Science.gov

Sample records for age-matched control women

  1. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  2. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  3. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  4. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  5. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  6. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  7. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  8. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  9. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  10. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  11. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  12. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  13. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  14. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  15. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  16. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  17. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  18. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  19. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  20. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility. PMID:24430276

  1. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  2. Women's control and choice regarding HRT.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, F

    1999-08-01

    The promotion and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the focus of much medical activity and a social phenomenon studied by sociology. The decision to prescribe HRT by a doctor may be a response to a woman's distress and is a decision involving uncertainty about risks and benefits. Sociological analysis has seen the promotion and use of HRT as medicalisation of the menopause. Through individual interviews and focus groups, this study hears from women how they approach the decision to take HRT or not, and what influences them. The interviews reveal how women who dislike medication in general may consider HRT, influenced by fear of ill health which may be enhanced by the experience of illness in the family and by medical advice. For the women the media and their social contacts were the major sources of information about HRT. In the focus groups the women explored the control they had over the choice to take HRT and what limited this control and they explored the uncertainties and complexities of the decision to take HRT or not. This study brings lay women's voices to the debate about the use and promotion of HRT. The results are also used to test the limits of the theory of medicalisation and to inform doctors of the issues women may bring to a consultation about HRT. PMID:10414807

  3. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  4. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  5. Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi

    Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

  6. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  7. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  8. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS). Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016) geometric mean (95% CI) whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3) μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9) μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated. PMID:23317102

  9. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  10. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  11. Risk Factors for Preeclampsia in Women from Colombia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Laura M.; García, Ronald G.; Ruiz, Silvia L.; Camacho, Paul A.; Ospina, Maria B.; Aroca, Gustavo; Accini, Jose L.; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a multi-causal disease characterized by the development of hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of PE. Moreover, it is known that these risk factors vary between populations from developed and developing countries. The aim of this study is to identify which risk factors are associated with the development of preeclampsia (PE) among Colombian women. Methods A multi-centre case-control study was conducted between September 2006 and July 2009 in six Colombian cities. Cases included women with PE (n = 201); controls were aged-matched pregnant women (n = 201) without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases for a case-control ratio of 1∶1. A complete medical chart, physical examination and biochemical analysis were completed before delivery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of potential risk factors associated with PE. Results The presence of factors present in the metabolic syndrome cluster such as body mass index >31 Kg/m2 (OR = 2.18; 1.14–4.14 95% CI), high-density lipoprotein <1.24 mmol/L (OR = 2.42; 1.53–3.84 95% CI), triglycerides >3.24 mmol/L (OR = 1.60; 1.04–2.48 95% CI) and glycemia >4.9 mmol/L (OR = 2.66; 1.47–4.81 95%CI) as well as being primigravidae (OR = 1.71; 1.07–2.73 95% CI) were associated with the development of PE, after adjusting for other variables. Conclusion Factors present in the cluster of metabolic syndrome and primigravidity were associated with a greater risk of PE among Colombian women. Understanding the role of this cluster of risk factors in the development of PE is of crucial importance to prevent PE and remains to be determined. PMID:22911827

  12. Multiscale entropy identifies differences in complexity in postural control in women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Busa, Michael A; Jones, Stephanie L; Hamill, Joseph; van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2016-03-01

    Loss of postural center-of-pressure complexity (COP complexity) has been associated with reduced adaptability that accompanies disease and aging. The aim of this study was to identify if COP complexity is reduced: (1) in those with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) compared to controls; (2) when vision is limited compared to remaining intact; and (3) during more demanding postural conditions compared to quiet standing. Additionally, we explored the relationship between the COP complexity and disease severity, fatigue, cutaneous sensation and central motor drive. Twelve women with MS and 12 age-matched controls were tested under quiet standing and postural maximal lean conditions with normal and limited vision. The key dependent variable was the complexity index (CI) of the center of pressure. We observed a lower CI in the MS group compared to controls in both anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions (p's<0.002), during the performance of maximal self-regulated leans (AP: p<0.001; ML: p=0.018), and under limited vision (AP: p=0.001; ML: p=0.006). No group-by-vision interaction (p>0.05) was observed, indicating that limiting vision did not impact COP complexity differently in the two groups. Decreased cutaneous sensitivity was associated with lower CI values in the AP direction among those with MS (r(2)=0.57); all other measures did not exhibit significant relationships. The findings reported here suggest that (1) MS is associated with diminished COP complexity under both normal and challenging postures, and (2) complexity is strongly correlated with cutaneous sensitivity, suggesting the unique contribution of impaired somatosensation on postural control deficits in persons with MS. PMID:26979875

  13. A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control among Rural Kansas Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary-care providers around weight control. Design: Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting: Three separate communities of rural Kansas. Participants: Six focus groups…

  14. Fear of Success and Locus of Control in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Nina; Abrams, Marsha Stein

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the relationship, in women, between the motive to avoid success and feelings of being controlled externally. The results suggest that achievement motivation is blocked or lowered by feelings of external control in the situation of arousal of achievement anxieties in young women. (Author/PC)

  15. The Comparative Experiences of Women in Control

    PubMed Central

    Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C.; Wiecha, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize participants’ experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

  16. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  17. Specific serum carotenoids are inversely associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Lu, Min-Shan; Wang, Lian; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Luo, Wei-Ping; Du, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-14

    Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95% CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95% CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95% CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95% CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95% CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk. PMID:26482064

  18. Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer in young women. A joint national case-control study in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Meirik, O; Lund, E; Adami, H O; Bergström, R; Christoffersen, T; Bergsjö, P

    1986-09-20

    The possible association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and the risk of breast cancer developing before the age of 45 was investigated by means of a population based case-control study in Sweden and Norway. Information was obtained by personal interview from 422 (89.2%) of all eligible patients with a newly diagnosed breast cancer from May, 1984, to May, 1985, and from 722 (80.6%) of all contacted age-matched controls. A multivariate analysis, which accounted for several possible confounding factors, revealed a significant (p = 0.03) association between total duration of OC use and breast cancer risk. The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer after 12 or more years of OC use was 2.2 (1.2-4.0). OC use for more than 7 years before first full-term pregnancy entailed an increased breast cancer risk (RR = 2.0 [1.0-4.2]) which was of borderline significance. When total duration of use was considered, the risk of breast cancer was virtually unrelated to age at first OC use and latency from first use. The results suggest that long-term use of OCs may increase the risk of breast cancer in young women. PMID:2876135

  19. High Intake of Energy and Fat in Southwest Chinese Women with PCOS: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhou, Lingling; Tang, Liulin; Zhuang, Jing; Guo, Wenqi; Hu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinological disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Obesity contributes to the increased prevalence and severity of PCOS. Whether the intakes of major nutrients are higher in Chinese PCOS patients is still unknown. Objectives To study the intakes of total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Methods 1854 women were included in the cross-sectional study. A population-based case-control study was conducted. The dietary habits and nutrients intake status of 169 PCOS patients and 338 age-matched controls were investigated by the method of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results The actual intake of total energy (P = 0.01) and fat (P = 0.01) were higher, but carbohydrate was lower (P = 0.01) in PCOS patients as compared with the controls. The energy percentage supplied by protein (12.33%±2.27% vs. 19.26%±5.91%, P<0.001) and carbohydrate (48.72%±6.41% vs. 68.31%±8.37%, P<0.001) were lower in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients than those of control, however, the energy percentage supplied by fat was higher (38.95%±5.71% vs. 12.42%±5.13%, P<0.001) in PCOS. Conclusions Limit the intake of total energy and fat shall be recommended to the Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Women with PCOS in Southwest China shall consult with the nutritionist for improving the dietary structure. PMID:25993656

  20. Who's the victim: women, control and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, J E

    1990-01-01

    It is contended that newspaper coverage of rape can be biased against women, so retarding the progress of rape law reform in America. The extent of coverage and the slant put on a particular case by a newspaper in Duluth, Minnesota, is closely examined in support of the thesis. PMID:2122157

  1. Highly Effective Birth Control Use Before and After Women's Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Cropsey, Karen L.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Kelly, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We examined factors associated with women's use of highly effective birth control before and after incarceration, since women with ongoing criminal justice involvement bear a disproportionate burden of sexual and reproductive health problems, including high rates of unintended pregnancy and inconsistent contraceptive use. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we conducted surveys with 102 women in an urban midwestern jail and then followed up with 66 of them 6 months after incarceration. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess individual, interpersonal, resource-based, organizational, and environmental factors associated with utilizing highly effective birth control. Results: Forty-two percent of women reported utilizing highly effective birth control (e.g., sterilization or other highly effective reversible methods) prior to incarceration, and 54% reported using these methods after release from jail (p<0.001). Ninety percent of women reported not wanting to get pregnant. Consistent use of birth control (p=0.001) and alcohol problems (p=0.027) were associated with utilization of highly effective birth control prior to incarceration. Previous pregnancies (p=0.012) were the only factor associated with utilization of highly effective birth control after release from jail. Conclusions: Clinicians and public health practitioners can use findings from this study to develop clinical and intervention efforts aimed at improving unintended-pregnancy prevention among incarcerated women both during their confinement and during the tumultuous period after their release from jail. PMID:25555175

  2. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  3. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP. PMID:26486463

  4. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation). PMID:27583083

  5. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  6. Women's health and the privatization of fertility control in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giffin, K

    1994-08-01

    In Brazil, privatization of the public sphere and neglect of public health is part of a conservative modernization strategy that is dominated by elite groups. The politics of human reproduction, consistent with this pattern, have left women dependent on the private sector for access to the means of fertility control, in spite of the existence of a conceptually-advanced public programme for comprehensive health care for women--a programme which expressed the demands of, and is widely supported by, the women's movement. While both the rate of contraceptive use and the types of methods used (oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization) are modern, the privatization of fertility control has resulted in a complete separation between fertility control and health care for poor women, who are the vast majority. Evidence indicates that many, perhaps most, women accumulate the health effects of totally uncontrolled and incorrect use of oral contraceptives, including unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions, in the end resorting to clandestine surgical sterilization, which is usually performed through unnecessary caesarean section. Data on reproductive morbidity and mortality, however, are virtually non-existent. International women's reproductive rights networks and alternative services for women have advocated greater empowerment for women, in terms of improved standards of self-care and increased power in the use of health services. As a result, a gender approach to reproductive health care is now being proposed for government programmes. The Brazilian case services as an example of the limits faced by such programmes when adopted in a wider context of unfavorable political conditions. PMID:7939851

  7. Potential explanations for the educational gradient in coronary heart disease: a population-based case-control study of Swedish women.

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, S P; Mittleman, M A; Schenck-Gustafsson, K; Orth-Gomér, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between educational attainment and coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors that may explain this association. METHODS: This population-based case-control study included 292 women with CHD who were 65 years or younger and 292 age-matched controls. RESULTS: Compared with the adjusted odds ratio for CHD associated with college education, the age-adjusted odds ratio associated with mandatory education (< or = 9 years) was 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 2.84) and the odds ratio for high school education was 1.35 (95% CI = 0.81, 2.25) (P for trend < .01). The odds ratio for mandatory education was reduced by 82%, to 1.16 (95% CI = 0.69, 2.09), after adjustment for psychosocial stress, unhealthy lifestyle patterns, hemostatic factors, hypertension, and lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the increased risk of CHD in women with low education appears to be linked to psychosocial stress and lifestyle factors. Hemostatic factors, lipids, and hypertension also contribute to a lesser extent. These factors may be considered in strategies geared to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular health. PMID:10076479

  8. Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ram, E P; Singh, A C

    1991-04-01

    Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All

  9. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as

  10. Women's Perceptions of Power and Control in Sexual Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with…

  11. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely ...

  12. Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

  13. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3). Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus. PMID:24142184

  14. Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg; Cvancarova, Milada; Wist, Erik; Bjoro, Trine; Dahl, Alv A.; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

  15. Young adult women: lifestyle and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M

    1993-08-01

    A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns. PMID:8376662

  16. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  17. Women's perceptions of power and control in sexual abuse counseling.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Corinne V

    2007-01-01

    Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with agenda; (2) willingness to offer choices; (3) response to criticism; (4) response to client as an equal or with honor; (5) sexual interest; (6) approach to client's suggestions; (7) expectations regarding forgiveness; and (8) consultation with alter identities. Implications for counseling practice, research, and counselor education are discussed. PMID:17255076

  18. Women as prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Skelton, W P; Skelton, N K

    1995-11-01

    American women are increasingly becoming involved in combat-related roles. Inevitably, our country will have several killed and taken prisoner. No National Academy of Science/National Research Council or VA study has ever been undertaken to examine the chronic sequelae of the experiences undergone by these captured women. This paper examines the after-effects of 3.5 years of incarceration on the 79 American women taken prisoner by the Japanese in the Philippines during World War II. Emphasis is given to their living conditions in a prisoner-of-war camp and their resulting long-term disabilities. Comparison of data reported in this paper with those of several epidemiological studies of male survivors of Philippine camps allows several novel points to be made. Overall, half of the women had a service-connected disability, exactly like the men. Furthermore, although the average degree of service-connected disability, 37%, is the same as that of the men, not one of the women in this study was service-connected for tuberculosis or peptic ulcer disease. This is a major finding, since, compared to age-matched combat controls, the men had a higher post-repatriation death rate for the first 7 years due to tuberculosis; likewise, peptic ulcer disease is so common in the male survivors that it is a presumptive service-connected disability. PMID:8538890

  19. Sexuality of young women surviving leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Puukko, L; Hirvonen, E; Aalberg, V; Hovi, L; Rautonen, J; Siimes, M

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 7 December 1996
 This study was designed to assess the sexuality of young women surviving acute leukaemia in childhood or early adolescence. Thirty of 31 survivors were compared with 50 healthy age matched controls. Three methods were used: a self report questionnaire, a face to face interview conducted by a psychiatrist, and a projective psychological test. The age at initiation of dating and sexual activity, the frequency of sexual intercourse, and opinions on sexual behaviour were similar in the two groups. With regard to inner sexuality, however, the survivors differed significantly from the healthy controls. Their images of sexuality were more restrictive, and their attitudes, especially those concerning sexual pleasure, were more negative than those of the controls. Sexual identity among the survivors was less often feminine and more often infantile as compared with the controls. The findings obtained with the three methods of assessment were concordant.

