are also needed to plan effective population management. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated the contribution of demographic processes (i.e. births, deaths and movement) to variations in dog population size or density, or determined the factors that regulate these processes, including human factors. 2. We report the results of a 3-year cohort study of domestic dogs, which is the first to generate detailed data on the temporal variation of these demographic characteristics. The study was undertaken in two communities in each of Bali, Indonesia and Johannesburg, South Africa, in rabies-endemic areas and where the majority of dogs were free-roaming. None of the four communities had been engaged in any dog population management interventions by local authorities or animal welfare organizations. All identified dogs in the four communities were monitored individually throughout the study. 3. We observed either no population growth or a progressive decline in population size during the study period. There was no clear evidence that population size was regulated through environmental resource constraints. Rather, almost all of the identified dogs were owned and fed regularly by their owners, consistent with population size regulated by human demand. Finally, a substantial fraction of the dogs originated from outside the population, entirely through the translocation of dogs by people, rather than from local births. These findings demonstrate that previously reported growth of dog populations is not a general phenomenon and challenge the widely held view that free-roaming dogs are unowned and form closed populations. 4. Synthesis and applications. These observations have broad implications for disease and population control. The accessibility of dogs for vaccination and evaluation through owners and the

  5. Optimal control methods for controlling bacterial populations with persister dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial tolerance to antibiotics is a well-known phenomena; however, only recent studies of bacterial biofilms have shown how multifaceted tolerance really is. By joining into a structured community and offering shared protection and gene transfer, bacterial populations can protect themselves genotypically, phenotypically and physically. In this study, we collect a line of research that focuses on phenotypic (or plastic) tolerance. The dynamics of persister formation are becoming better understood, even though there are major questions that remain. The thrust of our results indicate that even without detailed description of the biological mechanisms, theoretical studies can offer strategies that can eradicate bacterial populations with existing drugs.

  6. Population-based case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Dana B; Scott, William K

    2012-07-01

    This unit provides an overview of the design and analysis of population-based case-control studies of genetic risk factors for complex disease. Considerations specific to genetic studies are emphasized. The unit reviews basic study designs differentiating case-control studies from others, presents different genetic association strategies (candidate gene, genome-wide association, and high-throughput sequencing), introduces basic methods of statistical analysis for case-control data and approaches to combining case-control studies, and discusses measures of association and impact. Admixed populations, controlling for confounding (including population stratification), consideration of multiple loci and environmental risk factors, and complementary analyses of haplotypes, genes, and pathways are briefly discussed. Readers are referred to basic texts on epidemiology for more details on general conduct of case-control studies.

  7. Control of Population Flow in Coherently Driven Quantum Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ruth; Bergmann, Klaas; Ekers, Aigars; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2005-07-22

    A technique for adiabatic control of the population flow through a preselected decaying excited level in a three-level quantum ladder is presented. The population flow through the intermediate or upper level is controlled efficiently and robustly by varying the pulse delay between a pair of partly overlapping coherent laser pulses. The technique is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated in an experiment with Na{sub 2} molecules.

  8. Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barreto Bruno; Gomes, Almério de Castro; Natal, Delsio; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2009-10-01

    The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific promoter into immature females. Advantages of these approaches over other biological and chemical control strategies include: highly species-specific, environmentally safety, low production cost, and high efficacy. The use of this genetic modification technique will constitute an important tool for integrated vector management.

  9. Age-structured optimal control in population economics.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Gustav; Prskawetz, Alexia; Veliov, Vladimir M

    2004-06-01

    This paper brings both intertemporal and age-dependent features to a theory of population policy at the macro-level. A Lotka-type renewal model of population dynamics is combined with a Solow/Ramsey economy. We consider a social planner who maximizes an aggregate intertemporal utility function which depends on per capita consumption. As control policies we consider migration and saving rate (both age-dependent). By using a new maximum principle for age-structured control systems we derive meaningful results for the optimal migration and saving rate in an aging population. The model used in the numerical calculations is calibrated for Austria.

  10. Association of ACL tears and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the collagen 12 A1 gene in the Indian population - a preliminary case-control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Rakesh; Prabhakar, Sharad; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh; Anand, Akshay; Minhas, Gillipsie

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Genetic predisposition to ACL tears has received tremendous interest in the past few years with many SNPs of different genes being linked to ACL tear. Study Objectives To examine if specific sequence variants in COL12A1 gene are associated with ACL tears in Indian population. Study design Case-control study. Materials and methods 50 patients with surgically diagnosed ACL tear and 52 healthy, age-matched controls without any ligament/tendon injuries were genotyped for rs970547 and rs240736 SNPs using real time PCR method. Results The AG and GG genotypes were significantly under-represented in study group patients in rs970547 region (p=0.0361). However, there was no significant difference in genotype/allele frequencies in the rs240736 region. Conclusions The COL12A1 rs970547 SNP is associated with ACL tears in the Indian population. However, these results need to be validated further so that predisposed individuals can be screened in the future for counselling and intervention. Level of evidence III PMID:27900301

  11. Degenerated intervertebral disc prolapse and its association of collagen I alpha 1 Spl gene polymorphism: A preliminary case control study of Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Anjankar, Shailendra D; Poornima, Subhadra; Raju, Subodh; Jaleel, MA; Bhiladvala, Dilnavaz; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Degenerated disc disease (DDD) is a common disorder responsible for increased morbidity in a productive age group. Its etiology is multifactorial and genetic factors have been predominantly implicated. Disc prolapse results due to tear in the annulus, which is a fibrous structure composed largely of type I collagen. Functional polymorphism at the Sp1 site of the collagen I alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene has shown a positive association with DDD in Dutch and Greek populations. The purpose of this study was to assess COL1A1 Sp1 gene polymorphism in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Fifty clinically and radiologically proven patients with disc prolapse requiring surgery were included as cases and 50 healthy, age-matched volunteers served as controls. After isolating DNA from their blood sample, genotyping for COL1A1 polymorphism (rs1800012) was performed and identified as GG, GT, and TT. Results: The mean age and body mass index in cases and controls were similar. 76% of the patients were males. The most common site of disc degeneration was L4–L5 (36%), followed by L5–S1 (34%). Homozygous–GG, heterozygous GT, and homozygous TT genotypes were seen in 38 (76%), 10 (20%) and 2 (4%) cases respectively, controls had similar percentage of genotypes as well. The alleles in cases and the control group showed no significant difference (P = 0.6744) and followed the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium in the study population. Conclusion: The COL1A1 (rs1800012) is in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the present subset of Indian population. But taken as a single factor, it was not found to be associated with DDD in this preliminary study. Disc degeneration is multifactorial and also anticipated to be a result of multiple genes involvement and gene-gene interaction. PMID:26806964

  12. An historical sketch of the American population control movement.

    PubMed

    Mass, B

    1974-01-01

    The fundamental premises and historical development of the American population control movement are critically examined from the Marxist viewpoint. It is initially shown how the Malthusian theories of population growth became interwoven with those of the eugenics movement during the first 4 decades of the 20th century. After World War II, the concern of eugenicists with race betterment and with halting the growth in numbers of the "unfit" was superseded by claims that the world was gravely menaced by a "population explosion." Subsequently, it is shown how American financiers and industrialists became leading figures of the "Population Establishment" and promoted private and public funding for support of population control activities. The uneven growth in the 1950's and the rapid growth in the 1960's of United States' efforts to promote domestic and international family planning activities are described at length. Activities of UN agencies and of United States Government agencies, particularly the activities of the Agency for International Development, are emphasized. A description of events connected with World Population Year notes the opposition of many developing countries to what they regard as an overemphasis upon birth control divorced from broad programs of social and economic development. The alleged economic exploitation of capitalism is regarded as a fundamental roadblock to intelligent family planning. Thus, talk of the population bomb merely masks the need to eliminate capitalism and proceed with an equitable distribution of the world's resources.

  13. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  14. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

  15. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly.

  16. [Strategy on control of births by population trend (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kong, S K; Jang, Y S

    1982-12-01

    The birth control program was based on the idea that an individual should want a small family and pregnancy should be prevented if a child is not wanted. Birth control program goals were, therefore, conducted through an educational enlightenment of family planning programs and contraceptive services provided to the targetted groups. The service delivery system has been modified to reflect the socio-situational changes over the last 20 years. These programs have, however, faced difficulties because of unlimited contraceptive service delivery systems and a lack of diversity in the services offered. The dynamic socioeconomic development achieved during the last 20 years (1962-81) and the steady implementation of birth control measures have apparently had an impact on the population structure and distribution. At the same time, the practice of abortion and present acceptance rates make us wonder whether or not present services are meeting actual needs. The objectives of this study were to analyze behavioral changes in births, and to examine how population dynamics have changed. Recommendations for future birth control policy were made. During the 1960s, the population maintained a high 3% increase rate while the death rate gradually decreased. However, during 1970-80, birthrate and death rate decreased by 50%. The population structure has changed with younger population ratios decreasing and the elder population increasing. The increase in total population and the change in the age structure will increase the reproductive population in spite of the concentrated family planning efforts for the reproductive age group. Reproductive women have been increasing and the population ratio of women between ages 15-49 was 23% in 1960 and will increase to 26% in 1980 and 27% in 1990. This increase in the ratio of eligible women will function inversely to population decline. The ratio of higher fertility age groups in the total population has increased since 1980 so they should be

  17. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Khalakdina, Asheena; Vugia, Duc J; Nadle, Joelle; Rothrock, Gretchen A; Colford, John M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne). There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26) and controls (n = 62) were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults) sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]). Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other. PMID:12689343

  18. Nonlinear PI controllers for continuous bioreactors using population balance models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chang, Haw-Yuan

    2005-11-01

    Continuous bioreactors are critical unit operations in many biological systems, but the unique modeling is very complicated due to the underlying biochemical reactions and the distributed properties of cell population. The scope of this paper considers a popular modeling method for microbial cell cultures by population balance equation models, and the control objective aims to attenuate undesired oscillations appeared in the nonlinear distributed parameter system. In view of pursuing the popular/practical control configuration and the lack of on-line sensors, an approximate technique by exploiting the "pseudo-steady-state" approach constructs a simple nonlinear control model. Through an off-line estimation mechanism for the system having self-oscillating behavior, two kinds of nonlinear PI configurations are developed. Closed-loop simulation results have confirmed that the regulatory and tracking performances of the control system proposed are good.

  19. [Establishing legal system completely and controlling the excessive population growth].

    PubMed

    Zou, P

    1988-05-01

    China during the early years of Socialism concentrated on economic development. Population problems were given a low priority. But now, at this point in China's history, it is necessary to maintain the stability and uniformity of the birth policy through legislation, alter attitudes toward childbearing through legal education, and protect through laws the enthusiastic nature of family planning work of cadres. Without legislation, family planning work cannot endure. It is the proper time to promulgate "Family Planning Law", the body of laws written by the State Council after 5 years of research in family planning work. Critics of this view feel that conditions in rural areas are not ripe for such a law, or that because China is large and populous, laws are not the proper method for controlling population, or that legal restrictions would bring unforeseen consequences in the future. But China's population problem is immediate and dire, and conditions are indeed ripe for passing this law.

  20. Association of CYP1B1 Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in the Han Population in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, P. R. China

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Haiyan; Liu, Chunlian; Guo, Weidong; Peng, Liang; Chen, Yintao; Martin, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating possible associations between cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent. We set out to ascertain whether there might be an association between polymorphisms in exon 2 (codon 119, G→T) and exon 3 (codon 432, G→C) of CYP1B1 and breast cancer in a Chinese Han population in the rural region of Ningxia. Using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method and direct DNA sequencing, the presence or absence of the two CYP1B1 polymorphisms was investigated. Genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed in breast cancer cases (n = 152) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 156). The odds ratio (OR) of 119G→T or 432G→C in breast cancer cases and controls was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.28 to 8.28) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.04 to 7.51), respectively. In addition, the OR for people with both polymorphisms (119T and 432C) was 4.69 (95% CI: 1.97 to 11.19). Our results suggest that certain polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene might increase risk for breast cancer among Han Chinese, perhaps because they influence the efficiency of CYP1B1 bio-transformation of oestrogens or pro-carcinogens into DNA-reactive electrophiles that may act as cancer-initiating agents. PMID:20212917

  1. Population Control, Myth or Fact as a National Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarembinski, Clem

    Evidence presented in this paper substantiates the position that: (1) the United States is pursuing a national goal and foreign policy of population control; and (2) a conflict about this goal could arise within the minds of many people. To support these two facts, the author has outlined statements giving an overview about the profusion of…

  2. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Juan; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive. PMID:28151983

  3. Locus of Control Correlates in an Alcoholic Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Hopper, Allen E.

    1974-01-01

    Assesses the locus of control orientation within an alcoholic population and relates this orientation to the degree of cognitive dysfunction. Results suggest that female alcoholics, specifically those who need inpatient treatment, may be a relatively more disturbed group compared to alcoholic male inpatients. (Author/PC)

  4. Population control, distribution, and manpower problems of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Debavalya, N

    1981-12-01

    Responsive population policies proposed or underway in Thailand are intended to meet the challenges inherent in rapid population growth, rural to urban movement, and an increasing labor force. Data from several national sample surveys conducted from 1969-1975 highlight changing reproductive patterns. The annual population growth rate of about 3% between 1960-70 shows evidence of decline. Between 1969 and 1975, marital fertility has decreased by close to 20%. Contraceptive utilization has risen from 15% to 37% among currently married women, and by 1975, almost all Thai women indicated familiarity with birth control methods. The preferred number of children is also declining and differences in effective population control between rural and urban populations is diminishing. Governmental support of family planning was formalized in 1970 with the establishment of the National Family Planning Program. The success attributed to the program is in part due to its integration into the Ministry of Public Health's network of general health facilities. Rapid urbanization of the Bangkok metropolis has created over 300 slum areas within the city that lack basic urban infrastructure and services, excessive traffic, and uncontrolled land use problems. The governmental response includes plans to slow migration by creating incentives to establish industries in provincial areas, by decentralizing some government agencies, by developing additional regional centers with emphasis on control of land use, provision of adequate urban infrastructure, creation of new jobs and integrated urban, rural, and regional planning. Thailand's period of rapid population growth contributes to its expanding labor force. Although the unemployment rate is relatively low, 2.2% in 1978, underemployment, due to seasonal variations in demand for agricultural labor, is a significant problem. Regular national labor force surveys are underway so that more useful information for determining government policies and

  5. Stabilizing Spatially-Structured Populations through Adaptive Limiter Control

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Pratha; Dey, Sutirth

    2014-01-01

    Stabilizing the dynamics of complex, non-linear systems is a major concern across several scientific disciplines including ecology and conservation biology. Unfortunately, most methods proposed to reduce the fluctuations in chaotic systems are not applicable to real, biological populations. This is because such methods typically require detailed knowledge of system specific parameters and the ability to manipulate them in real time; conditions often not met by most real populations. Moreover, real populations are often noisy and extinction-prone, which can sometimes render such methods ineffective. Here, we investigate a control strategy, which works by perturbing the population size, and is robust to reasonable amounts of noise and extinction probability. This strategy, called the Adaptive Limiter Control (ALC), has been previously shown to increase constancy and persistence of laboratory populations and metapopulations of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the effects of ALC on the fluctuations and persistence of metapopulations. We show that at high migration rates, application of ALC does not require a priori information about the population growth rates. We also show that ALC can stabilize metapopulations even when applied to as low as one-tenth of the total number of subpopulations. Moreover, ALC is effective even when the subpopulations have high extinction rates: conditions under which another control algorithm had previously failed to attain stability. Importantly, ALC not only reduces the fluctuation in metapopulation sizes, but also the global extinction probability. Finally, the method is robust to moderate levels of noise in the dynamics and the carrying capacity of the environment. These results, coupled with our earlier empirical findings, establish ALC to be a strong candidate for stabilizing real biological metapopulations. PMID:25153073

  6. Hypoconnectivity of Resting-State Networks in Persons with Aphasia Compared with Healthy Age-Matched Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece W.

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is a language disorder affecting more than one million people in the US. While language function has traditionally been the focus of neuroimaging research, other cognitive functions are affected in this population, which has implications not only for those specific processes but also for the interaction of language and other cognitive functions. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a practical and informative way to explore and characterize general cognitive engagement and/or health in this population, but it is currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to explore the functional connectivity in resting state networks (RSNs) and in the semantic network in seven persons with aphasia (PWA) who were at least 6 months post onset compared with 11 neurologically healthy adults (NHA) in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of general cognitive engagement in aphasia. These preliminary results show that PWA exhibit hypoconnectivity in the semantic network and all RSNs except the visual network. Compared with NHA, PWA appear to have fewer cross- and left-hemispheric connections. However, PWA exhibit some stronger connections than NHA within the semantic network, which could indicate compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, connectivity for RSNs appear to increase with decreasing aphasia severity and decrease with increasing lesion size. This knowledge has the potential to improve aphasia therapy by furthering the understanding of lesion effects on the cognitive system as a whole, which can guide treatment target selection and promotion of favorable neural reorganization for optimal recovery of function. PMID:28293185

  7. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-12-08

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  8. Universality in exact quantum state population dynamics and control

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul; Egusquiza, Inigo L.

    2010-09-15

    We consider an exact population transition, defined as the probability of finding a state at a final time that is exactly equal to the probability of another state at the initial time. We prove that, given a Hamiltonian, there always exists a complete set of orthogonal states that can be employed as time-zero states for which this exact population transition occurs. The result is general: It holds for arbitrary systems, arbitrary pairs of initial and final states, and for any time interval. The proposition is illustrated with several analytic models. In particular, we demonstrate that in some cases, by tuning the control parameters, a complete transition might occur, where a target state, vacant at t=0, is fully populated at time {tau}.

  9. Functional ability perceived by individuals following total knee arthroplasty compared to age-matched individuals without knee disability.

    PubMed

    Finch, E; Walsh, M; Thomas, S G; Woodhouse, L J

    1998-04-01

    A comparison of function of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with healthy control subjects (controls) meaningfully describes outcome in these patients. Perception of function measured by two questionnaires, the Lower Extremity Activity Profile (LEAP) and the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and walking and stair performance was compared between 29 patients, 1 year after TKA, and 40 controls. There was significantly greater perceived difficulty with function in patients with TKA than in controls. In TKA men, LEAP and WOMAC scores correlated respectively with self-paced walk speed (r = -.71 and -.55) and stair performance time (r = 0.70 and 0.68). In TKA women, LEAP difficulty score correlated with self-paced walk speed (r = -.41) and stair performance time (r = -0.71). By 1 year, TKA subjects regained 80% of the function of controls. Perception of function after TKA can be measured by either questionnaire in men; however, the LEAP is the preferable questionnaire with women.

  10. Occupational exposure to textile dust increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from a Malaysian population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Too, Chun Lai; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Ilar, Anna; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Murad, Shahnaz; Bengtsson, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Lung exposures including cigarette smoking and silica exposure are associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the association between textile dust exposure and the risk of RA in the Malaysian population, with a focus on women who rarely smoke. Methods Data from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis population-based case–control study involving 910 female early RA cases and 910 female age-matched controls were analysed. Self-reported information on ever/never occupationally exposed to textile dust was used to estimate the risk of developing anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA. Interaction between textile dust and the human leucocyte antigen DR β-1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope (SE) was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), with 95% CI. Results Occupational exposure to textile dust was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RA in the Malaysian female population (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.2). The association between occupational exposure to textile dust and risk of RA was uniformly observed for the ACPA-positive RA (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8) and ACPA-negative RA (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0) subsets, respectively. We observed a significant interaction between exposure to occupational textile dust and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles regarding the risk of ACPA-positive RA (OR for double exposed: 39.1, 95% CI 5.1 to 297.5; AP: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.2). Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating that textile dust exposure is associated with an increased risk for RA. In addition, a gene–environment interaction between HLA-DRB1 SE and textile dust exposure provides a high risk for ACPA-positive RA. PMID:26681695

  11. Strong Field Coherent Control of Atomic Population Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, Stephen; Holscher, Uvo; Trallero, Carlos; Weinacht, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    There is significant interest in controlling atomic and molecular dynamics using shaped ultrafast laser pulses, an important aspect of which is selectively populating a particular target state with high efficiency. In order to achieve this beyond the limits of single photon excitation, one has to consider multiple interfering pathways and dynamic Stark shifts (DSS), which make resonance conditions time-dependent and substantially modify the phase advance of the bare states during the atom/molecule-field interaction. In this work, we demonstrate strong field atomic population transfer in a three level system via three-photon absorption from a single shaped ultrafast laser pulse. The optimal pulse shape for efficient population transfer is discovered using closed-loop learning control and interpreted via pulse shape parameter scans and numerical integration of the Schr"odinger equation. We show a population inversion can be achieved and measured using a combination of spontaneous and stimulated emission. Our results illustrate the importance of dynamic Stark shifts in coherent multi-photon excitation and give rise to the possibility of lasing in the deep ultraviolet.

  12. A theoretical analysis of optimum consumer population and its control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Mao, Z; Wang, H

    1994-01-01

    Material production is related to population consumption in every society. Consumption also constantly transforms materials, energy, and information. In this sense, consumption provides both impetus for material production and a self-adapting mechanism for population development and control. Population structure variables affecting economic production can be divided according to non-adults, working-age work force and the elderly, social status, and urban-rural structure. The consumptive structures among people of different social status reflect different needs for social and economic development. The theoretical calculation of the consumer population in the national economy demonstrates that the national income in a certain year of a given national economy equals consumption fund plus accumulation fund where consumption fund includes social consumption fund and residential consumption fund. Social consumption fund is spent mostly on public utilities, administrative management, national defense, education, public health and urban construction, as well as on environment management and disaster relief. The residential consumption fund can be divided into basic expenditure such as clothing, food, shelter and transportation, and self-improvement expenditure such as recreation, education, and travel. As a result of economic development, not only the percentage of the expenditure on food will decrease and the percentage of the expenditure on clothing, shelter, transportation, and other daily necessities will increase, but expenses on recreation and education also will grow. Residential consumption is divided into subsistence consumption (Type I consumption) and self-improvement (recreation and education) consumption (Type II consumption) in order to determine consumer population and the degree of urbanization and its impact upon social and economic development. A moderate consumer population model of urban and rural areas was established by using the urban and rural

  13. Dynamic control and quantification of bacterial population dynamics in droplets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuqiang; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Lee, Anna J; Zhang, Ying; Lopatkin, Allison J; Leong, Kam W; You, Lingchong

    2015-08-01

    Culturing and measuring bacterial population dynamics are critical to develop insights into gene regulation or bacterial physiology. Traditional methods, based on bulk culture to obtain such quantification, have the limitations of higher cost/volume of reagents, non-amendable to small size of population and more laborious manipulation. To this end, droplet-based microfluidics represents a promising alternative that is cost-effective and high-throughput. However, difficulties in manipulating the droplet environment and monitoring encapsulated bacterial population for long-term experiments limit its utilization. To overcome these limitations, we used an electrode-free injection technology to modulate the chemical environment in droplets. This ability is critical for precise control of bacterial dynamics in droplets. Moreover, we developed a trapping device for long-term monitoring of population dynamics in individual droplets for at least 240 h. We demonstrated the utility of this new microfluidic system by quantifying population dynamics of natural and engineered bacteria. Our approach can further improve the analysis for systems and synthetic biology in terms of manipulability and high temporal resolution.

  14. Dynamic control and quantification of bacterial population dynamics in droplets

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuqiang; Srimani, Jaydeep K.; Lee, Anna J.; Zhang, Ying; Lopatkin, Allison J.; Leong, Kam W.; You, Lingchong

    2015-01-01

    Culturing and measuring bacterial population dynamics are critical to develop insights into gene regulation or bacterial physiology. Traditional methods, based on bulk culture to obtain such quantification, have the limitations of higher cost/volume of reagents, non-amendable to small size of population and more laborious manipulation. To this end, droplet-based microfluidics represents a promising alternative that is cost-effective and high-throughput. However, difficulties in manipulating the droplet environment and monitoring encapsulated bacterial population for long-term experiments limit its utilization. To overcome these limitations, we used an electrode-free injection technology to modulate the chemical environment in droplets. This ability is critical for precise control of bacterial dynamics in droplets. Moreover, we developed a trapping device for long-term monitoring of population dynamics in individual droplets for at least 240 h. We demonstrated the utility of this new microfluidic system by quantifying population dynamics of natural and engineered bacteria. Our approach can further improve the analysis for systems and synthetic biology in terms of manipulability and high temporal resolution. PMID:26005763

  15. Modelling malaria population structure and its implications for control.

    PubMed

    Buckee, Caroline O; Gupta, Sunetra

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models of malaria transmission have been used to inform the design of malaria control programs since the mid 20th century, and many of these models have provided useful insights into the complexity of the disease. Among developing countries, however and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. One of the main difficulties in controlling the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is its genetic diversity, which confounds attempts to design an effective vaccine. The population structure of P. falciparum remains poorly understood but plays a key role in determining epidemiological patterns of disease and the development of immunity. We discuss the seminal model of malaria transmission developed by Ross and MacDonald, and the modifications that have been made since to include more realism. We show that age profiles of disease and serological data support a theoretical model in which the parasite population is diverse and structured into several antigenic types and highlight the implications of this structure for controlling malaria. Lastly, we discuss the current sequence data on parasite antigen genes that are important for the aquisition of immunity, and the results of a new analysis of P. falciparum population structure at the genomic level.

  16. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation). PMID:27583083

  17. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects’ internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10015.001 PMID:26646183

  18. Signal Propagation between Neuronal Populations Controlled by Micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Jonas; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system consists of an unfathomable number of functional networks enabling highly sophisticated information processing. Guided neuronal growth with a well-defined connectivity and accompanying polarity is essential for the formation of these networks. To investigate how two-dimensional protein patterns influence neuronal outgrowth with respect to connectivity and functional polarity between adjacent populations of neurons, a microstructured model system was established. Exclusive cell growth on patterned substrates was achieved by transferring a mixture of poly-l-lysine and laminin to a cell-repellent glass surface by microcontact printing. Triangular structures with different opening angle, height, and width were chosen as a pattern to achieve network formation with defined behavior at the junction of adjacent structures. These patterns were populated with dissociated primary cortical embryonic rat neurons and investigated with respect to their impact on neuronal outgrowth by immunofluorescence analysis, as well as their functional connectivity by calcium imaging. Here, we present a highly reproducible technique to devise neuronal networks in vitro with a predefined connectivity induced by the design of the gateway. Daisy-chained neuronal networks with predefined connectivity and functional polarity were produced using the presented micropatterning method. Controlling the direction of signal propagation among populations of neurons provides insights to network communication and offers the chance to investigate more about learning processes in networks by external manipulation of cells and signal cascades. PMID:27379230

  19. Evaluation of Canada goose sterilization for population control.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.; Kennelly, James J.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the vasectomy of 72 male Canada geese as a method to control growing populations of nuisance geese in Westchester County, New York. Thirty-three of the vasectomized males paired with a female and were located during ≥1 breeding seasons; 7 treated males were not seen following surgery. The remaining 32 males were never observed paired with a female during the breeding season. Of 56 nesting attempts by the 33 pairs in ≥1 breeding seasons, 84% of the nests were unsuccessful. Fidelity to nest sites during the second and third breeding seasons occurred for 17 of the 18 vasectomized males and their females that were observed for ≥2 seasons. The results suggest that male sterilization may reduce productivity of nuisance Canada geese providing one carefully selects areas and flocks suitable for this type of control.

  20. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations.

    PubMed

    Levy, Julie K

    2011-07-01

    Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment and on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective non-lethal population control method but is limited in scope because of expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multiyear contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats.

  1. Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg; Cvancarova, Milada; Wist, Erik; Bjoro, Trine; Dahl, Alv A.; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

  2. Role of abortion in control of global population growth.

    PubMed

    Mumford, S D; Kessel, E

    1986-03-01

    No nation desirous of reducing its growth rate to 1% or less can expect to do so without the widespread use of abortion. This observational study, based on the experience of 116 of the world's largest countries, supports the contention that abortion is essential to any national population growth control effort. The principal findings are: Except for a few countries with ageing populations and very high contraceptive prevalence rates, developed countries will need to maintain abortion rates generally in the range of 201-500 abortions per 1000 live births if they are to maintain growth rates at levels below 1%. The current rate in the USA is 426 abortions per 1000 live births. Developing countries, on the other hand, are faced with a different and more difficult set of circumstances that require even greater reliance on abortion. No developing nation wanting to reduce its growth to less than 1% can expect to do so without the widespread use of abortion, generally at a rate greater than 500 abortions per 1000 live births. Widespread availability of abortion is a necessary but not sufficient condition to achieve growth rates below 1%. A high contraceptive prevalence is essential as well in order to achieve growth rates below 1%. A high contraceptive prevalence is a necessary but not sufficient condition to achieve population growth rates below 1%. A high rate of abortion (generally 201-500 or more abortions per 1000 live births in the developed and greater than 500 abortions per 1000 live births in the developing countries) is essential to achieve growth rates below 1%. The different and more difficult set of circumstances faced by developing countries that will necessitate even higher abortion rates than developed countries includes a young population with resultant rapidly growing numbers of young fertile women, poor contraceptive use-effectiveness, low prevalence of contraception, and poor or non-existent systems for providing contraceptives. These data show that

  3. [Population dynamics and control techniques of aphids on honeysuckle].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Hai-Peng; Li, Zhao-Xia

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to define the population dynamics of Semiaphis heraclei in the main-producing district of Lonicera japonica in Shandong, and screen for highly efficient, safety control technique. Through fixed field investigation, we tested the toxicity of eight kinds of insecticides by using dipping methods, and carried out the field experiment. The results showed that the aphids' emergence peak appeared in May. The aphids on the Sijihua variety of L. japonica was more susceptible and the peak was also seven days earlier than Damao variety of L. japonica. The aphid populations on Sijihua were 1 fold than those on the Daomao in happened peak. Comparing the eight kinds of insecticides, the LC50 of lambda-cyhaothrin, abamectin, imidacloprid and pyrethrin to wingless aphids were 1.494, 1.690, 2.840, 2.861 mg x L(-1), respectively, whose toxicity were higher, the toxicity of matrine, pymetrozine and azadirachtin were also high. The field efficacy trials indicated that during the period of aphids occurred, 25% imidacloprid wettable powder, 1.8% abamectin missible oil, 2.5% lambda-cyhaothrin missible oil, 25% pymetrozine wettable powder, 5% pyrethrin missible oil, 1% matrine water aqua were sprayed at concentrations of 20,000, 2,000, 2,500, 5,000, 500 and 50 times, respectively,the control effect achieved 91.69%, 98.90%, 96.18%, 95.06%, 99.24%, 90.10%, respectively, after 5 days. During the growing period of L. japonica in spring, application of thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, pymetrozine and imidacloprid, all of the control effect against aphids achieved above 98.88% after 50 days. The result indicated that May was the S. heraclei Takahashi's emergence peak in Pingyi, Shandong. The efficient safety and environmentally friendly insecticides by spraying and systemic insecticide of pymetrozine and imidacloprid by root application were all efficient controlled aphids. These insecticides were long for controlling S. heraclei Takahashi and worthy of being widely

  4. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  5. Prospects for vector control through genetic manipulation of populations*

    PubMed Central

    Craig, George B.

    1963-01-01

    Since the development of insecticide-resistance and the consequent partial failure of the chemical approach to the control of disease vectors, interest in the biological approach has re-awakened. An aspect of the latter approach that is of great current interest is “autocidal control”—that is, the use of insects for their own destruction. This paper discusses the various ways in which genetic mechanisms can be used to bring about the destruction of harmful insects, with special reference to those of medical importance. The author considers that the prospects for the genetic control of vector species are good, but stresses that before genetic methods can be applied on a field scale certain requirements must be met. For example, genetic technology must be expanded, a firm background of genetic knowledge of vector species must be built up, a great deal more information about vector ecology, particularly population dynamics, must be acquired, and techniques for the mass production of vector insects under controlled conditions must be developed. PMID:20604180

  6. Quantifying prion disease penetrance using large population control cohorts.

    PubMed

    Minikel, Eric Vallabh; Vallabh, Sonia M; Lek, Monkol; Estrada, Karol; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Sathirapongsasuti, J Fah; McLean, Cory Y; Tung, Joyce Y; Yu, Linda P C; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Blevins, Janis; Zhang, Shulin; Cohen, Yvonne; Chen, Wei; Yamada, Masahito; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Collins, Steven J; Boyd, Alison; Will, Robert G; Knight, Richard; Ponto, Claudia; Zerr, Inga; Kraus, Theo F J; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Giese, Armin; Calero, Miguel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Haïk, Stéphane; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Poleggi, Anna; Ladogana, Anna; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H; Karczewski, Konrad J; Marshall, Jamie L; Boehnke, Michael; Laakso, Markku; Mohlke, Karen L; Kähler, Anna; Chambert, Kimberly; McCarroll, Steven; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Purcell, Shaun M; Sklar, Pamela; van der Lee, Sven J; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Jansen, Casper; Hofman, Albert; Kraaij, Robert; van Rooij, Jeroen G J; Ikram, M Arfan; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Daly, Mark J; MacArthur, Daniel G

    2016-01-20

    More than 100,000 genetic variants are reported to cause Mendelian disease in humans, but the penetrance-the probability that a carrier of the purported disease-causing genotype will indeed develop the disease-is generally unknown. We assess the impact of variants in the prion protein gene (PRNP) on the risk of prion disease by analyzing 16,025 prion disease cases, 60,706 population control exomes, and 531,575 individuals genotyped by 23andMe Inc. We show that missense variants in PRNP previously reported to be pathogenic are at least 30 times more common in the population than expected on the basis of genetic prion disease prevalence. Although some of this excess can be attributed to benign variants falsely assigned as pathogenic, other variants have genuine effects on disease susceptibility but confer lifetime risks ranging from <0.1 to ~100%. We also show that truncating variants in PRNP have position-dependent effects, with true loss-of-function alleles found in healthy older individuals, a finding that supports the safety of therapeutic suppression of prion protein expression.

  7. Mechanisms Controlling Virulence Thresholds of Mixed Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Karen Z.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    The propensity of RNA viruses to revert attenuating mutations contributes to disease and complicates vaccine development. Despite the presence of virulent revertant viruses in some live-attenuated vaccines, disease from vaccination is rare. This suggests that in mixed viral populations, attenuated viruses may limit the pathogenesis of virulent viruses, thus establishing a virulence threshold. Here we examined virulence thresholds using mixtures of virulent and attenuated viruses in a transgenic mouse model of poliovirus infection. We determined that a 1,000-fold excess of the attenuated Sabin strain of poliovirus was protective against disease induced by the virulent Mahoney strain. Protection was induced locally, and inactivated virus conferred protection. Treatment with a poliovirus receptor-blocking antibody phenocopied the protective effect of inactivated viruses in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that one mechanism controlling virulence thresholds may be competition for a viral receptor. Additionally, the type I interferon response reduces poliovirus pathogenesis; therefore, we examined virulence thresholds in mice lacking the alpha/beta interferon receptor. We found that the attenuated virus was virulent in immunodeficient mice due to the enhanced replication and reversion of attenuating mutations. Therefore, while the type I interferon response limits the virulence of the attenuated strain by reducing replication, protection from disease conferred by the attenuated strain in immunocompetent mice can occur independently of replication. Our results identified mechanisms controlling the virulence of mixed viral populations and indicate that live-attenuated vaccines containing virulent virus may be safe, as long as virulent viruses are present at levels below a critical threshold. PMID:21795346

  8. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    fertile women are also important. The State's population policy of rewards and penalties also affects the costs and benefits. Administrative intervention to implement the FP program have been effectively and adequately used in the past to control population growth, even though it is recognized that social and economic development is another way of affecting population growth. Parents still need to be guaranteed that 1 child will indeed be a benefit. Children's economic value has been accepted, and policy is moving in the direction of correcting the imbalances between children's costs and benefits, such as increasing fines along with improving education and income distribution.

  9. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2014-01-01

    The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1) testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2) applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  10. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  11. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  12. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  13. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  14. Analyzing Population Genetics Using the Mitochondrial Control Region and Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takumi; Phillips, Bonnie; Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    The 14-base pair hypervariable region in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Asian populations, specifically Japanese and Chinese students at Plattsburgh State University, was examined. Previous research on this 14-base pair region showed it to be susceptible to mutations and as a result indicated direct correlation with specific ethnic populations.…

  15. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  16. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Jason I; Powers, Jenny G; Thompson Hobbs, N; Baker, Dan L

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered.Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy.Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species.Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation.Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife contraception, managers may

  17. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    PubMed Central

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  18. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    PubMed

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  19. The organization and control of an evolving interdependent population

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Dervis C.; Isakov, Alexander; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Starting with Darwin, biologists have asked how populations evolve from a low fitness state that is evolutionarily stable to a high fitness state that is not. Specifically of interest is the emergence of cooperation and multicellularity where the fitness of individuals often appears in conflict with that of the population. Theories of social evolution and evolutionary game theory have produced a number of fruitful results employing two-state two-body frameworks. In this study, we depart from this tradition and instead consider a multi-player, multi-state evolutionary game, in which the fitness of an agent is determined by its relationship to an arbitrary number of other agents. We show that populations organize themselves in one of four distinct phases of interdependence depending on one parameter, selection strength. Some of these phases involve the formation of specialized large-scale structures. We then describe how the evolution of independence can be manipulated through various external perturbations. PMID:26040593

  20. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  1. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  2. Population control, distribution, and manpower problems in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Debevalya, N

    1981-12-01

    Describes changing reproductive patterns underway in Thailand, evident in the data of national sample surveys conducted between 1969 and 1975. Fertility rates and differentials are described, and Thai population policy and family planning activities are reviewed. Thailand is in the midst of a transition to lower rates of fertility. Data are presented for 1947, 1960 and 1970 which show trends in regional population distribution. Migration, both international and internal, is discussed and the overall geographic stability of the Thai population is noted. Population redistribution policies of the 4th Plan of National Economic and Social Development (1977-81), aimed at relieving the pressures on Bangkok, are listed. An analysis of economic activity of the population based on 1960 and 1970 census data is presented. Data depicting trends in growth of the economically active population, occupational structure, work status, and educational level of employed persons are presented and discussed. Unemployment, various categories of underemployment, including seasonal employment and under-utilization of educated and trained manpower are discussed. Experimental field studies by the National Statistical Office on labor utilization framework are described. The framework classifies the labor force into persons whose labor and skills are inadequately utilized and those whose labor and skills are adequately utilized. In addition, several categories of inadequate utilization are established, for example, unemployment and mismatch of occupation and education. The results of 5 pilot studies carried out during 1973-1975 are discussed. This framework was found to be more meaningful for examining manpower utilization in Thailand than the employed/unemployed approach.