 PMID:9135258

  20. Men's controlling behaviors and women's experiences of physical violence in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-09-01

    In the feminist paradigm, intimate partner violence (IPV) among heterosexual couples is gender asymmetric and largely a tactic of male control. However, research on the relationship between men's controlling behavior and physical violence against women is limited. This study examines whether having a controlling partner is associated with women's reports of experiencing physical violence in Malawi. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from 8,385 women who completed the domestic violence module of the Malawi 2004 Demographic and Health Survey. About 18 % of women reported they had experienced moderately severe physical violence and 1 % experienced very severe violence in the past 12 months. A third of women reported their partners had ever been controlling. Results from multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that women who had controlling partners were significantly more likely to report experiencing physical violence. Other factors significantly associated with women's experience of physical violence included women who reported initiating physical violence against their partners, women's work status, partners' lower education level, and partners' alcohol consumption. Women with controlling partners were at increased risk of experiencing physical violence in the past year. However, women who reported initiating physical violence in the past year were nearly four times more likely to experience partner violence in the same time period. Future research should attempt to elucidate these two important risk factors for IPV. PMID:22996380

  1. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  2. Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

  3. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  4. Becoming farmers: opening spaces for women's resource control in Calakmul, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Radel, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Despite empirical findings on women's varied and often extensive participation in smallholder agriculture in Latin America, their participation continues to be largely invisible. In this article, I argue that the intransigency of farming women's invisibility reflects, in part, a discursive construction of farmers as men. Through a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods, including interviews with one hundred women in Calakmul, Mexico, I demonstrate the material implications of gendered farmer identities for women's control of resources, including land and conservation and development project resources. In particular, I relate the activities of one women's agricultural community-based organization and the members' collective adoption of transgressive identities as farmers. For these women, the process of becoming farmers resulted in increased access to and control over resources. This empirical case study illustrates the possibility of women's collective action to challenge and transform women's continued local invisibility as agricultural actors in rural Latin American spaces. PMID:22069807

  5. Are patterns of bone loss in anorexic and postmenopausal women similar? Preliminary results using high resolution peripheral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Milos, Gabriella; Häuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Rüegsegger, Peter; Gallo, Luigi M

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30 years (mean duration of AN: 5.8 years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than those in controls but still higher than those in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling. PMID:24084384

  6. Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

    This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

  7. 2007 Presidential Address: Fear of Losing Control--Power, Perfectionism, and the Psychology of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence and popular culture suggest that fear of losing control of oneself is common among North American women, yet there is little in the way of data or theory to show why so many women fear loss of control or how to help them to leave that fear behind. In this article a commonly accepted definition of self-regulation is examined…

  8. Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

  9. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... UI? Taking Control: Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5- ... own home. Page 0 Page 2 What is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on ...

  10. Lifelong vegetarianism and risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women living in England.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Mangtani, Punam; McCormack, Valerie; Bhakta, Dee; Sevak, Leena; McMichael, Anthony J

    2002-05-10

    To investigate the role of lifelong vegetarianism on the aetiology of female breast cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women from the Indian subcontinent resident in England. A total of 240 South Asian breast cancer cases were identified from 2 cancer registries during 1995-1999. For each case, 2 age-matched South Asian controls were randomly selected from the age-sex register of the case practice. Lifelong vegetarians had a slight reduction, although not statistically significant, in the odds of breast cancer relative to lifelong meat-eaters, which persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic and reproductive variables [odds ratio (OR)=0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.50-1.18]. Analysis by food group revealed no linear trend in the odds of breast cancer with increasing consumption of meat (p=0.10) but the odds were higher for women in the top 75%. In contrast, there were strong inverse trends in the odds of breast cancer with increasing intake of vegetables (p=0.005), pulses (p=0.007) and fibre [non-starch polysaccharides, NSP (p=0.02)], with women in the highest 25% of intake of these foods having about 50% of the odds of those in the lowest ones. Adjustment for intake of vegetables and pulses reverted the odds of breast cancer in lifelong vegetarians relative to lifelong meat-eaters (OR=1.04; 95% CI=0.65-1.68) and attenuated the quartile-specific estimates for meat intake, whereas the inverse trends in the odds of breast cancer with intake of vegetables and pulses remained after adjustment for type of diet or meat intake. These findings suggest that lifelong vegetarianism may be associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer through its association with a higher intake of vegetables and pulses. Although it is not possible to exclude the possibility that lifelong meat abstention may also play a role, the findings provide evidence that a diet rich in vegetables and pulses, such as those typically

  11. Standardized measures of lobular involution and subsequent breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Brinton, Louise A; Palakal, Maya M; Degnim, Amy C; Radisky, Derek; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Stallings Mann, Melody L; Papathomas, Daphne; Gierach, Gretchen L; Hewitt, Stephen M; Duggan, Maire A; Visscher, Daniel; Sherman, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct-lobular unit (TDLU) involution predict higher breast cancer risk; however, standardized measures to quantitate levels of TDLU involution have only recently been developed. We assessed whether three standardized measures of TDLU involution, with high intra/inter pathologist reproducibility in normal breast tissue, predict subsequent breast cancer risk among women in the Mayo benign breast disease (BBD) cohort. We performed a masked evaluation of biopsies from 99 women with BBD who subsequently developed breast cancer (cases) after a median of 16.9 years and 145 age-matched controls. We assessed three metrics inversely related to TDLU involution: TDLU count/mm(2), median TDLU span (microns, which approximates acini content), and median category of acini counts/TDLU (0-10; 11-20; 21-30; 31-50; >50). Associations with subsequent breast cancer risk for quartiles (or categories of acini counts) of each of these measures were assessed with multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). In multivariable models, women in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartiles of TDLU counts and TDLU span measures were significantly associated with subsequent breast cancer diagnoses; TDLU counts quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.44, 95 %CI 0.96-6.19, p-trend = 0.02; and TDLU spans, quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.83, 95 %CI = 1.13-7.06, p-trend = 0.03. Significant associations with categorical measures of acini counts/TDLU were also observed: compared to women with median category of <10 acini/TDLU, women with >25 acini counts/TDLU were at significantly higher risk, OR = 3.40, 95 %CI 1.03-11.17, p-trend = 0.032. Women with TDLU spans and TDLU count measures above the median were at further increased risk, OR = 3.75 (95 %CI 1.40-10.00, p-trend = 0.008), compared with women below the median for both of these metrics. Similar results were observed for

  12. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  13. Associations of neonatal high birth weight with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain: a case–control study in women from Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong; Han, Lingli; Zhou, Xiaoli; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Junnan; Yao, Ruoxue; Li, Tingyu; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal high birth weight (HBW) in a sample of Chinese women living in southwest China. Methods A hospital-based case–control study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 221 mothers who delivered HBW babies (>4.0 kg) were recruited as cases and 221 age-matched (2-year interval) mothers with normal birth weight babies (2.5–4.0 kg) were identified as controls. ORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. For the analysis, pre-pregnancy BMI was categorised as underweight/normal weight/overweight and obesity and GWG was categorised as inadequate/appropriate/excessive. Results Among the cases, mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 21.8±2.8 kg/m2, mean GWG was 19.7±5.1 kg and mean neonatal birth weight was 4.2±0.2 kg. In the controls, the corresponding values were 21.1±3.1 kg/m2, 16.4±5.0 kg and 3.3±0.4 kg, respectively. More cases than controls gained excessive weight during pregnancy (80.1% vs 48.4%, p<0.001). No significant association was found between pre-pregnancy BMI and HBW babies (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.11; p>0.05). GWG was positively related to HBW after adjustment for gravidity, gestational age, newborns' gender and family income (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25; p<0.001). The adjusted OR of delivering HBW babies was 5.39 (95% CI 2.94 to 9.89; p<0.001) for excessive GWG versus appropriate GWG. This OR was strengthened among pre-pregnancy normal weight women (OR=10.27, 95% CI 3.20 to 32.95; p<0.001). Conclusions Overall, the findings suggest a significantly positive association between GWG and HBW. However, pre-pregnancy BMI shows no independent relationship with HBW. PMID:27531723

  14. Testosterone and mood dysfunction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome compared to subfertile controls.

    PubMed

    Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Saxby, Brian K; Kuczmierczyk, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been found to suffer from fertility problems and mood dysfunction. To control for any effect of fertility problems, the present study compared mood dysfunction in women with PCOS to non-PCOS women with fertility problems. Seventy-six women with PCOS and 49 subfertile controls reported their anxiety, depression and aggression levels, and the relationship between mood and testosterone (T) was assessed. Controlling for age and BMI using MANCOVA, women with PCOS were significantly more neurotic (had difficulty coping with stress) than controls, had more anger symptoms, were significantly more likely to withhold feelings of anger and had more quality of life problems related to the symptoms of their condition (acne, hirsutism, menstrual problems and emotions). In a subgroup of 30 women matched on age, BMI and ethnicity, it was found that women with PCOS were significantly more anxious and depressed than controls. T was not generally correlated with mood states. This is the first study to identify problems with neuroticism and withholding anger in women with PCOS. These mood problems appear to be mainly attributable to PCOS symptoms, though other factors, such as hypoglycaemia, cannot be ruled out. PMID:21473679

  15. The relationship between stress and weight-control behavior in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Walcott-McQuigg, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight. PMID:7595965

  16. Birth control sabotage and forced sex: experiences reported by women in domestic violence shelters.

    PubMed

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Rostovtseva, Daria P; Khera, Satin; Godhwani, Nita

    2010-05-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence often experience birth control sabotage, forced sex, and partner's unwillingness to use condoms. We interviewed 53 women at four domestic violence shelters. Participants reported that their abusive partners frequently refused to use condoms, impeded them from accessing health care, and subjected them to birth control sabotage, infidelity, and forced sex. However, women also reported strategies to counteract these actions, particularly against birth control sabotage and attempts to force them to abort or continue a pregnancy. Domestic violence counselors can focus on these successful strategies to validate coping skills and build self-esteem. PMID:20388933

  17. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of…

  18. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  19. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. PMID:26020580

  20. [Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

    2010-02-01

    In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. PMID:20069267

  1. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery. PMID:24521459

  2. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  3. Back massage intervention for relieving lower back pain in puerperal women: A randomized control trial study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Jung; Ko, Yi-Li

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a back massage (BM) intervention in relieving lower back pain (LBP) in post-partum women.This is a randomized controlled trial study. Sixty normal spontaneous delivery women (response rate: 96.7%), who gave birth at our hospital, participated in this study from February to May of 2012. We randomly assigned 30 women to the experimental group and 30 women to the control group. During the 1 month post-partum period, the women in the experimental group received a BM for 5 consecutive days, whereas the women in the control group received routine care only. The LBP score was assessed according to a pain visual analog scale. After 5 days of intervention, the experimental group (n = 30) experienced significantly less LBP than did the control group (n = 30) (2.97 ± 1.71 vs. 4.43 ± 1.77, t = 3.26, P = 0.002). BM therapy can effectively reduce LBP during the first post-partum month. Additional studies are required to confirm the effects of BM therapy during extended post-partum periods. PMID:26125572

  4. Multiple primary tumours in women with vulvar neoplasms: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, K. J.; Daling, J. R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, B.; Weiss, N. S.

    1988-01-01

    We sought to determine whether women with in situ or invasive squamous cell vulvar cancer were more likely than other women to have had a previous or concurrent tumour at other anogenital sites. One hundred and fifty-eight women with vulvar cancer were identified who were first diagnosed during 1980-1985, were ages 18-79 years at that time, and were residents of one of three counties in western Washington. Two control groups were selected: (1) from records of hospital pathology departments, a sample of 113 women with certain benign conditions of the vulva; (2) through random digit dialing, a sample of 212 women from the general population of these counties. Information on a history of other cancers, and on sexual, reproductive, medical, and demographic characteristics was collected from cases and controls in at-home interviews. Cases were more likely to report a history of other anogenital cancers than were controls, with relative risks of 3.5-29.8, depending on the type of case group and type of control. These associations were not explained by case-control differences in demographic characteristics or frequency of cervical screening. On the other hand, prior or concurrent non-anogenital cancers were equally common in cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that the different anogenital cancers have at least one aetiology in common. PMID:3390379

  5. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control. PMID:8045092

  6. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  8. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  9. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  10. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. Objective: The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. Methods: To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Results: Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P < 0.001) 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA), a metabolite that accumulates during the catabolism of leucine when the activity of biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl–coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful

  11. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Hoşgör, Ayşe Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  12. Amygdala alterations during an emotional conflict task in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-02-28

    The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is not completely understood, but research suggests that alterations in brain circuits related to cognitive control and emotion are central. The aim of this study was to explore neural responses to an emotional conflict task in women recovered from AN. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotional conflict task in 22 women recovered from AN and 21 age-matched healthy controls. The task involved categorizing affective faces while ignoring affective words. Face and word stimuli were either congruent (non-conflict) or incongruent (conflict). Brain responses to emotional conflict did not differ between groups. However, in response to emotional non-conflict, women recovered from AN relative to healthy controls showed significantly less activation in the bilateral amygdala. Specifically, while emotional non-conflict evoked significant activations of the amygdala in healthy controls, recovered AN women did not show such activations. Similar significant group differences were also observed in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. These results suggest that women recovered from AN are characterized by alterations within emotion-related brain circuits. Recovered women's absence of amygdala and hippocampus activation during non-conflict trials possibly reflects an impaired ability to process emotional significant stimuli. PMID:26778366

  13. Aberrant nocturnal cortisol and disease progression in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeitzer, Jamie M; Nouriani, Bita; Rissling, Michelle B; Sledge, George W; Kaplan, Katherine A; Aasly, Linn; Palesh, Oxana; Jo, Booil; Neri, Eric; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Spiegel, David

    2016-07-01

    While a relationship between disruption of circadian rhythms and the progression of cancer has been hypothesized in field and epidemiologic studies, it has never been unequivocally demonstrated. We determined the circadian rhythm of cortisol and sleep in women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) under the conditions necessary to allow for the precise measurement of these variables. Women with ABC (n = 97) and age-matched controls (n = 24) took part in a 24-h intensive physiological monitoring study involving polysomnographic sleep measures and high-density plasma sampling. Sleep was scored using both standard clinical metrics and power spectral analysis. Three-harmonic regression analysis and functional data analysis were used to assess the 24-h and sleep-associated patterns of plasma cortisol, respectively. The circadian pattern of plasma cortisol as described by its timing, timing relative to sleep, or amplitude was indistinguishable between women with ABC and age-matched controls (p's > 0.11, t-tests). There was, however, an aberrant spike of cortisol during the sleep of a subset of women, during which there was an eightfold increase in the amount of objectively measured wake time (p < 0.004, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank). This cortisol aberration was associated with cancer progression such that the larger the aberration, the shorter the disease-free interval (time from initial diagnosis to metastasis; r = -0.30, p = 0.004; linear regression). The same aberrant spike was present in a similar percent of women without ABC and associated with concomitant sleep disruption. A greater understanding of this sleep-related cortisol abnormality, possibly a vulnerability trait, is likely important in our understanding of individual variation in the progression of cancer. PMID:27314577

  14. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  15. Male reproductive control of women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Frohwirth, Lori; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) are consistently found to have poor sexual and reproductive health when compared to non-abused women, but the mechanisms through which such associations occur are inadequately defined. Through face-to-face, semi-structured in-depth interviews, we gathered full reproductive histories of 71 women aged 18-49 with a history of IPV recruited from a family planning clinic, an abortion clinic and a domestic violence shelter in the United States. A phenomenon which emerged among 53 respondents (74%) was male reproductive control which encompasses pregnancy-promoting behaviors as well as control and abuse during pregnancy in an attempt to influence the pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy promotion involves male partner attempts to impregnate a woman including verbal threats about getting her pregnant, unprotected forced sex, and contraceptive sabotage. Once pregnant, male partners resort to behaviors that threaten a woman if she does not do what he desires with the pregnancy. Reproductive control was present in violent as well as non-violent relationships. By assessing for male reproductive control among women seeking reproductive health services, including antenatal care, health care providers may be able to provide education, care, and counseling to help women protect their reproductive health and physical safety. PMID:20359808

  16. Impact of pedometer-based walking on menopausal women's sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, M; Abedi, P; Farshadbakht, F

    2016-08-01

    Objective Sleep disturbances are one of the most common psycho-physiological issues among postmenopausal women. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of walking with a pedometer on the sleep quality of postmenopausal Iranian women. Methods This randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 112 women who were randomly assigned to two groups. The women in the intervention group (n = 56) were asked to walk with a pedometer each day for 12 weeks and to increase their walking distance by 500 steps per week. A sociodemographic instrument and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. Sleep quality was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. The control group (n = 56) did not receive any intervention. Results After 12 weeks, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction improved to a significantly greater extent in the intervention group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The total sleep quality score was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (0.64 vs. 0.98, p = 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that walking with a pedometer is an easy and cost-effective way to improve the quality of sleep among postmenopausal women. Use of this method in public health centers is recommended. PMID:26757356