  3. Conference on Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences

    Cancer.gov

    The purpose of this conference is to bring together a community of researchers across the cancer control continuum using geospatial tools, models and approaches to address cancer prevention and control.

  4. The Effective Population Size of Malaria Mosquitoes: Large Impact of Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Athrey, Giridhar; Hodges, Theresa K.; Reddy, Michael R.; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Ridl, Frances C.; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results—with successful reductions in transmission in some areas and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is crucial for planning new interventions and evaluating existing ones. However, estimates of population size changes in response to control efforts are often inaccurate because of limitations and biases in collection methods. Attempts to evaluate the impact of vector control on mosquito effective population size (Ne) have produced inconclusive results thus far. Therefore, we obtained data for 13–15 microsatellite markers for more than 1,500 mosquitoes representing multiple time points for seven populations of three important vector species—Anopheles gambiae, An. melas, and An. moucheti—in Equatorial Guinea. These populations were exposed to indoor residual spraying or long-lasting insecticidal nets in recent years. For comparison, we also analyzed data from two populations that have no history of organized vector control. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation to reconstruct their demographic history, allowing us to evaluate the impact of these interventions on the effective population size. In six of the seven study populations, vector control had a dramatic impact on the effective population size, reducing Ne between 55%–87%, the exception being a single An. melas population. In contrast, the two negative control populations did not experience a reduction in effective population size. This study is the first to conclusively link anti-vector intervention programs in Africa to sharply reduced effective population sizes of malaria vectors

  5. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  6. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  7. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  8. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  9. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  10. Molecular Ecology of Bacterial Population in Environmental Hazardous Chemical Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-14

    Pseudomonas putida F1 to measure toluene driven co-metabolic oxidation of TCE. (2) Demonstration of a new pathway for aerobic biodegradation of DDT...mediated by Alcaligenes eutrophus strain A5 previously shown competent for biodegradation of chlorobiphenyl congeners. (3) Confirmation that...the dynamics in microbial population density and activity during environmental biodegradation processes. Metabolism of PAHs. Pseudomonas £luorescens 5RL

  11. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Use of host population reduction to control wildlife infection: rabbits and paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R S; Marion, G; White, P C L; Hutchings, M R

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in wildlife populations is a common method for the control of livestock infections which have wildlife hosts, but its success is dependent on the characteristics of the infection itself, as well as on the spatial and social structure of the wildlife host. Paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; Map) is a widespread and difficult infection to control in livestock populations and also has possible links to Crohn's disease in humans. Rabbits have recently been identified as a key wildlife species in terms of paratuberculosis persistence in the environment and risk to the wider host community, including cattle. Here we use a spatially explicit stochastic simulation model of Map dynamics in rabbit populations to quantify the effects of rabbit population control on infection persistence. The model parameters were estimated from empirical studies of rabbit population dynamics and rabbit-to-rabbit routes of Map transmission. Three rabbit control strategies were compared: single unrepeated population reductions based on removing individual animals; single unrepeated population reductions based on removal of entire social groups; and repeated annual population reductions based on removing individual animals. Unrealistically high rabbit culls (>95% population reduction) are needed if infection is to be eradicated from local rabbit populations with a single one-off population reduction event, either of individuals or social groups. Repeated annual culls are more effective at reducing the prevalence of infection in rabbit populations and eradicating infection. However, annual population reductions of >40% are required over extended periods of time (many years). Thus, using an approach which is both highly conservative and parsimonious with respect to estimating lower bounds on the time to eradicate the infection, we find that Map is extremely persistent in rabbit populations and requires significant and prolonged effort to achieve control.

  13. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  14. Hydrological Controls on Water Chemistry that Supports Freshwater Mussel Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.

  15. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  16. Control of pestivirus infections in the management of wildlife populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lack of host-specificity allow pestiviruses to infect domestic livestock as well as captive and free-ranging wildlife, posing unique challenges to different stakeholders. While current control measures for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are focused only on cattle, increased attention on the ...

  17. Biomineralization control related to population density under ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Prada, Fiorella; Caroselli, Erik; Capaccioni, Bruno; Zaccanti, Francesco; Pasquini, Luca; Fantazzini, Paola; Fermani, Simona; Reggi, Michela; Levy, Oren; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is a major driver of present environmental change in most ecosystems, and the related ocean acidification is threatening marine biota. With increasing pCO2, calcification rates of several species decrease, although cases of upregulation are observed. Here, we show that biological control over mineralization relates to species abundance along a natural pH gradient. As pCO2 increased, the mineralogy of a scleractinian coral (Balanophyllia europaea) and a mollusc (Vermetus triqueter) did not change. In contrast, two calcifying algae (Padina pavonica and Acetabularia acetabulum) reduced and changed mineralization with increasing pCO2, from aragonite to the less soluble calcium sulphates and whewellite, respectively. As pCO2 increased, the coral and mollusc abundance was severely reduced, with both species disappearing at pH < 7.8. Conversely, the two calcifying and a non-calcifying algae (Lobophora variegata) showed less severe or no reductions with increasing pCO2, and were all found at the lowest pH site. The mineralization response to decreasing pH suggests a link with the degree of control over the biomineralization process by the organism, as only species with lower control managed to thrive in the lowest pH.

  18. Differences between blood donors and a population sample: implications for case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Miller, Laura L; Davey Smith, George; Pembrey, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Background Selecting appropriate controls for studies of genetic variation in case series is important. The two major candidates involve the use of blood donors or a random sample of the population. Methods We compare and contrast the two different populations of controls for studies of genetic variation using data from parents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In addition we compute different biases using a series of hypothetical assumptions. Results The study subjects who had been blood donors differed markedly from the general population in social, health-related, anthropometric, and personality-related variables. Using theoretical examples, we show that blood donors are a poor control group for non-genetic studies of diseases related to environmentally, behaviourally, or socially patterned exposures. However, we show that if blood donors are used as controls in genetic studies, these factors are unlikely to make a major difference in detecting true associations with relatively rare disorders (cumulative incidence through life of <10%). Nevertheless, for more common disorders, the reduction in accuracy resulting from the inclusion in any control population of individuals who have or will develop the disease in question can create a greater bias than can socially patterned factors. Conclusions Information about the medical history of a control and the parents of the control (as a proxy for whether the control will develop the disease) is more important with regard to the choice of controls than whether the controls are a random population sample or blood donors. PMID:23825379

  19. A Nonparametric Regression Approach to Control for Population Stratification in Rare Variant Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is increasing interest to detect associations between rare variants and complex traits. Rare variant association studies usually need large sample sizes due to the rarity of the variants, and large sample sizes typically require combining information from different geographic locations within and across countries. Although several statistical methods have been developed to control for population stratification in common variant association studies, these methods are not necessarily controlling for population stratification in rare variant association studies. Thus, new statistical methods that can control for population stratification in rare variant association studies are needed. In this article, we propose a principal component based nonparametric regression (PC-nonp) approach to control for population stratification in rare variant association studies. Our simulations show that the proposed PC-nonp can control for population stratification well in all scenarios, while existing methods cannot control for population stratification at least in some scenarios. Simulations also show that PC-nonp’s robustness to population stratification will not reduce power. Furthermore, we illustrate our proposed method by using whole genome sequencing data from genetic analysis workshop 18 (GAW18). PMID:27857226

  20. A Nonparametric Regression Approach to Control for Population Stratification in Rare Variant Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Shuanglin

    2016-11-18

    Recently, there is increasing interest to detect associations between rare variants and complex traits. Rare variant association studies usually need large sample sizes due to the rarity of the variants, and large sample sizes typically require combining information from different geographic locations within and across countries. Although several statistical methods have been developed to control for population stratification in common variant association studies, these methods are not necessarily controlling for population stratification in rare variant association studies. Thus, new statistical methods that can control for population stratification in rare variant association studies are needed. In this article, we propose a principal component based nonparametric regression (PC-nonp) approach to control for population stratification in rare variant association studies. Our simulations show that the proposed PC-nonp can control for population stratification well in all scenarios, while existing methods cannot control for population stratification at least in some scenarios. Simulations also show that PC-nonp's robustness to population stratification will not reduce power. Furthermore, we illustrate our proposed method by using whole genome sequencing data from genetic analysis workshop 18 (GAW18).

  1. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  2. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  3. Coherent control of molecular rotational state populations by periodic phase-step modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shian; Wu Meizhen; Lu Chenhui; Jia Tianqing; Sun Zhenrong

    2011-10-15

    We theoretically demonstrate that the molecular rotational state populations through an impulsive nonresonant Raman process can be manipulated by shaping the femtosecond laser pulse with a periodic phase-step modulation. We show that, by precisely controlling these parameters characterizing the periodic phase-step modulation, both the odd and even rotational state populations can be completely suppressed or reconstructed as that induced by the transform-limited laser pulse, and the relative excitation between the odd and even rotational state populations can also be obtained. Furthermore, we show that the field-free molecular alignment can be manipulated due to the modulation of the odd and even rotational state populations.

  4. Evaluation of demographic parameters of native rodent populations and implications for control

    PubMed Central

    French, Norman R.

    1975-01-01

    The ecology of the multimammate mouse ,Mastomys natalensis, is reviewed and approximations are derived for the parameters governing population growth. By means of computer simulation, the relative importance of the timing of reproduction, the age class distribution or age structure of the population, the competition between Mastomys and Rattus, and the interaction with a predator are evaluated. Although each of these demographic or ecological factors modifies the fate of the Mastomys population, the greatest single impact results from a reproductive season that is divided into two parts rather than a single continuous reproductive season. Division into two parts, correlated with a similar distribution of rainfall, allows time for maturing of the young born early in the season and for production of young by them, thus adding to the momentum of population increase. The interaction of density-dependent factors controlling population growth, competition with another rodent, or predation by a Viverrid predator, may increase the growth rate of the Mastomys population or may depress population growth rate, even to the point of extinction. These simulation studies demonstrate the necessity for critical evaluation of the demographic parameters and ecological characteristics of a particular Mastomys population before an effective control programme can be designed. They also demonstrate, however, that if the programme is based upon sound ecological theory control can be effected. PMID:1085223

  5. The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules for controlling insect populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules, and the genes that encode them, provides a variety of methods to control insect fertility and thus a means of population control for insect pests. Towards this end, we first studied the yolk polypeptide gene from the caribfly, Anastrepha su...

  6. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  7. Unraveling the Limits of Mitochondrial Control Region to Estimate the Fine Scale Population Genetic Differentiation in Anadromous Fish Tenualosa ilisha

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rashmi; Singh, Mahender; Kumar, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial control region has been the first choice for examining the population structure but hypervariability and homoplasy have reduced its suitability. We analysed eight populations using control region for examining the population structure of Hilsa. Although the control region analysis revealed broad structuring between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (FST  0.0441, p < 0.001) it was unable to detect structure among riverine populations. These results suggest that the markers used must be able to distinguish populations and control region has led to an underestimation of genetic differentiation among populations of Hilsa. PMID:27313951

  8. Control of rare events in reaction and population systems by deterministically imposed transitions.

    PubMed

    Khasin, M; Dykman, M I

    2011-03-01

    We consider control of reaction and population systems by imposing transitions between states with different numbers of particles or individuals. The transitions take place at predetermined instants of time. Even where they are significantly less frequent than spontaneous transitions, they can exponentially strongly modify the rates of rare events, including switching between metastable states or population extinction. We also study optimal control of rare events. Specifically, we are interested in the optimal control of disease extinction for a limited vaccine supply. A comparison is made with control of rare events by modulating the rates of elementary transitions rather than imposing transitions deterministically. It is found that, unexpectedly, for the same mean control parameters, controlling the transitions rates can be more efficient.

  9. The biology of small, introduced populations, with special reference to biological control

    PubMed Central

    Fauvergue, Xavier; Vercken, Elodie; Malausa, Thibaut; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2012-01-01

    Populations are introduced into novel environments in different contexts, one being the biological control of pests. Despite intense efforts, less than half introduced biological control agents establish. Among the possible approaches to improve biological control, one is to better understand the processes that underpin introductions and contribute to ecological and evolutionary success. In this perspective, we first review the demographic and genetic processes at play in small populations, be they stochastic or deterministic. We discuss the theoretical outcomes of these different processes with respect to individual fitness, population growth rate, and establishment probability. Predicted outcomes differ subtly in some cases, but enough so that the evaluating results of introductions have the potential to reveal which processes play important roles in introduced populations. Second, we attempt to link the theory we have discussed with empirical data from biological control introductions. A main result is that there are few available data, but we nonetheless report on an increasing number of well-designed, theory-driven, experimental approaches. Combining demography and genetics from both theoretical and empirical perspectives highlights novel and exciting avenues for research on the biology of small, introduced populations, and great potential for improving both our understanding and practice of biological control. PMID:22949919

  10. The Need to Improve Population and Resource Control in Thailand’s Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    factors that gave advantage to the government:134 first, long experience of the British in Malaya – knowledge of the country, control of influence over...modifications. By improving population and resource control measures, the military will be able to reduce the insurgents’ influence , establish civil... influence , establish civil security, and finally control areas. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION

  11. How to control chaotic behaviour and population size with proportional feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    We study the control of chaos in one-dimensional discrete maps as they often occur in modelling population dynamics. For managing the population, we seek to suppress any possible chaotic behavior, leading the system to a stable equilibrium. In this Letter, we make a rigorous analysis of the proportional feedback method under certain conditions fulfilled by a wide family of maps. We show that it is possible to stabilize the chaotic dynamics towards a globally stable positive equilibrium, that can be chosen among a broad range of possible values. In particular, the size of the population can be enhanced by control in form of population reduction. This paradoxical phenomenon is known as the hydra effect, and it has important implications in the design of strategies in such areas as fishing, pest management, and conservation biology.

  12. Control of excitonic population inversion in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2013-06-01

    We study the potential for controlled population inversion in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. We show that the widely used method of population inversion by a π pulse can be modified for small interparticle distances. This modification depends strongly on the pulse duration. We also present analytical solutions of the nonlinear density matrix equations, for specific pulse envelopes, which lead to efficient excitonic population inversion in the quantum dot for several distances between the semiconductor quantum dot and the metal nanoparticle.

  13. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Management of wildlife often requires intervention to regulate growth of populations that would otherwise become overabundant. Controlling fecundity using contraceptives has become an increasingly popular tool for attempting to manage locally overabundant wildlife species, but the population-level effects of such applications are largely unknown. Contraceptive treatments can produce unexpected feedbacks that act on births, survival, immigration, and emigration. Such feedbacks may considerably influence our ability to regulate populations using fertility control. I followed feral horses (Equus caballus) in three intensively managed populations to assess longitudinal treatment effects on demography. The transient contraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) produced longer duration of infertility than intended. Repeated PZP vaccinations of females extended the duration of infertility far beyond the targeted management period, with time to first post-treatment parturition increasing 411days for every annual inoculation received. When these animals did conceive and give birth, parturition was later in the year and temporally asynchronous with forage abundance. An average of 30% (range=11–77%) of females were contracepted annually during the treatment period in all three populations and apparent annual population growth rate was 4–9% lower in the post-treatment years as compared to pretreatment years. Population growth was positive, however, and increased steadily every year that a management removal did not occur. The observed number of births was 33% fewer than the expected number of births, based on number of treated females, individual efficacy of treatment, and number of untreated females and their age-specific fecundity rates. Only half of this difference was explained by the apparent residual effect of treatment. Birth rate in the youngest untreated females (age 2–5 years old) was reduced in years when their conspecifics were treated, enhancing the effects of

  14. The rural-to-urban migrant population in China: gloomy prospects for tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Xu, Lingzhong; Song, Peipei; Huang, Yong

    2011-12-01

    The migrant population is a population with a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection and transmission. Globally, migration is likely to have a significant impact on TB epidemiology, particularly in countries that receive substantial numbers of migrants from countries with a high infection burden. China, a country with the world's second highest TB burden, faces a considerable increase in the number of rural-to-urban migrants. This population has a significant impact on urban TB epidemics and is specifically targeted by national guidelines for TB control. TB control among the migrant population has had relatively poor outcomes. Barriers to detection and treatment have both financial and non-financial aspects, such as the "migratory" nature of the migrant population, their marginalized working and living environment, poor financial status, little awareness of TB, inadequate referral to TB dispensaries, and potential social stigma in the workplace. Currently, the free TB treatment policy has limited ability to relieve the financial burden on most migrant TB patients as would allow optimal outcomes of TB detection and treatment. Universal health insurance coverage and fostering of personnel in community-based primary health care for the rural-to- urban migrant population represent two pillars of successful TB control.

  15. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction.

    PubMed

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species.

  16. Communicable disease control in a migrant seasonal workers population: a case study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Guerin, P J; Vold, L; Aavitsland, P

    2005-03-01

    Reliable data on the health status of migrant seasonal workers in Europe is scarce. Access to public health care for this population depends on national regulations, and their legal status in host countries. In this manuscript we describe a case study of a salmonellosis outbreak that occurred in Norway, and highlight the difficulties encountered in applying control measures in a population of seasonal migrant farm workers. Surveillance and control of infectious diseases need to be supported by legislation which makes implementation of control measures possible. Efforts have been made to improve the rights for migrants in Europe with regard to healthcare, but seasonal migrant workers still remain largely outsiders where these measures are concerned. Special attention should be given to this disadvantaged group in terms of social rights and healthcare. Preparedness plans should be improved to deal with contagious pathogens involving the seasonal migrant population.

  17. Controlling populations of invasive pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) through citizen science and environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Laura; Dopico, Eduardo; Devlo-Delva, Floriaan; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-09-15

    Early detection of dangerous exotic species is crucial for stopping marine invasions. The New Zealand pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis is a problematic species in coasts of temperate regions in the northern hemisphere. In this study we have controlled a population of this invader that recently expanded in a north Iberian estuary with both a participatory approach involving researchers and citizens, and employing a sensitive eDNA-based tool to monitor the population expansion in the estuary. Results demonstrate successful eradication of pygmy mussels in the outer part of the estuary with citizen science and the practical utility of eDNA for controlling biological invasions.

  18. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  19. On Reverse Stackelberg Game and Optimal Mean Field Control for a Large Population of Thermostatically Controlled Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-07-08

    This paper studies a multi-stage pricing problem for a large population of thermostatically controlled loads. The problem is formulated as a reverse Stackelberg game that involves a mean field game in the hierarchy of decision making. In particular, in the higher level, a coordinator needs to design a pricing function to motivate individual agents to maximize the social welfare. In the lower level, the individual utility maximization problem of each agent forms a mean field game coupled through the pricing function that depends on the average of the population control/state. We derive the solution to the reverse Stackelberg game by connecting it to a team problem and the competitive equilibrium, and we show that this solution corresponds to the optimal mean field control that maximizes the social welfare. Realistic simulations are presented to validate the proposed methods.

  20. Understanding the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax is essential for malaria control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, infection with Plasmodium vivax was thought to be benign and self-limiting, however, recent evidence has demonstrated that infection with P. vivax can also result in severe illness and death. Research into P. vivax has been relatively neglected and much remains unknown regarding the biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of this parasite. One of the fundamental factors governing transmission and immunity is parasite diversity. An understanding of parasite population genetic structure is necessary to understand the epidemiology, diversity, distribution and dynamics of natural P. vivax populations. In addition, studying the population structure of genes under immune selection also enables investigation of the dynamic interplay between transmission and immunity, which is crucial for vaccine development. A lack of knowledge regarding the transmission and spread of P. vivax has been particularly highlighted in areas where malaria control and elimination programmes have made progress in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, yet P. vivax remains as a substantial obstacle. With malaria elimination back on the global agenda, mapping of global and local P. vivax population structure is essential prior to establishing goals for elimination and the roll-out of interventions. A detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution, transmission and clinical burden of P. vivax is required to act as a benchmark against which control targets can be set and measured. This paper presents an overview of what is known and what is yet to be fully understood regarding P. vivax population genetics, as well as the importance and application of P. vivax population genetics studies. PMID:22233585

  1. Strategic use of communication to market cancer prevention and control to vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Kreps, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    There are significant challenges to communicating relevant cancer prevention and control information to health care consumers due both to the complexities of the health information to be communicated and the complexities of health communication, especially with vulnerable populations. The need for effective communication about cancer risks, early detection, prevention, care, and survivorship is particularly acute, yet also tremendously complex, for reaching vulnerable populations, those groups of people who are most likely to suffer significantly higher levels of morbidity and mortality from cancers than other segments of the population. These vulnerable populations, typically the poorest, lowest educated, and most disenfranchised members of modern society, are heir to serious cancer-related health disparities. Vulnerable populations often have health literacy difficulties, cultural barriers, and economic challenges to accessing and making sense of relevant health information. This paper examines these challenges to communicating relevant information to vulnerable populations and suggests strategies for effectively using different communication media for marketing cancer prevention and control to reduce health disparities and promote public health.

  2. International Funding for Malaria Control in Relation to Populations at Risk of Stable Plasmodium falciparum Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W; Guerra, Carlos A; Mutheu, Juliette J; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The international financing of malaria control has increased significantly in the last ten years in parallel with calls to halve the malaria burden by the year 2015. The allocation of funds to countries should reflect the size of the populations at risk of infection, disease, and death. To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007. Methods and Findings The national distributions of populations at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission were projected to the year 2007 for each of 87 P. falciparum–endemic countries. Systematic online- and literature-based searches were conducted to audit the international funding commitments made for malaria control by major donors between 2002 and 2007. These figures were used to generate annual malaria funding allocation (in US dollars) per capita population at risk of stable P. falciparum in 2007. Almost US$1 billion are distributed each year to the 1.4 billion people exposed to stable P. falciparum malaria risk. This is less than US$1 per person at risk per year. Forty percent of this total comes from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Substantial regional and national variations in disbursements exist. While the distribution of funds is found to be broadly appropriate, specific high population density countries receive disproportionately less support to scale up malaria control. Additionally, an inadequacy of current financial commitments by the international community was found: under-funding could be from 50% to 450%, depending on which global assessment of the cost required to scale up malaria control is adopted. Conclusions Without further increases in funding and appropriate targeting of global malaria control investment it is unlikely that international goals to halve disease burdens by 2015 will be achieved. Moreover, the

  3. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: Do the plants regulate the insects?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key measure of dietary sufficiency relates to an insect’s reproductive ability so oögenesis, a nutrient-limited process, can be subject to bottom-up regulation. We hypothesized that aquatic nutrient flux seasonally affects ovarian development thereby controlling population growth of two specialis...

  4. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  5. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  6. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  7. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  8. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  9. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  10. [The theory and practice of an epidemic control service for the population].

    PubMed

    Livshits, M L; Zenkov, V A; Postovoĭ, P P

    1986-11-01

    The data on the epidemic-control medical care of the population of the Kuznetsk coal fields and on the creation of the specialized system of the epidemiological surveillance of influenza, measles, viral hepatitis, hospital infections are presented. The possibility of using the theory of the self-regulation of the epidemic process in practical work is discussed.

  11. Variation in the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in a multiethnic population: a nationwide population study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rahmat, Ramlee; Zain, Azhar Md; Yap, Yee Guan; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Taha, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between different ethnic groups and the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in Malaysia. A population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted in Malaysia. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =7 mmol/L or a self-reported diabetic on treatment. Among the 7683 respondents aged > or =30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 15.2% (95% CI = 14.1, 16.4). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with Malays, Chinese had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91) and Indians had higher odds of having diabetes (aOR 1.54; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.98). The odds of diabetes increased with age, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and lower education levels. Among those with diabetes mellitus, 45.0% were aware and 42.7% were under treatment. Among treated diabetics, 25.1% had their fasting blood sugar under control. There is a significant association between prevalence of diabetes and different ethnic groups.

  12. Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: implications for alternative control strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Slade, Jeffrey W.

    2003-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms are demographic processes that tend to increase population growth rates at lower population density. These processes will tend to reduce the effectiveness of actions that use controls on reproductive success to suppress sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an economically important pest in the Great Lakes. Historical evidence for compensatory mechanisms in sea lamprey populations was reviewed, and revealed: (1) strong evidence for shifts in sex ratios as sea lamprey abundance was reduced in the early years of the control program; (2) weak and equivocal evidence for increased growth rates of sea lamprey cohorts re-colonizing streams following a lampricide treatment; and (3) suggestions of other compensatory processes, such as earlier ages at metamorphosis, but with little empirical evidence. Larval size distribution data for cohorts in the first and second years following a lampricide treatment (26 pairs of cohorts in 20 streams) was analyzed and did not indicate a consistent pattern of more rapid growth of the first colonizing cohort (only 11 of 33 cases). To test for compensation between spawning and age-1 in sea lamprey populations, data were analyzed for 49 stream-years for which spawning female abundance was known and age-1 abundance was estimated in the following year. A fit of these data to a Ricker stock-recruitment function showed evidence for compensation, measured as reduced survival to age 1 at higher abundance of spawning females. More obvious, however, was a large amount of density-independent variation in survival, which tends to mask evidence for compensatory survival. The results were applied to a simple model that simulates sea lamprey populations and their control in a hypothetical lake. Control strategies that targeted reproductive success performed far less well than comparable strategies that targeted larval populations, because density-independent recruitment variation leads to occasional strong year classes even when

  13. Organization of population-based cancer control programs: Europe and the world.

    PubMed

    Otter, Renée; Qiao, You-Lin; Burton, Robert; Samiei, Massoud; Parkin, Max; Trapido, Edward; Weller, David; Magrath, Ian; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As cancer is to a large extent avoidable and treatable, a cancer control program should be able to reduce mortality and morbidity and improve the quality of life of cancer patients and their families. However, the extent to which the goals of a cancer control program can be achieved will depend on the resource constraints a country faces. Such population-based cancer control plans should prioritize effective interventions and programs that are beneficial to the largest part of the population, and should include activities devoted to prevention, screening and early detection, treatment, palliation and end-of-life care, and rehabilitation. In order to develop a successful cancer control program, leadership and the relevant stakeholders, including patient organizations, need to be identified early on in the process so that all partners can take ownership and responsibility for the program. Various tools have been developed to aid them in the planning and implementation process. However, countries developing a national cancer control program would benefit from a discussion of different models for planning and delivery of population-based cancer control in settings with differing levels of resource commitment, in order to determine how best to proceed given their current level of commitment, political engagement and resources. As the priority assigned to different components of cancer control will differ depending on available resources and the burden and pattern of cancer, it is important to consider the relative roles of prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care in a cancer control program, as well as how to align available resources to meet prioritized needs. Experiences from countries with differing levels of resources are presented and serve to illustrate the difficulties in developing and implementing cancer control programs, as well as the innovative strategies that are being used to maximize available resources and

  14. Chemical exposures and Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Roberta; Sanft, Kevin R; Grossardt, Brandon R; Peterson, Brett J; Elbaz, Alexis; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric; de Andrade, Mariza; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Rocca, Walter A

    2006-10-01

    The putative association between pesticide exposures and Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. We identified all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995, and matched them by age (+/- 1 year) and sex to general population controls. We assessed exposures to chemical products by means of telephone interview with cases, controls, or their proxies (149 cases; 129 controls). Exposure to pesticides related or unrelated to farming was associated with PD in men (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.4; P = 0.04). The association remained significant after adjustment for education or smoking. Analyses for the other six categories of industrial and household chemicals were all nonsignificant. This population-based study suggests a link between pesticides use and PD that is restricted to men. Pesticides may interact with other genetic or nongenetic factors that are different in men and women.

  15. Opioid system genes in alcoholism: a case-control study in Croatian population.

    PubMed

    Cupic, B; Stefulj, J; Zapletal, E; Matosic, A; Bordukalo-Niksic, T; Cicin-Sain, L; Gabrilovac, J

    2013-10-01

    Due to their involvement in dependence pathways, opioid system genes represent strong candidates for association studies investigating alcoholism. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms within the genes for mu (OPRM1) and kappa (OPRK1) opioid receptors and precursors of their ligands - proopiomelanocortin (POMC), coding for beta-endorphin and prodynorphin (PDYN) coding for dynorphins, were analyzed in a case-control study that included 354 male alcohol-dependent and 357 male control subjects from Croatian population. Analysis of allele and genotype frequencies of the selected polymorphisms of the genes OPRM1/POMC and OPRK1/PDYN revealed no differences between the tested groups. The same was true when alcohol-dependent persons were subdivided according to the Cloninger's criteria into type-1 and type-2 groups, known to differ in the extent of genetic control. Thus, the data obtained suggest no association of the selected polymorphisms of the genes OPRM1/POMC and OPRK1/PDYN with alcoholism in Croatian population.

  16. Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

    2014-06-30

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  17. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  18. On estimation of time-dependent attributable fraction from population-based case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li

    2017-01-18

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer.

  19. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T.; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case–control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  20. Controlling range expansion in habitat networks by adaptively targeting source populations.

    PubMed

    Hock, Karlo; Wolff, Nicholas H; Beeden, Roger; Hoey, Jessica; Condie, Scott A; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Controlling the spread of invasive species, pests, and pathogens is often logistically limited to interventions that target specific locations at specific periods. However, in complex, highly connected systems, such as marine environments connected by ocean currents, populations spread dynamically in both space and time via transient connectivity links. This results in nondeterministic future distributions of species in which local populations emerge dynamically and concurrently over a large area. The challenge, therefore, is to choose intervention locations that will maximize the effectiveness of the control efforts. We propose a novel method to manage dynamic species invasions and outbreaks that identifies the intervention locations most likely to curtail population expansion by selectively targeting local populations most likely to expand their future range. Critically, at any point during the development of the invasion or outbreak, the method identifies the local intervention that maximizes the long-term benefit across the ecosystem by restricting species' potential to spread. In so doing, the method adaptively selects the intervention targets under dynamically changing circumstances. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method we applied it to controlling the spread of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster sp.) outbreaks across Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Application of our method resulted in an 18-fold relative improvement in management outcomes compared with a random targeting of reefs in putative starfish control scenarios. Although we focused on applying the method to reducing the spread of an unwanted species, it can also be used to facilitate the spread of desirable species through connectivity networks. For example, the method could be used to select those fragments of habitat most likely to rebuild a population if they were sufficiently well protected.

  1. Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kuumba, M B

    1993-01-01

    Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction.

  2. Controlling for non-independence in comparative analysis of patterns across populations within species

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Graham N.; Nee, Sean; Felsenstein, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    How do we quantify patterns (such as responses to local selection) sampled across multiple populations within a single species? Key to this question is the extent to which populations within species represent statistically independent data points in our analysis. Comparative analyses across species and higher taxa have long recognized the need to control for the non-independence of species data that arises through patterns of shared common ancestry among them (phylogenetic non-independence), as have quantitative genetic studies of individuals linked by a pedigree. Analyses across populations lacking pedigree information fall in the middle, and not only have to deal with shared common ancestry, but also the impact of exchange of migrants between populations (gene flow). As a result, phenotypes measured in one population are influenced by processes acting on others, and may not be a good guide to either the strength or direction of local selection. Although many studies examine patterns across populations within species, few consider such non-independence. Here, we discuss the sources of non-independence in comparative analysis, and show why the phylogeny-based approaches widely used in cross-species analyses are unlikely to be useful in analyses across populations within species. We outline the approaches (intraspecific contrasts, generalized least squares, generalized linear mixed models and autoregression) that have been used in this context, and explain their specific assumptions. We highlight the power of ‘mixed models’ in many contexts where problems of non-independence arise, and show that these allow incorporation of both shared common ancestry and gene flow. We suggest what can be done when ideal solutions are inaccessible, highlight the need for incorporation of a wider range of population models in intraspecific comparative methods and call for simulation studies of the error rates associated with alternative approaches. PMID:21444315

  3. Controlling for non-independence in comparative analysis of patterns across populations within species.

    PubMed

    Stone, Graham N; Nee, Sean; Felsenstein, Joseph

    2011-05-12

    How do we quantify patterns (such as responses to local selection) sampled across multiple populations within a single species? Key to this question is the extent to which populations within species represent statistically independent data points in our analysis. Comparative analyses across species and higher taxa have long recognized the need to control for the non-independence of species data that arises through patterns of shared common ancestry among them (phylogenetic non-independence), as have quantitative genetic studies of individuals linked by a pedigree. Analyses across populations lacking pedigree information fall in the middle, and not only have to deal with shared common ancestry, but also the impact of exchange of migrants between populations (gene flow). As a result, phenotypes measured in one population are influenced by processes acting on others, and may not be a good guide to either the strength or direction of local selection. Although many studies examine patterns across populations within species, few consider such non-independence. Here, we discuss the sources of non-independence in comparative analysis, and show why the phylogeny-based approaches widely used in cross-species analyses are unlikely to be useful in analyses across populations within species. We outline the approaches (intraspecific contrasts, generalized least squares, generalized linear mixed models and autoregression) that have been used in this context, and explain their specific assumptions. We highlight the power of 'mixed models' in many contexts where problems of non-independence arise, and show that these allow incorporation of both shared common ancestry and gene flow. We suggest what can be done when ideal solutions are inaccessible, highlight the need for incorporation of a wider range of population models in intraspecific comparative methods and call for simulation studies of the error rates associated with alternative approaches.

  4. Population control of the malaria vector Anopheles pseudopunctipennis by habitat manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Guillermo; Rojas, Julio C.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Valle, Javier; Williams, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases continue to present a major challenge to human health. Understanding the factors that regulate the size of mosquito populations is considered fundamental to the ability to predict disease transmission rates and for vector population control. The mosquito, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, a vector of Plasmodium spp., breeds in riverside pools containing filamentous algae in Mesoamerica. Breeding pools along 3 km sections of the River Coatan, Chiapas, Mexico were subjected to algal extraction or left as controls in a cross-over trial extending over 2 years. Initial densities of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were directly proportional to the prevalence of filamentous algae in each breeding site. The extraction of algae brought about a striking decline in the density of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae sustained for about six weeks, and a concurrent reduction in the adult population in both years of the study. Mark-release experiments indicated that dispersal from adjacent untreated areas was unlikely to exert an important influence on the magnitude of mosquito control that we observed. Habitat manipulation by extraction of filamentous algae offers a unique opportunity for sustainable control of this malaria vector. This technique may represent a valuable intervention, complimenting insecticide spraying of households, to minimize Plasmodium transmission rates in Mesoamerica. PMID:15475337

  5. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Abbas, Mostafa A. F.; Abuzaid, Lamiaa Z.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension. PMID:21912737

  6. Guidelines for the quality control of population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Bonate, P L; Strougo, A; Desai, A; Roy, M; Yassen, A; van der Walt, J S; Kaibara, A; Tannenbaum, S

    2012-12-01

    Quality population modeling and simulation analyses and reports are something every modeler desires. However, little attention in the literature has been paid to what constitutes quality regarding population analyses. Very rarely do published manuscripts contain any statement about quality assurance of the modeling results contained therein. The purpose of this manuscript is to present guidelines for the quality assurance of population analyses, particularly with regards to the use of NONMEM from an industrial perspective. Quality guidelines are developed for the NONMEM installation itself, NONMEM data sets, control streams, output listings, output data files and resultant post-processing, reporting of results, and the review processes. These guidelines were developed to be thorough yet practical, though are not meant to be completely comprehensive. It is our desire to ensure that what is reported accurately reflects the collected data, the modeling process, and model outputs for a modeling project.

  7. Reconstructing the History of Mesoamerican Populations through the Study of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region

    PubMed Central

    Gorostiza, Amaya; Acunha-Alonzo, Víctor; Regalado-Liu, Lucía; Tirado, Sergio; Granados, Julio; Sámano, David; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; González-Martín, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The study of genetic information can reveal a reconstruction of human population’s history. We sequenced the entire mtDNA control region (positions 16.024 to 576 following Cambridge Reference Sequence, CRS) of 605 individuals from seven Mesoamerican indigenous groups and one Aridoamerican from the Greater Southwest previously defined, all of them in present Mexico. Samples were collected directly from the indigenous populations, the application of an individual survey made it possible to remove related or with other origins samples. Diversity indices and demographic estimates were calculated. Also AMOVAs were calculated according to different criteria. An MDS plot, based on FST distances, was also built. We carried out the construction of individual networks for the four Amerindian haplogroups detected. Finally, barrier software was applied to detect genetic boundaries among populations. The results suggest: a common origin of the indigenous groups; a small degree of European admixture; and inter-ethnic gene flow. The process of Mesoamerica’s human settlement took place quickly influenced by the region’s orography, which development of genetic and cultural differences facilitated. We find the existence of genetic structure is related to the region’s geography, rather than to cultural parameters, such as language. The human population gradually became fragmented, though they remained relatively isolated, and differentiated due to small population sizes and different survival strategies. Genetic differences were detected between Aridoamerica and Mesoamerica, which can be subdivided into “East”, “Center”, “West” and “Southeast”. The fragmentation process occurred mainly during the Mesoamerican Pre-Classic period, with the Otomí being one of the oldest groups. With an increased number of populations studied adding previously published data, there is no change in the conclusions, although significant genetic heterogeneity can be detected in Pima

  8. Phylogeography and population structure of the red stingray, Dasyatis akajei inferred by mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Xiao; Sun, Dianrong; Song, Na; Lin, Qin; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-08-01

    The red stingray Dasyatis akajei is distributed in both marine and freshwater, but little is known about its phylogeography and population structure. We sampled 107 individuals from one freshwater region and 6 coastal localities within the distribution range of D. akajei. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 474 bp revealed only 17 polymorphism sites that defined 28 haplotypes, with no unique haplotype for the freshwater population. A high level of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in both marine (h = 0.9393 ± 0.0104, π = 0.0069 ± 0.0040) and freshwater populations (h = 0.8333 ± 0.2224, π = 0.0084 ± 0.0063). Significant level of genetic structure was detected between four marine populations (TZ, WZ, ND and ZZ) via both hierarchical molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and pairwise FST (with two exceptions), which is unusual for elasmobranchs detected previously over such short geographical distance. However, limited sampling suggested that the freshwater population was not particularly distinct (p > 0.05), but additional samples would be needed to confirm it. Demersal and slow-moving characters likely have contributed to the genetically heterogeneous population structure. The demographic history of D. akajei examined by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline analyses suggested a sudden population expansion dating to upper Pleistocene. The information on genetic diversity and genetic structure will have implications for the management of fisheries and conservation efforts.

  9. ROADTRIPS: case-control association testing with partially or completely unknown population and pedigree structure.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Timothy; McPeek, Mary Sara

    2010-02-12

    Genome-wide association studies are routinely conducted to identify genetic variants that influence complex disorders. It is well known that failure to properly account for population or pedigree structure can lead to spurious association as well as reduced power. We propose a method, ROADTRIPS, for case-control association testing in samples with partially or completely unknown population and pedigree structure. ROADTRIPS uses a covariance matrix estimated from genome-screen data to correct for unknown population and pedigree structure while maintaining high power by taking advantage of known pedigree information when it is available. ROADTRIPS can incorporate data on arbitrary combinations of related and unrelated individuals and is computationally feasible for the analysis of genetic studies with millions of markers. In simulations with related individuals and population structure, including admixture, we demonstrate that ROADTRIPS provides a substantial improvement over existing methods in terms of power and type 1 error. The ROADTRIPS method can be used across a variety of study designs, ranging from studies that have a combination of unrelated individuals and small pedigrees to studies of isolated founder populations with partially known or completely unknown pedigrees. We apply the method to analyze two data sets: a study of rheumatoid arthritis in small UK pedigrees, from Genetic Analysis Workshop 15, and data from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism on alcohol dependence in a sample of moderate-size pedigrees of European descent, from Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. We detect genome-wide significant association, after Bonferroni correction, in both studies.

  10. Irritant and repellent behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti male populations developed for RIDL disease control strategies.

    PubMed

    Kongmee, Montathip; Nimmo, Derric; Labbé, Geneviève; Beech, Camilla; Grieco, John; Alphey, Luke; Achees, Nicole

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti male populations developed for Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL) technology and a Malaysian wild-type population of two age groups (4-5 and 8-10 d old) were tested under laboratory conditions against chemical irritants and repellents using the high-throughput screening system device. Results indicate that all male Ae. aegypti test populations showed significant (P < 0.01) behavioral escape responses when exposed to alphacypermethrin, DDT, and deltamethrin at the test dose of 25 nmol/cm2. In addition, all populations showed significant (P < 0.05) spatial repellent responses to DDT, whereas alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin elicited no directional movement in the assay. These data suggest that genetic modification has not suppressed expected irritancy and repellency behavior. Age effects were minimal in both contact irritant and spatial repellent assays. The magnitude of irritant response, based on percentage responding, was stronger in the RIDL test cohorts as compared with the wild-type Malaysian population, but the impact, if any, that this increased behavioral sensitivity might have on the success of a RIDL strategy has yet to be defined. Information of the type reported in the current study is vital in defining the effects of genetic modification on vector behavior and understanding how these behaviors may influence the success of RIDL technology as they relate to other vector control interventions implemented in the same disease-endemic locale.

  11. Seasonal Population Movements and the Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Buckee, Caroline O; Tatem, Andrew J; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2017-01-01

    National policies designed to control infectious diseases should allocate resources for interventions based on regional estimates of disease burden from surveillance systems. For many infectious diseases, however, there is pronounced seasonal variation in incidence. Policy-makers must routinely manage a public health response to these seasonal fluctuations with limited understanding of their underlying causes. Two complementary and poorly described drivers of seasonal disease incidence are the mobility and aggregation of human populations, which spark outbreaks and sustain transmission, respectively, and may both exhibit distinct seasonal variations. Here we highlight the key challenges that seasonal migration creates when monitoring and controlling infectious diseases. We discuss the potential of new data sources in accounting for seasonal population movements in dynamic risk mapping strategies.

  12. From population structure to genetically-engineered vectors: new ways to control vector-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Sparagano, O A E; De Luna, C J

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological studies on vectors and the pathogens they can carry (such as Borrelia burgdorferi) are showing some correlations between infection rates and biodiversity highlighting the "dilution" effects on potential vectors. Meanwhile other studies comparing sympatric small rodent species demonstrated that rodent species transmitting more pathogens are parasitized by more ectoparasite species. Studies on population structure and size have also proven a difference on the intensity of the parasitic infection. Furthermore, preliminary results in genetic improvement in mosquitoes (genetic markers, sexing, and genetic sterilization) will also increase performance as it has already been shown in field applications in developing countries. Recent results have greatly improved the fitness of genetically-modified insects compared to wild type populations with new approaches such as the post-integration elimination of transposon sequences, stabilising any insertion in genetically-modified insects. Encouraging results using the Sterile Insect Technique highlighted some metabolism manipulation to avoid the viability of offspring from released parent insect in the wild. Recent studies on vector symbionts would also bring a new angle in vector control capabilities, while complete DNA sequencing of some arthropods could point out ways to block the deadly impact on animal and human populations. These new potential approaches will improve the levels of control or even in some cases would eradicate vector species and consequently the vector-borne diseases they can transmit. In this paper we review some of the population biology theories, biological control methods, and the genetic techniques that have been published in the last years that are recommended to control for vector-borne diseases.

  13. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    and Identlfy by block number) Genetic control Cockroach behavior A Blattella germanica C20 ABSTRACT fConfinue an reverse aide It necessary and Idenllfy...Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C. B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ. Entomol... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics

  14. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  15. Trial Regulations for strengthening family planning controls for the mobile population and individual entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 the Yunnan, China Family Planning Commission, the Public Security Department, and the Industrial and Commercial Administrative Bureau issued Trial Regulations aimed at getting a "good grasp of family planning controls" on individual entrepreneurs and the mobile population in the urban areas of Yunnan--groups in which there is a large number of excessive births. The Trial Regulations provide the following: "Individual entrepreneurs and the mobile population are great in number and work in a great variety of trades: their dwellings are scattered, and they are highly mobile. Thus the task of family planning regarding these people is heavy and difficult. Industrial and commercial administrative departments and public security and other departments must closely cooperate with family planning departments so as to strengthen family planning control over these people. At the same time, it is necessary to apply specific methods for strengthening family planning control when the mobile population, individual entrepreneurs, and temporary workers, forest workers, construction workers and so on apply for temporary residence permits, take out forestry licenses, and sign construction contracts."

  16. Population Dynamics of Owned, Free-Roaming Dogs: Implications for Rabies Control

    PubMed Central

    Conan, Anne; Akerele, Oluyemisi; Simpson, Greg; Reininghaus, Bjorn; van Rooyen, Jacques; Knobel, Darryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a serious yet neglected public health threat in resource-limited communities in Africa, where the virus is maintained in populations of owned, free-roaming domestic dogs. Rabies elimination can be achieved through the mass vaccination of dogs, but maintaining the critical threshold of vaccination coverage for herd immunity in these populations is hampered by their rapid turnover. Knowledge of the population dynamics of free-roaming dog populations can inform effective planning and implementation of mass dog vaccination campaigns to control rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We implemented a health and demographic surveillance system in dogs that monitored the entire owned dog population within a defined geographic area in a community in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. We quantified demographic rates over a 24-month period, from 1st January 2012 through 1st January 2014, and assessed their implications for rabies control by simulating the decline in vaccination coverage over time. During this period, the population declined by 10%. Annual population growth rates were +18.6% in 2012 and -24.5% in 2013. Crude annual birth rates (per 1,000 dog-years of observation) were 451 in 2012 and 313 in 2013. Crude annual death rates were 406 in 2012 and 568 in 2013. Females suffered a significantly higher mortality rate in 2013 than males (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.28–1.85). In the age class 0–3 months, the mortality rate of dogs vaccinated against rabies was significantly lower than that of unvaccinated dogs (2012: MRR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.05–0.21; 2013: MRR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.11–0.69). The results of the simulation showed that achieving a 70% vaccination coverage during annual campaigns would maintain coverage above the critical threshold for at least 12 months. Conclusions and Significance Our findings provide an evidence base for the World Health Organization’s empirically-derived target of 70% vaccination coverage

  17. Strategies to control a common carp population by pulsed commercial harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvin, Michael E.; Pierce, Clay; Stewart, Timothy W.; Grummer, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial fisheries are commonly used to manage nuisance fishes in freshwater systems, but such efforts are often unsuccessful. Strategies for successfully controlling a nuisance population of common carp Cyprinus carpio by pulsed commercial harvest were evaluated with a combination of (1) field sampling, (2) population estimation and CPUE indexing, and (3) simulation using an exponential semidiscrete biomass dynamics model (SDBDM). The range of annual fishing mortalities (F) that resulted in successful control (F = 0.244–0.265) was narrow. Common carp biomass dynamics were sensitive to unintentional underharvest due to high rates of surplus production and a biomass doubling time of 2.7 years. Simulations indicated that biomanipulation never achieved successful control unless supplemental fishing mortality was imposed. Harvest of a majority of annual production was required to achieve successful control, as indicated by the ecotrophic coefficient (EC). Readily available biomass data and tools such as SDBDMs and ECs can be used in an adaptive management framework to successfully control common carp and other nuisance fishes by pulsed commercial fishing.

  18. Internal versus external locus of control: an analysis of music populations.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Clifford K; Goins, Wayne E

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and chosen field of music specialization. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was designed to assess the construct of locus of control and reinforcement, which is defined as the perception of a connection between one's action and its consequences; the version of the scale used in this study was specifically developed and validated for use with college-aged students by Nowicki (2000). This scale was administered to four separate college-aged groups: music therapy majors, music education majors, applied music majors, and nonmusic majors who also had previous music background and were currently enrolled in a formal college music performance organization. Results indicated that there were indeed, differences among these populations with music therapy majors evidencing a significantly lower internal locus of control. Music education majors and nonmajors evidenced a greater internal level and were not significantly different from each other, yet both were significantly different from the music therapy majors. Music performance majors were also significantly lower in internal control compared to the music education and nonmusic majors, but they were not significantly different from the music therapy majors. This entire line of research has a long history and seems advisable to continue with all music populations, especially potential music therapists in order to investigate those aspects of self-perception that may help or hinder therapeutic effectiveness.

  19. Closed-loop control of epileptiform activities in a neural population model using a proportional-derivative controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Song; Wang, Mei-Li; Li, Xiao-Li; Ernst, Niebur

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is believed to be caused by a lack of balance between excitation and inhibitation in the brain. A promising strategy for the control of the disease is closed-loop brain stimulation. How to determine the stimulation control parameters for effective and safe treatment protocols remains, however, an unsolved question. To constrain the complex dynamics of the biological brain, we use a neural population model (NPM). We propose that a proportional-derivative (PD) type closed-loop control can successfully suppress epileptiform activities. First, we determine the stability of root loci, which reveals that the dynamical mechanism underlying epilepsy in the NPM is the loss of homeostatic control caused by the lack of balance between excitation and inhibition. Then, we design a PD type closed-loop controller to stabilize the unstable NPM such that the homeostatic equilibriums are maintained; we show that epileptiform activities are successfully suppressed. A graphical approach is employed to determine the stabilizing region of the PD controller in the parameter space, providing a theoretical guideline for the selection of the PD control parameters. Furthermore, we establish the relationship between the control parameters and the model parameters in the form of stabilizing regions to help understand the mechanism of suppressing epileptiform activities in the NPM. Simulations show that the PD-type closed-loop control strategy can effectively suppress epileptiform activities in the NPM. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473208, 61025019, and 91132722), ONR MURI N000141010278, and NIH grant R01EY016281.

  20. Using population genetic tools to develop a control strategy for feral cats (Felis catus) in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, H.; Hess, S.C.; Cole, D.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Population genetics can provide information about the demographics and dynamics of invasive species that is beneficial for developing effective control strategies. We studied the population genetics of feral cats on Hawai'i Island by microsatellite analysis to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure, assess gene flow and connectivity among three populations, identify potential source populations, characterise population dynamics, and evaluate sex-biased dispersal. High genetic diversity, low structure, and high number of migrants per generation supported high gene flow that was not limited spatially. Migration rates revealed that most migration occurred out of West Mauna Kea. Effective population size estimates indicated increasing cat populations despite control efforts. Despite high gene flow, relatedness estimates declined significantly with increased geographic distance and Bayesian assignment tests revealed the presence of three population clusters. Genetic structure and relatedness estimates indicated male-biased dispersal, primarily from Mauna Kea, suggesting that this population should be targeted for control. However, recolonisation seems likely, given the great dispersal ability that may not be inhibited by barriers such as lava flows. Genetic monitoring will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of future control efforts. Management of other invasive species may benefit by employing these population genetic tools. ?? CSIRO 2007.

  1. Utilitarian prioritization of radiation oncology patients based on maximization of population tumour control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M. A.; Li, W.; Jennings, L.; Kearvell, R.; Bydder, S.

    2013-06-01

    An objective method for establishing patient prioritization in the context of a radiotherapy waiting list is investigated. This is based on a utilitarian objective, being the greatest probability of local tumour control in the population of patients. A numerical simulation is developed and a clinical patient case-mix is used to determine the influence of the characteristics of the patient population on resulting optimal patient scheduling. With the utilitarian objective, large gains in tumour control probability (TCP) can be achieved for individuals or cohorts by prioritizing patients for that fraction of the patient population with relatively small sacrifices in TCP for a smaller fraction of the population. For a waiting list in steady state with five patients per day commencing treatment and leaving the list (and so with five patients per day entering the list), and a mean wait time of 35 days and a maximum of 90 days, optimized wait times ranged from a mean of one day for patients with tumour types with short effective doubling times to a mean of 66.9 days for prostate cancer patients. It is found that, when seeking the optimal daily order of patients on the waiting list in a constrained simulation, the relative rather than absolute value of TCP is the determinant of the resulting optimal waiting times. An increase in the mean waiting time mostly influences (increases) the optimal waiting times of patients with fast-growing tumours. The proportional representation of groups (separated by tumour type) in the patient population has an influence on the resulting distribution of optimal waiting times for patients in those groups, though has only a minor influence on the optimal mean waiting time for each group.

  2. Using noise to control heterogeneity of isogenic populations in homogenous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymańska, Paulina; Gritti, Nicola; Keegstra, Johannes M.; Soltani, Mohammad; Munsky, Brian

    2015-07-01

    We explore the extent to which the phenotypes of individual, genetically identical cells can be controlled independently from each other using only a single homogeneous environmental input. We show that such control is theoretically impossible if restricted to a deterministic setting, but it can be achieved readily if one exploits heterogeneities introduced at the single-cell level due to stochastic fluctuations in gene regulation. Using stochastic analyses of a bistable genetic toggle switch, we develop a control strategy that maximizes the chances that a chosen cell will express one phenotype, while the rest express another. The control mechanism uses UV radiation to enhance identically protein degradation in all cells. Control of individual cells is made possible only by monitoring stochastic protein fluctuations and applying UV control at favorable times and levels. For two identical cells, our stochastic control law can drive protein expression of a chosen cell above its neighbor with a better than 99% success rate. In a population of 30 identical cells, we can drive a given cell to remain consistently within the top 20%. Although cellular noise typically impairs predictability for biological responses, our results show that it can also simultaneously improve controllability for those same responses.

  3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and risk for psychiatric disorders in girls and women born between 1915 and 2010: A total population study.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Hedvig; Butwicka, Agnieszka; Nordenström, Anna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Falhammar, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise; Landén, Mikael

    2015-10-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a chronic condition and individuals are exposed to elevated androgen levels in utero as a result of the endogenous cortisol deficiency. Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to influence mental health, but population based studies on psychiatric morbidity among girls and women with CAH are lacking. Therefore, we performed a cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers linked with the national CAH register. Girls and women with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 335) born between January 1915 and January 2010 were compared with aged-matched female (n = 33500) and male controls (n = 33500). Analyses were stratified by phenotype [salt wasting (SW), simple virilizing (SV), and non-classical type (NC)] and by CYP21A2 genotype subgroups (null, I2splice, I172N, and P30L). Results are presented as estimated risks (OR, 95%CI) of psychiatric disorders among girls and women with CAH compared with age-matched controls. Any psychiatric diagnoses were more common in CAH females compared with female and male population controls [1.9 (1.4-2.5), and 2.2 (1.7-2.9)]. In particular, the risk of alcohol misuse was increased compared with female and male population controls [2.8 (1.7-4.7) and 2.1 (1.2-3.5)], and appeared most common among the girls and women with the most severe null genotype [6.7 (2.6-17.8)]. The risk of stress and adjustment disorders was doubled compared with female population controls [2.1 (1.3-3.6)]. Girls and women with CAH have an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in general and substance use disorders in particular compared with unexposed females, with the highest risk among those with the most severe genotype. Prenatal androgen exposure and deficient endogenous cortisol and/or adrenaline production may provide explanations for these findings, but other factors related to CAH cannot be excluded.

  4. Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rescuing amphibian diversity is an achievable conservation challenge. Disease mitigation is one essential component of population management. Here we assess existing disease mitigation strategies, some in early experimental stages, which focus on the globally emerging chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We discuss the precedent for each strategy in systems ranging from agriculture to human medicine, and the outlook for each strategy in terms of research needs and long-term potential. Results We find that the effects of exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occur on a spectrum from transient commensal to lethal pathogen. Management priorities are divided between (1) halting pathogen spread and developing survival assurance colonies, and (2) prophylactic or remedial disease treatment. Epidemiological models of chytridiomycosis suggest that mitigation strategies can control disease without eliminating the pathogen. Ecological ethics guide wildlife disease research, but several ethical questions remain for managing disease in the field. Conclusions Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations. PMID:21496358

  5. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to

  6. Economic-demographic interactions and the impact of investments in population control.

    PubMed

    Paqueo, V B

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between economic and demographic factors in the Philippines was examined, analyzing the effects of investment in fertility control on the birthrate, population size, and such economic variables as gross national product (GNP), wage rate, and family income. A family planning model that was constructed and is used to project population program cost and births prevented is grafted to and simulated with a larger economic/demographic model. The simulation results are anayzed. The economic demographic model to which the family planning subsystem was grafted is a modified version of the model constructed by Encarnacion et al. (1974). It is basically a neoclassical model, a closed economy in which the real wage rate is determined by the intersection of the demand and supply of labor. The demand for labor is derived from a Cobb-Douglas production function on the assumption that labor is paid the value of its margin product, and the labor supply is determined by age and sex specific labor force participation rates and population. Capital accumulation is influenced by population size through its effect on government and private consumption expe nditures. Fertility rate is determined by duration of marriage and the level and distribution of family incomes. The model was used to develop projections from 1970 through 2000. Results show that the effects on per capital income and real wage rate seem significant, yet family income appears largely unaffected and the effect on the traditional investment to output ratio (I/Y) seems minimal. One of the outcomes of the projection without family planning is that, if the economy were to depend solely on its own savings, the average annual rate of growth of gross national product (GNP) would be only about 4.32%, which is less than the historical growth rate of 6% and the present government longterm target of 8%. The result suggests that foreign investments and loans would have to play an increasingly important role in the

  7. The (non)effects of lethal population control on the diet of Australian dingoes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin L; Leung, Luke K-P

    2014-01-01

    Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes) may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function.

  8. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; P<.009) and with infection with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella (OR, 4.2; CI, 1.8-9.7; P<.001). The population attributable fraction for reptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons <21 years old. These data suggest that reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  9. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): monitoring of populations to improve control strategies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Masuh, Héctor; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana A

    2008-06-01

    To study the seasonal fluctuations of populations of Aedes aegypti (L.), to improve control strategies, or to monitor chemical control interventions, a lightweight, inexpensive ovitrap made of black plastic, pail-shaped, stackable, and provided with a wood tongue depressor was used. Field assays were performed in the northeast and northwest part of Argentina. In a 1-year trial performed in Tartagal (Salta), almost 100% of the ovitraps were highly positive, collecting a total of 1,000/2,000 eggs during March and the first part of April. A focal treatment in the corresponding neighborhood, performed at this time, immediately began to reduce positive ovitraps in spite of the high temperatures registered, rising again in November after winter season. Another field trial was performed in the whole urban area of Iguazú (Misiones). Mosquito populations were evaluated after three weekly ultra low volume (ULV) applications with an EC formulation of permethrin in water. The number of positive ovitraps diminished from 49% to 10% after the treatments. The last one performed in Wanda (Misiones) showed that positive ovitraps inside the dwellings aided in determining reinfestation rates after an intervention with a smoke-generating formulation containing beta-cypermethrin. The work performed in three different situations in urban areas at high risk of dengue can be considered a preliminary assay to establish the effective performance of simple ovitraps, allowing the Vector Control Service of the Argentinian Ministry of Health its use to improve surveillance and control strategies.

  10. The (Non)Effects of Lethal Population Control on the Diet of Australian Dingoes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes) may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function. PMID:25243466

  11. Chromosomal control of pig populations in France: 2002-2006 survey.

    PubMed

    Ducos, Alain; Berland, Hélène-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Calgaro, Anne; Billoux, Sébastien; Mary, Nicolas; Garnier-Bonnet, Amélie; Darré, Roland; Pinton, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The chromosomal control of pig populations has been widely developed in France over the last ten years. By December 31st, 2006, 13,765 individuals had been karyotyped in our laboratory, 62% of these since 2002. Ninety percent were young purebred boars controlled before service in artificial insemination centres, and 3% were hypoprolific boars. So far, 102 constitutional structural chromosomal rearrangements (67 since 2002) have been described. Fifty-six were reciprocal translocations and 8 peri- or paracentric inversions. For the first time since the beginning of the programme and after more than 11,000 pigs had been karyotyped, one Robertsonian translocation was identified in 2005 and two others in 2006. The estimated prevalence of balanced structural chromosomal rearrangements in a sample of more than 7,700 young boars controlled before service was 0.47%. Twenty-one of the 67 rearrangements described since 2002 were identified in hypoprolific boars. All were reciprocal translocations. Twelve mosaics (XX/XY in 11 individuals, XY/XXY in one individual) were also diagnosed. Two corresponded to hypoprolific boars, and three to intersexed animals. The results presented in this communication would justify an intensification of the chromosomal control of French and, on a broader scale, European and North-American pig populations.

  12. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were < or =1.3 percentage points. Differences in infant characteristics were greater at centers that selected controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  13. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  14. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods/Design EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. Discussion The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic

  15. Sludge population optimisation: a new dimension for the control of biological wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhiguo; Blackall, Linda L

    2002-01-01

    The activated sludge comprises a complex microbiological community. The structure (what types of microorganisms are present) and function (what can the organisms do and at what rates) of this community are determined by external physico-chemical features and by the influent to the sewage treatment plant. The external features we can manipulate but rarely the influent. Conventional control and operational strategies optimise activated sludge processes more as a chemical system than as a biological one. While optimising the process in a short time period, these strategies may deteriorate the long-term performance of the process due to their potentially adverse impact on the microbial properties. Through briefly reviewing the evidence available in the literature that plant design and operation affect both the structure and function of the microbial community in activated sludge, we propose to add sludge population optimisation as a new dimension to the control of biological wastewater treatment systems. We stress that optimising the microbial community structure and property should be an explicit aim for the design and operation of a treatment plant. The major limitations to sludge population optimisation revolve around inadequate microbiological data, specifically community structure, function and kinetic data. However, molecular microbiological methods that strive to provide that data are being developed rapidly. The combination of these methods with the conventional approaches for kinetic study is briefly discussed. The most pressing research questions pertaining to sludge population optimisation are outlined.

  16. Olfactory deficits and sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease: a case–control survey

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J; Lu, Y; Wang, S; Cartwright, H; Halliday, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information about olfactory and sleep deficits preceding the onset of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Subjects: 38 community dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease (73% response rate) and 32 age matched controls (60% response rate). Methods: Using a questionnaire survey, the frequencies, timing, and relations between olfactory and sleep disturbances, drug treatment, mood, and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease were compared with those in age matched controls. Reliability of information was validated by informant interview in 9% of the sample. Interdependency of factors was assessed using Fisher's fourfold table test, and differences between populations were analysed using χ2 and unpaired t tests. Results: Microsmia was reported by 26 patients (68%) (and only one control), on average within a year of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. More patients than controls had excessive daytime somnolence (45% v 6%), restless legs (50% v 19%), and abnormal movements during sleep (34% v 0%), which generally occurred three to five years after diagnosis and were independent of mood disorders and drug treatment. Conclusions: Many patients with Parkinson's disease have microsmia at the onset of motor deficits, but some sleep disorders are a subsequent occurrence. PMID:12810790

  17. The organization, quality control, and accuracy of the 1982 population census of China.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R

    1984-01-01

    China's 1982 population census counted a record population of more than a billion people. This task was done with phenomenally low error rates, according to a report of the State Statistics Bureau of the People's Republic of China. This article reviews the factors that enhanced the possibility of maintaining such exceptionally low error rates. The census was given very high priority for both political and administrative action. The administrative structure and organization made for thoroughly intense and comprehensive procedures for training, pretests and control before the census, and vision, quality control and checking during the census, as well as for postenumeration checks and surveys. All of these procedures are unique in the history of census taking. The high rate of corresponodence between place of registration and place of residence is consistent with the very low mobility of the Chinese population and with the strong administrative control. These were certainly factors contributing to the apparent success of the Chinese census. An important step in the census involved starting with the register lists, checking and amending them by visits to households. The actual census was conducted by a very large staff. A very commendable aspect of the census was the extent of supervision and the checks aimed at keeping errors at a minimum. The intensive system for checking errors during the census as well as during the postenumeration survey are described in the article. It is argued that the amazing organizational strength and effort of the Chinese census operation and the systematic quality control checks and rechecks with carefully trained and supervised personnel have certainly produced an excellent census. Nonetheless, this very organization by its very nature, may have been a source of some undetected error. However, even if the error rate eventually turns out to be 10 times higher than that reported, the Chinese census still will be a notable effort and an

  18. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  19. Reported Hearing Impairment in Essential Tremor: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2008-01-01

    In a population-based sample, we determined whether a larger proportion of essential tremor (ET) cases reported hearing impairment compared with controls. Ninety-six (38.7%) of 248 ET cases versus 1,371 (29.4%) of 4,669 controls (p = 0.002) reported hearing impairment. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, educational level, depressive symptoms, and dementia, participants who reported hearing impairment were 30% more likely to suffer from ET than were controls (odds ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.7; p = 0.04). ET seemed to be associated with reported hearing impairment. The basis for this finding, which has been noted in several studies, deserves further exploration. PMID:18073494

  20. Occupation and thyroid cancer: a population-based case-control study in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Yue; Huang, Huang; Lerro, Catherine C.; Li, Shuzhen; Zhao, Nan; Li, Anqi; Ma, Shuangge; Udelsman, Robert; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study aims to explore the associations between various occupations and thyroid cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study involving 462 histologically confirmed incident cases and 498 controls was conducted in Connecticut in 2010–2011. Results A significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary microcarcinoma, was observed for those working as the healthcare practitioners and technical workers, health diagnosing and treating practitioners and registered nurses. Those working in building and grounds cleaning, maintenance occupations, pest control, retail sales, and customer service also had increased risk for papillary thyroid cancer. Subjects who worked as cooks, janitors, cleaners, and customer service representatives were at an increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer with tumor size >1 cm. Conclusions Certain occupations were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, with some tumor size and subtype specificity. PMID:26949881

  1. [A population-based case control study of primary liver cancer in Fusui].

    PubMed

    Zhang, M D

    1993-02-01

    A population-based case control study of primary liver cancer (PLC) was undertaken in Fusui County, Guangxi Autonomous Region. Ninety-nine PLC cases and 99 age-sex-matched controls were surveyed for their general conditions, life style features, dietary habits, types of drinking water and family history. Cases and controls were well distributed in nationality, education, marital status and annual income per person. Conditional logistic regression results showed that HBV infection, drinking pond-ditch water, family history and total alcohol intake were the risk factors of PLC with the relative risks 5.330 (2.502-11.35), 3.703 (1.251-10.96), 2.881 (1.289-6.441), 1.002 (1.000-1.004), respectively. And antibody of HBV surface antigen is protective factor with the relative risk of 0.418 (0.210-0.834).

  2. Environmental impact propagated by cross-system subsidy: chronic stream pollution controls riparian spider populations.

    PubMed

    Paetzold, Achim; Smith, Marian; Warren, Philip H; Maltby, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    Resource subsidies between habitats are common and create the potential for the propagation of environmental impacts across system boundaries. However, recent understanding of the potential for subsidy-mediated cross-system impact propagations is limited and primarily based on passive flows of nutrients and detritus or short-term effects. Here, we assess the effects of sustained alterations in aquatic insect emergence (active subsidy pathway), due to chronic stream pollution, for riparian spiders. The sustained reduction in aquatic insect densities at the polluted reaches resulted in a marked decline in web spider population density and a shift in spider community composition. Our results provide the first evidence that stream pollution can control populations and community structure of terrestrial predators via sustained alterations in aquatic subsidies, emphasizing the role of subtle trophic linkages in the transmission of environmental impacts across ecosystem boundaries.

  3. Ancestry Estimation and Control of Population Stratification for Sequence-based Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaolong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Kang, Hyun Min; Stambolian, Dwight; Chew, Emily Y.; Branham, Kari E.; Heckenlively, John; Fulton, Robert; Wilson, Richard K.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Lin, Xihong; Swaroop, Anand; Zöllner, Sebastian; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of individual ancestry is important for genetic association studies where population structure leads to false positive signals. Estimating individual ancestry with targeted sequence data, which constitutes the bulk of current sequence datasets, is challenging. Here, we propose a new method for accurate estimation of genetic ancestry. Our method skips genotype calling and directly analyzes sequence reads. We validate the method using simulated and empirical data and show that the method can accurately infer worldwide continental ancestry with whole genome shotgun coverage as low as 0.001X. For estimates of fine-scale ancestry within Europe, the method performs well with coverage of 0.1X. At an even finer-scale, the method improves discrimination between exome-sequenced participants originating from different provinces within Finland. Finally, we show that our method can be used to improve case-control matching in genetic association studies and reduce the risk of spurious findings due to population structure. PMID:24633160

  4. The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2013-12-22

    Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control.

  5. The importance of functional form in optimal control solutions of problems in population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optimal control theory is finding increased application in both theoretical and applied ecology, and it is a central element of adaptive resource management. One of the steps in an adaptive management process is to develop alternative models of system dynamics, models that are all reasonable in light of available data, but that differ substantially in their implications for optimal control of the resource. We explored how the form of the recruitment and survival functions in a general population model for ducks affected the patterns in the optimal harvest strategy, using a combination of analytical, numerical, and simulation techniques. We compared three relationships between recruitment and population density (linear, exponential, and hyperbolic) and three relationships between survival during the nonharvest season and population density (constant, logistic, and one related to the compensatory harvest mortality hypothesis). We found that the form of the component functions had a dramatic influence on the optimal harvest strategy and the ultimate equilibrium state of the system. For instance, while it is commonly assumed that a compensatory hypothesis leads to higher optimal harvest rates than an additive hypothesis, we found this to depend on the form of the recruitment function, in part because of differences in the optimal steady-state population density. This work has strong direct consequences for those developing alternative models to describe harvested systems, but it is relevant to a larger class of problems applying optimal control at the population level. Often, different functional forms will not be statistically distinguishable in the range of the data. Nevertheless, differences between the functions outside the range of the data can have an important impact on the optimal harvest strategy. Thus, development of alternative models by identifying a single functional form, then choosing different parameter combinations from extremes on the likelihood

  6. Lung Cancer and Occupation in a Population-based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H.; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002–2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence. PMID:20047975

  7. Estimating the population-level impact of vaccines using synthetic controls

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, Christian A. W.; Hetterich, Stephen; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Kürüm, Esra; Taylor, Robert J.; Lustig, Roger; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Warren, Joshua L.; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    When a new vaccine is introduced, it is critical to monitor trends in disease rates to ensure that the vaccine is effective and to quantify its impact. However, estimates from observational studies can be confounded by unrelated changes in healthcare utilization, changes in the underlying health of the population, or changes in reporting. Other diseases are often used to detect and adjust for these changes, but choosing an appropriate control disease a priori is a major challenge. The “synthetic controls” (causal impact) method, which was originally developed for website analytics and social sciences, provides an appealing solution. With this approach, potential comparison time series are combined into a composite and are used to generate a counterfactual estimate, which can be compared with the time series of interest after the intervention. We sought to estimate changes in hospitalizations for all-cause pneumonia associated with the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in five countries in the Americas. Using synthetic controls, we found a substantial decline in hospitalizations for all-cause pneumonia in infants in all five countries (average of 20%), whereas estimates for young and middle-aged adults varied by country and were potentially influenced by the 2009 influenza pandemic. In contrast to previous reports, we did not detect a decline in all-cause pneumonia in older adults in any country. Synthetic controls promise to increase the accuracy of studies of vaccine impact and to increase comparability of results between populations compared with alternative approaches. PMID:28154145

  8. Lung cancer and occupation in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002-2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence.

  9. Accessibility of dog populations for rabies control in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Bögel, K.; Joshi, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of dogs in urban areas of Kathmandu valley was measured using the following approaches: determination of the proportion of dogs that bore signs of having been the objects of religious worship and other signs of household association, supplemented by information obtained by interviewing people in the neighbourhood; and the vaccination coverage attained in a rabies control campaign that was preceded by intensive activities to encourage the community to participate. An accessibility rate of 90-95% was determined using the first of these approaches, whereas 75-80% of the total dog population was reached in the vaccination campaign. PMID:2289296

  10. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.

  11. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Kibirige, Davis; Akabwai, George Patrick; Kampiire, Leaticia; Kiggundu, Daniel Ssekikubo; Lumu, William

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%). The median (interquartile range) HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%). Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%), 76 (17.97%), and 179 (42.32%) study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005) and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0.001). Conclusion Suboptimal glycemic control was highly prevalent in this study population with an association to metformin monotherapy and insulin therapy. Strategies aimed at improving glycemic control in diabetes care in Uganda should be enhanced. PMID:28260942

  12. The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Neil J.; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K.; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such ‘fertility control’ strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. ‘Trojan females’ carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce ‘sterile-male’-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. PMID:24174117

  13. Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid.

  14. The determinants of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in an insured population.

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, D H; Madhavan, S; Cohen, H; Gibson, G; Alderman, M H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to identify the determinants of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a population with full access to medical care. METHODS. Unionized New York City health care workers (n = 1394) with comprehensive medical insurance were screened for hypertension. Union records documenting all physician visits and prescription medications for the year before screening provided the opportunity to relate patterns of treatment to blood pressure outcomes. RESULTS. Of the 409 employees found to have hypertension, 289 (71%) were aware of their condition and 201 (49%) had been treated, but only 51 (12%) had their blood pressure controlled at the recommended level (< 140/90 mm Hg). In a logistic regression model, the only variable of treatment associated with control was days of antihypertensive medication. The total number of physician visits was not associated with control. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrate that in conventional community settings, even in the absence of financial barriers, treatment for hypertension continues to be characterized by poor outcomes. Improving access to primary care, without changes in the nature of that care, may not substantially improve blood pressure control. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7977915

  15. Control of Boophilus microplus populations in grazing cattle vaccinated with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A

    1995-04-01

    Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals.

  16. Population Control of Resident and Immigrant Microglia by Mitosis and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Anne Babcock, Alicia; Nielsen, Marianne; Meldgaard, Michael; Zimmer, Jens; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    Microglial population expansion occurs in response to neural damage via processes that involve mitosis and immigration of bone marrow-derived cells. However, little is known of the mechanisms that regulate clearance of reactive microglia, when microgliosis diminishes days to weeks later. We have investigated the mechanisms of microglial population control in a well-defined model of reactive microgliosis in the mouse dentate gyrus after perforant pathway axonal lesion. Unbiased stereological methods and flow cytometry demonstrate significant lesion-induced increases in microglial numbers. Reactive microglia often occurred in clusters, some having recently incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, showing that proliferation had occurred. Annexin V labeling and staining for activated caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling showed that apoptotic mechanisms participate in dissolution of the microglial response. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that the lesion-induced proliferative capacity of resident microglia superseded that of immigrant microglia, whereas lesion-induced kinetics of apoptosis were comparable. Microglial numbers and responses were severely reduced in bone marrow chimeric mice. These results broaden our understanding of the microglial response to neural damage by demonstrating that simultaneously occurring mitosis and apoptosis regulate expansion and reduction of both resident and immigrant microglial cell populations. PMID:17600121

  17. Multiple Wolbachia determinants control the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibilities in Culex pipiens mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Celestine M; Duron, Olivier; Tortosa, Pablo; Pasteur, Nicole; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylene

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that can invade arthropod populations through manipulation of their reproduction. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia induce embryonic death, known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whenever infected males mate with females either uninfected or infected with an incompatible strain. Although genetic determinants of CI are unknown, a functional model involving the so-called mod and resc factors has been proposed. Natural populations of Culex pipiens mosquito display a complex CI relationship pattern associated with the highest Wolbachia (wPip) genetic polymorphism reported so far. We show here that C. pipiens populations from La Réunion, a geographically isolated island in the southwest of the Indian Ocean, are infected with genetically closely related wPip strains. Crossing experiments reveal that these Wolbachia are all mutually compatible. However, crosses with genetically more distant wPip strains indicate that Wolbachia strains from La Réunion belong to at least five distinct incompatibility groups (or crossing types). These incompatibility properties which are strictly independent from the nuclear background, formally establish that in C. pipiens, CI is controlled by several Wolbachia mod/resc factors.

  18. Control of Xiphinema index populations by fallow plants under greenhouse and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Villate, Laure; Morin, Elisa; Demangeat, Gérard; Van Helden, Maarten; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema index has a high economic impact in vineyards by direct pathogenicity and above all by transmitting the Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). Agrochemicals have been largely employed to restrict the spread of GFLV by reducing X. index populations but are now banned. As an alternative to nematicides, the use of fallow plants between two successive vine crops was assessed. We selected plant species adapted to vineyard soils and exhibiting negative impact on nematodes and we evaluated their antagonistic effect on X. index in greenhouse using artificially infested soil, and in naturally infested vineyard conditions. The screening was conducted with plants belonging to the families Asteraceae (sunflower, marigold, zinnia, and nyjer), Poaceae (sorghum and rye), Fabaceae (white lupin, white melilot, hairy vetch, and alfalfa), Brassicaceae (rapeseed and camelina), and Boraginaceae (phacelia). In the greenhouse controlled assay, white lupin, nyjer, and marigold significantly reduced X. index populations compared with that of bare soil. The vineyard assay, designed to take into account the aggregative pattern of X. index distribution, revealed that marigold and hairy vetch are good candidates as cover crops to reduce X. index populations in vineyard. Moreover, this original experimental design could be applied to manage other soilborne pathogens.

  19. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  20. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    PubMed

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities.

  1. Suppression of population transport and control of exciton distributions by entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Schlawin, Frank; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Fingerhut, Benjamin P; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    Entangled photons provide an important tool for secure quantum communication, computing and lithography. Low intensity requirements for multi-photon processes make them idealy suited for minimizing damage in imaging applications. Here we show how their unique temporal and spectral features may be used in nonlinear spectroscopy to reveal properties of multiexcitons in chromophore aggregates. Simulations demostrate that they provide unique control tools for two-exciton states in the bacterial reaction centre of Blastochloris viridis. Population transport in the intermediate single-exciton manifold may be suppressed by the absorption of photon pairs with short entanglement time, thus allowing the manipulation of the distribution of two-exciton states. The quantum nature of the light is essential for achieving this degree of control, which cannot be reproduced by stochastic or chirped light. Classical light is fundamentally limited by the frequency-time uncertainty, whereas entangled photons have independent temporal and spectral characteristics not subjected to this uncertainty.