  17. Abnormal gonadotropin release and carbohydrate metabolism in morbid obese women.

    PubMed

    Sheu, W H; Lee, W J

    1997-12-31

    Obese women are associated with clinical symptoms suggestive of abnormal reproductive functions including irregular menses and infertility. Previous studies of gonadotropin release in obese women, basal or after luteal hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) stimulation, are controversial. Obese women are also often characterized by glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia which might relate to their excessive body fat. To understand the link between abnormal gonadotropin release, carbohydrate metabolism and percent body fat, we examined 17 premenopausal morbid obese women with body mass index (BMI) 38.7 +/- 1.6 Kg/m2 (mean +/- SEM) and 16 age-matched lean controls with BMI 19.7 +/- 0.6 Kg/m2. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide values were measured before and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after a 75 gm oral glucose tolerant test (OGTT). Each individual also received LHRH test which involved determinations of serum LH and FSH values at basal, 15, 30 and 60 min after injection of LHRH for 0.1 mg intravenously. Women with morbid obesity had significantly greater responses of glucose, insulin and C-peptide values as compared with lean women (all p < 0.001, two-way ANOVA). Despite that basal concentrations were not different, serum LH, FSH and ratio of LH to FSH values in response to LHRH test showed significantly lesser increase in obese women than lean controls. Percent body fat, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, correlated positively with plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses to OGTT while negatively with ratio of LH to FSH responses (r = -0.418, p < 0.01) to LHRH test. Body mass index also correlated inversely with ratio of LH to FSH responses (r = -0.472, p < 0.01). In conclusion, morbid obese women had glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and lower responses of serum LH and FSH values as compared with lean women. Excessive body fat play an important role in mediating these carbohydrate and gonadotropin abnormalities. PMID:9551249

  18. Reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes in overweight women: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-03-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25-35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  19. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility. PMID:17364713

  20. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been

  1. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The

  2. Comparison of Dietary Intake between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women and Controls.

    PubMed

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Moslehi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated endocrinopathy affecting women in reproductive age. The crucial role of obesity and insulin resistance in progression of metabolic and cardiovascular features of PCOS has been confirmed. Although it has been suggested that there is a possible association between dietary pattern and risk of PCOS, few studies investigating the diet composition of PCOS women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intakes between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and eumenorrheic non hirsute women. This was a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 eumenorrheic non hirsute healthy age and BMI matched controls. We compared the dietary intakes of our study group using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using T-test or Mann-Whitney to compare the means of two groups. One way Anova was used to compare the tertiles of GI and GL in each group and a two way ANOVA was used to compare between tertiles of GI-GL and groups. The results demonstrated that energy and macronutrient intakes in PCOS women compared to controls were similar. PCOS group consumed more food items with high glycemic index (p=0.042) and less legumes (P=0.026) and vegetables (p=0.037) than controls. Both groups in the highest tertile of glycemic load (GL) had higher body mass index and waist circumference. Considering the results of this study, it was concluded that PCOS women had a dietary pattern that was characterized by a higher consumption of high GI food items and lower legumes and vegetables. PMID:27157182

  3. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status. PMID:23086250

  4. High prevalence and low awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Pandey, R M; Misra, A; Agrawal, A; Misra, P; Dey, S; Rao, S; Menon, V U; Kamalamma, N; Vasantha Devi, K P; Revathi, K; Vikram, N K; Sharma, V; Guptha, S

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is an important public health problem in India. To determine its prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among women, we performed a nationwide study. Population-based studies among women aged 35-70 years were performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4608 (rural 2604 and urban 2004) of the targeted 8000 (57%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity, anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Descriptive statistics are reported. Logistic regression was performed to determine the association of hypertension and its awareness, treatment and control with socioeconomic factors. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (known or BP≥140/≥90 mm Hg) was observed in 1672 women (39.2%) (rural 746, 31.5%; urban 926, 48.2%). Significant determinants of hypertension were urban location, greater literacy, high dietary fat, low fibre intake, obesity and truncal obesity (P<0.01). Hypertension awareness was noted in 727 women (42.8%), more in urban (529, 56.8%) than in rural (198, 24.6%). Of these, 38.6% of the women were on treatment (urban 35.7, rural 46.5) and of those treated, controlled blood pressure (<140 and <90 mm Hg) was observed in 21.5% (urban 28.3 vs 10.2). Among hypertensive subjects, treatment was noted in 18.3% (rural 13.1, urban 22.5) and control in 3.9% (rural 1.3, urban 5.9). A significant determinant of low awareness, treatment and control was rural location (multivariate-adjusted P<0.05). There is a high prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged Asian Indian women. Very low awareness, treatment and control status are observed. PMID:21881598

  5. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  6. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high‐risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L; Murray, Pamela J; Chang, Chung‐Chou H; Comer, Diane M; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Aim To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high‐risk sample of young women. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9 years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD‐related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high‐prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. Results Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10%) home tests were positive. Women who received home screening tests completed significantly more STD tests overall (1.94 vs 1.41 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001) and more STD tests in the absence of symptoms (1.18 vs 0.75 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001). More women in the intervention group completed at least one test when asymptomatic (162 (82.2%) vs 117 (61.3%), p<0.001). The intervention was most effective among women recruited outside medical clinics. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of STDs detected. Conclusions Home screening significantly increased the utilisation of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in this sample of high‐risk young women, and thus represents a feasible strategy to facilitate STD testing in young women. PMID:17301105

  7. Proud2Bme: Exploratory research on care and control in young women's online eating disorder narratives.

    PubMed

    Hipple Walters, Bethany; Adams, Samantha; Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Illness narratives have been studied to understand the patient's point of view. These narratives are becoming more prolific, accessible, and specialized, thanks to the improved Internet access and the growth of health-specific online communities. This article analyses illness narratives posted on a Dutch eating disorder website hosted by a treatment centre. Specifically, we look at 'care of the self' and 'control'. The young women wrote about controlling situations with disordered eating as a self-care tool, about being controlled by the disorder and about regaining control over the disorder. The website, with the opportunity for constant, unseen supervision, coercion through comments, and steering through edits and comments, revealed various modalities of control. While issues of control and eating disorders have been explored by others, little work has been done on how the control experienced by the young women (coercion on the individual, the body as the object of control, and the modality of pressure and supervision) interact, how control is presented in stories for a recovery-focused, monitored website, and how the website directs the content. As recovery-focused, therapist-led website is likely to continue growing, understanding how and why young women talk about care and control in the context of such websites is an important topic. PMID:25769694

  8. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  9. Cardiopulmonary effects of traditional Thai dance on menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Phusririt, Chonticha; Angkapattamakul, Sariya; Hurst, Cameron P.; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40 years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women. PMID:26357441

  10. Reach of the Montana Cancer Control Program to Women with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Shropshire, William C; Zimmerman, Heather; Van Brunt, Jim; Betts, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Women with disabilities have lower screening rates for breast and cervical cancer with some evidence suggesting that people with disabilities experience higher cancer mortality and may receive a different course of treatment. This study examined whether women with and without disabilities using Montana Cancer Control Program (MCCP) differ in use of breast (BCS) and cervical (CCS) screening services, receipt of and follow up for inconclusive or abnormal results, and compliance with BCS and CCS US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. Study participants were women eligible for MCCP screening services between November 2012 and October 2014, with eligibility based on insurance status (underinsured/no insurance), income requirements (<200 % poverty based on income/household size), and age. The data derive from participant self-report (demographic, disability, and health history including previous mammogram or Papanicolaou test) and MCCP records of screening tests (clinical breast exam, mammogram, or Pap test), results, and follow up visits. About 11.5 % of MCCP participants reported having a disability. MCCP recipients with a disability were significantly older, more likely to be non-Hispanic White, and more likely to have poor health profiles. Disability status did not affect use of MCCP screening services, screening outcome, or follow up for inconclusive or abnormal results. However, women with disability had significantly lower BCS and CCS compliance (based on US Preventive Task Force guidelines) than women without disability, which persisted in adjusted analyses controlling for other significant factors. The MCCP is reaching un/underinsured Montana women with disabilities. While disability status in this sample was not related to use of MCCP services or screening outcome, MCCP recipients with disabilities have significantly lower BCS and CCS compliance. Efforts to increase compliance for un/underinsured Montana women with a disability are warranted. PMID

  11. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad Ehsan; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Zaryoun, Hassan; Rabiee, Soghra; Moaddab, Arta; Khodadoustan, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls) were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL), plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384). Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases. PMID:26759585

  12. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  13. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey) and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and information on their

  14. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  15. A Continuum of Male Controls and Violence against Women: A Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for teaching social work students and professionals about widely existing severe, subtle, and overt forms of male controls and violence against women is described. Topics addressed during a three-hour workshop ranged from sexist language to harassment, battery, and femicide. Evaluation of workshops using the model suggest participants…

  16. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  17. Lay support for pregnant women with social risk: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Sara; Jolly, Kate; Hemming, Karla; Hope, Lucy; Blissett, Jackie; Dann, Sophie-Anna; Lilford, Richard; MacArthur, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought evidence of effectiveness of lay support to improve maternal and child outcomes in disadvantaged families. Design Prospective, pragmatic, individually randomised controlled trial. Setting 3 Maternity Trusts in West Midlands, UK. Participants Following routine midwife systematic assessment of social risk factors, 1324 nulliparous women were assigned, using telephone randomisation, to standard maternity care, or addition of referral to a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service. Those under 16 years and teenagers recruited to the Family Nurse Partnership trial were excluded. Interventions POWs were trained to provide individual support and case management for the women including home visiting from randomisation to 6 weeks after birth. Standard maternity care (control) included provision for referring women with social risk factors to specialist midwifery services, available to both arms. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were antenatal visits attended and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 8–12 weeks postpartum. Prespecified, powered, subgroup comparison was among women with 2 or more social risks. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal birth outcomes; maternal self-efficacy, and mother-to-infant bonding at 8–12 weeks; child development assessment at 6 weeks, breastfeeding at 6 weeks, and immunisation uptake at 4 months, all collected from routine child health systems. Results Antenatal attendances were high in the standard care control and did not increase further with addition of the POW intervention (10.1 vs 10.1 (mean difference; MD) −0.00, 95% CI (95% CI −0.37 to 0.37)). In the powered subgroup of women with 2 or more social risk factors, mean EPDS (MD −0.79 (95% CI −1.56 to −0.02) was significantly better, although for all women recruited, no significant differences were seen (MD −0.59 (95% CI −1.24 to 0.06). Mother-to-infant bonding was significantly better in the intervention group

  18. Pelvic Static Magnetic Stimulation to Control Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Marianne C.; Davies, Elizabeth A.; Thalib, Lukman; Griffiths, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy of non-invasive static magnetic stimulation (SMS) of the pelvic floor compared to placebo in the treatment of women aged 60 years and over with urinary incontinence for 6 months or more. Subjects and Methods A single-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Subjects were excluded if they had an implanted electronic device, had experienced a symptomatic urinary tract infection, or had commenced pharmacotherapy for the same in the previous 4 weeks, or if they were booked for pelvic floor or gynecological surgery within the next 3 months. Once written consent was obtained, subjects were randomly assigned to the active SMS group (n=50) or the placebo group (n=51). Treatment was an undergarment incorporating 15 static magnets of 800–1200 Gauss anterior, posterior, and inferior to the pelvis for at least 12 hours a day for 3 months. Placebo was the same protocol with inert metal disks replacing the magnets. Primary outcome measure was cessation of incontinence as measured by a 24-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes were frequency and severity of symptoms as measured by the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF), the Incontinence Severity Index, a Bothersomeness Visual Analog scale, and a 24-hour bladder diary. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the outcome measures from baseline to 12 weeks. Initial evidence of subjective improvement in the treatment group compared to the placebo group was not sustained with sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This study found no evidence that static magnets cure or decrease the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Additional work into the basic physics of the product and garment design is recommended prior to further clinical trials research. PMID:21817123

  19. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  20. Formative evaluation of a participatory women's group intervention to improve reproductive and women's health outcomes in rural Bangladesh: a controlled before and after study

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Fry, Helen A; Azad, Kishwar; Younes, Leila; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Hossen, Munir; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's groups using participatory methods reduced newborn mortality in rural areas of low income countries. Our study assessed a participatory women's group intervention that focused on women's health, nutrition and family planning. Methods The study was conducted in three districts in Bangladesh between October 2011 and March 2013, covering a population of around 230 000. On the basis of allocation for the preceding cluster randomised trials, three unions per district were randomly allocated to receive a women's group intervention and three per district were control clusters. Outcomes included unmet need for family planning, morbidity, dietary diversity, night blindness, healthcare decision-making and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health, nutrition and anaemia. A difference-in-difference analysis was used to adjust for secular trends and baseline differences between women taking part in the intervention and a random sample from control clusters. Results We interviewed 5355 (91% response rate) women before the intervention and 5128 after (96% response rate). There were significant improvements in women's dietary diversity score (increase of 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.3)) and participation in healthcare decision-making (proportion increase (95% CI) 14.0% (10.6% to 17.4%)). There were also increases in knowledge about: contraception (4.2% (2.0% to 6.3%)), ways to treat (55.4% (52.2% to 58.5%)) and prevent (71.0% (68.0% to 74.1%)) sexually transmitted infections, nutrition (46.6% (43.6% to 49.6%)) and anaemia prevention (62.8% (60.9% to 64.6%)). There were no significant differences in unmet need for family planning, morbidity or night blindness. Conclusions Participatory women's groups have considerable potential to improve women's health knowledge, but evidence of impact on certain outcomes is lacking. Further formative work and intervention development is needed to optimise the impact of this approach for women's health. PMID:26739272

  1. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    PubMed

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

  2. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Shmuely, Haim; Shimon, Ilan; Gitter, Limor Azulay

    2016-07-01

    An association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection as environmental risk factors for Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has been reported. We investigated this hypothesis in women in which HT is more common. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies against H pylori (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), CagA protein (Western blot assay), circulating antibodies to thyroid antigens, mainly thyroperoxidase (TPOAbs) and thyroglobulin (TgAbs), were tested in 101 females with HT and 111 non-HT control women without a history of autoimmune disease. Thyroid function, socioeconomic status at childhood, and family history of thyroid malfunction were also studied. Forty-seven HT women (46.5%) tested seropositive for H pylori versus 48 controls (43.2%; P = 0.63). The prevalence of anti-CagA antibodies was 21.3% in HT-infected patients and 31.2% in infected controls (P = 0.352). Women with HT were older than the controls at a significance level of 0.03, and higher prevalence of hypothyroidism (69% vs 13.5%, respectively) and family history of thyroid malfunction (59% vs 34%, respectively) (P < 0.001 in both). Body mass index, diaphragmatic hernia, peptic ulcer, heartburn, use of proton pump inhibitors, childhood socioeconomic background, and crowding index showed no significant difference between HT-positive or negative individuals. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that H pylori seropositivity was not associated with HT (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.57-1.83, P = 0.95) and that family thyroid malfunction was independently associated with an increased risk of HT (odds ratio 3.39, 95% confidence interval 1.86-6.18, P < 0.001). No association was found between H pylori infection and HT in women. Family history of thyroid malfunction is a risk factor for HT. PMID:27442635

  4. Cervical Cancer Control for Hispanic Women in Texas: Effective Strategies from Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria E.; Savas, Lara S.; Lipizzi, Erica; Smith, Jennifer S.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic women in Texas have among the highest rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the country. Increasing regular Papanicolaou test screening and HPV vaccination are crucial to reduce the burden of cervical cancer among Hispanics. This paper presents lessons learned from community-based cervical cancer control programs in Texas and highlights effective intervention programs, methods and strategies. Methods We reviewed and summarized cervical cancer control efforts targeting Hispanic women in Texas, focusing on interventions developed by researchers at the University of Texas, School of Public Health. We identified commonalities across programs, highlighted effective methods, and summarized lessons learned to help guide future intervention efforts. Results Community-academic partnerships were fundamental in all steps of program development and implementation. Programs reviewed addressed psychosocial, cultural, and access barriers to cervical cancer control among low-income Hispanic women. Intervention approaches included lay health worker (LHW) and navigation models and used print media, interactive tailored media, photonovellas, client reminders, one-on-one and group education sessions. Conclusions Small media materials combined with LHW and navigation approaches were effective in delivering Pap test screening and HPV vaccination messages and in linking women to services. Common theoretical methods included in these approaches were modeling, verbal persuasion, and facilitating access. Adaptation of programs to an urban environment revealed that intensive navigation was needed to link women with multiple access barriers to health services. Collectively, this review reveals 1) the importance of using a systematic approach for planning and adapting cervical cancer control programs; 2) advantages of collaborative academic-community partnerships to develop feasible interventions with broad reach; 3) the use of small media and LHW approaches and

  5. Weight loss improves reproductive outcomes in obese women undergoing fertility treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sim, K A; Dezarnaulds, G M; Denyer, G S; Skilton, M R; Caterson, I D

    2014-04-01

    For women attempting pregnancy, obesity reduces fertility and is an independent risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. The aim of this evaluator-blinded, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate a weight loss intervention on pregnancy rates in obese women undertaking fertility treatment. Forty-nine obese women, aged ≤ 37 years, presenting for fertility treatment were randomized to either a 12-week intervention (n = 27) consisting of a very-low-energy diet for the initial 6 weeks followed by a hypocaloric diet, combined with a weekly group multidisciplinary programme; or a control group (n = 22) who received recommendations for weight loss and the same printed material as the intervention. Anthropometric and reproductive parameters were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. The 22 women who completed the intervention had greater anthropometric changes (-6.6 ± 4.6 kg and -8.7 ± 5.6 cm vs. -1.6 ± 3.6 kg and -0.6 ± 6.3 cm) compared with the control group (n = 17; P < 0.001). The intervention group achieved a pregnancy rate of 48% compared with 14% (P = 0.007), took a mean two fertility treatment cycles to achieve each pregnancy compared with four in the control group (P = 0.002), and had a marked increase in the number of live births (44% vs. 14%; P = 0.02). A group weight loss programme, incorporating dietary, exercise and behavioural components, is associated with a significant improvement in pregnancy rates and live births in a group of obese women undergoing fertility treatment. PMID:25826729

  6. The immune system during the pre-cancer and the early cancer period. IL-2 production by PBL from post-menopausal women with and without endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yron, I; Schickler, M; Fisch, B; Pinkas, H; Ovadia, J; Witz, I P

    1986-09-15

    We report on alterations in IL-2 production and cell proliferation following PHA stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from stage-I endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients, and on mechanisms involved in these alterations. Our study includes 3 groups: EC patients, post-menopausal women at high risk of developing EC, and age-matched healthy women. IL-2 production was markedly lower in most EC patients than in healthy controls. Varying levels of IL-2 were produced by PBL from women in the high-risk group. The proliferative response of PBL to PHA appeared to correlate with levels of IL-2 production. Our results suggest that macrophages are involved, in part, in the modulation of T-cell functions of EC patients. PMID:3488968

  7. Women's sexual arousal: effects of high alcohol dosages and self-control instructions.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Hendershot, Christian S; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2011-05-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women's sexual arousal - especially genital arousal - received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson and Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed an undifferentiated pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol's impact on the variability of women's sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  8. Cervico-occipital Posture in Women With Migraine: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Gabriela Natália; Dach, Fabíola; Chaves, Thais Cristina; Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Speciali, José Geraldo

    2016-04-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Background Previous studies have assessed forward head posture in patients with migraine using photographs. To date, no study has compared postural differences using both radiographs and photographs. Objective To determine the differences in head extension posture between women with migraine and healthy women assessed with radiographic and photographic measures. Methods Thirty-three women (mean ± SD age, 32 ± 11.3 years) with migraine and 33 matched controls (age, 33 ± 12.6 years) participated. Radiographs were used to measure the high cervical angle (HCA), the angle between the most inferior line from the occipital surface to the posterior portion of C1 and the posterior surface of the odontoid process of C2, and the vertical distance between C0 and C1 (C0-C1). Photographs and commercially available software were used to assess the craniovertebral angle (CVA). Results None of the outcomes differed significantly between women with migraine and control participants. Outcomes for women with migraine were HCA, 66.1° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2°, 68.1°); CVA, 46.1° (95% CI: 45.0°, 47.1°); and C0-C1, 8.5 mm (95% CI: 7.7, 9.2). Outcomes for the control group were HCA, 67.9° (95% CI: 66.5°, 69.3°); CVA, 44.5° (95% CI: 43.2°, 45.7°); and C0-C1, 8.7 mm (95% CI: 7.9, 9.4). Relationships between the frequency (r = -0.42, P = .01, R (2) = 10%) of migraine and the HCA were found. Conclusion This study demonstrated that women with migraine did not exhibit forward head posture compared to women with no history of headache in either radiographic or photographic postural analysis. However, there was a weak association of the frequency of migraine attacks with a variation in the HCA as assessed by radiographs. Level of Evidence Differential diagnosis/symptom prevalence, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(4):251-257. Epub 8 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6166. PMID:26954270

  9. Indicators of glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that mild abnormal glucose tolerance increases the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications, and so the definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been changed. Therefore, in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, even stricter glycemic control than before is required to reduce the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications. Strict glycemic control cannot be attained without an indicator of glycemic control; this review proposes a reliable indicator. The gold standard indicator of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); however, we have demonstrated that HbA1c does not reflect glycemic control accurately during pregnancy because of iron deficiency. It has also become clear that glycated albumin, another indicator of glycemic control, is not influenced by iron deficiency and therefore might be a better indicator of glycemic control in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. However, large-population epidemiological studies are necessary in order to confirm our proposal. Here, we outline the most recent findings about the indicators of glycemic control during pregnancy including fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. PMID:26240701

  10. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and twenty healthy women with BMI >18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients. PMID:19302720

  11. Reproductive History and Hormonal Birth Control Use Are Associated with Coronary Calcium Progression in Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Dabelea, Dana; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Hokanson, John E.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Ehrlich, James; Rewers, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Context: Coronary artery disease is increased in women with type 1 diabetes (T1D), compared with nondiabetic (Non-DM) women. Women with T1D have more menstrual dysfunction and are less likely to use hormonal birth control (BC) than Non-DM women. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and BC use in women with T1D. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study, and participants were followed up for an average of 2.4 yr. Patients: Patients included 612 women (293 T1D, 319 Non-DM) between the ages of 19 and 55 yr who had CAC measured twice by electron beam tomography. Results: Irregular menses and amenorrhea were more common in T1D than Non-DM women (22.1 vs. 14.9%, P < 0.05 and 16.6 vs. 7.0%, P < 0.001). T1D women reported less BC use than Non-DM women (79.8 vs. 89.9%, P < 0.001) and reached menarche at an older age (13.1 ± 1.8 vs. 12.8 ± 1.5 yr, P < 0.05). Use of BC was associated with less CAC progression in all women, but this association was stronger in T1D women (P value for interaction = 0.02). Irregular menses were associated with greater CAC progression only among T1D women. Conclusions: A prior history of BC use is associated with reduced CAC progression among all women, with a stronger association in T1D than in Non-DM women. Women with T1D who report irregular menses have increased CAC progression, compared with those with regular menses. PMID:18349069

  12. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Hunter, Gary R; Bush, Nikki C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Roy, Jane L; Byrne, Nuala M; Gower, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfaction and dietary control before, after, and one year following, a controlled weight-loss intervention. While EA women reported a more extensive dieting history than AA women, this difference did not contribute to ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction and perceived dietary control. During weight loss, body satisfaction improved more for AA women, and during weight regain, dietary self-efficacy worsened to a greater degree for EA women. Ethnic differences in dieting history did not contribute significantly to these differential changes. Although ethnic differences in body image and dietary control are evident prior to weight loss, and some change differentially by ethnic group during weight loss and regain, differences in dieting history do not contribute significantly to ethnic differences in body image and dietary control. PMID:19778748

  13. Relationship of Body Satisfaction, with Nutrition and Weight Control Behaviors in Women

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi-Darani, Firoozeh; Daniali, Seyede-Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women. PMID:23671780

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocardial perfusion and diastolic function—reference control values for women

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, May; Wei, Janet; Nelson, Michael D.; Mehta, Puja K.; Haftbaradaran, Afsaneh; Jones, Erika; Gill, Edward; Sharif, Behzad; Slomka, Piotr J.; Li, Debiao; Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Minissian, Margo; Berman, Daniel S.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 54±9 years and mean body mass index was 25±4 kg/m3. The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety

  15. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942 PMID:20678219

  16. Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK). Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to

  17. Looking for Celiac Disease in Italian Women with Endometriosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance. PMID:24804204

  18. Changes in coagulation and fibrinolytic indices in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Ling; Chuai, Yun-Hai; Liu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi; Li, Min; Wang, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P < 0.01). On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy. PMID:25374601

  19. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Ugandan Women at a Tertiary Hospital: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence; Karamagi, Charles; Asea, Alexzander

    2016-01-01

    Background Although East Africa, like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a lower incidence of breast cancer than high-income countries, the disease rate is rising steeply in Africa; it has nearly tripled in the past few decades in Uganda. There is a paucity of studies that have examined the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk factors in Ugandan women. Objective To determine breast cancer risk factors among indigenous Ugandan women. Methods This is a hospital-based unmatched case-control study. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012 using structured questionnaires. Patients with histologyproven breast cancer were recruited over a 2-year period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 350 women were recruited; 113 were cases and 237 were controls. The mean age was 47.5 years (SD 14) for the cases and 45.5 years (SD 14.1) for the controls. The odds of breast cancer risk seemed lower for those who breastfed (adjusted OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). There was no significance for early age at first full-term birth (adjusted OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.96; p = 0.061), and urban residence carried no increased odds of breast cancer either (p = 0.201). Conclusion Breastfeeding seems to be associated with reduced odds of breast cancer. PMID:27104645

  1. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  2. A controlled study of Hostile-Helpless states of mind among borderline and dysthymic women

    PubMed Central

    LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN; MELNICK, SHARON; PATRICK, MATTHEW; HOBSON, R. PETER

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are more likely than those with dysthymia to manifest contradictory Hostile-Helpless (HH) states of mind. A reliable rater blind to diagnosis evaluated features of such mental representations in transcripts of Adult Attachment Interviews from 12 women with BPD and 11 women with dysthymia of similar socioeconomic status (SES), all awaiting psychotherapy. In keeping with three hierarchical (non-independent) a priori predictions regarding the mental representations of women with BPD, the results were that (a) all those with BPD, compared with half the group with dysthymia, displayed HH states of mind; (b) those with BPD manifested a significantly higher frequency of globally devaluing representations; and (c) they exhibited a strong trend toward identifying with the devalued hostile caregiver (58% BPD vs. 18% dysthymic). In addition, significantly more BPD than dysthymic patients made reference to controlling behavior towards attachment figures in childhood. These findings offer fresh insights into the nature of BPD and extend previous evidence concerning affected individuals’ patterns of thinking and feeling about childhood attachment figures. PMID:17364479

  3. Control and support models of help-seeking behavior in women experiencing domestic violence in India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R N; Gupta, Vinay K

    2014-01-01

    In India, there is limited prioritization of domestic violence, which is seen as a private and family matter, and handled as a social responsibility rather than a complaint or crime. Despite the Domestic Violence Act, implemented in 2006, the widespread phenomenon of domestic violence across Indian states goes unreported. Using control and support models, this article aims to examine women's behavior in seeking help while dealing with partner violence. It is a population-based analytical cross-sectional study covering 14,507 married women from 18 states of India, selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to generate data. It was observed that legal complexities combined with social realities make the life of an average Indian woman insecure and miserable. Most women surveyed preferred the social-support model and opined that if they face domestic violence, they would seek help from their parents as the first option in the order of preference. The responses of women while dealing with domestic violence are often spontaneous and determined by the pressing need to resolve matters within the home/community, rather than addressing them in the public domain of state institutions where procedures are cumbersome and lengthy. A new integrated development model proposed by several communities aims to prevent domestic violence through the intervention of health care systems. PMID:25069150

  4. Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

  5. Multiple myeloma among Danish women: employment history and workplace exposures.

    PubMed

    Pottern, L M; Heineman, E F; Olsen, J H; Raffn, E; Blair, A

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the role of employment history and workplace exposures as risk factors for multiple myeloma among women, a population-based case-control study using the Danish Cancer Registry data linkage system was conducted. All cases of myeloma diagnosed in Danish women between 1970 and 1984 (1,010 cases) and 4,040 age-matched women alive at the time of case-diagnosis were identified. Industrial histories from 1964 forward were obtained from the nationwide Pension Fund for 363 cases and 1,517 controls, and the most recent occupation on the tax record was available for 607 cases and 2,596 controls. Using industry/occupational-code combinations for the cases and controls who had industry employment, Danish industrial hygienists assessed the likelihood of exposure to 47 workplace substances. An increased myeloma risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.5) was seen for women not in the Pension Fund, but who had an occupational title coded as 'Mrs/homemaker.' Nonsignificantly elevated risks of 1.3 or greater were observed for employment in: production of agricultural products; orchards/nurseries; spinning/weaving; other textile and plastics manufacturing; hotel, entertainment, and social services industries. Elevated, but nonsignificant risks were observed for possible and probable exposure to exhaust fumes, formaldehyde, wood dust, animals or animal products, and pesticides. The strongest association with myeloma was employment in the agricultural industry (OR = 1.5, CI = 0.8-2.8), however, the number of women who worked on family farms was unknown and could not be included in this risk estimate. PMID:1525323

  6. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  7. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  8. Effects of resistance training on sarcopenic obesity index in older women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, André Bonadias; Paiva, Flávio Macedo Lahud; Gauche, Rafael; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on sarcopenic obesity (SO) in older women. 243 older women underwent body composition measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the SO index was calculated. This randomized controlled trial adopted from the baseline sample, 113 volunteers (67.0±5.2years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n=64) or an experimental group (EG, n=69). The EG took part in a 24-week RT program, conducted three times per week. Body composition measurements were repeated at the end of the training program. RT induced a significant increase in fat-free mass (P<0.01), but not decrease in fat mass in the EG. Moreover, the SO index was also significantly improved in the EG (P<0.01), while it decreased significantly in the CG (P<0.01). It is concluded that RT is an effective approach to promote body composition alterations in older women, and it might improve SO-related phenotypes. PMID:27057600

  9. Barriers to dietary control among pregnant women with phenylketonuria--United States, 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    2002-02-15