  2. Suppression of population transport and control of exciton distributions by entangled photons

    PubMed Central

    Schlawin, Frank; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    Entangled photons provide an important tool for secure quantum communication, computing and lithography. Low intensity requirements for multi-photon processes make them idealy suited for minimizing damage in imaging applications. Here we show how their unique temporal and spectral features may be used in nonlinear spectroscopy to reveal properties of multiexcitons in chromophore aggregates. Simulations demostrate that they provide unique control tools for two-exciton states in the bacterial reaction centre of Blastochloris viridis. Population transport in the intermediate single-exciton manifold may be suppressed by the absorption of photon pairs with short entanglement time, thus allowing the manipulation of the distribution of two-exciton states. The quantum nature of the light is essential for achieving this degree of control, which cannot be reproduced by stochastic or chirped light. Classical light is fundamentally limited by the frequency-time uncertainty, whereas entangled photons have independent temporal and spectral characteristics not subjected to this uncertainty. PMID:23653194

  3. Free-roaming dog population estimation and status of the dog population management and rabies control program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-05-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 wards of Dhaka City on consecutive days using mark-resight methods. Data was analyzed using Lincoln-Petersen index-Chapman correction methods. The CNVR program was assessed over the two years (2012-2013) whilst the coverage of the CNVR program was assessed by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched (processed dogs) via dog population surveys. The free-roaming dog population was estimated to be 1,242 (95 % CI: 1205-1278) in the 18 sampled wards and 18,585 dogs in Dhaka City (52 dogs/km2) with an estimated human-to-free-roaming dog ratio of 828:1. During the two year CNVR program, a total of 6,665 dogs (3,357 male and 3,308 female) were neutered and vaccinated against rabies in 29 of the 92 city wards. A pilot population survey indicated a mean CNVR coverage of 60.6% (range 19.2-79.3%) with only eight wards achieving > 70% coverage. Given that the coverage in many neighborhoods was below the WHO-recommended threshold level of 70% for rabies eradications and since the CNVR program takes considerable time to implement throughout the entire Dhaka City area, a mass dog vaccination program in the non-CNVR coverage area is recommended to create herd immunity. The findings from this study are expected to guide dog population management and the rabies control program in Dhaka City and elsewhere in Bangladesh.

  4. Entrainment and Control of Bacterial Populations: An in Silico Study over a Spatially Extended Agent Based Model.

    PubMed

    Mina, Petros; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Bernardo, Mario di

    2016-07-15

    We extend a spatially explicit agent based model (ABM) developed previously to investigate entrainment and control of the emergent behavior of a population of synchronized oscillating cells in a microfluidic chamber. Unlike most of the work in models of control of cellular systems which focus on temporal changes, we model individual cells with spatial dependencies which may contribute to certain behavioral responses. We use the model to investigate the response of both open loop and closed loop strategies, such as proportional control (P-control), proportional-integral control (PI-control) and proportional-integral-derivative control (PID-control), to heterogeinities and growth in the cell population, variations of the control parameters and spatial effects such as diffusion in the spatially explicit setting of a microfluidic chamber setup. We show that, as expected from the theory of phase locking in dynamical systems, open loop control can only entrain the cell population in a subset of forcing periods, with a wide variety of dynamical behaviors obtained outside these regions of entrainment. Closed-loop control is shown instead to guarantee entrainment in a much wider region of control parameter space although presenting limitations when the population size increases over a certain threshold. In silico tracking experiments are also performed to validate the ability of classical control approaches to achieve other reference behaviors such as a desired constant output or a linearly varying one. All simulations are carried out in BSim, an advanced agent-based simulator of microbial population which is here extended ad hoc to include the effects of control strategies acting onto the population.

  5. Bereavement after sibling death: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Leslie, William D; Enns, Jessica; Martens, Patricia J; Katz, Laurence Y; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine mental disorders and treatment use among bereaved siblings in the general population. Siblings (N=7243) of all deceased children in the population of Manitoba, Canada who died between 1984 and 2009 were matched 1:3 to control siblings (N=21,729) who did not have a sibling die in the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the two sibling groups in the two years before and after the index child's death on physician-diagnosed mental disorders and treatment utilization, with adjustment for confounding factors including pre-existing mental illness. Analyses were stratified by age of the bereaved (<13 vs. 13+). Results revealed that, in the two years after the death of the child, bereaved siblings had significantly higher rates of mental disorders than control siblings, even after adjusting for pre-existing mental illness. When comparing the effect of a child's death on younger versus older siblings, the rise in depression rates from pre-death to post-death was significantly higher for siblings aged under 13 (p<0.0001), increasing more than 7-fold (adjusted relative rate, ARR=7.25, 95% CI: 3.65-14.43). Bereaved siblings aged 13+ had substantial morbidity in the two years after the death: 25% were diagnosed with a mental disorder (vs. 17% of controls), and they had higher rates of almost all mental disorder outcomes compared to controls, including twice the rate of suicide attempts (ARR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.29-3.12). Siblings in the bereaved cohort had higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders already before the death of their sibling. In conclusion, the death of a child is associated with considerable mental disorder burden among surviving siblings. Pre-existing health problems and social disadvantage do not fully account for the increase in mental disorder rates.

  6. Guidelines to site selection for population surveillance and mosquito control trials: a case study from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Iyaloo, Diana P; Elahee, Khouaildi B; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Lees, Rosemary Susan

    2014-04-01

    Many novel approaches to controlling mosquito vectors through the release of sterile and mass reared males are being developed in the face of increasing insecticide resistance and other limitations of current methods. Before full scale release programmes can be undertaken there is a need for surveillance of the target population, and investigation of parameters such as dispersal and longevity of released, as compared to wild males through mark-release-recapture (MRR) and other experiments, before small scale pilot trials can be conducted. The nature of the sites used for this field work is crucial to ensure that a trial can feasibly collect sufficient and relevant information, given the available resources and practical limitations, and having secured the correct regulatory, community and ethical approvals and support. Mauritius is considering the inclusion of the sterile insect technique (SIT), for population reduction of Aedes albopictus, as a component of the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life's 'Operational Plan for Prevention and Control of Chikungunya and Dengue'. As part of an investigation into the feasibility of integrating the SIT into the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) scheme in Mauritius a pilot trial is planned. Two potential sites have been selected for this purpose, Pointe des Lascars and Panchvati, villages in the North East of the country, and population surveillance has commenced. This case study will here be used to explore the considerations which go into determining the most appropriate sites for mosquito field research. Although each situation is unique, and an ideal site may not be available, this discussion aims to help researchers to consider and balance the important factors and select field sites that will meet their needs.

  7. A Survey to Identify University Student Attitudes toward the Role of Government in Controlling Human Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Thomas E.

    The purpose of this study was to obtain, measure, and evaluate the attitudes of postsecondary students on domestic population issues in order to determine the extent of support for a national government-controlled population stabilization program. A total of 125 students enrolled in either the American government or general sociology course at the…

  8. Serum trace element differences between Schizophrenia patients and controls in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lei; Chen, Tianlu; Yang, Jinglei; Zhou, Kejun; Yan, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenzhong; Sun, Liya; Li, Linlin; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ping; Cui, Donghong; Burmeister, Margit; He, Lin; Jia, Wei; Wan, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the trace element profile differences between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls; previous studies about the association of certain elements with Schizophrenia have obtained conflicting results. To identify these differences in the Han Chinese population, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the levels of 35 elements in the sera of 111 Schizophrenia patients and 110 healthy participants, which consisted of a training (61/61 for cases/controls included) and a test group including remaining participants. An orthogonal projection to latent structures model was constructed from the training group (R2Y = 0.465, Q2cum = 0.343) had a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 71.4% in the test group. Single element analysis indicated that the concentrations of cesium, zinc, and selenium were significantly reduced in patients with Schizophrenia in both the training and test groups. The meta-analysis including 522 cases and 360 controls supported that Zinc was significantly associated with Schizophrenia (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −1.46 to −0.16, P = 0.01) in the random-effect model. Information theory analysis indicated that Zinc could play roles independently in Schizophrenia. These results suggest clear element profile differences between patients with Schizophrenia and healthy controls, and reduced Zn level is confirmed in the Schizophrenia patients. PMID:26456296

  9. Serum trace element differences between Schizophrenia patients and controls in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Chen, Tianlu; Yang, Jinglei; Zhou, Kejun; Yan, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenzhong; Sun, Liya; Li, Linlin; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ping; Cui, Donghong; Burmeister, Margit; He, Lin; Jia, Wei; Wan, Chunling

    2015-10-12

    Little is known about the trace element profile differences between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls; previous studies about the association of certain elements with Schizophrenia have obtained conflicting results. To identify these differences in the Han Chinese population, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the levels of 35 elements in the sera of 111 Schizophrenia patients and 110 healthy participants, which consisted of a training (61/61 for cases/controls included) and a test group including remaining participants. An orthogonal projection to latent structures model was constructed from the training group (R(2)Y = 0.465, Q(2)cum = 0.343) had a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 71.4% in the test group. Single element analysis indicated that the concentrations of cesium, zinc, and selenium were significantly reduced in patients with Schizophrenia in both the training and test groups. The meta-analysis including 522 cases and 360 controls supported that Zinc was significantly associated with Schizophrenia (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -1.46 to -0.16, P = 0.01) in the random-effect model. Information theory analysis indicated that Zinc could play roles independently in Schizophrenia. These results suggest clear element profile differences between patients with Schizophrenia and healthy controls, and reduced Zn level is confirmed in the Schizophrenia patients.

  10. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-03-02

    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p < 0.001). Conditional logistic regression shows that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of GERD for cases was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08~2.33) compared to controls. The adjusted ORs of prior GERD for patients aged 18~39, 40~59, and ≥60 years with appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group.

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum β-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013

  12. Impacts from control operations on a recreationally hunted feral swine population at a large military installation in Florida.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard; Hershberger, Troy; Orzell, Steve; Felix, Rodney; Killian, Gary; Woolard, John; Cornman, Jon; Romano, David; Huddleston, Chet; Zimmerman, Pat; Barre, Chris; Tillman, Eric; Avery, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Feral swine were targeted for control at Avon Park Air Force Range in south-central Florida to avert damage to sensitive wetland habitats on the 40,000-ha base. We conducted a 5-year study to assess impacts from control to this population that had been recreationally hunted for many years. Control was initiated in early 2009. The feral swine population was monitored from 2008 to 2012 using a passive tracking index (PTI) during the dry and wet seasons and using recreational hunter take rates from the dry season. All three indices showed substantial feral swine declines after implementing control, with indices leveling for the final two study years. Military missions and recreational hunting seasons impacted temporal and spatial consistency of control application, thereby limiting further impacts of control efforts on the feral swine population. The PTI was also able to monitor coyotes, another invasive species on the base, and detect Florida black bear and Florida panther, species of particular concern.

  13. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p < 0.001] or have suffered from a head trauma in the past before MS diagnosis (matched OR(adj) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to have stayed in Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk

  14. Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a case–control study in a Northern Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome of pregnancy is often threatened by hypertension disorders, i.e. eclampsia. Rate of infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can be as high as 80% in pregnant women, and infection acquired during pregnancy can lead to fetal death. Very little is known about a potential association between infections, i.e. those with Toxoplasma gondii, and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Methods Through a case–control study design, we investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies in 146 pregnant women suffering from hypertensive disorders (cases) and 146 age-matched normotensive pregnant women (controls) attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Obstetric and blood pressure characteristics from cases and controls were also obtained. Results Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers did not differ significantly in controls (8/146; 5.5%) and cases (9/146; 6.2%). Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1.2%) controls and none of the cases. Seroprevalence of T. gondii in controls (5.5%) was similar to seroprevalences found in patients with mild preeclampsia (4/27: 14.8%), severe preeclampsia (5/95: 5.3%), eclampsia (0/16: 0%) and HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) (0/8: 0%) (P = 0.23). Conclusions Our results suggest that latent infection with T. gondii is not associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnant women in Northern Mexico. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of infection with T. gondii with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:24708729

  15. TP53 alterations and colorectal cancer predisposition in south Indian population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Singamsetty, Gopi Krishna; Malempati, Sravanthi; Bhogadhi, Srichandana; Kondreddy, Ravinder; Govatati, Suresh; Tangudu, Naveen Kumar; Govatati, Sowdamani; kuraganti, Anil Kumar; Bhanoori, Manjula; Kassetty, Kondaiah

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between TP53 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition in south Indian population and to evaluate the role of TP53 expression in the pathophysiology of CRC. A genetic association study was conducted in 103 CRC cases and 107 controls of south Indian origin. We genotyped ten selected TP53 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-sequencing analysis. Haplotype frequencies for multiple loci and the standardized disequilibrium coefficient (D') for pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) were assessed by Haploview Software. In addition, to better understand the role of TP53 in the pathophysiology of CRC, the expression pattern was evaluated in analogous tumor and normal tissues from 23 CRC patients by Western blot analysis. The frequencies of Pro72Pro (P = 0.0033) genotype and Ser47/Pro72 (P = 0.00171) haplotype were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls. Strong LD was observed between codon 47 and 72 in cases (D' = 0.32) as compared to controls (D' = 0.21). The polymorphism was not observe at the remaining eight SNPs loci analyzed. Furthermore, increased TP53 expression was observed in tumor tissue than in analogous normal tissue of CRC patients. Interestingly, advanced stage tumors showed more elevated TP53 expression compared to early stage tumors. In conclusion, the TP53 Pro72Pro genotype and Ser47/Pro72 haplotype has an increased risk for CRC predisposition in south Indian population. In addition, elevated TP53 expression appears to be useful prognostic marker for CRC.

  16. Defining the fracture population in a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Handoll, H. H. G.; Brealey, S. D.; Jefferson, L.; Keding, A.; Brooksbank, A. J.; Johnstone, A. J.; Candal-Couto, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Accurate characterisation of fractures is essential in fracture management trials. However, this is often hampered by poor inter-observer agreement. This article describes the practicalities of defining the fracture population, based on the Neer classification, within a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial in which surgical treatment was compared with non-surgical treatment in adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus involving the surgical neck. Methods The trial manual illustrated the Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures. However, in addition to surgical neck displacement, surgeons assessing patient eligibility reported on whether either or both of the tuberosities were involved. Anonymised electronic versions of baseline radiographs were sought for all 250 trial participants. A protocol, data collection tool and training presentation were developed and tested in a pilot study. These were then used in a formal assessment and classification of the trial fractures by two independent senior orthopaedic shoulder trauma surgeons. Results Two or more baseline radiographic views were obtained for each participant. The independent raters confirmed that all fractures would have been considered for surgery in contemporaneous practice. A full description of the fracture population based on the Neer classification was obtained. The agreement between the categorisation at baseline (tuberosity involvement) and Neer classification as assessed by the two raters was only fair (kappa 0.29). However, this disparity did not appear to affect trial findings, specifically in terms of influencing the effect of treatment on the primary outcome of the trial. Conclusions A key reporting requirement, namely the description of the fracture population, was achieved within the context of a pragmatic multicentre randomised clinical trial. This article provides important guidance for researchers designing similar trials on fracture management

  17. Fetal Growth and Risk of Stillbirth: A Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Rowland Hogue, Carol J.; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case–control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (<10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA) (>90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (<5th and >95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing

  18. CAPL: a novel association test using case-control and family data and accounting for population stratification.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Schmidt, Michael A; Morris, Richard W; Martin, Eden R

    2010-11-01

    The recent successes of GWAS based on large sample sizes motivate combining independent datasets to obtain larger sample sizes and thereby increase statistical power. Analysis methods that can accommodate different study designs, such as family-based and case-control designs, are of general interest. However, population stratification can cause spurious association for population-based association analyses. For family-based association analysis that infers missing parental genotypes based on the allele frequencies estimated in the entire sample, the parental mating-type probabilities may not be correctly estimated in the presence of population stratification. Therefore, any approach to combining family and case-control data should also properly account for population stratification. Although several methods have been proposed to accommodate family-based and case-control data, all have restrictions. Most of them require sampling a homogeneous population, which may not be a reasonable assumption for data from a large consortium. One of the methods, FamCC, can account for population stratification and uses nuclear families with arbitrary number of siblings but requires parental genotype data, which are often unavailable for late-onset diseases. We extended the family-based test, Association in the Presence of Linkage (APL), to combine family and case-control data (CAPL). CAPL can accommodate case-control data and families with multiple affected siblings and missing parents in the presence of population stratification. We used simulations to demonstrate that CAPL is a valid test either in a homogeneous population or in the presence of population stratification. We also showed that CAPL can have more power than other methods that combine family and case-control data.

  19. Aspirin Use Associated With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a Total Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ching-Piao; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Lee, Johnny Kuang-Wu; Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of aspirin use and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk is unclear. This study determined whether use of any individual compound is associated with ALS risk by conducting a total population-based case-control study in Taiwan. Methods A total of 729 patients with newly diagnosed ALS who had a severely disabling disease certificate between January 1, 2002, and December 1, 2008, comprised the case group. These cases were compared with 7290 sex-, age-, residence-, and insurance premium-matched controls. Drug use by each Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code was analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. False discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P values were reported in order to avoid inflating false positives. Results Of the 1336 compounds, only the 266 with use cases exceeding 30 in our database were included in the screening analysis. Without controlling for steroid use, the analysis failed to reveal any compound that was inversely associated with ALS risk according to FDR criteria. After controlling for steroid use, we found use of the following compounds to be associated with ALS risk: aspirin, diphenhydramine (one of the antihistamines), and mefenamic acid (one of the NSAIDs). A multivariate analysis revealed that aspirin was independently inversely associated with ALS risk after controlling for diphenhydramine, mefenamic acid, and steroid use. The inverse association between aspirin and ALS was present predominately in patients older than 55 years. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that aspirin use might reduce the risk of ALS, and the benefit might be more prominent for older people. PMID:25721071

  20. Coherent Control of Population Transfer via Linear Chirp in Liquid Solution: The Role of Motional Narrowing.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, Porscha L; Geva, Eitan

    2016-05-19

    The conditions under which linear chirp can be used to control population transfer between the electronic states of a chromophore dissolved in liquid solution are investigated. To this end, we model the chromophore as a two-state system with shifted electronic potential energy surfaces and a fluctuating electronic transition frequency. The fluctuations are described as an exponentially correlated Gaussian stochastic process, which can be characterized by the average fluctuation amplitude, σ, and correlation time, τc. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for an ensemble of stochastic histories, at different values of σ and τc, and under a wide range of pulse intensities and linear chirp coefficients. In the limit τc → ∞, we find that control diminishes rapidly as soon as σ exceeds the bandwidth of the pulse. However, we also find that control can be regained by reducing τc. We attribute this trend to motional narrowing, whereby decreasing τc narrows down the effective bandwidth of the solvent-induced fluctuations. The results suggest that the choice of methanol as a solvent in the actual experimental demonstration of chirp control by Cerullo et al. [ Chem. Phys. Lett. 1996 , 262 , 362 - 368 ] may have contributed to its success, due to the particularly short τc (∼20 fs) that the rapid librations of this hydrogen bonded liquid give rise to. The results also give rise to the rather surprising prediction that coherent control in liquid solution can be strongly dependent on the choice of solvent and be improved upon by choosing solvents that correspond to lower values of στc.

  1. Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Härri, Simone A; Krauss, Jochen; Müller, Christine B

    2008-05-01

    1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative importance of endophytic fungi compared to that of natural enemies on the population dynamics of phytophagous insects, we carried out a fully factorial field experiment, in which the presence of natural enemies and the presence of endophytic fungi were manipulated simultaneously. Target colonies of aphids were monitored for 8 weeks starting from their natural appearance in the field to the end of the aphid season. 3. We show that on Lolium perenne increased natural enemy densities reduced the individual numbers of two common cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium festucae. 4. The presence of the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii reduced the number of M. festucae but did not affect the number of R. padi. The reduction in R. padi numbers by predators and parasitoids was not influenced by the presence of endophytes. For adult M. festucae, however, the negative effects of natural enemies were significant only in the absence of endophytes. 5. Over the duration of the experiment, the effect of natural enemies on aphid colony growth was much stronger than the effect of the endophytic fungi N. lolii, presumably because predator and parasitoid action on aphid colonies is much faster than any effects of endophytes. 6. Our results demonstrate that with simultaneous action of acquired endosymbionts and natural enemies, both factors can control aphid colony growth but they generally act independently of each other.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-06-03

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China.

  3. Biological control of the vernal population increase of Calanus finmarchicus on Georges Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingwen; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Durbin, Edward G.; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2006-11-01

    An adjoint data assimilation approach was used to quantify the physical and biological controls on Calanus finmarchicus N 3-C 6 stages on Georges Bank and its nearby environs. The mean seasonal cycle of vertically averaged distributions, from 5 years of the GLOBEC Georges Bank Broad-Scale Surveys between January and June, was assimilated into a physical-biological model based on the climatological circulation. Large seasonal and spatial variability is present in the inferred supply sources, mortality rates, computed molting fluxes, and physical transports. Estimated mortalities fall within the range of observed rates, and exhibit stage structure that is consistent with earlier findings. Inferred off-bank initial conditions indicate that the deep basins in the Gulf of Maine are source regions of early stage nauplii and late-stage copepodids in January. However, the population increase on Georges Bank from January to April is controlled mostly by local biological processes. Magnitudes of the physical transport terms are nearly as large as the mortality and molting fluxes, but their bank-wide averages are small in comparison to the biological terms. The hypothesis of local biological control is tested in a sensitivity experiment in which upstream sources are set to zero. In that solution, the lack of upstream sources is compensated by a decrease in mortality that is much smaller than the uncertainty in observational estimates.

  4. Rigid and flexible control of eating behavior in a college population.

    PubMed

    Timko, C Alix; Perone, Julie

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between rigid control (RC) and flexible control (FC) of eating behavior and their relationship to traditional weight, eating, and affective measurements in a large heterogeneous population. Participants were 639 underweight to obese male and female college students. Multiple regression analyses (MRA) revealed that high RC was associated with high Body Mass Index (BMI) and high Disinhibition (DIS), and high FC was associated with low BMI and low DIS in women. In men, high RC was associated with high BMI and high DIS, whereas FC was not related to BMI or DIS. Multiple regression analyses of BMI on RC and FC in the female subsample revealed that the control variables interact in such a way that the relationship between RC and BMI is stronger when FC is lower. In men, there was no interaction between these variables. This study is the first full replication of Westenhoefer's Gezugeltes Essen und Storbarkeit des Ebetaverhaltens: 2. Auflage. Gottingen: Verlag fur Psychologie () findings regarding RC and FC and their relationship to weight (BMI) and Disinhibition (DIS) in women. This is also the only second study to use the expanded, more reliable versions of the RC and FC scales. Overall, high RC in women and men was associated with greater eating and affective pathology.

  5. Estimation of genetic trend in a selected population with and without the use of a control population.

    PubMed

    Blair, H T; Pollak, E J

    1984-04-01

    Data from a selection experiment conducted with sheep at Massey University, New Zealand, were analyzed to obtain an evaluation of selection response. Selection was for heavy 14-mo greasy fleece weight. Approximately seven generations of selection were represented in the data. Three estimates of genetic superiority of the selected line to the control line were obtained. All three estimates were obtained from a mixed model evaluation using the individual animal model for predicting breeding values from own and relatives' records. The estimators were 1) deviation of selected line predicted yearly phenotypes from control line predicted yearly phenotypes, 2) deviation of the predicted yearly phenotype for the selected line from the year estimate in the control line and 3) the mean yearly breeding value from the analysis of the selected line only. The realized heritability using the first approach was .20. However, the control line was found to have a slight positive drift; hence, this estimate was biased downward. Using Approach 2, accounting for drift, the realized heritability was .23. The same realized heritability, .23, was obtained from an analysis of the selected line ignoring the control (Approach 3), when a prior heritability of .30 was assumed for the mixed model evaluation. The estimate of genetic trend from predicted breeding values in the latter approach is, however, quite dependent on the assumed heritability.

  6. Evidence that sea lamprey control led to recovery of the burbot population in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Witzel, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1987 and 2003, the abundance of burbot Lota lota in eastern Lake Erie increased significantly, especially in Ontario waters. We considered four hypotheses to explain this increase: (1) reduced competition with lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, the other major coldwater piscivore in Lake Erie; (2) increased abundance of the two main prey species, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus; (3) reduced interference with burbot reproduction by alewives Alosa pseudoharengus; and (4) reduced predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus on burbot. Species abundance data did not support the first three hypotheses. Our results suggested that the apparent recovery of the burbot population of Lake Erie was driven by effective sea lamprey control. Sea lamprey predation appeared to be the common factor affecting burbot abundance in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. In addition, relatively high alewife density probably depressed burbot abundance in Lakes Ontario and Michigan. We propose that a healthy adult lake trout population may augment burbot recovery in some lakes by serving as a buffer against sea lamprey predation and will not negatively impact burbot through competition.

  7. Controlling malaria: competition, seasonality and 'slingshotting' transgenic mosquitoes into natural populations.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, W M; Bronnikova, T V

    2009-03-01

    Forty years after the World Health Organization abandoned its eradication campaign, malaria remains a public health problem of the first magnitude with worldwide infection rates on the order of 300 million souls. The present paper reviews potential control strategies from the viewpoint of mathematical epidemiology. Following MacDonald and others, we argue in Section 1 that the use of imagicides, i.e., killing, or at least repelling, adult mosquitoes, is inherently the most effective way of combating the pandemic. In Section 2, we model competition between wild-type (WT) and plasmodium-resistant, genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes. Under the assumptions of inherent cost and prevalence-dependant benefit to transgenics, GM introduction can never eradicate malaria save by stochastic extinction of WTs. Moreover, alternative interventions that reduce prevalence have the undesirable consequence of reducing the likelihood of successful GM introduction. Section 3 considers the possibility of using seasonal fluctuations in mosquito abundance and disease prevalence to 'slingshot' GM mosquitoes into natural populations. By introducing GM mosquitoes when natural populations are about to expand, one can 'piggyback' on the yearly cycle. Importantly, this effect is only significant when transgene cost is small, in which case the non-trivial equilibrium is a focus (damped oscillations), and piggybacking is amplified by the system's inherent tendency to oscillate. By way of contrast, when transgene cost is large, the equilibrium is a node and no such amplification is obtained.

  8. Quantifying penetrance in a dominant disease gene using large population control cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Minikel, Eric Vallabh; Vallabh, Sonia M.; Lek, Monkol; Estrada, Karol; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah; McLean, Cory Y.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Yu, Linda P.C.; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Blevins, Janis; Zhang, Shulin; Cohen, Yvonne; Chen, Wei; Yamada, Masahito; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Collins, Steven J.; Boyd, Alison; Will, Robert G.; Knight, Richard; Ponto, Claudia; Zerr, Inga; Kraus, Theo F.J.; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Giese, Armin; Calero, Miguel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Haïk, Stéphane; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Poleggi, Anna; Ladogana, Anna; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Marshall, Jamie L.; Boehnke, Michael; Laakso, Markku; Mohlke, Karen L.; Kähler, Anna; Chambert, Kimberly; McCarroll, Steven; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hultman, Christina M.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Sklar, Pamela; van der Lee, Sven J.; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Jansen, Casper; Hofman, Albert; Kraaij, Robert; van Rooij, Jeroen G.J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Daly, Mark J.; MacArthur, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100,000 genetic variants are reported to cause Mendelian disease in humans, but the penetrance - the probability that a carrier of the purported disease-causing genotype will indeed develop the disease - is generally unknown. Here we assess the impact of variants in the prion protein gene (PRNP) on the risk of prion disease by analyzing 16,025 prion disease cases, 60,706 population control exomes, and 531,575 individuals genotyped by 23andMe, Inc. We show that missense variants in PRNP previously reported to be pathogenic are at least 30× more common in the population than expected based on genetic prion disease prevalence. While some of this excess can be attributed to benign variants falsely assigned as pathogenic, other variants have genuine effects on disease susceptibility but confer lifetime risks ranging from <0.1% to ~100%. We also show that truncating variants in PRNP have position-dependent effects, with true loss-of-function alleles found in healthy older individuals, supporting the safety of therapeutic suppression of prion protein expression. PMID:26791950

  9. Indirect methods to control population distribution in a large spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingfei; Goryachev, Maxim; Bourhill, Jeremy; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate how a large spin system (S=7/2) with the ground and first excited state separated by a seven-photon transition exhibits nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties and how the population distribution may be manipulated using coupling between energy levels. The first method involves non-adiabatic passage through an avoided level crossing controlled with an external DC magnetic field and the resulting Landau–Zener transition. The second method is based on external cavity pumping to a higher energy state hybridised with another state that is two single-photon transitions away from the ground state. The results are confirmed experimentally with a Gd3+ impurity ion ensemble in a YVO4 crystal cooled to 20 mK, which also acts as a microwave photonic whispering gallery mode resonator. Extremely long lifetimes are observed due to the large number of photons required for the transition between the ground and first excited states.

  10. Serum Lipoprotein Abnormalities in Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease: Comparisons with a Control Population

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, B.; Chait, A.; Oakley, C. M. O.; Wootton, I. D. P.; Krikler, D. M.; Onitiri, A.; Sigurdsson, G.; February, A.

    1974-01-01

    The frequency and nature of abnormalities of serum lipoproteins have been studied, using quantitative techniques, in 143 patients with ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.). Rigorous selection criteria were used. The findings were related to the distribution of lipoprotein concentrations in a carefully screened control population. Hyperlipoproteinaemia occurred in 55% of patients and in 11 out of 15 patients aged less than 40 years. Raised triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in very low density lipoprotein were the most frequent abnormalities followed by raised cholesterol content of low density lipoprotein. In young patients high density lipoprotein levels were subnormal. Hyperlipoproteinaemia of W.H.O. types IIa, IIb, III, IV, and V all seemed to be over-represented in I.H.D. I.H.D. patients with type IIa, IIb, and IV abnormalities were all significantly younger than I.H.D. patients with normal lipoprotein levels. PMID:4370367

  11. Antidepressants and risk of dementia in migraine patients: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Pan-Yen; Thielke, Stephen; Su, Kuan-Pin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-06

    To ascertain the relationship between receipt of antidepressant agents and the risk of subsequent dementia in migraine patients. A population-based case-control analysis, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 1774 patients with dementia and 1774 matched nondementia controls from migraine patients enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance program between 2005 and 2011. The proportional distributions of exposure to three classes of antidepressant were compared between dementia and nondementia groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of dementia based on antidepressant exposure. The proportions of subjects taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and new-generation antidepressants (NGAs) in dementia versus nondementia groups are 52.3 vs 51.2%, 25.5 vs 30.7%, and 18.8 vs 6.26%, respectively. The adjusted ORs of dementia were 1.02 (95% CI=0.89, 1.17; P=0.56) for TCAs, 0.58 (95% CI=0.50, 0.69; P<0.001) for SSRIs, and 4.23 (95% CI=3.34, 5.37; P<0.001) for NGAs. Treatment with SSRIs was associated with a decreased risk of dementia in migraine patients. TCAs showed no association with dementia risk, and NGAs showed increased risk. Given the possibility of confounding by indication, additional prospective trials and basic research are needed before drawing conclusions about the population-level risks for dementia onset conferred by antidepressant medications.

  12. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation. Methods Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls. Results In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001). After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27–2.47). This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39–2.26). Conclusions Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Control Study in Nepalese Population

    PubMed Central

    KC, Rajendra; Khatiwada, Saroj; Deo Mehta, Kishun; Pandey, Pratikshya; Lamsal, Madhab; Majhi, Shankhar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess cardiovascular risk factors in Nepalese population with subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods. A case control study was conducted among 200 subjects (100 subclinical hypothyroid and 100 euthyroid) at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Demographic and anthropometric variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were taken. Blood samples were assayed for serum free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly higher diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP than controls. The odds ratio of having hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL), low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), undesirable LDL-cholesterol (>100 mg/dL), high hs-CRP (>1 mg/L), and high diastolic BP (>80 mmHg) and being overweight (BMI ≥ 23 Kg/m2) in subclinical hypothyroidism was 2.29 (95% CI; 1.2–4.38, p = 0.011), 1.73 (95% CI; 0.82–3.62, p = 0.141), 3.04 (95% CI; 1.66–5.56, p < 0.001), 2.02 (95% CI; 1.12–3.64, p = 0.018), 3.35 (95% CI; 1.72–6.55, p < 0.001), and 0.9 (95% CI; 0.48–1.67, p = 0.753), respectively, as compared to controls. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroid patients are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease than euthyroid subjects. PMID:26523236

  14. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  15. Risk factors in multiple sclerosis: a population-based case-control study in Sicily. Background and methods.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Alessandra; Messina, Silvia; Bruno, Elisa; Mostile, Giovanni; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Raciti, Loredana; Dibilio, Valeria; Cappellani, Roberto; D'Amico, Emanuele; Sciacca, Giorgia; Lo Fermo, Salvatore; Paradisi, Vincenza; Patti, Francesco; Zappia, Mario

    2016-12-01

    Incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has steeply increased over time during the last 30 years in the city of Catania. We carried out a population-based case-control study to evaluate the possible role of both environmental and genetic factors. From 1975 to 2004 in Catania, 367 MS patients diagnosed according to the Poser's criteria had the onset of disease. A sample of MS patients was randomly selected from this incident cohort. Three controls matched by age and sex were randomly selected from the rosters of 14 GPs. Controls were proportionally selected according to the distribution by municipality of the target population using a multistage sampling methods. All cases and controls underwent a face-to-face interview to record information concerning environmental factors and a blood sample was taken for serological and genetic analysis. 164 MS patients (64 % women; mean age of 46.4 ± 10.7) and 481 controls (69 % women; mean age of 47.7 ± 14.8) were enrolled in the study. The distribution of the whole population and the selected controls by municipalities was similar. A blood sample was taken from 150 MS cases and from 337 controls. At the end of the enrolment, we obtained a representative sample of the MS cases and population controls avoiding possible selection bias. Participation rate was very high also concerning the collection of biological specimens.

  16. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Lü, Lingshuang; Liu, Sijun; Chen, Feng; Wang, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Chinese population. The findings from this study are expected to offer scientific evidence to better prevent and control the growing number of reported and untreated cases. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jiangsu, China. We recruited permanent residents over 18 years of age from eight towns in Jintan (JT) and six towns in Yangzhong (YZ) using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling method. The rates of DM prevalence, awareness, treatment and control as well as their related factors were analyzed. Results A total number of 15404 people were entered into the analysis. The DM prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rates were 7.31%, 58.35%, 51.87% and 14.12%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that being female was positively related to prevalence (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.07–1.37), awareness (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.19–1.93), treatment (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17–1.88) and control (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.67) of DM. Having a family history of diabetes was significantly correlated with DM risk (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.37–2.54) and increased awareness (OR = 3.12, 95% CI: 2.19–4.47), treatment (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 2.45–4.90) and control (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.22–2.68) of DM. Former smoking status (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.23–2.71), overweight (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.72–2.60) and obesity (OR = 3.46, 95% CI: 2.67–4.50) were related to the risk of DM. Additionally, we found current drinking status to be positively correlated with DM risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01–1.66) and negatively correlated with DM awareness (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.59) and treatment (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.59). Our study highlights the high prevalence and inadequate awareness, treatment and control of DM in the Chinese population. Conclusions Management and prevention of DM-related complications

  17. Optimal birth control of population dynamics. II. Problems with free final time, phase constraints, and mini-max costs.

    PubMed

    Chan, W L; Guo, B Z

    1990-03-01

    A previous analysis of optimal birth control of population systems of the McKendrick type (a distributed parameter system involving 1st order partial differential equations with nonlocal bilinear boundary control) raised 3 additional issues--free final time problem, system with phase constraints, and the mini-max control problem of a population. The free final time problem considers the minimum time problem to be a special case, but relaxes many convexity assumptions. Theorems (maximum principles) and corollaries are developed that flow from the terminology and mathematical notations set forth in the earlier article.

  18. Engineering Spatial Control of Multiple Differentiation Fates within a Stem Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Chu, Bur; Phillippi, Julie A.; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Huard, Johnny; Weiss, Lee E.; Campbell, Phil G.