    Newborns in the United States are screened for phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic disorder that when left untreated is characterized by elevated blood phenylalanine (phe) levels and severe mental retardation (MR). An estimated 3,000-4,000 U.S.-born women of reproductive age with PKU have not gotten severe MR because as newborns their diets were severely restricted in the intake of protein-containing foods and were supplemented with medical foods (e.g., amino acid-modified formula and modified low-protein foods). When women with PKU do not adhere to their diet before and during pregnancy, infants born to them have a 93% risk for MR and a 72% risk for microcephaly. These risks result from the toxic effects of high maternal blood phe levels during pregnancy, not because the infant has PKU. The restricted diet, which should be maintained for life, often is discontinued during adolescence. This report describes the pregnancies of three women with PKU and underscores the importance of overcoming the barriers to maintaining the recommended dietary control of blood phe levels before and during pregnancy. For maternal PKU-associated MR to be prevented, studies are needed to determine effective approaches to overcoming barriers to dietary control. PMID:11898925

  10. Telomere Length and Ischemic Stroke in Women: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Schürks, Markus; Prescott, Jennifer; Dushkes, Rimma; De Vivo, Immaculata; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Telomere shortening has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. However, prospective data on the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and ischemic stroke are scarce and inconclusive. Methods We used a nested case-control design among women participating in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study. Participants provided blood samples in 1990 and were followed through 2006. Women with confirmed incident ischemic stroke were matched to controls by age, smoking, postmenopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use. Quantitative PCR was used to determine RTL in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of ischemic stroke associated with RTL, using RTL quartiles and as dichotomous according to the median. Results Data on RTL were available from 504 case-control pairs. Results did not suggest an association between RTL and ischemic stroke. The odds ratio for ischemic stroke was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52–1.32) comparing lowest to the highest RTL quartile and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) comparing RTL below the median to RTL above the median. Associations were unchanged after additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Further analyses suggested an association between RTL and fatal ischemic stroke (54 case-control pairs; lowest vs. highest quartile OR=1.99, 95%CI 0.26–14.9); however, results were statistically insignificant. Conclusion In this large nested case-control study among women RTL was not associated with ischemic stroke. In light of the varying study results in the literature on the association between telomere length and stroke additional research is warranted. PMID:23521613

  11. Sexual Function in Women on Estradiol or Venlafaxine for Hot Flushes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan D.; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee; Shifren, Jan L.; Newton, Katherine M.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Larson, Joseph C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Guthrie, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sexual function in midlife women taking low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes. Methods In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among women aged 40-62 years, sexual function was compared between oral estradiol 0.5 mg/day or venlafaxine 75 mg/day (both compared with placebo). Measures included composite and 6 domain scores from the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and sexually related personal distress. Results Participants were aged 54.6 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years, 59% Caucasian, with 8.1 (SD 5.3) daily hot flushes. Median composite baseline FSFI score was 16.3 (SD 11.9, n=256) for all women and 21.7 (SD 9.3, n=198) among sexually active women. Composite mean FSFI change from baseline to week-8 was 1.4 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -0.4, 3.2) for estradiol, 1.1 (95% CI -0.5, 2.7) for venlafaxine and -0.3 (95% CI -1.6, 1.0) for placebo. Composite FSFI and sexually-related distress change from baseline did not differ between estradiol and placebo (p= 0.38, p=0.30) or venlafaxine and placebo (p=0.79, p=0.48). Among sexually active women, FSFI domain score change from baseline differences (active compared with placebo) in desire was 0.3 (95% CI 0.0, 0.6) for estradiol; -0.6 (95% CI -1.2, 0.0) in orgasm for venlafaxine, and 0.9 (95% CI 0.2, 1.6) in penetration pain for venlafaxine. No women reported adverse events related to sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women experiencing hot flushes did not change over 8-weeks with low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine (compared with placebo), although subtle increase in desire (estradiol), and decreases in orgasm and pain (venlafaxine) may exist. PMID:25004335

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in relation to body mass index and polycystic ovarian syndrome in Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sangita; Majumdar, Abha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS) in Indian women and to see how does it correlate to body mass index (BMI) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Infertility clinic of a tertiary center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred women, 120 with PCOs and 80 age-matched controls were enrolled. The prevalence of MBS was studied in the women with and without and was co related to BMI by further subgrouping as team (BMI <23 kg/m3) and obese (BMI >23 kg/m2). The sample size was: team controls-40, obese controls-40, team PCOS-80. Each subject underwent a physical examination and laboratory evaluation for the diagnosis of MBS, which was defined according to the guidelines of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Pamel (NCEP ATP III) 2005. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main Outcome Measures: Subjects with and without PCOs were compared with each other for the prevalence of MBS, and similarly team subjects were compared with obese subjects. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained for both the PCOS and non PCOS population separately, co-relating the prevalence of MBS with BMI. These ROC curves were used to establish the cut off values of BMI, which could best predict the risk of MBS. RESULTS: The prevalence of MBS was significantly higher in the women with PCOS, as compared to age-matched controls. Similarly, when BMI was considered, MBS was more prevalent in overweight subjects than in lean subjects with or without PCOS. In subgroup analysis, the presence of PCOS had a lesser impact on the prevalence of MBS as compared to non-PCOS controls with higher BMI. The relative risk of MBS increased as follows: lean controls-1, lean PCOS-2.66, obese controls-5.33, and obese PCOS-6.5. The most appropriate cut-off level of BMI for predicting the risk of MBS in Indian women without PCOS seems to be 23 kg/m2, whereas, with

  13. Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women with Cancer: I. Sexual Functioning Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 47 women treated for early gynecologic cancer, 18 women treated for benign gynecologic disease, and 57 gynecologically healthy women. Found that frequency of intercourse declined for women treated for disease, whether malignant or benign. Diminution of sexual excitement was pronounced for women with disease; more severe and distressing for…

  14. Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3) compared to 2.8 (7.0) in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov registry: W05

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  17. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Øyvind; Moholdt, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition. Methods and Findings This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1) 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46) or control (standard maternity care) (n = 45). Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12–18) and in late pregnancy (week 34–37), as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group). Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19) compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI −1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43). Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition) in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1%) compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%), with an odds ratio

  18. Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John A; Baker, Fiona C

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome. PMID:23850226

  19. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine; Harrison, Cheryce; Kozica, Samantha; Zoungas, Sophia; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information. Methods and Findings We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters) randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women’s health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/− SD 6.7) and BMI of 28.8 kg/m2 (+/− SD 6.9) with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI −0.09 to 0.97) and in the intervention group −0.48kg (95% CI −0.99 to 0.03) with an unadjusted between group difference of −0.92 kg (95% CI −1.67 to −0.16) or −0.87 kg (95% CI −1.62 to −0.13) adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures. Conclusions A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the

  20. Influence of oral contraceptives on endogenous pain control in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rezaii, Taraneh; Ernberg, Malin

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) in healthy women. Fifteen women taking OC and 17 normally menstruating women (No-OC) were tested during high and low endogenous estrogens sessions. Saliva was sampled for analysis of endogenous estradiol level. Mechanical pressure (test stimuli) was applied to the masseter muscle and finger. The pain induced by this pressure was assessed on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) before, during, and after immersion of the contralateral hand in ice-cold water (cold pressor test, CPT) to induce DNIC. For all subjects, pain induced by the test stimuli decreased significantly during the CPT (P < 0.001). The decrease in general was larger in the No-OC group, with a significant difference between groups in the masseter muscle in the low session (P < 0.027). There were no significant differences between groups or sessions in estradiol levels. These results indicate that endogenous pain modulation may be less effective in OC users. PMID:20419369

  1. Community-based intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Miller-Graff, Laura

    2015-08-01

    A community-based intervention, The Moms' Empowerment Program, was tested with 181 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during the past year. Following consent, a sequential randomized control assignment procedure allocated participants to 3 conditions: mother-plus-child received intervention (M + C), child-only received intervention (CO), and a wait list comparison group (CG). A 2-level hierarchical linear model consisting of repeated observations within individuals and individuals assigned to conditions was used to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention comparing the 3 conditions and from postintervention to 8-month follow-up for both intervention conditions. Outcomes were individual women's positive parenting and depression. Women in the M + C condition showed the greatest improvement over time of the 3 conditions in both positive parenting and depression. Without intervention parenting grew significantly worse over time for women in the comparison group. Thus, this short-term group intervention program was successful in showing moderate change in both domains. PMID:26030027

  2. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  3. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. Objectives The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. Methods One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. Results The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Conclusion Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian women’s needs in line with these conceptual models. Implications for Practice Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population. PMID:25122130

  4. Adapted motivational interviewing for women with binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cassin, Stephanie E; von Ranson, Kristin M; Heng, Kenneth; Brar, Joti; Wojtowicz, Amy E

    2008-09-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, 108 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) recruited from the community were assigned to either an adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) group (1 individual AMI session + self-help handbook) or control group (handbook only). They were phoned 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the initial session to assess binge eating and associated symptoms (depression, self-esteem, quality of life). Postintervention, the AMI group participants were more confident than those in the control group in their ability to change binge eating. Although both groups reported improved binge eating, mood, self-esteem, and general quality of life 16 weeks following the intervention, the AMI group improved to a greater extent. A greater proportion of women in the AMI group abstained from binge eating (27.8% vs. 11.1%) and no longer met the binge frequency criterion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) for BED (87.0% vs. 57.4%). AMI may constitute a brief, effective intervention for BED and associated symptoms. PMID:18778135

  5. Hemodynamic and hemorheological profiles in women with proteinuric hypertension of pregnancy and in pregnant controls.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, L; Siekmann, U

    1989-01-01

    We obtained blood samples from 52 patients with pre-eclampsia and from 40 pregnant controls for measurement of plasma urate levels, hematocrit, white cell count and various hemorheological parameters. We also used impedance cardiography to measure cardiac output in both groups and from the results derived values for total peripheral resistance and oxygen transport. Central venous pressure was measured with a superior vena cava catheter in patients with pre-eclampsia but not in controls. Women with pre-eclampsia had significantly lower cardiac output and central venous pressure when compared with a control group. A modest correlation was observed between central venous pressure and cardiac output. The majority of pre-eclamptic patients had significantly raised hematocrit, leucocyte count, uric acid and red cell aggregation. Red cell deformability was significantly decreased in patients with pre-eclampsia. Most patients with severe pre-eclampsia (BP diast. greater than 100 mmHg) had a low Antithrombin III and colloid osmotic pressure level. The leucocyte count was raised when compared with the women with moderate pre-eclampsia. Oxygen delivery was reduced in patients with pre-eclampsia because of impaired rheological properties of their blood. PMID:2694970

  6. Peripheral blood natural killer cells and mild thyroid abnormalities in women with reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Triggianese, P; Perricone, C; Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Perricone, R; De Carolis, C

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells have been reported in women with primary infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and several studies have been presented to define cutoff values for abnormal peripheral blood NK cell levels in this context. Elevated levels of NK cells were observed in infertile/RSA women in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), while no studies have been carried out, to date, on NK cells in infertile/RSA women with non-autoimmune thyroid diseases. The contribution of this study is two-fold: (1) the evaluation of peripheral blood NK cell levels in a cohort of infertile/RSA women, in order to confirm related data from the literature; and (2) the assessment of NK cell levels in the presence of both TAI and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in order to explore the possibility that the association between NK cells and thyroid function is not only restricted to TAI but also to SCH. In a retrospective study, 259 age-matched women (primary infertility [n = 49], primary RSA [n = 145], and secondary RSA [n = 65]) were evaluated for CD56+CD16+NK cells by flow cytometry. Women were stratified according to thyroid status: TAI, SCH, and without thyroid diseases (ET). Fertile women (n = 45) were used as controls. Infertile/RSA women showed higher mean NK cell levels than controls. The cutoff value determining the abnormal NK cell levels resulted ⩾15% in all the groups of women. Among the infertile/RSA women, SCH resulted the most frequently associated thyroid disorder while no difference resulted in the prevalence of TAI and ET women between patients and controls. A higher prevalence of women with NK cell levels ⩾15% was observed in infertile/RSA women with SCH when compared to TAI/ET women. According to our data, NK cell assessment could be used as a diagnostic tool in women with reproductive failure and we suggest that the possible association between NK cell levels and thyroid function can be described not only

  7. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. PMID:21296115

  8. Control of the upper body accelerations in young and elderly women during level walking

    PubMed Central

    Mazzà, Claudia; Iosa, Marco; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of the head movements during walking allows for the stabilisation of the optic flow, for a more effective processing of the vestibular system signals, and for the consequent control of equilibrium. In young individuals, the oscillations of the upper body during level walking are characterised by an attenuation of the linear acceleration going from pelvis to head level. In elderly subjects the ability to implement this motor strategy is reduced. The aim of this paper is to go deeper into the mechanisms through which the head accelerations are controlled during level walking, in both young and elderly women specifically. Methods A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct the displacement of markers located at head, shoulder, and pelvis level while 16 young (age: 24 ± 4 years) and 20 older (age: 72 ± 4 years) female volunteers walked at comfortable and fast speed along a linear pathway. The harmonic coefficients of the displacements in the medio-lateral (ML), antero-posterior (AP), and vertical (V) directions were calculated via discrete Fourier transform, and relevant accelerations were computed by analytical double differentiation. The root mean square of the accelerations were used to define three coefficients for quantifying the attenuations of the accelerations from pelvis to head, from pelvis to shoulder, and from shoulder to head. Results The coefficients of attenuation were shown to be independent from the walking speed, and hence suitable for group and subject comparison. The acceleration in the AP direction was attenuated by the two groups both from pelvis to shoulder and from shoulder to head. The reduction of the shoulder to head acceleration, however, was less effective in older women, suggesting that the ability to exploit the cervical hinge to attenuate the AP acceleration is challenged in this population. Young women managed to exploit a pelvis to shoulder attenuation strategy also in the ML direction, whereas in

  9. Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 2–3 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary

  10. Cohort differences in the marriage-health relationship for midlife women.

    PubMed

    Newton, Nicky J; Ryan, Lindsay H; King, Rachel T; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to identify potential cohort differences in midlife women's self-reported functional limitations and chronic diseases. Additionally, we examined the relationship between marital status and health, comparing the health of divorced, widowed, and never married women with married women, and how this relationship differs by cohort. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we examined potential differences in the level of functional limitations and six chronic diseases in two age-matched cohorts of midlife women in the United States: Pre-Baby Boomers, born 1933-1942, N = 4574; and Early Baby Boomers, born 1947-1956, N = 2098. Linear and logistic regressions tested the marital status/health relationship, as well as cohort differences in this relationship, controlling for age, education, race, number of marriages, length of time in marital status, physical activity, and smoking status. We found that Early Baby Boom women had fewer functional limitations but higher risk of chronic disease diagnosis compared to Pre-Baby Boom women. In both cohorts, marriage was associated with lower disease risk and fewer functional limitations; however, never-married Early Baby Boom women had more functional limitations, as well as greater likelihood of lung disease than their Pre-Baby Boom counterparts (OR = 0.28). Results are discussed in terms of the stress model of marriage, and the association between historical context and cohort health (e.g., the influence of economic hardship vs. economic prosperity). Additionally, we discuss cohort differences in selection into marital status, particularly as they pertain to never-married women, and the relative impact of marital dissolution on physical health for the two cohorts of women. PMID:24983699