    2011-01-01

    The capability to engineer microenvironmental cues to direct a stem cell population toward multiple fates, simultaneously, in spatially defined regions is important for understanding the maintenance and repair of multi-tissue units. We have previously developed an inkjet-based bioprinter to create patterns of solid-phase growth factors (GFs) immobilized to an extracellular matrix (ECM) substrate, and applied this approach to drive muscle-derived stem cells toward osteoblasts ‘on–pattern’ and myocytes ‘off–pattern’ simultaneously. Here this technology is extended to spatially control osteoblast, tenocyte and myocyte differentiation simultaneously. Utilizing immunofluorescence staining to identify tendon-promoting GFs, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was shown to upregulate the tendon marker Scleraxis (Scx) in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal fibroblasts, C2C12 myoblasts and primary muscle-derived stem cells, while downregulating the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Quantitative PCR studies indicated that FGF-2 may direct stem cells towards a tendon fate via the Ets family members of transcription factors such as pea3 and erm. Neighboring patterns of FGF-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) printed onto a single fibrin-coated coverslip upregulated Scx and the osteoblast marker ALP, respectively, while non-printed regions showed spontaneous myotube differentiation. This work illustrates spatial control of multi-phenotype differentiation and may have potential in the regeneration of multi-tissue units. PMID:21316755

  19. Combining Aspirin with Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) – A Potential New Tool for Controlling Possum Populations

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, David R.; Arrow, Jane; Smith, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested. PMID:23950982

  20. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  1. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D; Martens, Patricia J; Enns, Murray W; Roos, Leslie L; Katz, Laurence Y; Wilcox, Holly C; Erlangsen, Annette; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Spiwak, Rae; Seguin, Monique; Shear, Katherine; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2 years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2 years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.45), and low income (ARR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51) before their offspring's death. CONCLUSIONS Suicide bereavement is associated with adverse mental health and social outcomes

  2. Estimating population impacts via dynamic occupancy analysis of Before-After Control-Impact studies.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Viorel D; de Valpine, Perry; Tempel, Douglas; Peery, M Zachariah

    2012-06-01

    Estimating environmental impacts on populations is one of the main goals of wildlife monitoring programs, which are often conducted in conjunction with management actions or following natural disturbances. In this study we investigate the statistical power of dynamic occupancy models to detect changes in local survival and colonization from detection-nondetection data, while accounting for imperfect detection probability, in a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) framework. We simulated impacts on local survival and/or detection probabilities, and asked questions related to: (1) costs and benefits of different analysis models, (2) confounding changes in detection with changes in local survival, (3) sampling design trade-offs, and (4) species with low vs. high rates of turnover. Estimating seasonal effects on local survival and colonization, as opposed to estimating Before-After effects, had little effect on the power to detect changes in local survival. Estimating a parameter that accounted for pretreatment differences in local survival between Control and Impact sites decreased power by 50%, but it was critical to include when such differences existed. When the experimental treatment had a negative impact on species detectability but analysis assumed constant detection, the Type I error rates were dramatically inflated (0.20 0.33). In general, there was low power (< 0.5) to detect a 50% decrease in local survival for all combinations of sites (N = 50 vs. 100), seasons sampled (8 vs. 12), and visits per site per season (4 vs. 6). Unbalanced designs performed worse than balanced designs, with the exception of the case of treatments being implemented in different seasons at different sites. Adding more control sites improved the ability to detect changes in local survival. Surveying more seasons after impact resulted in modest power gains, but at least three seasons before impact were required to successfully implement BACI occupancy studies. Turnover rates had a low

  3. Genetic mechanisms of knee osteoarthritis: a population based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Ding, C; Scott, F; Cicuttini, F

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare subjects who had at least one parent with a total knee replacement for severe primary knee osteoarthritis with age and sex matched controls who had no family history of knee osteoarthritis Design: Population based case–control study of 188 matched pairs (mean age 45 years, range 26 to 60). Methods: Articular cartilage volume and bone size were determined at the patella and at the medial tibial and lateral tibial compartments by processing images acquired using T1 weighted, fat saturated magnetic resonance imaging. Radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) was assessed from a standing semiflexed radiograph scored for joint space narrowing and osteophytosis. Knee pain was assessed by questionnaire. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), lower limb muscle strength, and endurance fitness were measured by standard protocols. Results: Compared with the controls, index offspring had higher BMI (27.8 v 26.0 kg/m2, p = 0.02), weaker lower limb muscles (127 v 135 kg, p = 0.006), more knee pain (47% v 22%, p<0.001), and greater medial tibial bone area (17.6 v 17.1 cm2, p = 0.01). With the exception of BMI, these differences persisted in multivariate analysis. There was a non-significant trend to higher cartilage volume at tibial sites and increased ROA in the offspring in the total and subgroup analyses, but no difference in height and endurance fitness. Conclusions: BMI, muscle strength, knee pain, and medial tibial bone area, but not cartilage volume, appear to play a role in the genetic regulation and development of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:15361382

  4. Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (±5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables. Results The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the risk of glaucoma for those with zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03–1.68). Conclusions This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue. PMID:25720944

  5. Severe Psychiatric Disorders in Mid-Life and Risk of Dementia in Late-Life (Age 65-84 Years): A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Renate R.; Bruce, David G.; Duke, Janine; Spilsbury, Katrina; Semmens, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mid-life exposure to several psychiatric disorders with the development of late-life dementia. Methods: A matched case-control study using Western Australian state-wide hospital inpatient, outpatient mental health and emergency records linked to death records. Incident dementia cases (2000-2009) aged 65 to 84 years were sex- and age-matched to an electoral roll control. Records as far back as 1970 were used to assess exposure to medical risk factors before age 65 years. Candidate psychiatric risk factors were required to be present at least 10 years before dementia onset to ensure direction of potential causality. Odds ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results: 13, 568 dementia cases (median age 78.7 years, 43.4% male) were matched to a control. Depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence were found to be significant and independent risk factors for late-life dementia after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and smoking risk factors. The effect of a history of depression, schizophrenia and alcohol dependency on dementia risk varied with age, being strongest for earlier onset late-life dementia and waning at older ages. Conclusion: Severe depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholic dependency disorder treated by specialists in psychiatric facilities in mid-life are important risk factors for late-life dementia. These psychiatric conditions need to be considered in future studies of the risk and prevention of late-life dementia. PMID:25115541

  6. Evidence for a major gene controlling susceptibility to tegumentary leishmaniasis in a recently exposed Bolivian population.

    PubMed Central

    Alcaïs, A; Abel, L; David, C; Torrez, M E; Flandre, P; Dedet, J P

    1997-01-01

    Tegumentary leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis is a parasitic disease that occurs in two stages after the infected sandfly bite: (1) a primary cutaneous lesion followed by (2) a secondary mucosal involvement generally resulting in severe facial deformities. In order to investigate the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of the cutaneous lesion, a familial study was performed in a region of Bolivia in which the disease is endemic. Complete selection of 118 nuclear families (703 subjects, with 241 patients), each with at least one cutaneous affected subject, was achieved; 41 families were of native origin, and 77 (herein designated "migrant") recently had settled in the area. For the analysis, the trait under study was the time to onset of the primary cutaneous lesion. The start of the follow-up was birth, for native population, or date of arrival in the endemic area, for migrant population. Segregation analysis was performed by use of a model based on survival analysis methods that allows joint estimation of genetic and environmental effects and accounts for gene x covariate interactions. A significant effect of gender, home-forest distance, and forest-related activity was found. In the 77 migrant families there was evidence for a recessive major gene controlling the onset of the primary cutaneous lesion, with residual familial dependences and age x genotype interaction. Penetrance estimations show that young subjects are genetically more susceptible than older subjects, suggesting that this genetic component could concern mechanisms involved in the development of individual protection during childhood. There was also a significant genetic heterogeneity of the sample according to the native/migrant origin of the families, and no major-gene effect was found in the native subsample. PMID:9382111

  7. Local population structure of Plasmodium: impact on malaria control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regardless of the growing interest in detecting population structures in malarial parasites, there have been limited discussions on how to use this concept in control programmes. In such context, the effects of the parasite population structures will depend on interventions’ spatial or temporal scales. This investigation explores the problem of identifying genetic markers, in this case microsatellites, to unveil Plasmodium genetic structures that could affect decisions in the context of elimination. The study was performed in a low-transmission area, which offers a good proxy to better understand problems associated with surveillance at the final stages of malaria elimination. Methods Plasmodium vivax samples collected in Tumeremo, Venezuela, between March 2003 and November 2004 were analysed. Since Plasmodium falciparum also circulates in many low endemic areas, P. falciparum samples from the same locality and time period were included for comparison. Plasmodium vivax samples were assayed for an original set of 25 microsatellites and P. falciparum samples were assayed for 12 microsatellites. Results Not all microsatellite loci assayed offered reliable local data. A complex temporal-cluster dynamics is found in both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Such dynamics affect the numbers and the type of microsatellites required for identifying individual parasites or parasite clusters when performing cross-sectional studies. The minimum number of microsatellites required to differentiate circulating P. vivax clusters differs from the minimum number of hyper-variable microsatellites required to distinguish individuals within these clusters. Regardless the extended number of microsatellites used in P. vivax, it was not possible to separate all individual infections. Conclusions Molecular surveillance has great potential; however, it requires preliminary local studies in order to properly interpret the emerging patterns in the context of elimination. Clonal

  8. Two in one: cryptic species discovered in biological control agent populations using molecular data and crossbreeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Iain D; Mangan, Rosie; Downie, Douglas A; Coetzee, Julie A; Hill, Martin P; Burke, Ashley M; Downey, Paul O; Henry, Thomas J; Compton, Stephe G

    2016-09-01

    There are many examples of cryptic species that have been identified through DNA-barcoding or other genetic techniques. There are, however, very few confirmations of cryptic species being reproductively isolated. This study presents one of the few cases of cryptic species that has been confirmed to be reproductively isolated and therefore true species according to the biological species concept. The cryptic species are of special interest because they were discovered within biological control agent populations. Two geographically isolated populations of Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) [Hemiptera: Miridae], a biological control agent for the invasive aquatic macrophyte, water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms [Pontederiaceae], in South Africa, were sampled from the native range of the species in South America. Morphological characteristics indicated that both populations were the same species according to the current taxonomy, but subsequent DNA analysis and breeding experiments revealed that the two populations are reproductively isolated. Crossbreeding experiments resulted in very few hybrid offspring when individuals were forced to interbreed with individuals of the other population, and no hybrid offspring were recorded when a choice of mate from either population was offered. The data indicate that the two populations are cryptic species that are reproductively incompatible. Subtle but reliable diagnostic characteristics were then identified to distinguish between the two species which would have been considered intraspecific variation without the data from the genetics and interbreeding experiments. These findings suggest that all consignments of biological control agents from allopatric populations should be screened for cryptic species using genetic techniques and that the importation of multiple consignments of the same species for biological control should be conducted with caution.

  9. YOGA FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN IN A PREDOMINANTLY MINORITY POPULATION: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ≤$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with

  10. Assessment of hypertension levels control and management (hypertension "AUDIT" project). Study in a population of workers.

    PubMed

    Carp, C; Enăchescu, D; David, I; Nandriş, G; Calangiu, G; Coman, I; Apetrei, E; Stoian, I; Ginghină, C

    1990-01-01

    The hypertension AUDIT project (WHO) was used for the study of large populations of workers in two Romanian industrial centers, Slatina and Sibiu, constituted into two main groups. The objects of the study were: the detection of new cases of arterial hypertension (AH) and of their proportion as compared with older cases, the assessment of the quality of diagnosis control and treatment methodology as well as the estimation of the patient's attitude regarding the conditions of treatment and of the physician's knowledge and attitude regarding AH. Group I (Slatina) included 22,839 workers and the program was applied in 15,740 randomly chosen subjects. Group II (Sibiu) included 14,874 workers of whom 2,838 were randomly chosen for study. From a total of 606 (6.20%) subjects aged 35 to 64 years with AH in both groups, 494 (81.51%) were older cases and 112 (18.48%) were newly detected. The prevalence of AH was found to increase with age and to be higher in women aged 55 to 64 years. The treatment in older cases from both groups was considered effective in 232 cases (46.96%) (of which 26 (11.2%) with overtreatment) and insufficient in 262 (53%). The reasons alleged by the patients for the late detection of AH were the absence of symptoms and a casual interest for their state of health. The risk factors were systematically checked. Smoking was found in 30.36% of the subjects in group I and in 31% of those in group II. The use of diagnostic laboratory procedures was corresponding to the present recommendations. The nonpharmaceutic therapy was frequently recommended, especially reduction of salt consumption. Besides that, pharmaceutic treatment was indicated in most of the patients (63% in group I and 90% in group II). Diuretics (41.26% in group I and 75% in group II), and beta blocking drugs (35.3% in group I and 70% in group II) were the most frequently administered and in a lesser proportion vasodilators with central or peripheral action, calcium blockers, Rauwolfia and

  11. Conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method to analyze case-parent trios with or without population controls.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Liang, Yun-Chieh

    2016-06-24

    Detection of rare causal variants can help uncover the etiology of complex diseases. Recruiting case-parent trios is a popular study design in family-based studies. If researchers can obtain data from population controls, utilizing them in trio analyses can improve the power of methods. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a well-known method to analyze case-parent trio data. It has been extended to rare-variant association testing (abbreviated as "rvTDT"), with the flexibility to incorporate population controls. The rvTDT method is robust to population stratification. However, power loss may occur in the conditioning process. Here we propose a "conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method" (abbreviated as "conADA"), to analyze trios with/without unrelated controls. By first truncating the variants with larger P-values, we decrease the vulnerability of conADA to the inclusion of neutral variants. Moreover, because the test statistic is developed by conditioning on parental genotypes, conADA generates valid statistical inference in the presence of population stratification. With regard to statistical methods for next-generation sequencing data analyses, validity may be hampered by population stratification, whereas power may be affected by the inclusion of neutral variants. We recommend conADA for its robustness to these two factors (population stratification and the inclusion of neutral variants).

  12. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight: Invasion history, population biology and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone

    2017-01-31

    reduces its parasitic growth and sporulation capacity. Individual cankers can be therapeutically treated with hypovirus-infected C. parasitica strains. The hypovirus may subsequently spread to untreated cankers and become established in the C. parasitica population. Hypovirulence is present in many chestnut growing regions of Europe, either resulting naturally or after biological control treatments. In North America, disease management of chestnut blight mainly focuses on breeding with the goal to backcross the Chinese chestnut's blight resistance into the American chestnut genome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. How a network of conservationists and population control activists created the contemporary US anti-immigration movement.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Sebastian; Valles, Sean A

    2015-06-01

    Continuing historical narratives of the early twentieth century nexus of conservationism, eugenics, and nativism (exemplified by Madison Grant), this paper traces the history of the contemporary US anti-immigration movement's roots in environmentalism and global population control activism, through an exploration of the thoughts and activities of the activist, John Tanton, who has been called "the most influential unknown man in America." We explore the "neo-Malthusian" ideas that sparked a seminal moment for population control advocacy in the late 1960s and early 1970s, leading to the creation of Zero Population Growth (ZPG). After rising to the presidency of ZPG, Tanton, and ZPG spun off the Federation for American Immigration Reform. After leaving ZPG's leadership, Tanton created additional anti-immigration advocacy groups and built up connections with existing organizations such as the Pioneer Fund. We trace Tanton's increasingly radical conservative network of anti-immigration advocates, conservationists, and population control activists to the present day. Tanton's archived papers illustrate, among other things, his interactions with collaborators such as ecologist Garrett Hardin (author of the famous "Tragedy of the Commons") and his documented interest in reviving eugenics. We contend that this history of Tanton's network provides key insights into understanding how there came to be an overlap between the ideologies and activist communities of immigration restrictionism, population control, conservationism and eugenics.

  14. Household related predictors of burn injuries in an Iranian population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent burn injuries it is vital to have sound information on predictors of its occurrence in different settings. Ardabil Province is the coldest province of Iran with high burden of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the household related predictors of unintentional burns in Ardabil Province located at North-West of Iran. Methods The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design. 239 burn victims as well as 246 hospital-based controls were enrolled. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis methods were used. Results Males comprised 55.2% of all the study subjects. Mean age of the participants was 21.8 years (95% CI: 19.17-24.4). The economic ability of the households was associated with risk of burn injuries. Multivariate conditional logistic regression results showed the following variables to be independent factors associated with burn injuries. Using non-conventional pipe-less air heaters instead of conventional piped kerosene- or gas-burning heaters (Odds ratio: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Common use of picnic gas-stove for cooking at home (odds ratio = 1.6, 95%CI: 1–2.4). Using electric samovars instead of other types of samovars (Odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1). Using samovars lacking the national standard authorization mark (Odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.6). Conclusion Using some types of specific heating or cooking appliances, and unsafe use of conventional appliances were major risk predictors of burn injuries in this population. PMID:22571762

  15. Web Intervention for Adolescents Affected by Disaster: Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Price, Matthew; Adams, Zachary; Stauffacher, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Knapp, Rebecca; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of Bounce Back Now (BBN), a modular, web-based intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents. Method A population-based randomized controlled trial used address-based sampling to enroll 2,000 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Joplin, MO, and Alabama. Data collection via baseline and follow-up semi-structured telephone interviews was completed between September 2011 and August 2013. All families were invited to access the BBN study web portal irrespective of mental health status at baseline. Families who accessed the web portal were assigned randomly to 3 groups: (1) BBN, which featured modules for adolescents and parents targeting adolescents’ mental health symptoms; (2) BBN plus additional modules targeting parents’ mental health symptoms; or (3) assessment only. The primary outcomes were adolescent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Results Nearly 50% of families accessed the web portal. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed time × condition interactions for PTSD symptoms (B=−0.24, SE=0.08, p<.01) and depressive symptoms (B=−0.23, SE=0.09, p<.01). Post-hoc comparisons revealed fewer PTSD and depressive symptoms for adolescents in the experimental vs. control conditions at 12-month follow-up (PTSD: B=−0.36, SE=0.19, p=.06; depressive symptoms: B=−0.42, SE=0.19, p=0.03). A time × condition interaction also was found favoring the BBN vs. BBN + parent self-help condition for PTSD symptoms (B=0.30, SE=0.12, p=.02), but not depressive symptoms (B=0.12, SE=0.12, p=.33). Conclusion Results supported the feasibility and initial efficacy of BBN as a scalable disaster mental health intervention for adolescents. Technology-based solutions have tremendous potential value if found to reduce the mental health burden of disasters. PMID:26299292

  16. Finite-size effects on bacterial population expansion under controlled flow conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tesser, Francesca; Zeegers, Jos C. H.; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Brunsveld, Luc; Toschi, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of biological species in natural environments is usually described as the combined effect of individual spatial dispersal and growth. In the case of aquatic ecosystems flow transport can also be extremely relevant as an extra, advection induced, dispersal factor. We designed and assembled a dedicated microfluidic device to control and quantify the expansion of populations of E. coli bacteria under both co-flowing and counter-flowing conditions, measuring the front speed at varying intensity of the imposed flow. At variance with respect to the case of classic advective-reactive-diffusive chemical fronts, we measure that almost irrespective of the counter-flow velocity, the front speed remains finite at a constant positive value. A simple model incorporating growth, dispersion and drift on finite-size hard beads allows to explain this finding as due to a finite volume effect of the bacteria. This indicates that models based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation (FKPP) that ignore the finite size of organisms may be inaccurate to describe the physics of spatial growth dynamics of bacteria. PMID:28262769

  17. Host control of symbiont natural product chemistry in cryptic populations of the tunicate Lissoclinum patella.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jason C; Tianero, Ma Diarey B; Donia, Mohamed S; Wyche, Thomas P; Bugni, Tim S; Schmidt, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Natural products (secondary metabolites) found in marine invertebrates are often thought to be produced by resident symbiotic bacteria, and these products appear to play a major role in the symbiotic interaction of bacteria and their hosts. In these animals, there is extensive variation, both in chemistry and in the symbiotic bacteria that produce them. Here, we sought to answer the question of what factors underlie chemical variation in the ocean. As a model, we investigated the colonial tunicate Lissoclinum patella because of its rich and varied chemistry and its broad geographic range. We sequenced mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COXI) genes, and found that animals classified as L. patella fall into three phylogenetic groups that may encompass several cryptic species. The presence of individual natural products followed the phylogenetic relationship of the host animals, even though the compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria that do not follow host phylogeny. In sum, we show that cryptic populations of animals underlie the observed chemical diversity, suggesting that the host controls selection for particular secondary metabolite pathways. These results imply novel approaches to obtain chemical diversity from the oceans, and also demonstrate that the diversity of marine natural products may be greatly impacted by cryptic local extinctions.

  18. Digital IIR Filters Design Using Differential Evolution Algorithm with a Controllable Probabilistic Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wu; Fang, Jian-an; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing; Du, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE) is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controllable probabilistic (CPDE) population size. It considers the convergence speed and the computational cost simultaneously by nonperiodic partial increasing or declining individuals according to fitness diversities. In addition, we discuss as well some important aspects for IIR filter design, such as the cost function value, the influence of (noise) perturbations, the convergence rate and successful percentage, the parameter measurement, etc. As to the simulation result, it shows that the presented algorithm is viable and comparable. Compared with six existing State-of-the-Art algorithms-based digital IIR filter design methods obtained by numerical experiments, CPDE is relatively more promising and competitive. PMID:22808191

  19. Mass treatment against human taeniasis for the control of cysticercosis: a population-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Avila, G; Ambrosio, J; Medina-Santillán, R; Flisser, A

    2000-01-01

    An intervention study with mass treatment against taeniasis to prevent neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium in a rural community in Mexico was performed in 1991-96. Information and biological samples were obtained at the beginning of the study, at 6 months and at 42 months after mass treatment with praziquantel at a single dose of 5 mg/kg. Prevalence rates of taeniasis were measured by the detection of Taenia coproantigens and Taenia eggs in faeces; neurocysticercosis was suggested by clinical data and by serum antibodies in humans and also in swine. A reduction of 53% after 6 months and of 56% after 42 months for human taeniasis was seen after treatment. Late-onset general seizures decreased 70%. Anti-cysticercus antibodies in the human population were reduced by 75% after 42 months. Antibodies in pigs also showed a significant reduction of 55% after 6 months. In conclusion, an impact of mass chemotherapy against taeniasis to control cysticercosis in the short and long term was demonstrated. Praziquantel for tapeworm treatment should not be given at doses lower than 10 mg/kg. Late-onset convulsive crisis and specific antibodies are good indicators of neurocysticercosis and of exposure to the parasite, respectively.

  20. Ecological Complexity in a Coffee Agroecosystem: Spatial Heterogeneity, Population Persistence and Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Liere, Heidi; Jackson, Doug; Vandermeer, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Spatial heterogeneity is essential for the persistence of many inherently unstable systems such as predator-prey and parasitoid-host interactions. Since biological interactions themselves can create heterogeneity in space, the heterogeneity necessary for the persistence of an unstable system could be the result of local interactions involving elements of the unstable system itself. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report on a predatory ladybird beetle whose natural history suggests that the beetle requires the patchy distribution of the mutualism between its prey, the green coffee scale, and the arboreal ant, Azteca instabilis. Based on known ecological interactions and the natural history of the system, we constructed a spatially-explicit model and showed that the clustered spatial pattern of ant nests facilitates the persistence of the beetle populations. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the beetle consuming the scale insects can cause the clustered distribution of the mutualistic ants in the first place. Conclusions/Significance From a theoretical point of view, our model represents a novel situation in which a predator indirectly causes a spatial pattern of an organism other than its prey, and in doing so facilitates its own persistence. From a practical point of view, it is noteworthy that one of the elements in the system is a persistent pest of coffee, an important world commodity. This pest, we argue, is kept within limits of control through a complex web of ecological interactions that involves the emergent spatial pattern. PMID:23029061

  1. Occupational, domestic and environmental mesothelioma risks in the British population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Rake, C; Gilham, C; Hatch, J; Darnton, A; Hodgson, J; Peto, J

    2009-01-01

    We obtained lifetime occupational and residential histories by telephone interview with 622 mesothelioma patients (512 men, 110 women) and 1420 population controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were converted to lifetime risk (LR) estimates for Britons born in the 1940s. Male ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) relative to low-risk occupations for >10 years of exposure before the age of 30 years were 50.0 (25.8–96.8) for carpenters (LR 1 in 17), 17.1 (10.3–28.3) for plumbers, electricians and painters, 7.0 (3.2–15.2) for other construction workers, 15.3 (9.0–26.2) for other recognised high-risk occupations and 5.2 (3.1–8.5) in other industries where asbestos may be encountered. The LR was similar in apparently unexposed men and women (∼1 in 1000), and this was approximately doubled in exposed workers' relatives (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.2). No other environmental hazards were identified. In all, 14% of male and 62% of female cases were not attributable to occupational or domestic asbestos exposure. Approximately half of the male cases were construction workers, and only four had worked for more than 5 years in asbestos product manufacture. PMID:19259084

  2. The Impact of the Nurses’ Health Study on Population Health: Prevention, Translation, and Control

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Sydney E.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To summarize the overall impact of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) over the past 40 years on the health of populations through its contributions on prevention, translation, and control. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the findings of the NHS, NHS II, and NHS3 between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has generated significant findings about the associations between (1) smoking and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and eye diseases; (2) physical activity and cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, psoriasis, and neurodegeneration; (3) obesity and cardiovascular diseases, numerous cancer sites, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; (4) oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease, melanoma, and breast, colorectal, and ovarian cancer; (5) hormone therapy and cardiovascular diseases, breast and endometrial cancer, and neurodegeneration; (6) endogenous hormones and breast cancer; (7) dietary factors and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, breast and pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, neurodegeneration, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; and (8) sleep and shift work and chronic diseases. Conclusions. The NHS findings have influenced public health policy and practice both locally and globally to improve women’s health. PMID:27459441

  3. Finite-size effects on bacterial population expansion under controlled flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Tesser, Francesca; Zeegers, Jos C H; Clercx, Herman J H; Brunsveld, Luc; Toschi, Federico

    2017-03-06

    The expansion of biological species in natural environments is usually described as the combined effect of individual spatial dispersal and growth. In the case of aquatic ecosystems flow transport can also be extremely relevant as an extra, advection induced, dispersal factor. We designed and assembled a dedicated microfluidic device to control and quantify the expansion of populations of E. coli bacteria under both co-flowing and counter-flowing conditions, measuring the front speed at varying intensity of the imposed flow. At variance with respect to the case of classic advective-reactive-diffusive chemical fronts, we measure that almost irrespective of the counter-flow velocity, the front speed remains finite at a constant positive value. A simple model incorporating growth, dispersion and drift on finite-size hard beads allows to explain this finding as due to a finite volume effect of the bacteria. This indicates that models based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation (FKPP) that ignore the finite size of organisms may be inaccurate to describe the physics of spatial growth dynamics of bacteria.

  4. Finite-size effects on bacterial population expansion under controlled flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesser, Francesca; Zeegers, Jos C. H.; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Brunsveld, Luc; Toschi, Federico

    2017-03-01

    The expansion of biological species in natural environments is usually described as the combined effect of individual spatial dispersal and growth. In the case of aquatic ecosystems flow transport can also be extremely relevant as an extra, advection induced, dispersal factor. We designed and assembled a dedicated microfluidic device to control and quantify the expansion of populations of E. coli bacteria under both co-flowing and counter-flowing conditions, measuring the front speed at varying intensity of the imposed flow. At variance with respect to the case of classic advective-reactive-diffusive chemical fronts, we measure that almost irrespective of the counter-flow velocity, the front speed remains finite at a constant positive value. A simple model incorporating growth, dispersion and drift on finite-size hard beads allows to explain this finding as due to a finite volume effect of the bacteria. This indicates that models based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation (FKPP) that ignore the finite size of organisms may be inaccurate to describe the physics of spatial growth dynamics of bacteria.

  5. Population-based case-control study of DRD2 gene polymorphisms and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, L V K S; Thangaraj, K; Non, A L; Singh, Lalji; Rao, V R

    2010-10-01

    Several independent lines of evidence for genetic contributions to vulnerability to alcoholism exist. Dopamine is thought to play a major role in the mechanism of reward and reinforcement in response to alcohol. D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene has been among the stronger candidate genes implicated in alcoholism. In this study, alcohol use was assessed in 196 randomly selected Kota individuals of Nilgiri Hills, South India. Six DRD2 SNPs were assessed in 81 individuals with alcoholism and 151 controls to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcoholism. Of the three models (dominant, recessive, and additive) tested for association between alcoholism and DRD2 SNPs, only the additive model shows association for three loci (rs1116313, TaqID, and rs2734835). Of six studied polymorphisms, five are in strong linkage disequilibrium forming onesingle haplotype block. Though the global haplotype analysis with these five SNPs was not significant, haplotype analysis using all six SNPs yielded a global P value of .033, even after adjusting for age. These findings support the importance of dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms in alcoholism. Further studies to replicate these findings in different populations are needed to confirm these results.

  6. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    de Abajo, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Montero, Dolores

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design Population based case-control study. Setting General practices included in the UK general practice research database. Subjects 1651 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 248 cases of ulcer perforation among patients aged 40 to 79 years between April 1993 and September 1997, and 10 000 controls matched for age, sex, and year that the case was identified. Interventions Review of computer profiles for all potential cases, and an internal validation study to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis on the basis of the computerised information. Main outcome measures Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants within 30 days before the index date. Results Current exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was identified in 3.1% (52 of 1651) of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding but only 1.0% (95 of 10 000) of controls, giving an adjusted rate ratio of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.4). This effect measure was not modified by sex, age, dose, or treatment duration. A crude incidence of 1 case per 8000 prescriptions was estimated. A small association was found with non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (relative risk 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9) but not with antidepressants lacking this inhibitory effect. None of the groups of antidepressants was associated with ulcer perforation. The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding beyond the sum of their independent effects (15.6, 6.6 to 36.6). A smaller interaction was also found between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and low dose aspirin (7.2, 3.1 to 17.1). Conclusions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however

  7. Intraocular Pressure Control after Trabeculectomy, Phacotrabeculectomy and Phacoemulsification in a Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    L Jung, Jennifer; Isida-Llerandi, Cristina G; Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; SooHoo, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the efficacy of different surgical strategies for intraocular pressure (IOP) control in Hispanic glaucoma patients with and without visually significant cataracts. Design: Comparative retrospective consecutive case series. Methods: The charts of 153 consecutive patients with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent either trabeculectomy alone (n = 51), phacotrabeculectomy (n = 51), or phacoemulsification alone (n = 51) were reviewed to compare IOP control, the number of glaucoma medications required postoperatively, and the inci dence of surgical complications. Results: Preoperative IOP was 17.5 ± 5.2 mm Hg in the trabe-culectomy group, 15.4 ± 4.5 mm Hg in the phacotrabeculectomy group and 13.9 ± 2.9 mm Hg in the phacoemulsification group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Mean IOP reduction from baseline was 4.2 ± 6.9 (24.6%) for the trabeculectomy group, 2.9 ± 5.0 (20.8%) for the phacotrabeculectomy group, and 0.9 ± 3.4 (6.5%) for the phacoemulsification group (p = 0.009). The number of IOP-lowering medications required postoperatively decreased significantly in all three groups (p = 0.001). The rate of early and late postoperative complications was similar between the trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy groups and less for the phacoemulsification group. Conclusion: Trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy are both viable surgical options for managing open angle glau coma. Both resulted in similar rates of success, IOP reduction, decrease in use of IOP-lowering medications and post operative complication rates. Phacoemulsification alone had a lower success rate and greater need for postoperative IOP-lowering medications compared to trabeculectomy alone or phacotrabeculectomy. Phacoemulsification alone may be a reasonable option for patients with visually significant cataract and lower baseline IOP. How to cite this article: Jung JL, Isida-Llerandi CG, Lazcano-Gomez G, SooHoo JR, Kahook MY. Intraocular Pressure Control after

  8. Genetic and environmental control of seasonal carbohydrate dynamics in trees of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J.; Zytkowiak, R.; Karolewski, P.; Reich, P. B.; Tjoelker, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    We explored environmental and genetic factors affecting seasonal dynamics of starch and soluble nonstructural carbohydrates in needle and twig cohorts and roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees of six populations originating between 49 degrees and 60 degrees N, and grown under common garden conditions in western Poland. Trees of each population were sampled once or twice per month over a 3-year period from age 15 to 17 years. Based on similarity in starch concentration patterns in needles, two distinct groups of populations were identified; one comprised northern populations from Sweden and Russia (59-60 degrees N), and another comprised central European populations from Latvia, Poland, Germany and France (49-56 degrees N). Needle starch concentrations of northern populations started to decline in late spring and reached minimum values earlier than those of central populations. For all populations, starch accumulation in spring started when minimum air temperature permanently exceeded 0 degrees C. Starch accumulation peaked before bud break and was highest in 1-year-old needles, averaging 9-13% of dry mass. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were lowest in spring and summer and highest in autumn and winter. There were no differences among populations in seasonal pattern of soluble carbohydrate concentrations. Averaged across all populations, needle soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased from about 4% of needle dry mass in developing current-year needles, to about 9% in 1- and 2-year-old needles. Root carbohydrate concentration exhibited a bimodal pattern with peaks in spring and autumn. Northern populations had higher concentrations of fine-root starch in spring and autumn than central populations. Late-summer carbohydrate accumulation in roots started only after depletion of starch in needles and woody shoots. We conclude that Scots pine carbohydrate dynamics depend partially on inherited properties that are probably related to phenology of root

  9. Bile acids in a multicenter, population-based case-control study of stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Robert M.; Parker, Corette B.; Goldenberg, Robert; Reddy, Uma M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Saade, George R.; Hogue, Carol J. Rowland; Coustan, Donald; Varner, Michael W.; Koch, Matthew A.; Conway, Deborah; Bukowski, Radek; Pinar, Halit; Stoll, Barbara; Moore, Janet; Willinger, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare bile acids in women with and without stillbirth in a population-based study. STUDY DESIGN The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a multisite, population-based case-control study of stillbirth (fetal deaths ≥20 weeks). Maternal sera were obtained at the time of enrollment and frozen at −80° until assay for bile acids. RESULTS Assays were performed in 581 women with stillbirth and 1546 women with live births. Bile acid levels were slightly higher in women with stillbirth (geometric mean [95% confidence interval {CI}] = 3.2 [3.0–3.5]) compared to live births (2.9 [2.7–3.1], P = .0327). However, the difference was not significant after adjustment for baseline risk factors for stillbirth. The proportion of women with elevated levels (≥10 or ≥40 μmol/L) was similar in stillbirths and live births. Results were similar when the analysis was limited to subsets of stillbirths and live births. In women with stillbirths not associated with fetal anomalies or obstetric complications bile acid levels were higher than in women with term live births (geometric mean [95% CI] = 3.4 [3.0–3.8] vs 2.9 [2.7–3.0], P = .0152, unadjusted; P = .06, adjusted). However, a similar proportion of women in both groups had levels ≥10 mmol/L (10.7 vs 7.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% CI, 0.97–2.44; adjusted OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.78–2.15) and ≥40 μmol/L (1.7 vs 0.7%; OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 0.85–7.84; adjusted OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 0.79–6.56). CONCLUSION Our data do not support testing for bile acids in cases of stillbirth in the absence of clinical evidence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. PMID:24215860

  10. Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: a review of products and criteria for field applications.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

    2013-11-01

    About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and

  11. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control studies to evaluate G-E independence for 43 selected genetic polymorphisms and smoking behavior. The odds ratio (ORz) was used to estimate G-E association and, therefore, the magnitude of bias introduced into the case-only odds ratio (COR). Odds ratios of moderate magnitude [mmORz], defined as ORz≤0.7 or ORz≥1.4, were found at least one of the six smoking measures (ever, former, current, cig/day, years smoked, pack-years) for 45% and 59% of the SNPs examined in the control groups of two independently conducted North Carolina studies, respectively. Consequently, case-only estimates of G-E interaction in the context of a multiplicative benchmark would be biased for these SNPs and smoking measures. MmORzs were found more often for smoking amount than smoking status. We recommend that a stand-alone case-only study should only be conducted when G-E independence can be verified for each polymorphism and exposure metric with population-specific data. Our results suggest that ORz is specific to each underlying population rather than an estimate of a ‘universal’ ORz for that SNP and smoking measure. Further, misspecification of smoking is likely to introduce bias into the COR. PMID:23205185

  12. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control studies to evaluate G-E independence for 43 selected genetic polymorphisms and smoking behavior. The odds ratio (OR(z)) was used to estimate G-E association and, therefore, the magnitude of bias introduced into the case-only odds ratio (COR). Odds ratios of moderate magnitude [mmOR(z)], defined as OR(z)≤0.7 or OR(z)≥1.4, were found at least one of the six smoking measures (ever, former, current, cig/day, years smoked, pack-years) for 45% and 59% of the SNPs examined in the control groups of two independently conducted North Carolina studies, respectively. Consequently, case-only estimates of G-E interaction in the context of a multiplicative benchmark would be biased for these SNPs and smoking measures. MmOR(z)s were found more often for smoking amount than smoking status. We recommend that a stand-alone case-only study should only be conducted when G-E independence can be verified for each polymorphism and exposure metric with population-specific data. Our results suggest that OR(z) is specific to each underlying population rather than an estimate of a 'universal' OR(z) for that SNP and smoking measure. Further, misspecification of smoking is likely to introduce bias into the COR.

  13. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations.

  14. Low intraindividual variability of activated partial thromboplastin time revealed in a population of 10,487 control individuals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Youngeun; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-10-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a routine coagulation test that reflects the activities of multiple coagulation proteins. Given the known genetic elements underlying the different coagulation factor activities, a low intraindividual variability is expected in aPTT values, but has not been demonstrated in a large population. In this regard, we evaluated the intraindividual variability of aPTT by analyzing serial aPTTs from a large population. The study population consisted of control individuals who had three or more consecutive aPTT values at at least 6-month intervals at a single institution. The coefficient of variation of serial aPTT values was determined in each control individual, and the mean value of the coefficient of variations in the control population was calculated. The aPTT values from a total of 10,487 individuals [mean age 57 years (range 21-93 years); male-to-female ratio 1 : 0.9] were included. The mean value of the coefficient of variation of aPTTs in those individuals was 3.75%, which indicates a very low intraindividual variability. This is the first study to demonstrate a low intraindividual variability of aPTT in a large population. The result supports the previous notion that aPTT is a genetically determined parameter and has potential clinical implications.

  15. Control for Population Structure and Relatedness for Binary Traits in Genetic Association Studies via Logistic Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han; Wang, Chaolong; Conomos, Matthew P.; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Li, Zilin; Sofer, Tamar; Szpiro, Adam A.; Chen, Wei; Brehm, John M.; Celedón, Juan C.; Redline, Susan; Papanicolaou, George J.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Rice, Kenneth; Lin, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) are widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to account for population structure and relatedness, for both continuous and binary traits. Motivated by the failure of LMMs to control type I errors in a GWAS of asthma, a binary trait, we show that LMMs are generally inappropriate for analyzing binary traits when population stratification leads to violation of the LMM’s constant-residual variance assumption. To overcome this problem, we develop a computationally efficient logistic mixed model approach for genome-wide analysis of binary traits, the generalized linear mixed model association test (GMMAT). This approach fits a logistic mixed model once per GWAS and performs score tests under the null hypothesis of no association between a binary trait and individual genetic variants. We show in simulation studies and real data analysis that GMMAT effectively controls for population structure and relatedness when analyzing binary traits in a wide variety of study designs. PMID:27018471

  16. Control for Population Structure and Relatedness for Binary Traits in Genetic Association Studies via Logistic Mixed Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Wang, Chaolong; Conomos, Matthew P; Stilp, Adrienne M; Li, Zilin; Sofer, Tamar; Szpiro, Adam A; Chen, Wei; Brehm, John M; Celedón, Juan C; Redline, Susan; Papanicolaou, George J; Thornton, Timothy A; Laurie, Cathy C; Rice, Kenneth; Lin, Xihong

    2016-04-07

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) are widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to account for population structure and relatedness, for both continuous and binary traits. Motivated by the failure of LMMs to control type I errors in a GWAS of asthma, a binary trait, we show that LMMs are generally inappropriate for analyzing binary traits when population stratification leads to violation of the LMM's constant-residual variance assumption. To overcome this problem, we develop a computationally efficient logistic mixed model approach for genome-wide analysis of binary traits, the generalized linear mixed model association test (GMMAT). This approach fits a logistic mixed model once per GWAS and performs score tests under the null hypothesis of no association between a binary trait and individual genetic variants. We show in simulation studies and real data analysis that GMMAT effectively controls for population structure and relatedness when analyzing binary traits in a wide variety of study designs.

  17. Field Efficacy of New Larvicide Products for Control of Multi-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Martinique (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:21212213

  18. Field efficacy of new larvicide products for control of multi-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Martinique (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations.

  19. Population-level compensation by an invasive thistle thwarts biological control from seed predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predispersal seed predators are often chosen as biocontrol agents because of their high impacts on plant fitness; however, they have a mixed record in realizing decreased plant population growth. Few studies have experimentally removed agents to explore their impact on weed population growth. Here...

  20. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Mara M.; Chang, Ellen T.; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T.; Batista, Julie L.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E.; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  1. Characterization of in vivo somatic mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene of a human control population.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart-Schultz, K; Thomas, C B; Thompson, C L; Strout, C L; Brinson, E; Jones, I M

    1993-01-01

    The ability to recognize a change in mutation spectrum after an exposure to a toxic substance and then relate that exposure to health risk depends on the knowledge of mutations that occur in the absence of exposure. Toward this end, we have been studying both the frequency and molecular nature of mutations of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene in peripheral blood lymphocytes as surrogate reporters of genetic damage. We have analyzed mutants, one per donor to ensure independence, from a control population in which the quantitative effects of smoking and age on mutant frequency have been well defined. Analyses of cDNA and genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing have identified the mutations in 63 mutants, 45 from males and 18 from females, of which 34 were smokers and 29 were nonsmokers. Slightly less than half of the mutations were base substitutions; they were predominantly at GC base pairs. Different mutations at the same site indicated that there are features of the hprt polypeptide that affect the mutation spectrum. Two pairs of identical mutations indicated that there may also be hot spots. Mutations not previously reported have been detected, indicating that the mutation spectrum is only partly defined. The remainder of the mutations were deletions or insertions/duplications; deletions ranged from one base pair to complete loss of the locus. Despite a small average increase in mutant frequency for smokers, an increased proportion of base substitutions at AT base pairs in smokers (p = 0.2) hinted at a smoking-associated shift in the mutation spectrum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8513767

  2. Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodhams, Douglas C.; Bosch, Jaime; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Cashins, Scott; Davis, Leyla R.; Lauer, Antje; Muths, Erin L.; Puschendorf, Robert; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Sheafor, Brandon; Voyles, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations.

  3. When to be skeptical of negative studies: pitfalls in evaluating occupational risks using population-based case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, S W; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Siemiatycki, J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated arsenic and lung cancer incidence in a community setting in the Montreal area. Job histories and sociodemographic factors were collected by interview from 857 lung cancer cases, 533 general population controls, and 1,360 controls with other cancers. Chemist-hygienists assessed each subject's life-time occupational exposure to 294 substances. Logistic regressions yielded arsenic/lung cancer odds ratios of 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.7) based on cancer controls, and 0.82 (95% confidence interval = 0.41, 1.6) based on population controls. Risk did not rise with increasing level or probability of exposure. Worksite studies consistently show lung carcinogenicity from arsenic. Since confounding from other chemicals was well controlled, the most likely explanation is substantially lower exposures than in previous studies. The lack of association in this study demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting negative findings from population-based case-control studies, particularly when exposures are low or rare, as well as the difficulty in generating hypotheses from such studies.

  4. Restricted random labeling: testing for between-group interaction after controlling for joint population and within-group spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenfeld, Barry J.; Leslie, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical measures of spatial interaction between multiple types of entities are commonly assessed against a null model of either toroidal shift (TS), which controls for spatial structure of individual subpopulations, or random labeling (RL), which controls for spatial structure of the joint population. Neither null model controls for both types of spatial structure simultaneously, although this may sometimes be desirable when more than two subpopulations are present. To address this, we propose a flexible framework for specifying null models that we refer to as restricted random labeling (rRL). Under rRL, a specified subset of individuals is restricted and other individuals are randomly relabeled. Within this framework, two specific null models are proposed for pairwise analysis within populations consisting of three or more subpopulations, to simultaneously control for spatial structure in the joint population and one or the other of the two subpopulations being analyzed. Formulas are presented for calculating expected nearest neighbor counts and co-location quotients within the proposed framework. Differences between TS, RL and rRL are illustrated by application to six types of generating processes in a simulation study, and to empirical datasets of tree species in a forest and crime locations in an urban setting. These examples show that rRL null models are typically stricter than either TS or RL, which often detect "interactions" that are an expected consequence either of the joint population pattern or of individual subpopulation patterns.

  5. Comorbidities and Burden of COPD: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Baty, Florent; Putora, Paul Martin; Isenring, Bruno; Blum, Torsten; Brutsche, Martin

    2013-01-01

    COPD is associated with a relevant burden of disease and a high mortality worldwide. Only recently, the importance of comorbidities of COPD has been recognized. Studies postulated an association with inflammatory conditions potentially sharing pathogenic pathways and worsening overall prognosis. More evidence is required to estimate the role of comorbidities of COPD. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and clustering of comorbidities associated with COPD, and to estimate their impact on clinically relevant outcomes. In this population-based case-control study, a nation-wide database provided by the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics enclosing every hospital entry covering the years 2002–2010 (n = 12′888′075) was analyzed using MySQL and R statistical software. Statistical methods included non-parametric hypothesis testing by means of Fisher’s exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test, as well as linear models with generalized estimating equation to account for intra-patient variability. Exploratory multivariate approaches were also used for the identification of clusters of comorbidities in COPD patients. In 2.6% (6.3% in patients aged >70 years) of all hospitalization cases an active diagnosis of COPD was recorded. In 21% of these cases, COPD was the main reason for hospitalization. Patients with a diagnosis of COPD had more comorbidities (7 [IQR 4–9] vs. 3 [IQR 1–6]; ), were more frequently rehospitalized (annual hospitalization rate 0.33 [IQR 0.20–0.67] vs. 0.25 [IQR 0.14–0.43]/year; ), had a longer hospital stay (9 [IQR 4–15] vs. 5 [IQR 2–11] days; ), and had higher in-hospital mortality (5.9% [95% CI 5.8%–5.9%] vs. 3.4% [95% CI 3.3%–3.5%]; ) compared to matched controls. A set of comorbidities was associated with worse outcome. We could identify COPD-related clusters of COPD-comorbidities. PMID:23691009

  6. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rambiritch, Virendra; Naidoo, Poobalan; Maharaj, Breminand; Pillai, Goonaseelan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects using noncompartmental and model-based methods. Methods A total of 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes were administered increasing doses (0 mg/d, 2.5 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 10 mg/d, and 20 mg/d) of glibenclamide daily at 2-week intervals. Plasma glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin determinations were performed. Blood sampling times were 0 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes (post breakfast sampling) and 240 minutes, 270 minutes, 300 minutes, 330 minutes, 360 minutes, and 420 minutes (post lunch sampling) on days 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 for doses of 0 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg, respectively. Blood sampling was performed after the steady state was reached. A total of 24 individuals in the data set contributed to a total of 841 observation records. The PK was analyzed using noncompartmental analysis methods, which were implemented in WinNonLin®, and population PK analysis using NONMEM®. Glibenclamide concentration data were log transformed prior to fitting. Results A two-compartmental disposition model was selected after evaluating one-, two-, and three-compartmental models to describe the time course of glibenclamide plasma concentration data. The one-compartment model adequately described the data; however, the two-compartment model provided a better fit. The three-compartment model failed to achieve successful convergence. A more complex model, to account for enterohepatic recirculation that was observed in the data, was unsuccessful. Conclusion In South African diabetic subjects, glibenclamide demonstrates linear PK and was best described by a two-compartmental model. Except for the absorption rate constant, the other PK parameters reported in this study are comparable to those reported in the scientific literature. The study is limited by the small study sample size and inclusion of poorly

  7. An increased risk of reversible dementia may occur after zolpidem derivative use in the elderly population: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsin-I; Lin, Che-Chen; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the effects of zolpidem use to develop dementia or Alzheimer disease from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).A retrospective population-based nested case-control study. Newly diagnosed dementia patients 65 years and older and controls were sampled. A total of 8406 dementia and 16,812 control subjects were enrolled from Taiwan NHIRD during 2006 to 2010. The relationships between zolpidem use and dementia were measured using odds and adjusted odds ratios. The relationship between the average cumulative doses for zolpidem and dementia was also analyzed.Zolpidem alone or with other underlying diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and stroke, was significantly associated with dementia after controlling for potential confounders, such as age, sex, coronary artery disease, diabetes, anti-hypertension drugs, stroke, anticholesterol statin drugs, depression, anxiety, benzodiazepine, anti-psychotic, and anti-depressant agents' use (Adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41). Zolpidem use also has significant dose-response effects for most of the types of dementia. In patient with Alzheimer diseases, the effects of zolpidem among patients with Alzheimer's disease remained obscure. The adjusted OR for patients whose cumulative exposure doses were between 170 and 819 mg/year (adjusted OR: 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.51, P = 0.0199) was significant; however, the effects for lower and higher cumulative dose were not significant.Zolpidem used might be associated with increased risk for dementia in elderly population. Increased accumulative dose might have higher risk to develop dementia, especially in patients with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and stroke.

  8. The use of biospecimens in population-based research: a review of the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences grant portfolio.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Danielle M; Mette, Eliza; Hoyle, Brittany; Rogers, Scott D; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Schully, Sheri D; Mechanic, Leah E

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have increasingly used human biospecimens to evaluate hypotheses related to disease risk, outcomes and treatment. We conducted an analysis of population-science cancer research grants funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to gain a more comprehensive understanding of biospecimens and common derivatives involved in those studies and identify opportunities for advancing the field. Data available for 1,018 extramural, peer-reviewed grants (active as of July 2012) supported by the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS), the NCI Division that supports cancer control and population-science extramural research grants, were analyzed. 455 of the grants were determined to involve biospecimens or derivatives. The most common specimen types included were whole blood (51% of grants), serum or plasma (40%), tissue (39%), and the biospecimen derivative, DNA (66%). While use of biospecimens in molecular epidemiology has become common, biospecimens for behavioral and social research is emerging, as observed in our analysis. Additionally, we found the majority of grants were using already existing biospecimens (63%). Grants that involved use of existing biospecimens resulted in lower costs (studies that used existing serum/plasma biospecimens were 4.2 times less expensive) and more publications per year (1.4 times) than grants collecting new biospecimens. This analysis serves as a first step at understanding the types of biospecimen collections supported by NCI DCCPS. There is room to encourage increased use of archived biospecimens and new collections of rarer specimen and cancer types, as well as for behavioral and social research. To facilitate these efforts, we are working to better catalogue our funded resources and make that data available to the extramural community.

  9. Public Health Opportunities for Promoting Health Equity in Cancer Prevention and Control in LGBT Populations.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Ragan, Kathleen R; Thomas, Cheryll C; Ryerson, A Blythe

    Advances in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment have led to reductions in morbidity and premature mortality and improvements in quality of life. However, not all Americans have benefitted equally from these advances, and certain populations experience continued disparities in cancer care. Although research and public health efforts have highlighted the experiences of some groups, other populations have been relatively understudied, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Public health efforts in surveillance, research, programs, and partnerships can provide opportunities to advance health equity for LGBT at the population level and lead to better health outcomes for LGBT individuals with cancer.

  10. Public Health Opportunities for Promoting Health Equity in Cancer Prevention and Control in LGBT Populations.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Ragan, Kathleen R; Thomas, Cheryll C; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-10-20

    Advances in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment have led to reductions in morbidity and premature mortality and improvements in quality of life. However, not all Americans have benefitted equally from these advances, and certain populations experience continued disparities in cancer care. Although research and public health efforts have highlighted the experiences of some groups, other populations have been relatively understudied, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Public health efforts in surveillance, research, programs, and partnerships can provide opportunities to advance health equity for LGBT at the population level and lead to better health outcomes for LGBT individuals with cancer.

  11. Public Health Opportunities for Promoting Health Equity in Cancer Prevention and Control in LGBT Populations

    PubMed Central

    Massetti, Greta M.; Ragan, Kathleen R.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; Ryerson, A. Blythe

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment have led to reductions in morbidity and premature mortality and improvements in quality of life. However, not all Americans have benefitted equally from these advances, and certain populations experience continued disparities in cancer care. Although research and public health efforts have highlighted the experiences of some groups, other populations have been relatively understudied, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Public health efforts in surveillance, research, programs, and partnerships can provide opportunities to advance health equity for LGBT at the population level and lead to better health outcomes for LGBT individuals with cancer. PMID:26566532

  12. TMEM187-IRAK1 Polymorphisms Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility in Tunisian and French Female Populations: Influence of Geographic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Nathalie; Auger, Isabelle; Roudier, Jean; Sénéchal, Audrey; Geneviève, David; Lefranc, Gérard; Mrenda, Bakridine M'Madi; Benedito, Cécilia; Pardoux, Etienne; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Jorgensen, Christian; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms have been identified in the Xq28 locus as risk loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated the association between three polymorphisms in the Xq28 region containing TMEM187 and IRAK1 (rs13397, rs1059703, and rs1059702) in two unstudied populations: Tunisian and French. The rs13397 G and rs1059703 T major alleles were significantly increased in RA patients (n = 408) compared with age-matched controls (n = 471) in both Tunisian and French women. These results were confirmed by a meta-analysis replication study including two independent Greek and Korean cohorts. The rs1059702 C major allele was significantly associated with RA, only with French women. In the French population, the GTC haplotype displayed a protective effect against RA, while the ATC, GCC, and GTT haplotypes conferred significant risk for RA. No association for these haplotypes was found in the Tunisian population. Our results replicated for the first time the association of the three Xq28 polymorphisms with RA risk in Tunisian and French populations and suggested that RA susceptibility is associated with TMEM187-IRAK1 polymorphisms in women. Our data further support the involvement of X chromosome in RA susceptibility and evidence ethnicities differences that might be explained by differences in the frequencies of SE HLA-DRB1 alleles between both populations. PMID:28271077

  13. Bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by cross-order transfection of Wolbachia: implications for control of the host population.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yong; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2014-10-01

    Wolbachia are widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and some nematodes. This genus of bacteria is known to manipulate host reproduction by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This important phenotype is implicated in the control of host populations since Wolbachia can suppress host populations through the induction of CI in a way similar to the sterile insect technique. Here, we identified a candidate CI-inducing Wolbachia strain from the parasitic wasp Scleroderma guani (wSguBJ) by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This Wolbachia strain was then isolated, purified, and artificially transfected into the new whitefly host Bemisia tabaci through nymphal microinjection. Infection frequency monitoring by molecular detection showed that 60-80 % of the offspring from transfected whitefly populations was infected with wSguBJ six generations after the transfer. Laboratory rearing experiments indicated that the artificial transfection caused no significant difference in the numbers of offspring between the transfected and naturally infected populations and had no significant detrimental effects on the development of transfected males, although the development of transfected females was delayed. Reciprocal crossings revealed that bidirectional CI was induced between the transfected and naturally infected whiteflies. These data indicated that the cross-order transfer of the heterologous Wolbachia strain by nymphal microinjection was successful. Mass release of the transfected males that could stably carry the heterologous Wolbachia without significant compromise of fecundity/development may provide an alternative approach to control of host populations.

  14. Phylogeographic structure of Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis (Salmonidae) populations in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, based on mtDNA control region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haixia; Li, Yang; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Dongmei; Wang, Lixin; Zou, Guiwei; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-08-01

    Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis is an endangered freshwater fish and distributed in mountains steams of Qinling Mountains, China. In this study, a comparative study of the mtDNA control region (D-loop) was performed to analyze its natural population structure and the genetic diversity of 53 individuals from four locations (TB, YX, LX and ZZ populations). Sequence analysis revealed three different domains and two feature sequences of the control region. The estimated haplotype and nucleotide diversity were 9 and 0.0023, respectively. Genetic structure analysis showed a high-level genetic diversity of B. lenok tisnlingensis (h = 0.6060 ± 0.1499). The AMOVA analysis indicated that 26.02% of total variation came from individual populations, and 73.98% from variation within the four geographic populations, which showed low genetic differentiation between the four geographic groups. Test of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution indicated that no historical expansion occurred in these populations. The high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation would provide new information for conservation and exploitation of this species.

  15. Polymorphisms of the lipoprotein lipase gene as genetic markers for stroke in colombian population: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Castellanos, Clara Inés; Silva Sieger, Federico Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze if there is an association between the presence of polymorphisms in the LPL gene (rs320, rs285 and rs328) with development of acute ischemic stroke in Colombian population. Methods: In a case control design, 133 acute ischemic stroke patients (clinical diagnosis and x-ray CT) and 269 subjects without stroke as controls were studied. PCR -RFLP technique was used to detect rs320, rs285 and rs328 polymorphisms in the LPL gene. Results: In the present research was not found any association between any of the LPL gene polymorphism and acute ischemic stroke in the population studied; the allele and genotypic frequencies of the studied polymorphisms were similar in cases and controls and followed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The study was approved by the IRB and each subject signed the informed consent. Conclusion: LPL gene polymorphisms are not genetic markers for the development of stroke in the Colombian sample used. PMID:28293042

  16. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Ali, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.

  17. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    continuation of studies designed to enhance our understanding of population behavior and dynamics of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). It...Entomol. Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C.B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and ,togenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics

  18. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    preferred environment of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is that favored by man. It thrives particularly well where there are large...Keil, C. B. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cock- roach ( Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Ent. (in press). 1981. This... Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Entomol. (in press). 1981. Ross, M. H. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German Cockroach. Ab- stracts XVIth

  19. Regional patterns and controlling factors on summer population structure of Calanus glacialis in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Kohei; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, Calanus glacialis is the most dominant species in zooplankton biomass. While important, little information is available concerning the factors controlling their population. In this study, we evaluated regional patterns and environmental factors controlling the population structure of C. glacialis in the western Arctic Ocean in summer months (July-October) in 1991, 1992, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014. To evaluate regional patterns, environmental parameters (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a) and C. glacialis population parameters (abundance, biomass, mean copepodid stage and lipid accumulation) were divided into three latitudinal regions. In all three regions from July to October, chlorophyll a decreased, while the mean copepodid stage increased. These results suggest phytoplankton blooms occurred early in the sampling period, and C. glacialis grew during the period. From Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis, the controlling factors on the C. glacialis population were evaluated. The results of the SEM analysis indicated positive correlations between abundance and biomass; Julian day and mean copepodid stage; and temperature and mean copepodid stage. Additionally, a negative correlation between abundance and mean copepodid stage was observed.

  20. Population dynamics in controlled unsteady-state systems: An application to the degradation of glyphosate in a sequencing batch reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Control over population dynamics and organism selection in a biological waste treatment system provides an effective means of engineering process efficiency. Examples of applications of organism selection include control of filamentous organisms, biological nutrient removal, industrial waste treatment requiring the removal of specific substrates, and hazardous waste treatment. Inherently, full scale biological waste treatment systems are unsteady state systems due to the variations in the waste streams and mass flow rates of the substrates. Some systems, however, have the capacity to impose controlled selective pressures on the biological population by means of their operation. An example of such a system is the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which was the experimental system utilized in this research work. The concepts of organism selection were studied in detail for the biodegradation of a herbicide waste stream, with glyphosate as the target compound. The SBR provided a reactor configuration capable of exerting the necessary selective pressures to select and enrich for a glyphosate degrading population. Based on results for bench scale SBRs, a hypothesis was developed to explain population dynamics in glyphosate degrading systems.

  1. TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis of southern Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guifeng; Li, Yasong; Liu, Jinlin; Wo, Mingyi

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) has been be related to various auto-immune diseases. Based on previous studies that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs2230926 was association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of Japanese, Caucasian population and the northern Chinese Han population, we tested the alleles and geno-type frequencies of rs2230926 in TNFAIP3 to investigate whether rs2230926 is susceptible to RA of southern Chinese Han population. In our case-control association study, 207 RA patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria were compared with 199 unrelated healthy subjects. After testing the alleles and genotype frequencies of rs2230926, the airwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) was computed and odd ration (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used for evaluating the susceptibility to RA. The SNP of rs2230926 of the cases and control subjects were conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.02257). The significantly statistical differences in alleles of T, G were founded in the cases and controls (P = 0.0027, OR 0.417, 95% CI 0.232-0.749); the genetic types of rs2230926 were associated with a susceptibility to RA, with OR 0.375 (95% CI 0.198-0.707, P = 0.0018). In the present study, our results indicated that the genetic polymorphism of rs2230926 in TNFAIP3 may be a susceptible factor conferring risk for RA in southern Chinese Han population.

  2. Predators with multiple ontogenetic niche shifts have limited potential for population growth and top-down control of their prey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Anieke; Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Casini, Michele; Vitale, Francesca; Hjelm, Joakim; Persson, Lennart; de Roos, André M

    2013-07-01

    Catastrophic collapses of top predators have revealed trophic cascades and community structuring by top-down control. When populations fail to recover after a collapse, this may indicate alternative stable states in the system. Overfishing has caused several of the most compelling cases of these dynamics, and in particular Atlantic cod stocks exemplify such lack of recovery. Often, competition between prey species and juvenile predators is hypothesized to explain the lack of recovery of predator populations. The predator is then considered to compete with its prey for one resource when small and to subsequently shift to piscivory. Yet predator life history is often more complex than that, including multiple ontogenetic diet shifts. Here we show that no alternative stable states occur when predators in an intermediate life stage feed on an additional resource (exclusive to the predator) before switching to piscivory, because predation and competition between prey and predator do not simultaneously structure community dynamics. We find top-down control by the predator only when there is no feedback from predator foraging on the additional resource. Otherwise, the predator population dynamics are governed by a bottleneck in individual growth occurring in the intermediate life stage. Therefore, additional resources for predators may be beneficial or detrimental for predator population growth and strongly influence the potential for top-down community control.

  3. Hospital Recorded Morbidity and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Garne, Jens Peter; Nyström, Petra Mariann Witt; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Tarp, Maja; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases and their complications may increase breast cancer risk through known or still unknown mechanisms, or by shared causes. The association between morbidities and breast cancer risk has not been studied in depth. Methods Data on all Danish women aged 45 to 85 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2008 and data on preceding morbidities were retrieved from nationwide medical registries. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression associating the Charlson comorbidity score (measured using both the original and an updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)) with incident breast cancer. Furthermore, we estimated associations between 202 morbidity categories and incident breast cancer, adjusting for multiple comparisons using empirical Bayes (EB) methods. Results The study included 46,324 cases and 463,240 population controls. Increasing CCI score, up to a score of six, was associated with slightly increased breast cancer risk. Among the Charlson diseases, preceding moderate to severe renal disease (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48), any tumor (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.25), moderate to severe liver disease (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.62), and metastatic solid tumors (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.89), were most strongly associated with subsequent breast cancer. Preceding myocardial infarction (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), connective tissue disease (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94), and ulcer disease (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99) were most strongly inversely associated with subsequent breast cancer. A history of breast disorders was associated with breast cancer after EB adjustment. Anemias were inversely associated with breast cancer, but the association was near null after EB adjustment. Conclusions There was no substantial association between morbidity measured with the CCI and breast cancer risk. PMID:23094045

  4. Modeling population dynamics of two cockroach species: effects of the circadian clock, interspecific competition and pest control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Hue; Lee, How-Jing; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Berec, Ludek

    2007-12-07

    The German cockroach Blattella germanica is obviously one of the most spread household pests in the world, and is now virtually impossible to sustain outside human constructions. The double-striped cockroach B. bisignata, on the other hand, is limited to Southeast Asia and mostly living in the open space, yet is able to establish in cockroach-free households, too. In this article, we develop a stage-structured population model of these two species to explore (i) whether their circadian clocks impact their long-term population dynamics, (ii) which of these species is a superior competitor, and (iii) how stringent potential pest control strategies have to be to significantly impact established populations of the German cockroach. The results of the model are as follows. Firstly, phase shifts in the light-to-dark cycle did not affect cockroach population dynamics unless males and females were out of phase and their mate finding abilities rather limited. In addition, for the hypothesized circadian clock genotypes, the shorter is the inactivity period relative to the activity one or the less arrhythmic is the population, the more viable the population is and the quicker it grows to large numbers. Secondly, the German cockroach was the superior competitor: it was able to invade and drive out established populations of the double-striped cockroach and prevent any invasion of the latter. Finally, only a significant and simultaneous reduction in a number of most sensitive German cockroach parameters resulted in species extirpation. Only carefully designed and data-based models of German (and double-striped) cockroach population dynamics can be helpful in our quest to win the fight over this unwelcome but very sturdy species.

  5. Nonselective Bottlenecks Control the Divergence and Diversification of Phase-Variable Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Aidley, Jack; Rajopadhye, Shweta; Akinyemi, Nwanekka M.; Lango-Scholey, Lea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Phase variation occurs in many pathogenic and commensal bacteria and is a major generator of genetic variability. A putative advantage of phase variation is to counter reductions in variability imposed by nonselective bottlenecks during transmission. Genomes of Campylobacter jejuni, a widespread food-borne pathogen, contain multiple phase-variable loci whose rapid, stochastic variation is generated by hypermutable simple sequence repeat tracts. These loci can occupy a vast number of combinatorial expression states (phasotypes) enabling populations to rapidly access phenotypic diversity. The imposition of nonselective bottlenecks can perturb the relative frequencies of phasotypes, changing both within-population diversity and divergence from the initial population. Using both in vitro testing of C. jejuni populations and a simple stochastic simulation of phasotype change, we observed that single-cell bottlenecks produce output populations of low diversity but with bimodal patterns of either high or low divergence. Conversely, large bottlenecks allow divergence only by accumulation of diversity, while interpolation between these extremes is observed in intermediary bottlenecks. These patterns are sensitive to the genetic diversity of initial populations but stable over a range of mutation rates and number of loci. The qualitative similarities of experimental and in silico modeling indicate that the observed patterns are robust and applicable to other systems where localized hypermutation is a defining feature. We conclude that while phase variation will maintain bacterial population diversity in the face of intermediate bottlenecks, narrow transmission-associated bottlenecks could produce host-to-host variation in bacterial phenotypes and hence stochastic variation in colonization and disease outcomes. PMID:28377533

  6. Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population. A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of Jodhpur from September to November, 2005 indicated that low body condition score (70%), skin conditions (69%) and tick infestation (68%) were the most common health problems in this population. An observational study of 888 stray dogs on the streets of Jodhpur from March to April, 2006 revealed that sterilized dogs were more likely to have a higher body condition score (BCS) than sexually intact dogs when controlling for age, based on a multinomial regression model. However, sterilized dogs were more likely to have a skin condition than sexually intact dogs, based on a logistic regression model. Our observations of the surgical/kennel facility indicated that an effective tick control program was needed. Additionally, the current parasite control protocol at the kennel/shelter facility was inadequate to treat mange, a contact-transmitted skin disease. This is the first study to evaluate the associations between an ABC program and stray dog health, apart from rabies.

  7. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, David Eladio; Abrahan, Luciana; Hernández, María Laura; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo Américo; Carrizo, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia Susana

    2013-01-01

    Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja). Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling. PMID:23778656

  8. El Niño controls Holocene rabbit and hare populations in Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Isaac A.; Broughton, Jack M.; Gruhn, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of climatic variation worldwide, with significant impacts on modern human and animal populations. However, few detailed records exist on the long-term effects of ENSO on prehistoric vertebrate populations. Here we examine how lagomorph (rabbit and hare) deposition rate, population age structure and taxonomic composition from Abrigo de los Escorpiones, a well-dated, trans-Holocene vertebrate fauna from northern Baja California, Mexico, vary as a function of the frequency of wet El Niño events and eastern Pacific sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) derived from eastern Pacific geological records. Faunal indices vary significantly in response to El Niño-based precipitation and SST, with substantial moisture-driven variability in the middle and late Holocene. The late Holocene moisture pulse is coincident with previously documented changes in the population dynamics of other vertebrates, including humans. As the frequency and intensity of ENSO is anticipated to vary in the future, these results have important implications for change in future vertebrate populations.

  9. Sustained Reduction of the Dengue Vector Population Resulting from an Integrated Control Strategy Applied in Two Brazilian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Lêda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M. Nogueira.; da Silva, Juliana C. Serafim.; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N. M.; Ribeiro Jr., Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008–2009, with 96.8%–100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program’s success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  10. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population.

    PubMed

    Winney, Bruce; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Davison, Dan; Echeta, Chikodi; Evseeva, Irina; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Leslie, Stephen; Nicodemus, Kristin; Royrvik, Ellen C; Tonks, Susan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheshire, James; Longley, Paul; Mateos, Pablo; Groom, Alexandra; Relton, Caroline; Bishop, D Tim; Black, Kathryn; Northwood, Emma; Parkinson, Louise; Frayling, Timothy M; Steele, Anna; Sampson, Julian R; King, Turi; Dixon, Ron; Middleton, Derek; Jennings, Barbara; Bowden, Rory; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2012-02-01

    There is a great deal of interest in a fine-scale population structure in the UK, both as a signature of historical immigration events and because of the effect population structure may have on disease association studies. Although population structure appears to have a minor impact on the current generation of genome-wide association studies, it is likely to have a significant part in the next generation of studies designed to search for rare variants. A powerful way of detecting such structure is to control and document carefully the provenance of the samples involved. In this study, we describe the collection of a cohort of rural UK samples (The People of the British Isles), aimed at providing a well-characterised UK-control population that can be used as a resource by the research community, as well as providing a fine-scale genetic information on the British population. So far, some 4000 samples have been collected, the majority of which fit the criteria of coming from a rural area and having all four grandparents from approximately the same area. Analysis of the first 3865 samples that have been geocoded indicates that 75% have a mean distance between grandparental places of birth of 37.3 km, and that about 70% of grandparental places of birth can be classed as rural. Preliminary genotyping of 1057 samples demonstrates the value of these samples for investigating a fine-scale population structure within the UK, and shows how this can be enhanced by the use of surnames.

  11. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population

    PubMed Central

    Winney, Bruce; Boumertit, Abdelhamid; Day, Tammy; Davison, Dan; Echeta, Chikodi; Evseeva, Irina; Hutnik, Katarzyna; Leslie, Stephen; Nicodemus, Kristin; Royrvik, Ellen C; Tonks, Susan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheshire, James; Longley, Paul; Mateos, Pablo; Groom, Alexandra; Relton, Caroline; Bishop, D Tim; Black, Kathryn; Northwood, Emma; Parkinson, Louise; Frayling, Timothy M; Steele, Anna; Sampson, Julian R; King, Turi; Dixon, Ron; Middleton, Derek; Jennings, Barbara; Bowden, Rory; Donnelly, Peter; Bodmer, Walter

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in a fine-scale population structure in the UK, both as a signature of historical immigration events and because of the effect population structure may have on disease association studies. Although population structure appears to have a minor impact on the current generation of genome-wide association studies, it is likely to have a significant part in the next generation of studies designed to search for rare variants. A powerful way of detecting such structure is to control and document carefully the provenance of the samples involved. In this study, we describe the collection of a cohort of rural UK samples (The People of the British Isles), aimed at providing a well-characterised UK-control population that can be used as a resource by the research community, as well as providing a fine-scale genetic information on the British population. So far, some 4000 samples have been collected, the majority of which fit the criteria of coming from a rural area and having all four grandparents from approximately the same area. Analysis of the first 3865 samples that have been geocoded indicates that 75% have a mean distance between grandparental places of birth of 37.3 km, and that about 70% of grandparental places of birth can be classed as rural. Preliminary genotyping of 1057 samples demonstrates the value of these samples for investigating a fine-scale population structure within the UK, and shows how this can be enhanced by the use of surnames. PMID:21829225

  12. Differentiation of African Components of Ancestry to Stratify Groups in a Case–Control Study of a Brazilian Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Mario H.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Genvigir, Fabiana D.V.; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Willrich, Maria A.V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Bernik, Marcia M.S.; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. Methods: We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case–control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. Results: One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA <0.25 and >0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA <0.25. These individuals presented a high probability of Native American and East Asian ancestral components; however, no individuals originally giving these self-described ancestries were observed in this study. Conclusions: The strategy proposed for the assessment of ancestry and adjustment of case and control groups for an association study is an important step for the proper construction of the study, particularly when subjects are taken from a complex urban population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers. PMID:22288895

  13. Abnormal Population Responses in the Somatosensory Cortex of Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maatuf, Yossi; Stern, Edward A.; Slovin, Hamutal

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. One of the neuropathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-β plaques. Overexpression of human amyloid precursor protein in transgenic mice induces hippocampal and neocortical amyloid-β accumulation and plaque deposition that increases with age. The impact of these effects on neuronal population responses and network activity in sensory cortex is not well understood. We used Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging, to investigate at high spatial and temporal resolution, the sensory evoked population responses in the barrel cortex of aged transgenic (Tg) mice and of age-matched non-transgenic littermate controls (Ctrl) mice. We found that a whisker deflection evoked abnormal sensory responses in the barrel cortex of Tg mice. The response amplitude and the spatial spread of the cortical responses were significantly larger in Tg than in Ctrl mice. At the network level, spontaneous activity was less synchronized over cortical space than in Ctrl mice, however synchronization during evoked responses induced by whisker deflection did not differ between the two groups. Thus, the presence of elevated Aβ and plaques may alter population responses and disrupts neural synchronization in large-scale networks, leading to abnormalities in sensory processing. PMID:27079783

  14. Corneal thickness in dry eyes in an Iraqi population

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Noora Mauwafak; Hamied, Furkaan M; Farhood, Qasim K

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye disorder is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in discomfort and visual disturbance. Corneal pachymetry becomes increasingly important in refractive surgery, for the accurate assessment of intraocular pressure, and in the preoperative assessment of other ocular surgeries. Purpose To assess the effect of dry eye disorder on the central corneal thickness (CCT) by comparing with CCT of normal eyes of age-matched individuals. Patients and methods The total number of eyes examined was 280 (140 dry eyes from 70 patients and 140 normal eyes from 70 individuals). Pentacam (Scheimpflug imaging system) was used for measuring the CCT of all eyes. Results Patients with dry eye syndrome had significantly lower CCT compared to the control group (P<0.01). Its mean was 536.5 versus 561.3, respectively. Conclusion CCT of dry eyes was significantly reduced when compared with age- and gender-matched population. This result can be attributed to chronic desiccation by the inflammatory mediators in dry eyes, leading to corneal thinning. PMID:28260857

  15. Comprehensive approach for hypertension control in low-income populations: rationale and study design for the hypertension control program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Chen, Jing; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Poggio, Rosana; Dolan, Jacquelyn; Augustovski, Federico; Shi, Lizheng; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Although the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive pharmaceutical treatment for the prevention and control of hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, this scientific knowledge has not been fully applied in the general population, especially in low-income communities. This article summarizes interventions to improve hypertension management and describes the rationale and study design for a cluster randomized trial testing whether a comprehensive intervention program within a national public primary care system will improve hypertension control among uninsured hypertensive men and women and their families. We will recruit 1,890 adults from 18 clinics within a public primary care network in Argentina. Clinic patients with uncontrolled hypertension, their spouses and hypertensive family members will be enrolled. The comprehensive intervention program targets the primary care system through health care provider education, a home-based intervention among patients and their families (home delivery of antihypertensive medication, self-monitoring of blood pressure [BP], health education for medication adherence and lifestyle modification) conducted by community health workers and a mobile health intervention. The primary outcome is net change in systolic BP from baseline to month 18 between intervention and control groups among hypertensive study participants. The secondary outcomes are net change in diastolic BP, BP control and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will generate urgently needed data on effective, practical and sustainable intervention programs aimed at controlling hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease in underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Improving mesocosm data analysis through individual-based modelling of control population dynamics: a case study with mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Beaudouin, Rémy; Ginot, Vincent; Monod, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Experimental ecosystems such as mesocosms have been developed to improve the ecological relevance of ecotoxicity test. However, in mesocosm studies, the number of replicates is limited by practical and financial constraints. In addition, high levels of biological organization are characterized by a high variability of descriptive variables. This variability and the poor number of replicates have been recognized as a major drawback for detecting significant effects of chemicals in mesocosm studies. In this context, a tool able to predict precisely control mesocosms outputs, to which endpoints in mesocosms exposed to chemicals could be compared should constitute a substantial improvement. We evaluated here a solution which consists in stochastic modelling of the control fish populations to assess the probabilistic distributions of population endpoints. An individual-based approach was selected, because it generates realistic fish length distributions and accounts for both individual and environmental sources of variability. This strategy was applied to mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations monitored in lentic mesocosms. We chose the number of founders as a so-called "stressor" because subsequent consequences at the population level could be expected. Using this strategy, we were able to detect more significant and biologically relevant perturbations than using classical methods. We conclude that designing an individual-based model is very promising for improving mesocosm data analysis. This methodology is currently being applied to ecotoxicological issues.

  17. Quantification of rat retinal growth and vascular population changes after single and split doses of proton irradiation: translational study using stereology methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Xiao W.; Archambeau, John O.; Kubinova, Lucie; Boyle, Soames; Petersen, Georgia; Grove, Roger; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified architectural and population changes in the rat retinal vasculature after proton irradiation using stereology. A 100 MeV conformal proton beam delivered 8, 14, 20 and 28 Gy as single and split doses to the whole eye. The vascular networks were prepared from retinal digests. Stereological methods were used to obtain the area of the retina and unbiased estimates of microvessel/artery/vein endothelial, pericyte and smooth muscle population, and vessel length. The retinal area increased progressively in the unirradiated, age-matched controls and in the retinas irradiated with 8 and 14 Gy, indicating uniform progressive retinal growth. No growth occurred after 20 and 28 Gy. Regression analysis of total endothelial cell number in all vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) after irradiation documented a progressive time- and dose-dependent cell loss occurring over 15 to 24 months. The difference from controls was significant (P<0.01) after 28 Gy given in single and split doses and after 20 Gy given as a split dose (P<0.05). Total vessel length in microvessel was significantly shortened at 20 and 28 Gy compared to that of controls (P<0.05). No evident dose recovery was observed in the endothelial populations after split doses. At 10 Gy, the rate of endothelial cell loss, a dose parameter used to characterize the time- and dose-dependent loss of the endothelial population, was doubled.

  18. A multi-scale study of Orthoptera species richness and human population size controlling for sampling effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarello, Elena; Steck, Claude E.; Fontana, Paolo; Fontaneto, Diego; Marini, Lorenzo; Pautasso, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Recent large-scale studies have shown that biodiversity-rich regions also tend to be densely populated areas. The most obvious explanation is that biodiversity and human beings tend to match the distribution of energy availability, environmental stability and/or habitat heterogeneity. However, the species-people correlation can also be an artefact, as more populated regions could show more species because of a more thorough sampling. Few studies have tested this sampling bias hypothesis. Using a newly collated dataset, we studied whether Orthoptera species richness is related to human population size in Italy’s regions (average area 15,000 km2) and provinces (2,900 km2). As expected, the observed number of species increases significantly with increasing human population size for both grain sizes, although the proportion of variance explained is minimal at the provincial level. However, variations in observed Orthoptera species richness are primarily associated with the available number of records, which is in turn well correlated with human population size (at least at the regional level). Estimated Orthoptera species richness (Chao2 and Jackknife) also increases with human population size both for regions and provinces. Both for regions and provinces, this increase is not significant when controlling for variation in area and number of records. Our study confirms the hypothesis that broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can in some cases be artefactual. More systematic sampling of less studied taxa such as invertebrates is necessary to ascertain whether biogeographical patterns persist when sampling effort is kept constant or included in models.

  19. Developing new approaches for detecting and preventing Aedes aegypti population outbreaks: basis for surveillance, alert and control system.