  11. Pituitary-ovary axis and ovarian reserve in fertile women with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Ros, Cristina; Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Solà-Valls, Nuria; Hervàs, Mariona; Llufriu, Sara; La Puma, Delon; Casals, Elena; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Graus, Francesc; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Saiz, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Since a decline in the ovary function might impact the reproductive potential in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated the pituitary-ovary axis and ovarian reserve, including anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and ultrasound imaging of the ovaries, of 25 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Mean levels of pituitary-gonadal hormones and age-adjusted parameters of ovarian reserve markers were not significantly different between both groups. Patients with higher disease activity (annualized relapse rate >0.5; n=9) had significantly lower AMH levels, total antral follicle count and ovarian volume, than those with lower disease activity. The finding of poorer ovarian reserve associated with higher disease activity should be taken into consideration since it may negatively impact the reproductive prognosis. PMID:26362892

  12. Alterations in empathic responding among women with posttraumatic stress disorder associated with childhood trauma

    PubMed Central

    Parlar, Melissa; Frewen, Paul; Nazarov, Anthony; Oremus, Carolina; MacQueen, Glenda; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although studies increasingly point toward problems with social cognition among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have assessed empathic responding. The aim of the current study was to investigate empathic responding in women with PTSD related to childhood trauma, and the contribution of parental bonding to empathic abilities in this sample. Methods Participants with PTSD (n = 29) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) completed two self-report empathy measures, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ), and a self-report measure of attachment, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results Women with PTSD, relative to controls, reported significantly lower levels of empathic concern (r = 0.29) and perspective taking (r = 0.30), yet significantly higher levels of personal distress (r = 0.45) on the IRI. Women with PTSD also reported elevated scores on the TEQ (η2 = 0.13). Levels of paternal care on the PBI, rather than childhood trauma severity or PTSD symptom severity best predicted perspective taking scores on the IRI in the PTSD sample (R2 = 0.20). Conclusion Women with PTSD associated with childhood trauma reported alterations among different domains of empathic functioning that may be related to low levels of paternal care. PMID:24944867

  13. Breast cancer among women in Michigan following exposure to brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Rosenblatt, Karin A; Wirth, Julie; Cameron, Lorraine L; Marcus, Michele

    2016-08-01

    In this updated follow-up, we investigated the breast cancer experience among women in Michigan exposed to brominated flame retardants, some 30 years following exposure. Michigan residents were enrolled in a study cohort after exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) through the consumption of contaminated food products. PBB concentrations were measured in serum at the time of enrolment. Cancer experience was determined by linkage to the Michigan Cancer Registry. We conducted a nested case-control study that included 51 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1974-2004 and 202 age-matched controls. While the data suggest an increase in breast cancer risk with higher PBB exposure, this did not reach statistical significance. The OR of having breast cancer among women with PBB concentrations ≥10 ng/mL compared to women with PBB concentrations at or below the limit of detection of 1 ng/mL was 2.60, 95% CI 0.93 to 7.27, (p=0.07), when adjusted for age and family history of cancer in a first-degree female relative. It remains important to examine exposure to brominated chemicals and possible health effects, and to continue following the cancer experience of participants in this study. PMID:27312402

  14. Severe chronic constipation of young women: 'idiopathic slow transit constipation'.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, D M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1986-01-01

    A series of 64 women complaining of severe constipation is described, in each of whom delayed elimination of markers from the colon was demonstrated but a barium enema was normal. All completed a detailed questionnaire and the responses are compared with those obtained in an age-matched series of healthy women with no bowel complaint. In each group 40 women also recorded in a manner suitable for analysis all food eaten over a period of seven days. The patients passed about one stool weekly with the aid of laxatives, and were greatly troubled by abdominal pain, bloating, malaise and nausea, to the extent that the symptoms were a major social disability and many lost time from work. Decreased bowel frequency and other symptoms were often first noticed around the age of puberty and slowly became worse until they were severe by the third decade. In a few, the symptoms began suddenly after an abdominal operation c-accident. Comparison with the control group showed no evidence that the patients had been underweight at any time or that they took less fibre; treatment with a bran supplement did not usually help them. The patients experienced rectal sensation before defaecation less often than the control subjects and they used digital pressure to assist defaecation more frequently. The women with constipation tended to have more painful and irregular menstrual periods, and there was an increased incidence of ovarian cystectomy and hysterectomy. Hesitancy in starting to pass urine was more common, as were some somatic symptoms such as cold hands or blackouts. Attention is drawn to this distinctive combination in young women of slow total gut transit time and a colon of normal width on barium enema, associated with abdominal, anorectal, gynaecological and somatic symptoms, as a disorder which can be disabling and particularly difficult to treat. PMID:3949236

  15. Physical and Psychologic Effects of Aromatherapy Inhalation on Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. Design This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Settings/location This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Participants The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Outcome measures Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. Results A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic

  16. Levothyroxine Dosage Requirement During Pregnancy in Well-Controlled Hypothyroid Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kashi, Zahra; Bahar, Adele; Akha, Ozra; Hassanzade, Samane; Esmaeilisaraji, Leila; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Untreated maternal hypothyroidism can have adverse effects on both the mother and fetus, but it can potentially be prevented by adequate levothyroxine replacement. This study was conducted to determine what percentage of hypothyroid pregnant women who were taking levothyroxine needed to adjust their medication dosage, and when and how much it should be increased. Methods: In this longitudinal study, 81 well-controlled hypothyroid women (TSH≤ 2.5 mIU/L) were monitored throughout pregnancy. Thyroid function tests were performed before conception, after the first missed menstrual period, in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and one month after delivery. Levothyroxine dosage was adjusted according to TSH levels measured. Results: Of the 81 pregnancies studied, the pregnancy outcomes were 74 full-term births, six abortions and one pre-term birth. The levothyroxine dosage needed to be increased in 84% (CI95%= 74-90) of the pregnancies (OR=5.2, CI95%= 2.9-9.4). Most levothyroxine dose adjustments were made in the first trimester of gestation. The levothyroxine requirement increased 50% (CI95%= 41-59) in the first trimester, 55% (CI95%= 45-64) in the second trimester and 62% (CI95%= 52-72) in the third trimester. Levothyroxine dosage was decreased for 6 cases (7.4%), and no adjustment was made for 7 women (8.6%). Conclusions: Increases in levothyroxine dosage administered in pregnancy appear to be indispensible in the majority of patients with well-controlled hypothyroidism, especially in the first trimester. However, this change was not universal and levothyroxine dosage decreased in a few cases and remained unchanged in others. PMID:26573046

  17. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  19. A case-control study of menstrual factors in relation to breast cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Beiler, Jessica S. B.; Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.

    2003-01-01

    Menstrual characteristics may serve as surrogate measures of endogenous estrogen and may be related to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have systematically investigated menstrual factors in relation to the disease in African-American women. This case-control study is aimed to assess the relationship between menstrual factors and breast cancer in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American women, aged 20-64 living in three Tennessee counties, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998. Controls were selected through random-digit dialing and frequency matched to cases (n=305). Phone interviews were conducted on menstrual factors--age at menarche, time to regularity, cycle length, flow length, age at menopause--and other risk factors. Logistic regression showed that compared to women with short cycle length (<28 days), women with average cycle length > or =28 had decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.94). Dose-response analyses showed decreasing risk with longer cycle length. Results by menopausal status revealed an inverse relationship was shown only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors. Findings suggest that cycle length has an inverse association with breast cancer in African-American women that may primarily exist for post-menopausal tumors. PMID:14620704

  20. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanfang; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Jiani; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. Methods We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Results The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80–14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80–+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25–5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69–+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. Conclusion EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since

  1. Challenging controlling images, oppression, poverty and other structural constraints: Survival strategies among African American women in distressed households

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African American women that contribute to the oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished African American women. The authentic women’s voices presented serve as a counter narrative of resistance. Our larger goal in writing this paper is to encourage the public, policy makers, service providers and impoverished African American women themselves to fight against controlling images by deconstructing personal biases, educating the public, and developing culturally congruent interventions to social problems. PMID:23555317

  2. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and

  3. Palmar dermatoglyphics in carcinoma breast of Indian women.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, N S; Delphine Silvia, C R Wilma; Kulkarni, Roopa; Seshagiri, C

    2010-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess the relationship of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns of hands in women with breast cancer and or at risk for developing breast cancer. This study was conducted on 100 histopathologically confirmed breast cancer patients in women and their digital dermatoglyphic patterns were studied to assess their association with the type and onset of breast cancer. Simultaneously 100 age-matched controls were also selected with no self or familial history of a diagnosed breast cancer and the observations were recorded. The differences of qualitative (dermatoglyphic patterns) data were tested for their significance using the chi-square test, and Student's t-test was used for quantitative (ridge counts and pattern intensity index) data analysis. The results of the study indicated statistically significant changes in finger ridge count and fingertip pattern in cases of carcinoma breast as compared to the control group. Palmar dermatoglyphics is simple, inexpensive, anatomical and non-invasive and may be used as a reliable indicator for screening of high-risk population in developing country like India, for early detection and early therapy, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality in cases of carcinoma breast. PMID:20809035

  4. Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

  5. Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

  6. Cortical Porosity Identifies Women with Osteopenia at Increased Risk for Forearm Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Yohann; Zebaze, Roger; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Iuliano, Sandra; Peterson, James M.; Amin, Shreyasee; Bjørnerem, Åshild; Melton, L. Joseph; Johansson, Helena; Kanis, John A.; Khosla, Sundeep; Seeman, Ego

    2014-01-01

    Background Most fragility fractures arise among the many women with osteopenia, not the smaller number with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture. Thus, most women at risk for fracture assessed only by measuring areal bone mineral density (aBMD) will remain untreated. Methods We measured cortical porosity and trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of the ultradistal radius (UDR) using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, aBMD using densitometry, and 10-year fracture probability using the country-specific FRAX tool in 68 postmenopausal women with forearm fractures and 70 age-matched community controls in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Results Women with forearm fractures had 0.4 standard deviations (SD) higher cortical porosity and 0.6 SD lower trabecular BV/TV. Compact-appearing cortical porosity predicted fracture independent of aBMD; odds ratio [OR] 1.92 (95%CI, 1.10–3.33). In women with osteoporosis at the UDR, cortical porosity did not distinguish those with, from those without, fractures because high porosity was present in 92% and 86% of each group respectively. By contrast, in women with osteopenia at the UDR, high porosity of the compact-appearing cortex conferred an OR for fracture of 4.00 (95%CI, 1.15–13.90). Conclusion In women with osteoporosis, porosity is captured by aBMD and so measuring UDR cortical porosity does not improve diagnostic sensitivity. However, in women with osteopenia, cortical porosity was associated with forearm fractures. PMID:24519558

  7. Cohort differences in the marriage-health relationship for midlife women

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Nicky J.; Ryan, Lindsay H.; King, Rachel T; Smith, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify potential cohort differences in midlife women’s self-reported functional limitations and chronic diseases. Additionally, we examined the relationship between marital status and health, comparing the health of divorced, widowed, and never married women with married women, and how this relationship differs by cohort. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we examined potential differences in the level of functional limitations and six chronic diseases in two age-matched cohorts of midlife women in the United States: Pre-Baby Boomers, born 1933–1942, N = 4574; and Early Baby Boomers, born 1947–1956, N = 2098. Linear and logistic regressions tested the marital status/health relationship, as well as cohort differences in this relationship, controlling for age, education, race, number of marriages, length of time in marital status, physical activity, and smoking status. We found that Early Baby Boom women had fewer functional limitations but higher risk of chronic disease diagnosis compared to Pre-Baby Boom women. In both cohorts, marriage was associated with lower disease risk and fewer functional limitations; however, never-married Early Baby Boom women had more functional limitations, as well as greater likelihood of lung disease than their Pre-Baby Boom counterparts (OR = 0.28). Results are discussed in terms of the stress model of marriage, and the association between historical context and cohort health (e.g., the influence of economic hardship vs. economic prosperity). Additionally, we discuss cohort differences in selection into marital status, particularly as they pertain to never-married women, and the relative impact of marital dissolution on physical health for the two cohorts of women. PMID:24983699

  8. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  9. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally

  10. Altered Lung Function Test in Asymptomatic Women Using Biomass Fuel for Cooking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: One third of the world’s population use biomass fuel like wood, dung or charcoal for cooking. The smoke from these organic materials increases the incidence of respiratory illness including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Aim: To evaluate forced expiratory lung volumes in asymptomatic women previously exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 74 healthy asymptomatic women divided into two age matched groups of 37 each. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were assessed by computerised spirometry and statistical comparisons done on women using biomass fuel (study group) and women using other sources of fuel (LPG/ electric stove) for cooking (control group). Results: The PFT results showed significant reduction in forced expiratory lung volumes like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st sec (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25-75% (FEF 25-75%) and Forced Expiratory Volume percentage (FEV1%) in biomass fuel users as compared to those not exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that biomass fuel smoke may produce definite impairment in lung function, especially with regard to the smaller airways. PMID:25478331

  11. The Validity of Body Adiposity Indices in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Kamal, Sanaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Yousef, Walaa; Hassan, Naglaa; Helwa, Iman; Kholoussi, Shams

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the associations between the body adiposity indices and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in Egyptian women and to evaluate their predictive power. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on 180 Egyptian women aged between 25-35 years. They were 90 women with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and 90 healthy age matched controls. Body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated and serum samples were analyzed for metabolic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to determine the discriminatory capacity of BAI, WHR WHtR and BMI for MS. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) was highest for BIA, followed by WHR, WHtR and then BMI. All adiposity indices were significantly correlated with metabolic components and BAI had the highest correlation coefficients compared to other indices. CONCLUSION: BAI is a practical predictor for MS and has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing MS among Egyptian women and can be used in addition to WHR, WHtR and BMI for identifying MS in the field studies. PMID:27275324

  12. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Samantha J; Chivers, Meredith L

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  13. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kuliczkowska Plaksej, Justyna; Milewicz, Andrzej; Lenarcik-Kabza, A.; Trzmiel-Bira, Anna; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Hirnle, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Context. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The endocannabinoid system may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) may be responsible for individual susceptibility to obesity and related conditions. Objective. To determine the role of genetic variants of CNR1 in the etiopathology of NAFLD in women with PCOS. Design and Setting. Our department (a tertiary referral center) conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Subjects. 173 women with PCOS (aged 20–35) and 125 healthy, age- and weight-matched controls were studied. Methods. Hepatic steatosis was assessed by ultrasound evaluation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CNR1 (rs806368, rs12720071, rs1049353, rs806381, rs10485170, rs6454674) were genotyped. Results. Frequency of the G allele of rs806381 (P < 0.025) and the GG genotype of rs10485170 (P < 0.03) was significantly higher in women with PCOS and NAFLD than in PCOS women without NAFLD. Frequency of the TT genotype of rs6454674 was higher in PCOS women with NAFLD (not significantly, P = 0.059). In multivariate stepwise regression, allele G of rs806381 was associated with PCOS + NAFLD phenotype. Conclusion. Our preliminary results suggest the potential role of CNR1 polymorphisms in the etiology of NAFLD, especially in PCOS women. PMID:25136364

  14. Cutaneous vascular control in the arms of women with postmastectomy oedema.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A W; Levick, J R; Mortimer, P S

    1996-05-01

    The control of forearm skin blood flow was examined in the swollen arms of twelve women with oedema caused by breast cancer treatment. The swollen arm was compared with the opposite unaffected (control) arm. Using laser Doppler flux (LDF) and continuous finger blood pressure (BP) measurements, vascular control was tested by applying a range of provocations previously shown to alter cutaneous vascular resistance (CVR) in healthy subjects. The tests and the accepted mechanism were: post-ischaemic hyperaemia (locally mediated vasodilatation), inspiratory gasp and cool reflex (both sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction), arm dependency (locally mediated vasoconstriction), and core heat load (sympathetically mediated vasodilatation). CVR was calculated as BP/(LDF-biological zero). Three differences between the control and swollen arms were identified. (i) The laser Doppler biological zero signal was significantly higher on the swollen side (P = 0.005, Student's paired t test). (ii) Baseline LDF was significantly lower on the swollen side (P = 0.002), and apparent CVR correspondingly higher. (iii) Cumulative reactive hyperaemia (area under the LDF curve above baseline) was significantly less on the swollen side (P = 0.03), although peak flux was not significantly different. Inspiratory gasp, cool reflex, arm dependency and core heat load produced changes of similar magnitude in both arms. It appears that sympathetic neural control and local vasoconstrictor control in arm dependency are normal in arm lymphoedema but that locally mediated vasodilator control is impaired. In addition, baseline skin blood flow may be reduced in this condition. The results provide no support for impairment of vascular tone as a contributory factor to the oedematous state. PMID:8737078

  15. Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160259.html Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D levels may drop after women stop using birth ...