    PubMed

    Regis, Lêda; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de; SilveiraJr, José Constantino; Furtado, André Freire; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Santos, Gleice Maria; Nakazawa, Mitsue; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Ribeiro Jr, Paulo Justiniano; Souza, Wayner Vieira de

    2008-02-01

    A new approach to dengue vector surveillance based on permanent egg-collection using a modified ovitrap and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) was evaluated in different urban landscapes in Recife, Northeast Brazil. From April 2004 to April 2005, 13 egg-collection cycles of four weeks were carried out. Geo-referenced ovitraps containing grass infusion, Bti and three paddles were placed at fixed sampling stations distributed over five selected sites. Continuous egg-collections yielded more than four million eggs laid into 464 sentinel-ovitraps over one year. The overall positive ovitrap index was 98.5% (over 5,616 trap observations). The egg density index ranged from 100 to 2,500 eggs per trap-cycle, indicating a wide spread and high density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding populations in all sites. Fluctuations in population density over time were observed, particularly a marked increase from January on, or later, according to site. Massive egg-collection carried out at one of the sites prevented such a population outbreak. At intra-site level, egg counts made it possible to identify spots where the vector population is consistently concentrated over the time, pinpointing areas that should be considered high priority for control activities. The results indicate that these could be promising strategies for detecting and preventing Ae. aegypti population outbreaks.

  20. Controlling the Population: A Study of the Civilian Irregular Defense Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    its members from unorthodox population sets. These individuals included missionaries, bartenders, polo players, baseball pitchers , millionaires...life. Teams were organized to train competent Montagnards who in turn would train the villages on the use of simple tools, methods of planting crops

  1. Population dynamics of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in commercial honey bee colonies and implications for control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment schedules to maintain low levels of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on predictions of Varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony ...

  2. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity.

  3. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  4. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Population growth and behavior of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) in experimentally established shipboard infestations. M. H. Ross, B. L...6. Secretion of dispersion-inducing substance by the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera: Blattellidae). C. Suto and N. Kumada...deprivation effects on reproduction in female Blattella germanica (L.) Ent. exp. appl. (In press). -6- Table 1. Comparative strength of responses to

  5. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 C(-1306)T promoter polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Alshahrani, Omair; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Alabdulkarim, Huda Abdullah; Shalaby, Manal Aly

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an enzyme with proteolytic activity against matrix proteins, particularly basement membrane constituents. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -1306, which disrupts a Sp1-type promoter site (CCACC box), displayed a strikingly lower promoter activity with the T allele. In the present study, we investigate whether this MMP-2 SNP is associated with susceptibility to breast cancer in the Saudi population. Ninety breast cancer patients and 92 age matched controls were included in this study. TaqMan Allele Discrimination assay and DNA sequencing techniques were used for genotyping. The results showed that, the frequency of MMP-2 CC wild genotype was lower in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy controls (0.65 versus 0.79). The homozygous CC (OR=2, χ(2)=5.36, p=0.02) and heterozygous CT (OR=1.98, χ(2)=4.1, p=0.04) showing significantly high risk of breast cancer in the investigated group. In conclusion our data suggest that the MMP-2 C(-1306)T polymorphism may be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Saudi population.

  7. Vitamin D as a marker of cognitive decline in elderly Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Vedak, Tejal Kanhaiya; Ganwir, Vaishali; Shah, Arun B.; Pinto, Charles; Lele, Vikram R.; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Hina; Deo, Sudha Shrikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Very few studies in India have addressed the role of vitamin D in cognitive function. The present study was conducted to assess the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and its association with markers of cognitive impairment and homocysteine levels in the elderly Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of patients with dementia (Group A, n = 32), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; Group B, n = 24), and elderly age-matched controls (Group C, n = 30). Measurement of serum levels of 25(OH)D and total homocysteine were done. Results: Significant decreased concentration of 25(OH)D and increased concentration of homocysteine was observed. Association of serum levels of vitamin D with markers of cognitive decline as well as serum homocysteine levels was observed in patients with dementia and MCI when compared to controls. Conclusion: Correlation of vitamin D with markers of cognitive decline and homocysteine opens a new door for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment. PMID:26425010

  8. Recruitment issues when primary care population clusters are used in randomised controlled clinical trials: climbing mountains or pushing boulders uphill?

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Harrild, Kirsten; Godden, David J

    2007-05-01

    Cluster randomised controlled trials for health promotion, education, public health or organisational change interventions are becoming increasingly common to inform evidence-based policy. However, there is little published methodological evidence on recruitment strategies for primary care population clusters. In this paper, we discuss how choosing which population cluster to randomise can impact on the practicalities of recruitment in primary care. We describe strategies developed through our experiences of recruiting primary care organisations to participate in a national randomised controlled trial of a policy to provide community breastfeeding groups for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, the BIG (Breastfeeding in Groups) trial. We propose an iterative qualitative approach to recruitment; collecting data generated through the recruitment process, identifying themes and using the constant comparative method of analysis. This can assist in developing successful recruitment strategies and contrasts with the standardised approach commonly used when recruiting individuals to participate in randomised controlled trials. Recruiting primary care population clusters to participate in trials is currently an uphill battle in Britain. It is a complex process, which can benefit from applying qualitative methods to inform trial design and recruitment strategy. Recruitment could be facilitated if health service managers were committed to supporting peer reviewed, funded and ethics committee approved research at national level.

  9. Methods for estimating population coverage of mass distribution programmes: a review of practices in relation to trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Ngondi, Jeremiah; McFarland, Deborah; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M

    2012-10-01

    In the context of trachoma control, population coverage with mass drug administration (MDA) using antibiotics is measured using routine data. Due to the limitations of administrative records as well as the potential for bias from incomplete or incorrect records, a literature review of coverage survey methods applied in neglected tropical disease control programmes and immunisation outreach was conducted to inform the design of coverage surveys for trachoma control. Several methods were identified, including the '30 × 7' survey method for the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI 30×7), other cluster random sampling (CRS) methods, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), purposive sampling and routine data. When compared against one another, the EPI and other CRS methods produced similar population coverage estimates, whilst LQAS, purposive sampling and use of administrative data did not generate estimates consistent with CRS. In conclusion, CRS methods present a consistent approach for MDA coverage surveys despite different methods of household selection. They merit use until standard guidelines are available. CRS methods should be used to verify population coverage derived from LQAS, purposive sampling methods and administrative reports.

  10. An application of control region sequence as a matrilineage marker for Elliot's pheasant of a zoo population.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping-Ping; Fang, Sheng-Gou; Ding, Ping

    2005-01-01

    Control region sequence, an mtDNA marker, was usually used in phylogenesis analysis in species level or genetic structure study among populations. In this study, enlightened by its character of maternal heredity in vertebrates, we used control region sequence as a matrilineage marker for Elliot's pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) of Ningbo Zoo population. In Ningbo Zoo, 36 individuals of Elliot's pheasant were descendants from three female founders introduced in 1988. Three control region haplotypes (Ha, Hb, Hc) were identified by six variable nucleotide positions among the control region sequences over 36 individuals. The number of haplotypes was accorded with the number of female founders. Total 20 individuals (C04, C06, C08-11, C14, C20, C21, C23-29, C32, C34-36) shared haplotype a, while 12 individuals (C01, C05, C07, C12, C13, C16-19, C22, C30, C33) shared haplotype b and 4 individuals (C02, C03, C15, C31) shared haplotype c. Those individuals sharing the same haplotype were offspring from one female founder. In other words, there were three maternal lineages and the simple relationship among individuals was indicated. As a result, it seemed that the control region sequence was a useful marker for identification of matrilineage in this study. Meanwhile, the matrilineage information may be compensatory data if there were no any pedigree records in captive species for breeding management.

  11. Estimation of the probability of exposure to metalworking fluids in a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla R.; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe here an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (10-90%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally, 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and the US production levels by decade found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. PMID:25256317

  12. Coherent control of population transfer between vibrational states in an optical lattice via two-path quantum interference.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chao; Paul, Christopher R; Liu, Xiaoxian; Maneshi, Samansa; Cruz, Luciano S; Steinberg, Aephraim M

    2013-12-06

    We demonstrate coherent control of population transfer between vibrational states in an optical lattice by using interference between a one-phonon transition at 2ω and a two-phonon transition at ω. The ω and 2ω transitions are driven by phase- and amplitude-modulation of the lattice laser beams, respectively. By varying the relative phase of these two pathways, we control the branching ratio between transitions to the first excited state and those to the higher states. Our best result shows a branching ratio of 17±2, which is the highest among coherent control experiments using analogous schemes. Such quantum control techniques may find broad application in suppressing leakage errors in a variety of quantum information architectures.

  13. IGF2BP2 rs11705701 polymorphisms are associated with prediabetes in a Chinese population: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liyuan; Li, Yuanyuan; Tang, Linlin; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Mai, Yifeng; Zhuo, Renjie; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Associations between insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) rs11705701, insulin receptor substrate 1 rs7578326, gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor rs10423928 and transcription factor 7-like 2 rs12255372 gene polymorphisms with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been evaluated in the Han Chinese population. These four genetic variants were investigated for their associations with prediabetes and T2D among 490 unrelated patients with T2D, 471 patients with prediabetes and 575 healthy controls. Sequenom MassARRAY software was used to genotype the patients for these variants. The Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method was used to analyze the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A breakdown analysis by gender revealed a significant association of IGF2BP2 rs11705701 with prediabetes under the dominant genetic model in females following application of the Bonferroni correction (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.10–0.67; P=0.005). However, no significant associations were reported between any of the other three polymorphisms and T2D under any genetic models. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant gene-gene or gene-environment interactions when evaluated with the above association tests. The present case-control study reveals a significant association between IGF2BP2 rs11705701 and prediabetes in female patients. PMID:27588103

  14. Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control region sequence data and influence on population genetic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene regions are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average influence on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with < 20 variable sites, but a near equal number of studies with few variable sites did not show an increase. In contrast to studies at interspecific levels, the influence of indels for intraspecific population genetic analyses of control region DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic: implications for control by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Peguero, M; Sanchez, J; Castellanos, P L; Feris, J; Peña, C; Brudzinski-LaClaire, L; Levine, O S

    2000-12-01

    Quantifying the local burden of disease is an important step towards the introduction of new vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We adapted a generic protocol developed by the World Health Organization for population-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis. All hospitals that admit paediatric patients with meningitis in the National District, Dominican Republic were included in the system and standard laboratory methods were used. The system identified 111 cases of confirmed bacterial meningitis. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by group B streptococcus, S. pneumoniae, and N. meningitidis. Unlike hospital-based case series, this population-based system was able to calculate incidence rates. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 13 cases per 100,000 children < 5 years old. The data from this study were used by the Ministry of Health to support the introduction of routine Hib vaccination and will be used to monitor its effectiveness.

  16. Basal p21 controls population heterogeneity in cycling and quiescent cell cycle states

    PubMed Central

    Overton, K. Wesley; Spencer, Sabrina L.; Noderer, William L.; Meyer, Tobias; Wang, Clifford L.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity within a population of genetically identical cells is emerging as a common theme in multiple biological systems, including human cell biology and cancer. Using live-cell imaging, flow cytometry, and kinetic modeling, we showed that two states—quiescence and cell cycling—can coexist within an isogenic population of human cells and resulted from low basal expression levels of p21, a Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CKI). We attribute the p21-dependent heterogeneity in cell cycle activity to double-negative feedback regulation involving CDK2, p21, and E3 ubiquitin ligases. In support of this mechanism, analysis of cells at a point before cell cycle entry (i.e., before the G1/S transition) revealed a p21–CDK2 axis that determines quiescent and cycling cell states. Our findings suggest a mechanistic role for p21 in generating heterogeneity in both normal tissues and tumors. PMID:25267623

  17. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic: implications for control by vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, E.; Peguero, M.; Sanchez, J.; Castellanos, P. L.; Feris, J.; Peña, C.; Brudzinski-LaClaire, L.; Levine, O. S.

    2000-01-01

    Quantifying the local burden of disease is an important step towards the introduction of new vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We adapted a generic protocol developed by the World Health Organization for population-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis. All hospitals that admit paediatric patients with meningitis in the National District, Dominican Republic were included in the system and standard laboratory methods were used. The system identified 111 cases of confirmed bacterial meningitis. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by group B streptococcus, S. pneumoniae, and N. meningitidis. Unlike hospital-based case series, this population-based system was able to calculate incidence rates. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 13 cases per 100,000 children < 5 years old. The data from this study were used by the Ministry of Health to support the introduction of routine Hib vaccination and will be used to monitor its effectiveness. PMID:11218205

  18. Population Heterogeneity in the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Is Controlled by NFAT and Phosphorylated Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Anirikh; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Butcher, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential differentiation program during tissue morphogenesis and remodeling. EMT is induced by soluble transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family members, and restricted by vascular endothelial growth factor family members. While many downstream molecular regulators of EMT have been identified, these have been largely evaluated individually without considering potential crosstalk. In this study, we created an ensemble of dynamic mathematical models describing TGF-β induced EMT to better understand the operational hierarchy of this complex molecular program. We used ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the transcriptional and post-translational regulatory events driving EMT. Model parameters were estimated from multiple data sets using multiobjective optimization, in combination with cross-validation. TGF-β exposure drove the model population toward a mesenchymal phenotype, while an epithelial phenotype was enhanced following vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exposure. Simulations predicted that the transcription factors phosphorylated SP1 and NFAT were master regulators promoting or inhibiting EMT, respectively. Surprisingly, simulations also predicted that a cellular population could exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity (characterized by a significant fraction of the population with both high epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression) if treated simultaneously with TGF-β and VEGF-A. We tested this prediction experimentally in both MCF10A and DLD1 cells and found that upwards of 45% of the cellular population acquired this hybrid state in the presence of both TGF-β and VEGF-A. We experimentally validated the predicted NFAT/Sp1 signaling axis for each phenotype response. Lastly, we found that cells in the hybrid state had significantly different functional behavior when compared to VEGF-A or TGF-β treatment alone. Together, these results establish a predictive mechanistic model of EMT

  19. The Use of Double Translocation to Control Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    A unique type of sterility, embryonic trapping, is an ancillary effect of high lethality in the German cockroach . Lethal effects, such as those...of shipboard and other German cockroach infestations. The first research objective involved procedures for sexing and identifying double males. Two...3;7;12) males into the Kennedy strain was initiated. Data, though incomplete, leave little doubt that releases into one generation of cockroaches will result in population suppression in the next.

  20. Hyperlipidemia Is Associated with Chronic Urticaria: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) is diverse, with chronic infections and inflammation being reported as considerable contributing factors. Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be significantly elevated in patients with CU, no one has specifically estimated the effects on CU following hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to examine the association between hyperlipidemia and CU using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This study included 9798 adults with CU as cases and 9798 sex- and age-matched controls. These patients were examined for whether they had received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with hyperlipidemia between cases and controls. In total, 7066 (36.1%) patients had received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, including 4287 (43.8%) among CU cases and 2779 (28.4%) among controls. The conditional logistic regression revealed that the OR of prior hyperlipidemia for cases was 1.97 (95% CI: 1.85~2.09) compared to the controls. Furthermore, compared to patients without CU, patients with CU independently experienced a 1.65-fold (95% CI = 1.55~1.76; p<0.001) increased risk of having a prior hyperlipidemia diagnosis, after adjustments were made. We concluded that CU was associated with having received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. PMID:26964045

  1. Cadmium exposure and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies among the general and occupational populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Carter, Sue; He, Ka

    2016-05-13

    We aimed to evaluate the association of cadmium exposure with the risk of prostate cancer in both the general and occupational populations. Online database searches were performed for studies of prostate cancer risk and cadmium exposure. Twelve cohort studies (5 in the general, 7 in occupational populations) and 9 case-control studies (3 in the general, 6 in occupational populations) were identified. Five/seven cohort studies in the general and occupational populations consist of 78,263/13, 434 participants with a mean follow-up of 12.1/43.0 years, respectively. Case-control studies include 334 cases/670 controls in the general population, and 1,315 cases/4,477 controls in occupational populations. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure in the general population, the weighted relative risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality among cohort studies, and the weighted odds ratio in case-control studies were 1.05 (95%CI [0.91, 1.22]), 0.83 (95%CI [0.35, 1.98]), and 1.27 (95%CI [0.58,2.78]), respectively. For occupational populations, the weighted OR in case-control studies was 1.17 (95%CI [0.85, 1.62]), and the weighted standardized mortality ratio in cohort studies was 98 (95%CI [75, 126]). Accumulated epidemiological evidence does not support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure may increase the risk of prostate cancer in either the general or occupational populations.

  2. Study on genes of the serotonergic system and suicidal behavior: protocol for a case–control study in Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Several studies have provided a possible relationship between genetic factors and suicidal behavior. Also, these studies have shown evidence for altered serotonergic neural transmission in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior. In addition, genes pertaining to the serotonergic system have been proposed as candidates to establish biological correlates between suicidal behavior and the serotonergic system. The most studied genes are SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR1A, HTR1B, TPH-1, and TPH-2. To get a comprehensive understanding of the association with suicidal behavior we will conduct genotype assays studies in a Mexican population. Methods/Design We will conduct a case–control study. The population sample will comprise adolescent and adult patients admitted for attempted of suicide and diagnosed by a psychiatrist. A peripheral blood sample will be taken from all the subjects (cases and controls). Genomic DNA from the leukocytes blood sample will be extracted. The genotypes of interest are distributed in the following genes: SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2C, TPH-2 and TPH-1. All the samples will be analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) end-point method. We will evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare genotype and allele frequencies between control and case groups. The Quanto 1.2 software will measure the sample size of the association. For all the association analyses the level of significance will be set at p = 0.05 and the confidence interval at 95%. Discussion Suicidal behavior has been increase in Mexico, principally in young population. Our study will demonstrate the association between serotoninergic genes and suicide behavior in Mexican population. PMID:24495559

  3. Evaluation of soil biodesinfestation with crop and garden residues in the control of root-knot nematodes populations.

    PubMed

    López-Cepero, J; Piedra Buena, A; Díez-Rojo, M A; Regalado, R; Brito, E; Hernández, Z; Figueredo, M; Almendros, G; Bello, A

    2007-01-01

    Fresh crop and garden residues were applied both under laboratory conditions and in commercial greenhouse in order to asses their effect on soil nematodes populations and soil fertility. In the laboratory experiments, dosages of 5 to 20 g of cabbage residues, chicken manure, cabbage residues+chicken manure, grass+chicken manure, as well as leaves and stems of orange tree, pine tree, oleander, olive tree, palm tree and boxwood were mixed with 500 g soil having root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) and soil moisture was adjusted at field capacity. A control treatment without residues was also included. The mixtures were kept into plastic bags, with four replications, and the bags were incubated for four weeks at 30 degrees C, when nematological and soil fertility analyses were carried out. In general, all these materials significantly (P < 0.05) reduced M. incognita populations and increased saprophagous nematodes, with slight effects on soil fertility except for the K increase with residues application. Tomato plants susceptible to M. incognita were planted in pots with 300 cm3 of the treated soils and kept for five weeks in a growth chamber (24 +/- 1 degrees C, 14 hours light), when root galling indices were evaluated. Most materials applied reduced root galling indices as regards to the control. In the greenhouse experiment, cabbage residues, cabbage residues+chicken manure, grass+chicken manure and grass+cabbage residues were applied to the soil and covered with a polyethylene sheet for 5 weeks. A cabbage residues:chicken manure treatment and a control (not-amended) treatment, without polyethylene, were also included. At the end of the experiment, the nematological analysis showed that all materials successfully controlled M. incognita populations, reaching 86-100% mortality with organic amendments vs. 6% for the control. After the greenhouse biodesinfestation experiment, a tomato crop was grown for one month, when root galling indices were determined. All

  4. Use of a mathematical model to study the control measures of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus population in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, F; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Sabatier, P

    1998-06-30

    Boophilus microplus is a common cattle tick of great economic importance in various tropical and subtropical countries like New Caledonia. The proposed model describes the population dynamics of female Boophilus microplus in the absence of resistant ticks. It is a system of six difference equations which can be mathematically analyzed. The analysis of the system shows the great importance of the eigenvalue denoted by lambda1. The population of ticks increases if lambda1 < 1 and decreases if lambda1 > 1. The lambda1 eigenvalue depends, in particular, on the parasitic surviving rate and encounter rate between the larvae and the cows. The treatments decrease the parasitic surviving rate as the agronomic measures decrease the encounter rate. This model permits to quantify the conditions of treatments (or of the efficacy of a vaccine) and of agronomic measures by which the populations are controlled. It shows that the different treatment rhythms and the presence or not of the wild or domestic refuges plays a major role on the dynamics of tick population.

  5. Cost-effective control strategies for animal and zoonotic diseases in pastoralist populations.

    PubMed

    Zinsstag, J; Abakar, M F; Ibrahim, M; Tschopp, R; Crump, L; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E

    2016-11-01

    Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs. Public and private animal health services currently underperform in almost all pastoral areas due to structural reforms and lack of income, as indicated in assessments of national Veterinary Services by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Control of infectious disease in industrialised countries has been achieved through large-scale public funding of control measures and compensation for culled stock. Such means are not available in pastoralist areas of most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While the cost-effectiveness and profitability of the control of animal diseases and zoonoses is less of a consideration for industrialised countries, in the experience of the authors, understanding the economic implications of a control programme is a prerequisite for successful attempts to improve animal health in LMICs. The incremental costs of animal disease control can potentially be shared using crosssector assessments, integrated control, and regional coordination efforts to mitigate transboundary disease risks. In this paper, the authors discuss cost-effective animal disease and zoonoses control in LMICs. It illustrates frameworks and examples of integrated control and cross-sector economics, showing conditions under which these diseases could be controlled in a cost-effective way.

  6. Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Jianyu; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. Using the completed linkage maps, incomplete and missing markers were imputed as fully informative markers in order to simplify the linkage mapping approaches of quantitative trait genes. Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. We then developed an inclusive linear model that includes marker variables and marker interactions so as to completely control additive effects of the female and male parents, as well as the dominance effect between the female and male parents. The linear model was finally used for background control in inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) of quantitative trait locus (QTL). The efficiency of ICIM was demonstrated by extensive simulations and by comparisons with simple interval mapping, multiple-QTL models and composite interval mapping. Finally, ICIM was applied in one actual double cross population to identify QTL on days to silking in maize.

  7. Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. Using the completed linkage maps, incomplete and missing markers were imputed as fully informative markers in order to simplify the linkage mapping approaches of quantitative trait genes. Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. We then developed an inclusive linear model that includes marker variables and marker interactions so as to completely control additive effects of the female and male parents, as well as the dominance effect between the female and male parents. The linear model was finally used for background control in inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) of quantitative trait locus (QTL). The efficiency of ICIM was demonstrated by extensive simulations and by comparisons with simple interval mapping, multiple‐QTL models and composite interval mapping. Finally, ICIM was applied in one actual double cross population to identify QTL on days to silking in maize. PMID:25881980

  8. Modeling controlled nutrient release from a population of polymer coated fertilizers: statistically based model for diffusion release.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A statistically based model for describing the release from a population of polymer coated controlled release fertilizer (CRF) granules by the diffusion mechanism was constructed. The model is based on a mathematical-mechanistic description of the release from a single granule of a coated CRF accounting for its complex and nonlinear nature. The large variation within populations of coated CRFs poses the need for a statistically based approach to integrate over the release from the individual granules within a given population for which the distribution and range of granule radii and coating thickness are known. The model was constructed and verified using experimentally determined parameters and release curves of polymer-coated CRFs. A sensitivity analysis indicated the importance of water permeability in controlling the lag period and that of solute permeability in governing the rate of linear release and the total duration of the release. Increasing the mean values of normally distributed granule radii or coating thickness, increases the lag period and the period of linear release. The variation of radii and coating thickness, within realistic ranges, affects the release only when the standard deviation is very large or when water permeability is reduced without affecting solute permeability. The model provides an effective tool for designing and improving agronomic and environmental effectiveness of polymer-coated CRFs.

  9. The Use of Double Translocations to Control Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-19

    male. Thus the replacement of each target group by progeny numbering less than ½ the number of parents represented close to maximum effectiveness of...this particular genetic mechanimn. Since all females of the target groups , B, A-i, and A-2 , were eventually removed, only males were left in the main...youngest target group (A-2) . Although - - — ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A - $ ______ — 4 — the population was separated during the later months, it

  10. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  11. The Composition of Microbiome in Larynx and the Throat Biodiversity between Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients and Control Population

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hong-Li; Shi, Yi; Zhou, Liang; Wu, Chun-Ping; Cao, Peng-Yu; Tao, Lei; Xu, Chen; Hou, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The throat is an ecological assemblage involved human cells and microbiota, and the colonizing bacteria are important factors in balancing this environment. However, this bacterial community profile has thus been poorly investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial biology of the larynx and to analyze the throat biodiversity in laryngeal carcinoma patients compared to a control population in a case-control study. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used. We collected tissue samples from 29 patients with laryngeal carcinoma and 31 control patients with vocal cord polyps. The findings of high-quality sequence datasets revealed 218 genera from 13 phyla in the laryngeal mucosa. The predominant communities of phyla in the larynx were Firmicutes (54%), Fusobacteria (17%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Proteobacteria (11%), and Actinobacteria (3%). The leading genera were Streptococcus (36%), Fusobacterium (15%), Prevotella (12%), Neisseria (6%), and Gemella (4%). The throat bacterial compositions were highly different between laryngeal carcinoma subjects and control population (p = 0.006). The abundance of the 26 genera was significantly different between the laryngeal cancer and control groups by metastats analysis (p<0.05). Fifteen genera may be associated with laryngeal carcinoma by partial least squares discriminant analysis (p<0.001). In summary, this study revealed the microbiota profiles in laryngeal mucosa from tissue specimens. The compositions of bacteria community in throat were different between laryngeal cancer patients and controls, and probably were related with this carcinoma. The disruption of this bio-ecological niche might be a risk factor for laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:23824228

  12. Study of animal-borne infections in the mucosas of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and population-based controls.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N; Nayar, Gopi; Hamel, Andre; Blanchard, James F

    2003-11-01

    Crohn's disease may be triggered by an infection, and it is plausible to consider that such an infection may be animal borne and ingested with our food. There has been considerable interest in the past in determining whether Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium) might be the etiologic agent in Crohn's disease since it causes a disease in cattle that is similar to Crohn's disease in humans. We aimed to determine if there was an association between Crohn's disease and infection with M. avium or other zoonotic agents and compared the findings with those for patients with ulcerative colitis, unaffected siblings of Crohn's disease patients, or population-based controls without inflammatory bowel disease. Patients under age 50 years with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, unaffected siblings of patients, or healthy controls drawn from a population-based age- and gender-matched registry were enrolled in a study in which subjects submitted to a questionnaire survey and venipuncture. A nested cohort underwent colonoscopy plus biopsy. Samples were batched and submitted to PCR for the detection of M. avium and other zoonotic agents known to cause predominately intestinal disease in cattle, sheep, or swine. Only one patient with ulcerative colitis, no patients with Crohn's disease, and none of the sibling controls were positive for M. avium, whereas 6 of 19 healthy controls were positive for M. avium. Since the control subjects were significantly older than the case patients, we studied another 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were older than age 50 years, and another single subject with ulcerative colitis was positive for M. avium. One other subject older than age 50 years with ulcerative colitis was positive for circovirus, a swine-borne agent of infection. In conclusion, by performing PCR with mucosal samples from patients with Crohn's disease and controls, no association between Crohn's disease and infection with M. avium or any of the

  13. Controlling the Growth of Future LEO Debris Populations with Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.; Hill, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Active debris removal (ADR) was suggested as a potential means to remediate the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment as early as the 1980s. The reasons ADR has not become practical are due to its technical difficulties and the high cost associated with the approach. However, as the LEO debris populations continue to increase, ADR may be the only option to preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations. An initial study was completed in 2007 to demonstrate that a simple ADR target selection criterion could be developed to reduce the future debris population growth. The present paper summarizes a comprehensive study based on more realistic simulation scenarios, including fragments generated from the 2007 Fengyun-1C event, mitigation measures, and other target selection options. The simulations were based on the NASA long-term orbital debris projection model, LEGEND. A scenario, where at the end of mission lifetimes, spacecraft and upper stages were moved to 25-year decay orbits, was adopted as the baseline environment for comparison. Different annual removal rates and different ADR target selection criteria were tested, and the resulting 200-year future environment projections were compared with the baseline scenario. Results of this parametric study indicate that (1) an effective removal strategy can be developed based on the mass and collision probability of each object as the selection criterion, and (2) the LEO environment can be stabilized in the next 200 years with an ADR removal rate of five objects per year.

  14. Optimal Control Strategies for Disinfection of Bacterial Populations with Persister and Susceptible Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jason; Darres, Kyle; Petty, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that bacteria manage to evade killing by antibiotics and antimicrobials in a variety of ways, including mutation, phenotypic variations, and formation of biofilms. With recent advances in understanding the dynamics of the tolerance mechanisms, there have been subsequent advances in understanding how to manipulate the bacterial environments to eradicate the bacteria. This study focuses on using mathematical techniques to find the optimal disinfection strategy to eliminate the bacteria while managing the load of antibiotic that is applied. In this model, the bacterial population is separated into those that are tolerant to the antibiotic and those that are susceptible to disinfection. There are transitions between the two populations whose rates depend on the chemical environment. Our results extend previous mathematical studies to include more realistic methods of applying the disinfectant. The goal is to provide experimentally testable predictions that have been lacking in previous mathematical studies. In particular, we provide the optimal disinfection protocol under a variety of assumptions within the model that can be used to validate or invalidate our simplifying assumptions and the experimental hypotheses that we used to develop the model. We find that constant dosing is not the optimal method for disinfection. Rather, cycling between application and withdrawal of the antibiotic yields the fastest killing of the bacteria. PMID:22751538

  15. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population.

  16. Comprehensive Approach for Hypertension Control in Low-income Populations: Rationale and Study Design for the Hypertension Control Program in Argentina (HCPIA)

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Chen, Jing; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Poggio, Rosana; Dolan, Jacquelyn; Augustovski, Federico; Shi, Lizheng; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Although the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive pharmaceutical treatment for the prevention and control of hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, this scientific knowledge has not been fully applied in the general population, especially in low-income communities. This paper summarizes interventions to improve hypertension management and describes the rationale and study design for a cluster randomized trial testing whether a comprehensive intervention program within a national public primary care system will improve hypertension control among uninsured hypertensive men and women and their families. We will recruit 1,890 adults from 18 clinics within a public primary care network in Argentina. Clinic patients with uncontrolled hypertension, their spouses and hypertensive family members will be enrolled. The comprehensive intervention program targets the primary care system through health care provider education, a home-based intervention among patients and their families (home delivery of antihypertensive medication, self-monitoring of blood pressure, health education for medication adherence and lifestyle modification) conducted by community health workers, and a mobile health intervention. The primary outcome is net change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to month 18 between intervention and control groups among hypertensive study participants. The secondary outcomes are net change in diastolic blood pressure, blood pressure control, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will generate urgently needed data on effective, practical, and sustainable intervention programs aimed at controlling hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease in underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24978148

  17. ALIFE@Work: a randomised controlled trial of a distance counselling lifestyle programme for weight control among an overweight working population [ISRCTN04265725

    PubMed Central

    van Wier, Marieke F; Ariëns, Geertje AM; Dekkers, Johanna C; Hendriksen, Ingrid JM; Pronk, Nico P; Smid, Tjabe; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing and its consequences will cause a major public health burden in the near future. Cost-effective interventions for weight control among the general population are therefore needed. The ALIFE@Work study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention, aimed at the working population, with individual counselling through either phone or e-mail. This article describes the design of the study and the participant flow up to and including randomisation. Methods/Design ALIFE@Work is a controlled trial, with randomisation to three arms: a control group, a phone based intervention group and an internet based intervention group. The intervention takes six months and is based on a cognitive behavioural approach, addressing physical activity and diet. It consists of 10 lessons with feedback from a personal counsellor, either by phone or e-mail, between each lesson. Lessons contain educational content combined with behaviour change strategies. Assignments in each lesson teach the participant to apply these strategies to every day life. The study population consists of employees from seven Dutch companies. The most important inclusion criteria are having a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and being an employed adult. Primary outcomes of the study are body weight and BMI, diet and physical activity. Other outcomes are: perceived health; empowerment; stage of change and self-efficacy concerning weight control, physical activity and eating habits; work performance/productivity; waist circumference, sum of skin folds, blood pressure, total blood cholesterol level and aerobic fitness. A cost-utility- and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed as well. Physiological outcomes are measured at baseline and after six and 24 months. Other outcomes are measured by questionnaire at baseline and after six, 12, 18 and 24 months. Statistical analyses for short term (six month) results are performed with multiple linear regression

  18. Ecosystem scale declines in elk recruitment and population growth with wolf colonization: a before-after-control-impact approach.

    PubMed

    Christianson, David; Creel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone provided the unusual opportunity for a quasi-experimental test of the effects of wolf predation on their primary prey (elk--Cervus elaphus) in a system where top-down, bottom-up, and abiotic forces on prey population dynamics were closely and consistently monitored before and after reintroduction. Here, we examined data from 33 years for 12 elk population segments spread across southwestern Montana and northwestern Wyoming in a large scale before-after-control-impact analysis of the effects of wolves on elk recruitment and population dynamics. Recruitment, as measured by the midwinter juvenile∶female ratio, was a strong determinant of elk dynamics, and declined by 35% in elk herds colonized by wolves as annual population growth shifted from increasing to decreasing. Negative effects of population density and winter severity on recruitment, long recognized as important for elk dynamics, were detected in uncolonized elk herds and in wolf-colonized elk herds prior to wolf colonization, but not after wolf colonization. Growing season precipitation and harvest had no detectable effect on recruitment in either wolf treatment or colonization period, although harvest rates of juveniles∶females declined by 37% in wolf-colonized herds. Even if it is assumed that mortality due to predation is completely additive, liberal estimates of wolf predation rates on juvenile elk could explain no more than 52% of the total decline in juvenile∶female ratios in wolf-colonized herds, after accounting for the effects of other limiting factors. Collectively, these long-term, large-scale patterns align well with prior studies that have reported substantial decrease in elk numbers immediately after wolf recolonization, relatively weak additive effects of direct wolf predation on elk survival, and decreased reproduction and recruitment with exposure to predation risk from wolves.

  19. Human Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  20. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species

    PubMed Central

    Willers, Nicole; Martin, Graeme B.; Matson, Phill; Mawson, Peter R.; Morris, Keith; Bencini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Black-flanked rock-wallabies (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) can reach high numbers in fragmented populations in the West Australian wheat-belt, where they can damage crops and cause habitat degradation. As they are threatened, we wanted a non-permanent control method that did not adversely affect the body condition of treated females compared to untreated females, using body condition as an indicator of general health and fitness. We gave adult female rock-wallabies deslorelin contraceptive implants to suppress their fertility and monitored the impact for three years. Treated females did not conceive new young for over two years. We did not detect any negative effects on body condition, suggesting that deslorelin may be an effective tool for managing overabundant populations of marsupials. Abstract Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus ‘unwanted’ when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22), one (n = 22) or two (n = 20) subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with

  1. Epithelial LTβR signaling controls the population size of the progenitors of medullary thymic epithelial cells in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiwei; Shi, Yaoyao; Xia, Huan; Chai, Qian; Jin, Caiwei; Ren, Boyang; Zhu, Mingzhao

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of T cell central tolerance critically relies on the development and maintenance of the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Disrupted signaling of lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) results in dramatically reduced mTEC population. However, whether LTβR directly or indirectly control mTECs remains undetermined; how LTβR controls this process also remain unclear. In this study, by utilizing K14-Cre × Ltbrfl/fl conditional knockout (cKO) mice, we show that epithelial intrinsic LTβR was essential for the mTEC development postnatally. Mechanistically, LTβR did not directly impact the proliferation or survival of mTECs; the maturation of mTECs from MHC-IIlo to MHC-IIhi stage was also unaltered in the absence of LTβR; interestingly, the number of mTEC progenitors (Cld3,4hiSSEA-1+) was found significantly reduced in LTβR cKO mice at the neonatal stage, but not at E18.5. Consequently, epithelial deficiency of LTβR resulted in significant defect of thymic negative selection as demonstrated using OT-I and RIP-OVA transgenic mouse system. In summary, our study clarifies the epithelial intrinsic role of LTβR on mTEC development and function; more importantly, it reveals a previously unrecognized function of LTβR on the control of the size of mTEC progenitor population. PMID:28290551

  2. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    PubMed

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.

  3. Blood pressure control and physicians' therapeutic behavior in a very elderly Spanish hypertensive population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roca, Gustavo C; Pallarés-Carratalá, Vicente; Alonso-Moreno, Francisco J; Escobar-Cervantes, Carlos; Barrios, Vivencio; Llisterri, José L; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Carrasco-Martín, José L; Fernández-Toro, José M; Banegas, José R

    2009-09-01

    This study sought to assess blood pressure (BP) control rates by determining the factors associated with poor BP control, therapeutic management and physicians' therapeutic behavior among elderly Spanish hypertensive patients in a primary care setting. This cross-sectional multicenter study included hypertensive patients at least 80 years of age in primary care settings throughout Spain who were on pharmacologic treatment. BP was considered well controlled at <140/90 mm Hg (<130/80 in patients with diabetes, chronic renal disease or cardiovascular disease). A total of 923 patients were included (83.3+/-3.5 years; 62.9% women). Almost two-thirds (64.0%) of the patients were taking a combined therapy (68.7%; 2 drugs) and approximately one-third (35.6%; 95% CI 32.6-38.7) of the patients attained BP goals. Physicians modified the antihypertensive treatment in 26.1% (95% CI 22.3-29.9) of patients with uncontrolled BP, which most frequently involved the addition of another drug (47.6%). Predictive factors for no BP control and no therapeutic modification in patients with uncontrolled BP included diabetes (OR 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.9); P<0.0001) and mistaken physician perceptions about BP control (OR 108.1 (95% CI 40.5-288.6); P<0.0001), respectively. Only three out of 10 hypertensive patients 80 years or older in Spain achieved the BP goals. Physicians only modified the treatment in one out of four patients with uncontrolled BP. Diabetes was associated with a threefold increase in the likelihood of uncontrolled BP, and the mistaken physician perceptions about BP control were associated with a 100-fold rise in the probability of not modifying antihypertensive therapy.