  16. Assessment of bladder wall thickness in women with overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Üçer, Oktay; Gümüş, Bilal; Albaz, Ali Can; Pekindil, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare bladder wall thickness (BWT) between female patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and aged-matched healthy controls. Material and methods Thirty-six female patients with OAB and 31 healthy women were enrolled in the present prospective observational study. Qmax and Qave were measured by using uroflowmetry in all of the women in the patient and control groups, and also maximum bladder capacity (MBC), post- void residual urine (PVRU), prevoiding and postvoiding BWT were measured by using transabdominal ultrasound. Lower urinary tract symptoms of the participants were assessed by using Overactive Bladder Version-8 (OAB-V8) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF). All of the data were statistically compared between the patient and control groups. In the patient group, the relationships between parameters were evaluated correlation analysis. Results The mean age of the patients and controls were similar (respectively, 45.58±12.35 and 44.21±11.60 years (p=0.68). The mean pre- and post-voiding BWT, OAB-V8 and ICIQ-SF scores of the patients were significantly higher than the controls. In the patient group, the moderate positive correlations between BWT with Qmax (p=0.02) and Qave (p=0.02) were found. Conclusion This study showed that the BWTs of the female patients with OAB are higher than those of healthy women. Further studies should investigate the changes in BWT of patients with OAB after treatment of OAB. PMID:27274895

  17. Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Angela M; Tile, Lianne; Lee, Yuna; Tomlinson, George; Hawker, Gillian; Scher, Judy; Hu, Hanxian; Vieth, Reinhold; Thompson, Lilian; Jamal, Sophie; Josse, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures. Methods and Findings This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures. A total of 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. This study has a power of 90% to detect 3% differences in BMD between the two groups. The women in this study were vitamin D replete, with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 77 nmol/l at baseline. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by −1.28% and −1.22% (p = 0.84) (difference of −0.06%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.67% to 0.54%) at the lumbar spine and −0.69% and −0.88% (p = 0.51) (difference of 0.19%; 95% CI −0.37% to 0.75%) at the total hip in the vitamin K and placebo groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period. Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by 10-fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels (bone formation marker). However, C-telopeptide levels (bone resorption marker) were not significantly different between the two groups. Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0

  18. A High-Intensity, Intermittent Exercise Protocol and Dynamic Postural Control in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Enda; Burke, Aoife; White, Elaine; Moran, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Context: Deficits in dynamic postural control predict lower limb injury. Differing fatiguing protocols negatively affect dynamic postural control. The effect of high-intensity, intermittent exercise on dynamic postural control has not been investigated. Objective: To investigate the effect of a high-intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP) on the dynamic postural control of men and women as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty male (age = 20.83 ± 1.50 years, height = 179.24 ± 7.94 cm, mass = 77.67 ± 10.82 kg) and 20 female (age = 20.45 ± 1.34 years, height = 166.08 ± 5.83 cm, mass = 63.02 ± 6.67 kg) athletes. Intervention(s): We recorded SEBT measurements at baseline, pre-HIIP, and post-HIIP. The HIIP consisted of 4 repetitions of 10-m forward sprinting with a 90° change of direction and then backward sprinting for 5 m, 2 repetitions of 2-legged jumping over 5 hurdles, 2 repetitions of high-knee side stepping over 5 hurdles, and 4 repetitions of lateral 5-m shuffles. Participants rested for 30 seconds before repeating the circuit until they reported a score of 18 on the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale. Main Outcome Measure(s): A mixed between- and within–subjects analysis of variance was conducted to assess time (pre-HIIP, post-HIIP) × sex interaction effects. Subsequent investigations assessed the main effect of time and sex on normalized maximal SEBT scores. We used intraclass correlation coefficients to determine the test-retest reliability of the SEBT and paired-samples t tests to assess the HIIP effect on circuit times. Results: We found a time × sex effect (F8,69 = 3.5; P range, <.001–.04; η2 range, 0.057–0.219), with women less negatively affected. We also noted a main effect for time, with worse normalized maximal SEBT scores postfatigue (F8,69 = 22.39; P < .001; η2 range, 0.324–0.695), and for sex, as

  19. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Preston-Martin, S.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.; Pike, M.C.; Wood, C.

    1980-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series (odds ratio = 4.0, p less than 0.01).

  20. Beyond the 50-minute hour: increasing control, choice, and connections in the lives of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Smyth, Katya Fels; Banyard, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty is associated with a range of mental health difficulties among women in this country, mainstream mental health interventions are not sufficient to meet the complex needs of poor women. This article argues that stress, powerlessness, and social isolation should become primary targets of our interventions, as they are key mediators of the relationship between poverty and emotional distress, particularly for women. Indeed, if ways are not found to address these conditions directly, by increasing women's control, choice, and connections, the capacity to improve the emotional well-being of impoverished women will remain limited at best. This is the first of 5 articles that comprise a special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, called "Beyond the 50-Minute Hour: Increasing Control, Choice, and Connections in the Lives of Low-Income Women." Together, these articles explore the nature and impact of a range of innovative mental health interventions that are grounded in a deep understanding of the experience of poverty. This introduction: (a) describes briefly how mainstream approaches fail to address the poverty-related mental health needs of low-income women; (b) illuminates the role of stress, powerlessness, and social isolation in women's lives; (c) highlights the ways in which the articles included in this special section address each of these by either adapting traditional mental health practices to attend to poverty's role in participants' lives or adapting community-based, social-justice-oriented interventions to attend to participants' mental health; and (d) discusses the research and evaluation implications of expanding mental health practices to meet the needs of low-income communities. PMID:20397984

  1. Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women with Cancer II: Psychological Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 65 women treated for early cancer, 22 women treated for benign disease, and 60 healthy women. Findings revealed that subjects with life-threatening diagnoses reacted with transitory depression, anxiety, and confusion. Cancer patients retained employment, significantly reducing working hours during recovery. Found no evidence for higher…

  2. Correlates of Lymphedema in Women with Breast Cancer: a Case Control Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Behnam; Sayar, Negin; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Zakeri, Zeinab; Talei, Asra; Rostami, Sara; Khademi, Sahar; Sabzi Sarvestani, Amene; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the burden of breast cancer (BC) continues to increase. BC related lymphedema (BCRL) is currently non curable and as a life time risk it affects at least 25% of BC patients. Knowing more about BCRL and appropriate control of its modifiable risk factors can improve quality of life (QOL) of the affected patients. In this case control study to detect factors, 400 women with BCRL (as the case group) and 283 patients with BC without lymphedema (as the control group) that were referred to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences affiliated BC clinic center were assessed. The data were analyzed in SPSS. The mean age of the case group was 52.3±11.0 years and of the control group was 50.1±10.9 years. In patients with BCRL, 203(50.7%) had left (Lt) side BC and in non- lymphedema group 151 (53.3%) had Lt side BC. Out of all BCRL patients, 204 (51%) had lymphedema in all parts of their affected upper extremities, 100 (25%) had swelling in the arm and forearm and 23 (5.7%) had edema in both the upper extremity and trunk. Edema, heaviness, concern about changing body image, pain and paresthesia were the most common signs/symptoms among patients with BCRL. In BCRL patients, the difference of circumference between the affected upper limb and non-affected limb was 4.4±2.5 cm and the difference in volume displacement was 528.7±374.4 milliliters. Multiple variable analysis showed that moderate to severe activity (OR; odds ratio =14, 95% CI: 2.6-73.3 ), invasiveness of BC (OR =13.7, 95% CI: 7.3-25.6), modified radical mastectomy (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-7.9), BMI =>25 (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2-8.7), radiotherapy (OR=3.9, 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 ), past history of limb damage (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and the number of excised lymph nodes (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) were the significant predictors of lymphedema in women with BC. Modifiable risk factors of BCRL such as non-guided moderate to severe physical activity, high BMI and trauma to the limb should be controlled as early as possible in

  3. Molecular mechanisms of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Föger-Samwald, Ursula; Vekszler, György; Hörz-Schuch, Edith; Salem, Sylvia; Wipperich, Markus; Ritschl, Peter; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pietschmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A common manifestation of age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis are fractures of the hip. Age-related osteoporosis is thought to be determined by a number of intrinsic factors including genetics, hormonal changes, changes in levels of oxidative stress, or an inflammatory status associated with the aging process. The aim of this study was to investigate gene expression and bone architecture in bone samples derived from elderly osteoporotic women with hip fractures (OP) in comparison to bone samples from age matched women with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA). Femoral heads and adjacent neck tissue were collected from 10 women with low-trauma hip fractures (mean age 83±6) and consecutive surgical hip replacement. Ten bone samples from patients undergoing hip replacement due to osteoarthritis (mean age 80±5) served as controls. One half of each bone sample was subjected to gene expression analysis. The second half of each bone sample was analyzed by microcomputed tomography. From each half, samples from four different regions, the central and subcortical region of the femoral head and neck, were analyzed. We could show a significantly decreased expression of the osteoblast related genes RUNX2, Osterix, Sclerostin, WNT10B, and Osteocalcin, a significantly increased ratio of RANKL to Osteoprotegerin, and a significantly increased expression of the enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase GPX3, and of the inflammatory cytokine IL6 in bone samples from hip fracture patients compared to controls. Major microstructural changes in OP bone were seen in the neck and were characterized by a significant decrease of bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density and a significant increase of trabecular separation. In conclusion, our data give evidence for a decreased expression of osteoblast related genes and increased expression of osteoclast related genes. Furthermore, increased expression of SOD2 and GPX3 suggest increased

  4. Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer Death Among Older Women: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Alison S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D.; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55–79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980–2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5–7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55–79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening—a more sensitive test—to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

  5. Use of online safety decision aid by abused women: effect on decisional conflict in randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Karen B.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Messing, Jill T.; Bloom, Tina L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Clough, Amber S.; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie S.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An Internet safety decision aid was developed to help abused women understand their risk for repeat and near-lethal intimate partner violence, clarify priorities related to safety, and develop an action plan customized to these priorities. Purpose The overall purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a safety decision aid compared with usual safety planning (control) delivered through a secure website, using a multi-state randomized controlled trial design. The paper evaluated the effectiveness of the safety decision aid in reducing decisional conflict after a single use by abused women. Design Randomized controlled trial referred to as IRIS, Internet Resource for Intervention and Safety Participants Abused women who spoke English (N = 708) were enrolled in a four-state, randomized controlled trial. Intervention and Control The intervention was an interactive safety decision aid with personalized safety plan; the control condition was usual safety planning resources. Both were delivered to participants through the secure study website. Main Outcome Measures This paper compared women’s decisional conflict about safety: total decisional conflict and the four subscales of this measure (feeling: uninformed, uncertain, unclear about safety priorities; and sensing lack of support) between intervention/control conditions. Data were collected 3/2011–5/2013 and analyzed 1/2014–3/2014. Results Immediately following the first use of the interactive safety decision aid, intervention women had significantly lower total decisional conflict than control women, controlling for baseline value of decisional conflict (p=0.002, effect size=.12). After controlling for baseline values, the safety decision aid group had significantly greater reduction in feeling uncertain (p=0.006, effect size=.07), and in feeling unsupported (p=0.008, effect size=.07) about safety than the usual safety planning group. Conclusions Abused women randomized to the safety

  6. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  7. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy. PMID:25763271

  8. The Use of Text Messaging to Promote Physical Activity in Working Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women. Methods Eighty-seven participants were randomized to an intervention (n=41) or control group (n=46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately three text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity. Results ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps/day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, p=.01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, p= .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared to baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5, vs. 60.3, p=.02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, p=.03). Conclusions Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared to a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior. PMID:25110303

  9. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. PMID:24853711

  10. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fassio, A; Idolazzi, L; Jaber, M A; Dartizio, C; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Gatti, D

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD) values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI) the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself. PMID:27608794

  11. X chromosome aneuploidy in infertile women: Analysis by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.A.; Moix, I.; Mermillod, B.

    1994-09-01

    Up to 1 in 3 couples have a problem of infertility at some time in their lives. Sex chromosome anomalies are found in 5-10% of couples, with mosaic aneuploidy being a common finding in primary infertility. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), in contrast, is frequently associated with autosomal structural anomalies. We hypothesized that low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy was associated with primary infertility but not with RSA. Three groups were studied: women from couples with primary infertillity (n=26); women with three or more spontaneous abortions (n=22); and age-matched normally fertile women (at least two pregnancies; n=28). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine X chromosome ploidy in 100 nuclei per patient, using a contig of three cosmids from MAO locus (kindly donated by W. Berger, Nijmegen). A control probe (chr. 15 centromere) was simultaneously hybridized, and only nuclei containing two control signals were scored for the X chromosome. The mean numbers of nuclei with two X chromosome signals were the same in all groups (Welch equality of means test: p>0.97). However, there is a significant difference between the variances of the primary infertile and RSA groups (Levene`s test: p=0.025 after Bonferrone correction for multiple testing). This provides preliminary support for the hypothesis of an association between primary infertility and low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome in women having diagnostic laparoscopy or hysterectomy. Relation to gynecologic features and outcome.