  4. Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Sophie C.; Kecklund, Göran; Tucker, Philip; Leineweber, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components ‘control over daily hours’ and ‘control over time off’. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements. PMID:26620363

  5. Cigarette smoking and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R; Murros, K

    1987-01-01

    Smoking habits were analysed in 114 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, less than 70 years old, obtained from an epidemiological study. One control, matched for age, sex, and domicile, was selected for each patient. Current cigarette smokers were significantly more prevalent among cases than controls, and the relative risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage compared with non-smokers was 2.7 in men and 3.0 in women. The so called metastatic emphysema theory with increased elastolytic activity in the serum of smokers is proposed as biochemical basis for the increased risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:3819759

  6. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  7. A New Population of Parvocellular Oxytocin Neurons Controlling Magnocellular Neuron Activity and Inflammatory Pain Processing.

    PubMed

    Eliava, Marina; Melchior, Meggane; Knobloch-Bollmann, H Sophie; Wahis, Jérôme; da Silva Gouveia, Miriam; Tang, Yan; Ciobanu, Alexandru Cristian; Triana del Rio, Rodrigo; Roth, Lena C; Althammer, Ferdinand; Chavant, Virginie; Goumon, Yannick; Gruber, Tim; Petit-Demoulière, Nathalie; Busnelli, Marta; Chini, Bice; Tan, Linette L; Mitre, Mariela; Froemke, Robert C; Chao, Moses V; Giese, Günter; Sprengel, Rolf; Kuner, Rohini; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Seeburg, Peter H; Stoop, Ron; Charlet, Alexandre; Grinevich, Valery

    2016-03-16

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide elaborated by the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Magnocellular OT neurons of these nuclei innervate numerous forebrain regions and release OT into the blood from the posterior pituitary. The PVN also harbors parvocellular OT cells that project to the brainstem and spinal cord, but their function has not been directly assessed. Here, we identified a subset of approximately 30 parvocellular OT neurons, with collateral projections onto magnocellular OT neurons and neurons of deep layers of the spinal cord. Evoked OT release from these OT neurons suppresses nociception and promotes analgesia in an animal model of inflammatory pain. Our findings identify a new population of OT neurons that modulates nociception in a two tier process: (1) directly by release of OT from axons onto sensory spinal cord neurons and inhibiting their activity and (2) indirectly by stimulating OT release from SON neurons into the periphery.

  8. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.

  9. Metformin for Primary Colorectal Cancer Prevention in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study in a US Population

    PubMed Central

    Sehdev, Amikar; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Vekhter, Benjamin; Bissonnette, Marc; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Polite, Blase

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence from observational studies suggests that metformin may be beneficial in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, none of these were conducted in a US population. Since environmental factors, such as Western diet and obesity, are implicated in the causation of CRC, we conducted a large case control study to assess the effects of metformin on CRC incidence in a US population. Methods MarketScan® databases were used to identify diabetic patients with CRC. A case was defined as having an incident diagnosis of CRC. Up to two controls matched for age, sex and geographical region, were selected for each case. Metformin exposure was assessed by prescription tracking in the 12 months period prior to the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple potential confounders and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Results The mean age of participants was 55 and 57 years in the control and case group, respectively (p=1.0). Sixty percent of the study participants were males and 40% were females in each group. In the multivariable model, any metformin use was associated with 15% reduced odds of CRC (AOR, 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76–0.95, p<0.007). After adjusting for health-care utilization the beneficial effect of metformin was reduced to 12% (AOR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.77–1.00, p=0.05). The dose-response analyses showed no significant association with metformin dose, duration or total exposure. Conclusions Metformin use is associated with reduced risk of developing CRC among diabetic patients in the US population. PMID:25424411

  10. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration.

  11. Zero Tolerance for Marginal Populations: Examining Neoliberal Social Controls in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose is to investigate the expansion of social control efforts in American elementary and secondary school settings, particularly the use of zero-tolerance policies. These policies entail automatic punishments, such as suspensions, expulsions, and referrals to the juvenile and criminal justice systems for a host of school-based…

  12. Social Support, Perceived Control, and Well-Being: A Study of an Environmentally Stressed Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Mary J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed 92 elderly residents of area targeted for massive redevelopment. Findings revealed that each health, control, and support emerged as independent predictors of affect and life satisfaction, and that affect was significantly lower for those with no close support figure than for those with one close relationship. (Author/NB)

  13. Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P

    2007-12-01

    Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.

  14. Microsatellite analysis of genetic structure in natural Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations from Argentina: its implication in assessing the effectiveness of Chagas' disease vector control programmes.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Rosas, Alicia R; Segura, Elsa L; García, Beatriz A

    2007-04-01

    The genetic structure in populations of the Chagas' disease vector Triatoma infestans was examined. Comparisons of the levels of genetic variability in populations of this species from areas with different periods since last insecticide treatment and from areas that never received treatment were also carried out. A total of 598 insects from 19 populations were typed for 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The average observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.186 to 0.625 and from 0.173 to 0.787, respectively. Genetic drift and limited gene flow appear to have generated a substantial degree of genetic differentiation among the populations of T. infestans. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations due to an excess of homozygotes suggested the presence of null alleles and population subdivision. Microgeographical analysis supports the existence of subdivision in T. infestans populations. Levels of genetic diversity in the majority of the populations of T. infestans from insecticide-treated localities were similar or higher than those detected in populations from areas without treatment. Since the populations of T. infestans are subdivided, a population bottleneck would result in independent genetic drift effects that could randomly preserve different combinations of alleles in each subpopulation. These events followed by a rapid population growth could have preserved high levels of genetic diversity. This study supports the hypothesis of vector population recovery from survivors of the insecticide-treated areas and therefore highlights the value of population genetic analyses in assessing the effectiveness of Chagas' disease vector control programmes.

  15. Optical control and spectroscopic studies of collisional population transfer in molecular electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ergin; Pan, Xinhua; Huennekens, John; Lyyra, Marjatta

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the basic physics of collision processes between atoms and molecules is of fundamental importance for large number of areas of research including chemical reactivity, ultra cold atoms and molecules, and astrophysics of the interstellar medium. We have experimentally demonstrated optical control of the singlet/triplet probability distribution in the outcome of collisions involving lithium dimer molecules and argon atoms. The control is achieved using the Autler-Townes (AT) effect to manipulate the spin character of a spin-orbit coupled pair of levels serving as a ``gateway'' between the singlet and triplet electronic state manifolds. As a result we show that the rate coefficient of a collisional process between excited molecules (7Li2) and atoms (Ar) leading to internal quantum state changes in the molecules can be effectively manipulated with a laser. In addition, as an extension of these results new gateway levels can be created from singlet and triplet levels that hardly interact to begin with.

  16. Controls of stream chemistry and fish populations in the Neversink watershed, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Lovett, Gary M.

    2001-01-01

    The Neversink Watershed Study was initiated in 1991 to develop an understanding of the key natural processes that control water quality within the forested, 166 km 2 (64 mi 2), Neversink River watershed; part of the New York City drinking water supply system, in the Catskill Mountain region of New York. The study entailed (1) hydrological investigations of water movement from the atmosphere to streams, (2) biogeochemical investigations of nitrogen and calcium, important nutrients in forest and aquatic ecosystems whose availability has been altered by acidic deposition, (3) an investigation of elevational patterns in atmospheric deposition, and (4) fisheries investigations to determine the relative importance of physical habitat and acidic deposition in controlling the abundance and diversity of fish species in the watershed. This report summarizes the results of these investigations, which have also been presented, in detail, in peer-reviewed technical articles and reports that are cited throughout the text.

  17. [The control of solid waste with the participation of a low-income population].

    PubMed

    de Abreu, J L

    1990-10-01

    Two studies were undertaken with a view to improving the health conditions of a shanty town area in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to modify littering behavior and to implement litter-control procedures with the participation of the inhabitants. Results demonstrated the adequacy of the procedures adopted and suggest a possible contribution on the part of psychology to public health.

  18. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California

    PubMed Central

    Cornel, Anthony J.; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K.; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Mulligan III, F. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas. PMID:27158450

  19. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    PubMed

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system.

  20. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    PubMed Central

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  1. Water nitrates and CNS birth defects: a population-based case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Sherman, G.J.; Corey, P.N.; Walters, D.; Lo, B.

    1988-03-01

    The relation between maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water and risk of delivering an infant with a central nervous system (CNS) malformation was examined by means of a case-control study in New Brunswick, Canada. All cases of CNS defects for a high and a low prevalence area of New Brunswick, for the years 1973-1983, were included in the study. Controls were selected randomly from the livebirth files for the province, matched on county of maternal residence and date of birth. One hundred and thirty (130) cases were identified and individually matched with two controls each. Individual water samples were collected from the case and control mother's address given on the birth or stillbirth records. The study revealed that the effect of nitrate exposure in water was modified by whether the source of the drinking water was a private well or a public municipal distribution system. Compared to a baseline nitrate level of 0.1 ppm, exposure to nitrate levels of 26 ppm from private well water sources was associated with a moderate, but not statistically significant, increase in risk (risk odds ratio = 2.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.73-7.29). If the source of drinking water was a municipal distribution system or a private spring, an increase in nitrate exposure was associated with a decrease in risk of delivering a CNS-malformed infant; however, these effect estimates were not statistically significant. The positive increase in risk with nitrate exposure from well water sources requires further study using a larger case series and a larger proportion of exposures to nitrate levels exceeding 5 ppm.

  2. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California.

    PubMed

    Cornel, Anthony J; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Mulligan Iii, F Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas.

  3. Estimation of the probability of exposure to machining fluids in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Armenti, Karla R; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (0.1->0.9%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and U.S. production levels found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a list of keywords in the occupational histories that were used to link study subjects to the metalworking fluids (MWFs) modules; recommendations from the literature on selection of MWFs based on type of machining operation, the metal being machined and decade; popular additives to MWFs; the number and proportion of controls who

  4. Fenitrothion: an alternative insecticide for the control of deltamethrin-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Germano, M; Picollo, M I; Spillmann, C; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2014-03-01

    Deltamethrin-based campaigns to control Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have decreased in success as a result of the development of insecticide resistance. We compared the in vitro effects of the pyrethroid deltamethrin and two doses of the organophosphate fenitrothion, presented on different materials, on T. infestans from La Esperanza, Argentina. Laboratory tests demonstrated a decrease in susceptibility to deltamethrin in the field population [LD50 : 30.32 nanograms per insect (ng/i)] compared with the reference population (LD50 : 0.13 ng/i), giving a high resistance ratio of 233.42. By contrast, similar susceptibility to fenitrothion was assessed in both the field and reference populations (LD50 : 21.65 ng/i and 21.38 ng/i, respectively). The effectiveness of the formulated insecticides varied according to the surfaces to which they were applied. The application of fenitrothion formulations to glass or brick resulted in mortality of 90-100%. The application of fenitrothion formulations to wood or mud caused mortality in the range of 6.7-56.7%. Resistant insects presented low mortality when exposed to the deltamethrin formulation and high mortality when exposed to fenitrothion formulations. Moreover, the insecticides demonstrated residual activity only when applied to glass. The present work demonstrates that fenitrothion is an alternative to pyrethroids for the management of deltamethrin-resistant insects in La Esperanza. However, this effectiveness is not sustained over time.

  5. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  6. Risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in the refugee population in Gaza Strip: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    AlKasseh, A S M; Zaki, N M; Aljeesh, Y I; Soon, L K

    2014-01-09

    To determine the risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in refugee populations in the Gaza Strip, a retrospective case-control study was performed between March and June 2011 in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) primary health care clinics. Data were collected on maternal sociodemographics and the prevalence of diagnosed GDM according to World Health Organization criteria from clinics where postnatal Palestinian refugee women had been diagnosed with GDM during previous pregnancies, and non-GDM women were used as controls. Sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pregnancy body-mass index (BMI), obstetrics history and family history of diabetes were used as study variables. In total, 189 incident cases of GDM were identified. The most significant risk factors for GDM were: history of miscarriage more than once; overweight before pregnancy; history of stillbirth; history of caesarean birth; and positive family history of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Plant breeding: a long-term strategy for the control of zinc deficiency in vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Ruel, M T; Bouis, H E

    1998-08-01

    Because trace minerals are important not only for human nutrition but for plant nutrition as well, plant breeding holds great promise for making a significant, sustainable, low-cost contribution to the reduction of micronutrient deficiencies in humans. It may also have important spinoff effects for increasing farm productivity in developing countries in an environmentally beneficial way. This article describes ongoing plant breeding research that could increase the intake of bioavailable zinc from food staple crops in vulnerable populations in developing countries. The 3 most promising plant breeding strategies toward this goal are as follows: 1) increasing the concentration of zinc, 2) reducing the amount of phytic acid (a strong inhibitor of zinc absorption), and 3) raising the concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (thought to promote zinc absorption) in the plant. The agronomic advantages and disadvantages as well as the potential benefits and limitations of each approach for human nutrition are described. Research is currently underway to identify the optimal combination of these approaches that will maximize the effect on human zinc nutrition.

  8. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes.

  9. Risk factors for classical Kaposi sarcoma in a population-based case-control study in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, LA; Lauria, C; Romano, N; Brown, EE; Whitby, D; Graubard, BI; Li, Y; Messina, A; Gafà, L; Vitale, F

    2009-01-01

    Background Classical Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) is a rare complication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection. We conducted a population-based, frequency-matched case-control study in Sicily to further investigate the reported inverse relationship between smoking and cKS and to identify other factors associated with altered risk. Methods All incident, histologically confirmed, cKS cases in Sicily were eligible. A two-stage cluster sample design was applied to select population controls. KSHV seropositivity was determined using 4 antibody assays (K8.1 and orf73 enzyme immunoassays and 2 immunofluroescence assays). Using SAS-callable SUDAAN we compared the characteristics of cKS cases and KSHV seropositive controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Results In total, 142 cKS cases and 123 KSHV seropositive controls were recruited. Current cigarette smoking was associated with reduced risk of cKS (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.67). Edema was associated with cKS, but only when it presented on the lower extremities (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.62-8.23). Irrespective of presentation site, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medications were associated with increased risk (ORs, 95% CIs: 4.73, 2.02-11.1 and 2.34, 1.23-4.45, respectively). Never smoking, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medication use were all independently associated with cKS risk. Discussion We confirmed previous reports that cigarette smoking was associated with a reduced risk of cKS, and we found that risk was lowest among current smokers. We also found that cKS risk was strongly and independently associated with oral corticosteroid use and diabetes. Corroboration of these observations and investigation of possible underlying mechanisms are warranted. PMID:19064559

  10. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Paola; Ricci, Paolo; Bovo, Emanuela; Casula, Alessandro; Gattolin, Massimo; Fiore, Anna Rita; Chiosi, Francesco; Guzzinati, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy), where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV) has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs). The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3), was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address) and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76) among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59) and for cancers of the connective

  11. Assessing reproductive patterns and disorders in free-ranging dogs in Jodhpur, India to optimize a population control program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Gartley, Cathy J; Kachhawaha, Subhash; Suman, Mahesh; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-10-15

    The objectives were to test the hypothesis that estrus and pregnancy are seasonal in free-ranging female dogs (>3 mo old) in Jodhpur, India, and to determine litter size, and the prevalence of fetal resorption in this population. The prevalence of estrus and pregnancy was determined in 5400 free-ranging bitches (trapped and released) at the time of ovariohysterectomy. In a separate study, the uteri and ovaries of 246 free-ranging bitches were examined to determine litter size and fetal resorption. The bitches exhibited seasonal estrus and pregnancy (P < 0.00001), with a higher percentage of bitches in estrus or pregnant during the late monsoon season (September to November) compared to the other three seasons. The mean litter size based on embryo/fetal counts was 4.6 (95% CI = 4.0-5.3; n = 40) and based upon placental site counts was 4.4 (95% CI = 3.9-4.8; n = 105). Prevalence of fetal resorption was 32.6% (95% CI = 20.5-47.5; n = 43) with a mean of 2.8 resorptions per litter in those with at least one resorption (95% CI = 1.8-3.8; n = 14). This was the first study to estimate previous litter size of non-pregnant, free-ranging dogs based upon placental sites. Litter size data from this study will be used in a population demographic model to predict the long-term impact of animal birth control (ABC) on the free-ranging dog population in Jodhpur. Increasing the efforts to surgically sterilize bitches prior to the time of year of peak pregnancy or whelping will help maximize the impact of an ABC program on the Jodhpur free-ranging dog population.

  12. Seasonal patterns and control of gas exchange in local populations of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexas, Jaume; Gulías, Javier; Jonasson, Sven; Medrano, Hipólito; Mus, Mauricio

    2001-02-01

    We examined temporal and spatial variations in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency, sub-stomatal CO 2 concentration, apparent carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence in the Mediterranean shrub Pistacia lentiscus. The study was done at the extremes of a precipitation and temperature gradient on the coast and in the mountains of Mallorca, Spain, with gas exchange measurements at different times of the year, and combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in a controlled experiment. The objectives were to relate annual variation in photosynthetic functions to environmentally induced constraints and to quantify to which extent local differences in climate can affect photosynthesis in shrub populations. In the mountain population, net photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn, when water was abundant and temperature was moderately high. It was reduced in winter paralleling reduced carboxylation efficiency. Photosynthesis was at the annual minimum in summer at both sites due to drought-induced stomata closure combined with impaired function of the Calvin cycle. The coastal population maintained high photosynthesis in mid winter but had a pronounced decline in spring, and the summer decline lasted longer than in the mountains. Integrated over the seasons, net photosynthesis was about 25 % lower in the coastal than in the mountain population, in spite of maintained high mid winter photosynthesis. Hence, the reduction at the coast was mainly due to early onset of drought in spring and a long period of summer drought, showing that local climatic differences can cause pronounced spatial differences in plant carbon balance. As a consequence, similar differences probably also occur as a function of year-to-year variability of precipitation patterns and temperatures.

  13. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures - population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, David G; Zack, Mathew M; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2003-09-02

    To promote the health and quality of life of United States residents, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - with 54 state and territorial health agencies - has supported population surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL was defined as "perceived physical and mental health over time." Commonly-used measures of health status and activity limitation were identified and a set of "Healthy Days" HRQOL measures was developed and validated. A core set of these measures (the CDC HRQOL-4) asks about self-rated general health and the number of recent days when a person was physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or limited in usual activities. A summary measure combines physically and mentally unhealthy days. From 1993 to 2001, more than 1.2 million adults responded to the CDC HRQOL-4 in each state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) telephone interview. More than one fifth of all BRFSS respondents also responded to a set of related questions - including five items that assess the presence, main cause and duration of a current activity limitation, and the need for activity-related personal and routine care; as well as five items that ask about recent days of pain, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, and vitality. The Healthy Days surveillance data are particularly useful for finding unmet health needs, identifying disparities among demographic and socioeconomic subpopulations, characterizing the symptom burden of disabilities and chronic diseases, and tracking population patterns and trends. The full set of 14 Healthy Days Measures (the CDC HRQOL-14) has shown good measurement properties in several populations, languages, and settings. The brief standard CDC HRQOL-4 is now often used in surveys, surveillance systems, prevention research, and population health report cards.

  14. Optimization of control strategies for epidemics in heterogeneous populations with symmetric and asymmetric transmission.

    PubMed

    Mbah, Martial L Ndeffo; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2010-02-21

    There is growing interest in incorporating economic factors into epidemiological models in order to identify optimal strategies for disease control when resources are limited. In this paper we consider how to optimize the control of a pathogen that is capable of infecting multiple hosts with different rates of transmission within and between species. Our objective is to find control strategies that maximize the discounted number of healthy individuals. We consider two classes of host-pathogen system, comprising two host species and a common pathogen, one with asymmetrical and the other with symmetrical transmission rates, applicable to a wide range of SI (susceptible-infected) epidemics of plant and animal pathogens. We motivate the analyses with an example of sudden oak death in California coastal forests, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, in communities dominated by bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus). We show for the asymmetric case that it is optimal to give priority in treating disease to the more infectious species, and to treat the other species only when there are resources left over. For the symmetric case, we show that although a switching strategy is an optimum, in which preference is first given to the species with the lower level of susceptibles and then to the species with the higher level of susceptibles, a simpler strategy that favors treatment of infected hosts for the more susceptible species is a robust alternative for practical application when the optimal switching time is unknown. Finally, since transmission rates are notoriously difficult to estimate, we analyze the robustness of the strategies when the true state with respect to symmetry or otherwise is unknown but one or other is assumed.

  15. Recognizing rheumatoid arthritis: oncoprotein survivin opens new possibilities: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chun-Lai, Too; Murad, Shahnaz; Erlandsson, Malin C; Hussein, Heselynn; Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Dhaliwal, Jasbir S; Bokarewa, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Survivin is a biomarker of cancer known for its anti-apoptotic and cell-cycle regulating properties. In the context of non-cancer pathology, high levels of survivin may be measured in blood and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and associate with early joint damage and poor therapy response. The aim of the study was to investigate the value of survivin measurements in blood for diagnosis of RA in the frame of the Malaysian epidemiological investigation of rheumatoid arthritis (MyEIRA) study. The study enrolled RA patients from eight rheumatology centres in Peninsular Malaysia. The healthy controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity were recruited on the community basis from the residential area of the patients. Levels of survivin were measured in blood of RA patients (n = 1233) and controls (n = 1566) by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The risk for RA was calculated as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in the individuals with high levels of survivin. The risk was calculated in relation to antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPA), detected by ELISA and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, identified by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific oligonucleotide method. High levels of survivin were detected in 625 of 1233 (50.7%) RA cases and in 85 of 1566 (5.4%) controls, indicating its high specificity for RA. Survivin was association with an increase in RA risk in the patients having neither SE-alleles nor ACPA (OR = 5.40, 95% CI 3.81-7.66). For the patients combining survivin, SE, and ACPA, the estimated risk for RA was 16-folds higher compared to the survivin negative patients with SE and ACPA(OR = 16.21, 95% CI 5.70-46.18). To conclude, detection of survivin in blood provides a simple test to improve diagnostic and to increase predictability for RA.

  16. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Breast cancer risk and night shift work in a case-control study in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone Miren; Sanchez, Vicente Martin; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Muñoz, David; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic and animal data indicate that night shift work might increase the risk for breast cancer. We evaluated the association of night work with different clinical types of breast cancer in a population based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) taking into account chronotype, an individual characteristic that may relate to night shift work adaptation. Lifetime occupational history was assessed by face-to-face interviews and shift work information was available for 1708 breast cancer cases and 1778 population controls from 10 Spanish regions, enrolled from 2008 to 2013. We evaluated three shift work domains, including shift work type (permanent vs rotating), lifetime cumulative duration and frequency. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for night work compared to day work using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for confounders. Having ever worked permanent or rotating night shift was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer compared to day workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.43]. Chronotype was differentially associated with breast cancer depending on the duration of night shift work. Risk was higher in women with invasive tumors (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.51) and for estrogen and progestagen positive tumors among premenopausal women (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.99). Having ever performed night shift was associated with a small increased risk for breast cancer and especially in subgroups of women with particular hormone related characteristics.

  18. Relationship of Industrial Noise to Hearing Acuity in a Controlled Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    8S 9a okdteJL;5 0 202! 0 22 LEGEND 9 2 PLANT IN OPERATION INARNEMEN AUG.𔃻 DURING PLANT SHUT-DOWN 15~~l~lhUI~l 199 20 toG 9o 3 0 AE 262 JUJLY 7T 2...todehnea sae envronmet. Tere ae li-si’i iilmint~itolis. This is the moiist rigorous goal soicietycon~sidlerablle diftferencies between these criteria...measuremenits of the expo.sed and control griuips wvere smnaller. Further, nois orlienri ig.but lise ae fr fom bingthe the hearing levels for the spleech

  19. An internet-based method of selecting control populations for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; White, George L; Alder, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    Identifying control subjects for epidemiologic studies continues to increase in difficulty because of changes in telephone technology such as answering services and machines, caller identification, and cell phones. An Internet-based method for obtaining study subjects that may increase response rates has been developed and is described. This method uses information from two websites that, when combined, provide accurate and complete lists of names, addresses, and listed phone numbers. This method was developed by use of randomly selected streets in a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, in June 2005.

  20. Outcome-Based Quality Control by a Dental Reference Profile of a Population-Based Study (SHIP-0)

    PubMed Central

    Samietz, Stefanie; Söhnel, Andreas; Schwahn, Christian; Holtfreter, Birte; Mundt, Torsten; Meisel, Peter; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kocher, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to develop an instrument for quality control in dental practices. We compared the number of teeth of subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) with those from patients of dental practices. Methods. Patients from seven dental practices (n = 1,497) were randomly sampled by age strata and gender for a period of two years. Dental status derived from patient files was transformed into practice profiles using age-specific number of teeth as a parameter. Practice profiles were compared with a nomogram, which was based on the age-specific number of teeth of 3,990 SHIP-0 participants regularly visiting the dentist. Further, negative binomial regression models were evaluated to model associations between the number of teeth with age and dental practices, including interactions. Results. The practice profiles ranged between the 45th and 95th quantile curves of the reference population SHIP-0. The rate ratios (RR) for the number of missing teeth ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 (p < 0.001) between the different dental practices, indicating lower risk for higher numbers of missing teeth in comparison to SHIP-0. Conclusions. This study showed considerable differences between dental practices and the reference population of SHIP-0 regarding the pattern of tooth loss and confirms the value of nomograms to compare age-specific numbers of teeth between patients of dental practices and a population-based-study as a tool for quality control. For further analyses, the socioeconomic status of patients and relevant risk factors will be used to adjust for structural differences in order to improve the validity of the comparisons. PMID:27347549

  1. Conducting experimental research in marginalised populations: clinical and methodological implications from a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Keira; Harding, Richard; Ahmed, Aabid; Gikaara, Nancy; Ali, Zippy; Kariuki, Hellen; Sherr, Lorraine; Simms, Victoria; Selman, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies to test interventions for people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries are essential to ensure appropriate and effective clinical care. The implications of study participation on outcome data in such populations have been discussed theoretically, but rarely empirically examined. We aimed to explore the effects of participating in a randomised controlled trial conducted in an HIV clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. We report qualitative data from the Treatment Outcomes in Palliative Care trial, which evaluated the impact of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive adults on antiretroviral therapy compared to standard care. Participants in both arms attended five monthly quantitative data collection appointments. Post-trial exit, 10 control and 20 intervention patients participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, analysed using thematic analysis. We found benefit attributed to the compassion of the research team, social support, communication, completion of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) and material support (transport reimbursement). Being treated with compassion and receiving social support enabled participants to build positive relationships with the research team, which improved mental health and well-being. Open and non-judgmental communication made participants feel accepted. Participants described how repeated completion of the PROMs was a prompt for reflection, through which they began to help themselves and self-care. Participant reimbursements relieved financial hardship and enabled them to fulfil their social responsibilities, enhancing self-worth. These findings emphasise the importance of compassion, support and effective communication in the clinical encounter, particularly in stigmatised and isolated populations, and the potential of the integration of simple PROMs to improve patient outcomes. Participation in research has unexpected positive benefits for participants, which should be

  2. Conducting experimental research in marginalised populations: clinical and methodological implications from a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Keira; Harding, Richard; Ahmed, Aabid; Gikaara, Nancy; Ali, Zippy; Kariuki, Hellen; Sherr, Lorraine; Simms, Victoria; Selman, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Experimental studies to test interventions for people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries are essential to ensure appropriate and effective clinical care. The implications of study participation on outcome data in such populations have been discussed theoretically, but rarely empirically examined. We aimed to explore the effects of participating in a randomised controlled trial conducted in an HIV clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. We report qualitative data from the Treatment Outcomes in Palliative Care trial, which evaluated the impact of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive adults on antiretroviral therapy compared to standard care. Participants in both arms attended five monthly quantitative data collection appointments. Post-trial exit, 10 control and 20 intervention patients participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, analysed using thematic analysis. We found benefit attributed to the compassion of the research team, social support, communication, completion of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) and material support (transport reimbursement). Being treated with compassion and receiving social support enabled participants to build positive relationships with the research team, which improved mental health and well-being. Open and non-judgmental communication made participants feel accepted. Participants described how repeated completion of the PROMs was a prompt for reflection, through which they began to help themselves and self-care. Participant reimbursements relieved financial hardship and enabled them to fulfil their social responsibilities, enhancing self-worth. These findings emphasise the importance of compassion, support and effective communication in the clinical encounter, particularly in stigmatised and isolated populations, and the potential of the integration of simple PROMs to improve patient outcomes. Participation in research has unexpected positive benefits for participants, which

  3. Reproduction in a feral cat population and its control with a prolactin inhibitor, cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W; Jöchle, M

    1993-01-01

    A feral cat population (12 females, 13 males) was observed almost daily for 6 years, at a location 40.53 degrees N and 74.29 degrees W. Cats were accustomed to twice-daily feeding. Oestrous behaviour was seasonal and started in early January, irrespective of climatic conditions, with peak levels of oestrous activities in late January and February. Of all 60 heat periods observed, and conceptions recorded, the percentage occurrence was 58 and 49 in the first quarter, and 29 and 33, 12 and 16 and 1 and 2 in the second, third and fourth quarter, respectively. Queens could be reliably identified as being pregnant by 31.5 +/- 5.82 days, and were subjected between days 36 and 57 of gestation to daily oral treatment with 5-15 micrograms cabergoline kg-1 placed on food. Treatments (n = 41) from days 36 +/- 6.17 to 40.8 +/- 6.96 resulted in abortion in all animals on day 40.5 +/- 6.19; if treatment started as late as day 48.5, and lasted 9 or more days, premature parturition occurred. As cabergoline had caused mammary gland regression within 36-48 h, litters could not be nursed and perished quickly. Five repeatedly aborted queens were subsequently allowed to go to term. Pregnancies, gestation length (64.5 days), parturitions, maternal care and lactations were normal. Of the 24 kittens born out of seven pregnancies, 16 were observed from 6 months to 3 years. Pubertal oestrus and first conceptions occurred at 189.9 days (range 150-214 days) and 212.0 days (155-277 days), respectively. Males were seen to achieve reproductive success in their third year only.

  4. Polysomnographic characteristics in nonmalignant chronic pain populations: a review of controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Bjurstrom, Martin F.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sleep and pain are critical homeostatic systems that interact in a bidirectional manner. Complaints of sleep disturbance are ubiquitous among patients with chronic pain disorders, and conversely, patients with persistent insomnia symptoms commonly report suffering from chronic pain. Sleep deprivation paradigms demonstrate that partial or complete sleep loss induce hyperalgesia, possibly due to shared mechanistic pathways including neuroanatomic and molecular substrates. Further, chronic pain conditions and sleep disturbances are intertwined through comorbidities, which together cause detrimental psychological and physical consequences. This critical review examines 29 polysomnography studies to evaluate whether nonmalignant chronic pain patients, as compared to controls, show differences in objective measures of sleep continuity and sleep architecture. Whereas these controlled studies did not reveal a consistent pattern of objective sleep disturbances, alterations of sleep continuity were commonly reported. Alterations of sleep architecture such as increases in light sleep or decreases in slow-wave sleep were less commonly reported and findings were mixed and also inconsistent. Methodological flaws were identified, which complicated interpretation and limited conclusions; hence, recommendations for future research are suggested. Knowledge of abnormalities in the sleep process has implications for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic pain conditions, which might also direct the development of novel intervention strategies. PMID:26140866

  5. Genetic Association between Presenilin 2 Polymorphisms and Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia of Lewy Body Type in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ayako; Shibata, Nobuto; Kasanuki, Koji; Nagata, Tomoyuki; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takeshita, Yoshihide; Kawai, Eri; Takayama, Toshiki; Nishioka, Kenya; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Hisashi; Arai, Heii

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Mutations in the presenilin 2 (PSEN2) gene cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). Common polymorphisms affect gene activity and increase the risk of AD. Nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the PSEN2 gene showed Lewy body dementia (LBD) phenotypes clinically. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether PSEN2 gene polymorphisms were associated with AD or LBD. Methods Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene were analyzed using a case-control study design comprising 288 AD patients, 76 LBD patients, and 105 age-matched controls. Results Linkage disequilibrium (LD) examination showed strong LD from rs1295645 to rs8383 on the gene in our cases from Japan. There were no associations between the SNPs studied here and AD onset, and haplotypic analyses did not detect genetic associations between AD and the PSEN2 gene. Although the number of the cases was small, the SNPs studied did not modify the risk of developing LBD in a Japanese population. Conclusion The common SNPs of the PSEN2 gene did not affect the risk of AD or LBD in a Japanese population. Because genetic variability of the PSEN2 gene is associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD and LBD, further detailed analyses considering BPSD of both diseases would be required. PMID:27065294

  6. Childhood Leukemia and 50 Hz Magnetic Fields: Findings from the Italian SETIL Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salvan, Alberto; Ranucci, Alessandra; Lagorio, Susanna; Magnani, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    We report on an Italian case-control study on childhood leukemia and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Eligible for inclusion were 745 leukemia cases, aged 0–10 years at diagnosis in 1998–2001, and 1475 sex- and age-matched population controls. Parents of 683 cases and 1044 controls (92% vs. 71%) were interviewed. ELF-MF measurements (24–48 h), in the child’s bedroom of the dwelling inhabited one year before diagnosis, were available for 412 cases and 587 controls included in the main conditional regression analyses. The magnetic field induction was 0.04 μT on average (geometric mean), with 0.6% of cases and 1.6% of controls exposed to >0.3 μT. The impact of changes in the statistical model, exposure metric, and data-set restriction criteria was explored via sensitivity analyses. No exposure-disease association was observed in analyses based on continuous exposure, while analyses based on categorical variables were characterized by incoherent exposure-outcome relationships. In conclusion, our results may be affected by several sources of bias and they are noninformative at exposure levels >0.3 μT. Nonetheless, the study may contribute to future meta- or pooled analyses. Furthermore, exposure levels among population controls are useful to estimate attributable risk. PMID:25689995

  7. Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of hypospadias - a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wogelius, Pia; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Czeizel, Andrew E; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based case-control study was to examine the risk of isolated hypospadias in boys born to mothers who have used oral contraceptives in early pregnancy. The study was based on data from the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities from 1980 to 1996, and included 3,038 boys with hypospadias (cases), 24,799 boys without congenital abnormalities (CA-free controls), and 11,881 boys with abnormalities other than hypospadias. We used unconditional logistic regression to adjust for birth order, maternal age, maternal employment status, maternal diabetes, and pre-eclampsia. When comparing cases with CA-free controls the OR for maternal use of OC was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.67-2.17). When comparing cases with boys with other abnormalities, the OR for maternal use of OC was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.46-1.50). Our data showed that self-reported maternal use of oral contraceptives during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in the offspring.

  8. Increased prevalence of eosinophilia in a hemodialysis population: Longitudinal and case control studies.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Sarah; Corbett, Richard; Duncan, Neill; Ashby, Damien

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophilia is commonly found in patients with clinical reactions to the hemodialysis circuit. With modern membranes, such reactions have become less common, but they may be under diagnosed in patients with subtle symptoms, in whom the presence of eosinophilia is an important diagnostic feature. Two case reports are presented, along with a hemodialysis study of the frequency and clinical associations of eosinophilia. In three hemodialysis facilities, all current hemodialysis patients with persistent eosinophilia (greater than 1 × 10(9) /L for 3 months) were identified. Control patients without eosinophilia (less than 0.5 × 10(9) /L for 3 months) matched for age, gender, and ethnicity were identified from the same facilities. A historical cohort of patients, dialyzing at the same facilities 5 years ago, was screened for the presence of persistent eosinophilia. From 510 patients, 24 cases of persistent eosinophilia were identified (4.7%). The median eosinophil count was 1.75 × 10(9) /L (range 1.1-7.5 × 10(9) /L). The prevalence in a historical cohort 5 years previously was significantly less at 1.5% (P = 0.046). Compared to controls, patients with eosinophilia were more likely to be on an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (41.7% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.049), had a lower C-reactive protein (10 vs. 24 mg/L, P = 0.02) and were more likely to be using a fistula for access (P = 0.049). Over the following 12 months, there was no difference in the mean number of hospital admission days between cases and controls (7.6 vs. 11.5 days, P = 0.54), and no difference in mortality over 29 months (25.0% vs. 29.2%, P = 1.00). Eosinophilia remains not uncommon in hemodialysis patients, and in most cases reflects allergy to components of the dialysis circuit, which is usually subclinical. The overall prognosis for asymptomatic patients appears to be favourable.

  9. Randomised controlled trials of physical activity promotion in free living populations: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Thorogood, M; Anstiss, T; Morris, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review evidence on the effectiveness of trials of physical activity promotion in healthy, free living adults. To identify the more effective intervention programmes. METHODS--Computerised databases and references were searched. Experts were contacted and asked for information about existing work. INCLUSION CRITERIA--Randomised controlled trials of healthy, free living adult subjects, where exercise behaviour was the dependent variable were included. CONCLUSIONS--Ten trials were identified. The small number of trials limits the strength of any conclusions and highlights the need for more research. No UK based studies were found. Previously sedentary adults can increase activity levels and sustain them. Promotion of these changes requires personal instruction, continued support, and exercise of moderate intensity which does not depend on attendance at a facility. The exercise should be easily included into an existing lifestyle and should be enjoyable. Walking is the exercise most likely to fulfil these criteria. PMID:7499985

  10. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Giselle Hentzy; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case-control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000-2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue and 1,062 deaths. Factors independently associated with death included age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-3.29), < 4 years of schooling (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.47-2.28), a rural area (OR =2.84, 95% CI = 2.19-3.69), hospitalization (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.17-1.73), and a high hematocrit (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.85-3.28). Factors associated with a lower chance of dying were female sex (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.67-0.87), history of previous dengue (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.99), positive tourniquet test result (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), laboratory diagnosis of dengue (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92), and a platelet count of 50,000-100,000 cells/mm(3) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.87). The risk profile identified in this study should serve to direct public health interventions to minimize deaths.

  11. Socioeconomic factors and the risk of anencephaly in a Mexican population: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sánchez, Luisa Elvira; García García, Ana María; López Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control infants born during the period March 2000 to February 2001 were interviewed about their socioeconomic characteristics and other factors including reproductive history, use of prenatal care, use of tobacco and alcohol, fever during pregnancy, and folic acid supplementation. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, a risk gradient was seen with decreasing maternal education. Women with less than a primary school education (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.6) and women who had completed primary school but had not completed junior high school (adjusted OR=2.2; 95% CI 0.9, 5.7) had higher risks of giving birth to an infant with anencephaly, compared to women with a higher educational level. A monthly income < or = 1,000 pesos (approximately dollars 100 U.S.) was also associated with a higher risk of anencephaly (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.2, 5.1). Women employed in industry or agriculture during the acute risk period (three months prior to conception to one month after conception) had a risk 6.5 times (95% CI 1.4, 29.6) that of professional and business women. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps to identify groups that may be especially vulnerable to this type of congenital malformation so that primary and secondary preventive strategies can be targeted to these groups. PMID:15736330

  12. Stabilizing population.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Mitchell, J

    1998-04-01

    This article is a reprint of the Worldwatch