    PubMed

    Longstreth, G F; Preskill, D B; Youkeles, L

    1990-10-01

    We identified irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in 47.7% of 86 women having diagnostic laparoscopy for chronic pelvic pain, 39.5% of 172 women having elective hysterectomy, and 32.0% of 172 controls age-matched for the hysterectomy group (P = NS). Constipation and pain subtype IBS were more common in hysterectomy patients than controls (P less than 0.05). In laparoscopy patients, dyspareunia was more common in those with IBS than in those without it (P less than 0.05). In the hysterectomy group, more IBS patients had chronic pelvic pain (P less than 0.005), and abnormal menses (P less than 0.01). Chronic pelvic pain was more frequently the only prehysterectomy diagnosis in IBS patients (P less than 0.05), and IBS was present more often when pain was a reason for hysterectomy (P less than 0.01). One year after laparoscopy, IBS patients gave lower overall status ratings (P less than 0.01) and lower pain improvement ratings (P less than 0.05) than non-IBS patients. In women who had a hysterectomy for pain, there was less pain improvement one year later in those with the pain subtype of IBS than in non-IBS patients (P less than 0.05). IBS is associated with gynecologic symptoms and affects the symptomatic outcome of diagnostic laparoscopy and hysterectomy. PMID:2145139

  13. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  14. Depression and Obesity/Overweight Association in Elderly Women: a Community-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2015-11-01

    Overweight/obesity and depression are common among women especially in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight with depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in old women. A total of 94 depressed elderly women were compared with 99 non-depressed controls. The structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV were performed to diagnose depression, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was completed to rate it. Anthropometric indices were measured and compared between groups. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for linear relations between variables. Odds Ratio of obesity and overweight in depressed subjects comparing with normal participants was 1.45 (95%CI=0.63-3.32). A significant correlation was observed between BMI and GDS score (r=0.231, P-value=0.001). Total body fat (P-value=0.001) and BMI (P-value=0.016) were significantly higher in depressed women than non-depressed women. Despite the significantly higher total body fat and BMI among old women with depression, only a weak correlation was seen between BMI and GDS score. PMID:26786989

  15. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  16. Multivitamin and Iron Supplementation to Prevent Periconceptional Anemia in Rural Tanzanian Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S.; Masanja, Honorati; Mrema, Sigilbert; Levira, Francis; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Saronga, Naomi; Irema, Kahema; Shuma, Mary; Elisaria, Ester; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women’s nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls. Design A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months. Setting Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania. Subjects Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15–29 years (n = 802). Results The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0–12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42–0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2). Conclusions Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The

  17. Low, moderate, or high protein yogurt snacks on appetite control and subsequent eating in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Steve M; Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether afternoon snacks, varying in protein content, influence appetite-control and eating initiation. Fifteen healthy women (age: 26 ± 2 y) randomly consumed 160 kcal afternoon yogurt snacks containing Low (LP), Moderate (MP), or High (HP) protein (5,14,24 g protein, respectively) or had no snack (NS) for 3 days. On day 4, the volunteers came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch. The respective snack pattern was completed 3h post-lunch. Perceived sensations were measured every 30 min until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking, regardless of protein content, led to reduced hunger and increased fullness, which were sustained up to 120 min post-snack vs. NS (all, p<0.05). Between snacks, hunger was lower and fullness was higher throughout post-snack following HP vs. LP (p<0.05). Snacking delayed the onset of eating vs. NS (all, p<0.05). Specifically, dinner was requested at 124 ± 7 min following NS, 152 ± 7 min with LP, 158 ± 7 min following MP, and 178 ± 7 min post-snack for HP. Between snacks, HP led to the latest request time vs. LP (p<0.001) and MP (p<0.05). Although the energy content consumed at dinner was lower following the yogurt snacks vs. NS, the 160 kcal snacks were not fully compensated for at this meal. In conclusion, an afternoon snack of Greek yogurt, containing 24 g protein, led to reduced hunger, increased fullness, and delayed subsequent eating compared to lower protein snacks in healthy women. PMID:23022602

  18. Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24 h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36 weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34 weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36 weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10 min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, α 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12 weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using χ2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian

  19. Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

  1. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... Temeika L. Fairley, Ph.D., Designated Federal Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on...

  2. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  3. Genetic thromobophilia in pregnancy: a case-control study among North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovejeet; Puri, Manju; Kaushik, Shweta; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Trivedi, Shubha Sagar; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the role of genetic thrombophilias i.e. MTHFR C677T and FVL in the causation of various pregnancy complications like pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), recurrent abortions, intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and intra-uterine death on the whole and also individually along with the comparative assessment of pathophysiological basis of various pregnancy complications via the genetic proximities. One thousand and eleven (1,011) women of reproductive age group were recruited in the present study comprising various complications and controls. Recruitment criteria for all the pregnancy complications and controls was made and followed strictly. MTHFR C677T and FVL mutation detection was done in all the subjects. Vegetarianism was found to be significant risk factors for all the pregnancy complications and also when assessed individually. With respect to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, higher frequency of 677T allele was found among controls as compared to cases. 677T allele was found to pose decreased risk for various pregnancy complications on the whole and also individually. On adjusting the diet, regression analysis revealed no risk of mutant allele (T) for various pregnancy complications. FVL homozygous mutants were found to be absent among controls. In conclusion, the present study depicts dietary pattern as one of the most important factors in demonstrating the role of MTHFR C677T in various pregnancy complications and is indicative of a relatively deleterious effect of double dose of FVL in the presently studied population. Additionally, these polymorphisms play an important role in the orchestration of PIH to IUGR and vice versa. PMID:22918664

  4. Development and pilot of an advance care planning website for women with ovarian cancer: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Petzel, Sue V.; Cragg, Julie; McClellan, Molly; Chan, Daniel; Dickson, Elizabeth; Jacko, Julie A.; Sainfort, François; Geller, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few available tools facilitate cancer patients and physicians' discussions of quality of life and end-of-life. Our objective was to develop a web-based tool to promote advance care planning for women with ovarian cancer. Methods Women with ovarian cancer, their families, clinicians and researchers met to identify ways to improve cancer care. A prototype website was created to address advance care planning, focusing on advance healthcare directives (AHD) and palliative care consultation. Patients were recruited from a gynecologic oncology clinic for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Primary outcomes included completion of an AHD and palliative care consultation. Results At study completion, 53 women with ovarian cancer were enrolled and 35 completed the study. The mean age at enrollment was 57.9 ± 9.5 years; most were newly diagnosed or at first recurrence. There were no statistical differences in completion of AHD (p = 0.220) or palliative care consultation (p = 0.440) between intervention and control groups. However, women in the intervention group showed evidence of moving toward decision making regarding AHD and palliative care and lower decisional conflict. Women assigned to the intervention, compared to control website, were highly satisfied with the amount (p = 0.054) and quality (p = 0.119) of information and when they accessed the website, used it longer (p = 0.049). Overall website use was lower than expected, resulting from several patient-related and design barriers. Conclusions A website providing information and decisional support for women with ovarian cancer is feasible. Increasing frequency of website use requires future research. PMID:23988413

  5. Detection of Thyroid Autoimmunity Markers in Euthyroid Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-Control Study From Syria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saab, Raghad; Haddad, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in women in reproductive age. In many cases, PCOS is associated with infertility and increased risk of miscarriage. Recent studies have detected the presence of several organ specific and nonspecific autoantibodies in women with PCOS. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and levels of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid women with PCOS in Syria. Patients and Methods: This study included 56 euthyroid women with PCOS and 30 healthy women as a control group. PCOS was defined according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. Thyroid function was evaluated by measurement of serum TSH and FT4 levels. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-TG, respectively) were detected as markers for thyroid autoimmunity. All parameters were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Women with PCOS had higher serum levels of anti-TPO in comparison to controls (39.9 ± 59.5 and 18.9 ± 11.2 IU/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) and no significant difference was found in serum levels of anti-TG, TSH, or FT4 between the two groups. Patients with PCOS had a higher prevalence of positive results for anti-TG and/or anti-TPO in comparison to controls (28.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P<0.05), anti-TPO alone (19.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05) and anti-TG alone (21.4% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant associations were found between antibodies and studied hormones. Conclusions: High prevalence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid patients with PCOS refers to the importance of investigation for thyroid autoimmune state in those patients. PMID:25237328

  6. Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

    2013-01-01

    States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084

  7. Inulin controls inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Parvin; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Jafar-Abadi, Mohammad Asghari; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

    2014-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the effects of prebiotics on inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inulin supplementation on inflammatory indices and metabolic endotoxemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The participants included diabetic females (n = 49). They were divided into an intervention group (n = 24) as well as a control group (n = 25) and received 10 g/d inulin or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, insulin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were measured pre and post intervention. Inulin-supplemented patients exhibited a significant decrease in FBS (8.5%), HbA1c (10.4%), fasting insulin (34.3%), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (39.5%), hs-CRP (35.6%), TNF-α (23.1%), and LPS (27.9%) compared with the maltodextrin group (p < 0.05). Increase in IL-10 was not significant in inulin compared with the maltodextrin group. It can be concluded that inulin supplementation seems to be able to modulate inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia in women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24059649

  8. Case–control study of breast cancer and exposure to synthetic environmental chemicals among Alaska Native women

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Adrianne K.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sacco, Frank D.; Varner, D. Wayne; Lanier, Anne P.; Rubin, Carol H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN) women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. Objective To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. Design A case–control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls) recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM) and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. Results Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180) were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid) than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid) (p=0.04). Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16–4.05, p=0.02) and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13–5.25, p=0.02) logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER)–/progesterone receptor (PR)-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index. The

  9. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

  10. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction < 0.01). Conclusions We observed no overall association between serum taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  11. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among African American Women: The Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Kelly, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer (BC) mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. Methods African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of BC education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of BC early detection. Posters and literature about BC early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how BC lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and six month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women’s BC knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Results This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with, or prolong, the client’s salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Conclusions Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women’s BC knowledge and adherence to BC screening guidelines. PMID:22046851

  12. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  13. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  14. Effects of multivitamin/mineral supplementation on trace element levels in serum and follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Mehmet Okan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Barak, Cihan; Berkkanoglu, Murat

    2011-01-01

    We investigated effects of multivitamin/mineral supplementation on element levels in serum and follicular fluid of women undergoing IVF. We used three groups in this study. The first group was used as an age-matched and nonpregnant control (n = 13). Group 2 (n = 30) constituted the IVF group and women in the third group who were undergoing IVF also received a multivitamin/mineral tablet daily for 45 days. Follicular fluid and serum selenium and zinc levels and follicular fluid copper levels were lower in IVF patients than in controls although follicular fluid aluminum and iron levels were higher in IVF patients than in controls. However, follicular fluid and serum aluminum, copper, zinc and selenium levels, and serum magnesium levels were higher in the multivitamin/mineral group than in the IVF group although follicular fluid iron levels were lower in the multivitamin/mineral group than in the IVF group. In conclusion, we observed that copper, zinc, and selenium in serum and follicular fluid decreased in women undergoing IVF. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation in serum and follicular fluid of women undergoing IVF normalized the trace element levels. PMID:20180042

  15. Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

  16. Enhancing Women's Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson Rowe, Lorelei; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual…

  17. Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women With Cancer: I. Sexual Functioning Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Anderson, Barrie; deProsse, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of sexual difficulties for women with survivable cancer were studied. Women with early stage gynecologic cancer (n = 47) were assessed after their diagnosis but prior to treatment and then reassessed at 4, 8, and 12 months posttreatment. Sexual and medical outcomes were compared with data from members of two matched comparison groups who were also assessed longitudinally: women diagnosed and treated for benign gynecologic disease (n = 18) and gynecologically healthy women (n = 57). Global sexual behavior disruption did not occur but the frequency of intercourse declined for women treated for disease, whether malignant or benign. In relation to the sexual response cycle, diminution of sexual excitement is pronounced for women with disease; however, this difficulty is more severe and distressing for women with cancer, possibly due to significant coital and postcoital pain, premature menopause, treatment side effects, or a combination. Changes in desire, orgasm, and resolution phases of the sexual response cycle may also occm; but they are of lesser magnitude or duration or both. Approximately 30% of the women treated for cancer were diagnosed with a sexual dysfunction. The nature, early timing, and maintenance of sexual functioning morbidity suggest the instrumental role that cancer and cancer treatments play in these deficits (particularly arousal problems) and suggest that preventive therapies are necessary. PMID:2600238

  18. Social Control and the Education of Nineteenth-Century American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen

    The expansion of higher education in the 19th century United States to include women both restricted and increased their freedom. Because the industrial revolution and the movement westward limited the availability of men, the "moral guardian" role society prescribed for women was logically extended to teaching. The reason, however, for the…

  19. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  20. A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Sian A.; Paxton, Susan J.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed…

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna M.; Halperin, Beth A.; Langley, Joanne M.; McNeil, Shelly A.; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%–94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%–45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Donna M; Halperin, Beth A; Langley, Joanne M; McNeil, Shelly A; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%-94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%-45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  3. Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer among Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Yakir; Rosen, Barry; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Lynch, Henry T.; Moller, Pal; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Karlan, Beth; Eng, Charis; Gilchrist, Dawna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Eisen, Andrea; Friedman, Eitan; Euhus, David; Ping, Sun; Narod, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose BRCA mutation carriers may use tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention or treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is often prescribed after surgical menopause and oral contraceptives are recommended for ovarian cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of these medications and other risk factors on endometrial cancer risk in BRCA carriers. Methods Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified from a registry of mutation carriers. Cases were 83 women who had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Controls were 1027 matched women who did not develop endometrial cancer and who had an intact uterus. All women completed a baseline questionnaire, which included questions about ages at menarche and menopause, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, breast cancer history and tamoxifen use. We estimated the odds ratio associated with each risk factor in a multivariate analysis. Results No differences were found between cases and controls in terms of age at menarche, BMI, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. In a multivariate analysis, for women taking estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy, the odds ratio was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03–1.78, p = 0.16), and for women taking progesterone-only hormone replacement therapy the odds ratio was 6.91 (95% CI 0.99–98.1, p = 0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for endometrial cancer associated with a history of tamoxifen use was 3.50 (95% CI 1.51 to 8.10; p = 0.003). Conclusions The observed increased risk of associated with progesterone-only therapy merits further study. PMID:25838159

  4. Risk factors for endometrial cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Segev, Yakir; Rosen, Barry; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Lynch, Henry T; Moller, Pal; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Karlan, Beth; Eng, Charis; Gilchrist, Dawna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eisen, Andrea; Friedman, Eitan; Euhus, David; Ping, Sun; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    BRCA mutation carriers may use tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention or treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is often prescribed after surgical menopause and oral contraceptives are recommended for ovarian cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of these medications and other risk factors on endometrial cancer risk in BRCA carriers. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified from a registry of mutation carriers. Cases were 83 women who had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Controls were 1027 matched women who did not develop endometrial cancer and who had an intact uterus. All women completed a baseline questionnaire, which included questions about ages at menarche and menopause, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, breast cancer history and tamoxifen use. We estimated the odds ratio associated with each risk factor in a multivariate analysis. No differences were found between cases and controls in terms of age at menarche, BMI, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. In a multivariate analysis, for women taking estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy, the odds ratio was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03-1.78, p = 0.16), and for women taking progesterone-only hormone replacement therapy the odds ratio was 6.91 (95% CI 0.99-98.1, p = 0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for endometrial cancer associated with a history of tamoxifen use was 3.50 (95% CI 1.51-8.10, p = 0.003). The observed increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with progesterone-only therapy merits further study. PMID:25838159

  5. Ovarian Reserve in Women Treated for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia or Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Chemotherapy, but Not Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Brooke V.; Missmer, Stacey; Correia, Katharine F.; Wadleigh, Martha; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. It is well known that chemotherapy regimens may have a negative effect on ovarian reserve, leading to amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. There are little data regarding the effects of leukemia chemotherapy on ovarian reserve, specifically in women who received the chemotherapy as adults and are having regular menstrual periods. Our primary objective was to determine if premenopausal women with a history of chemotherapy for leukemia, without subsequent stem cell transplantation, have decreased ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods. We measured ovarian reserve in five women who had been treated for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared them to age-matched control women without a history of chemotherapy. Results. There appeared to be a trend towards lower antimullerian hormone and antral follicle counts and higher follicle-stimulating hormone levels in the leukemia group. Conclusion. Our results indicate that chemotherapy for AML or ALL without stem cell transplantation may compromise ovarian reserve. Although our results should be confirmed by a larger study, oncologists, infertility specialists, and patients should be aware of the potential risks to ovarian function and should be counseled on options for fertility preservation. PMID:23050166

  6. Association of estrogen receptor β and estrogen-related receptor α gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Amira; Shalaby, Sally M; Etewa, Rasha L; Ahmed, Hanan S; Abdelrahman, Hossam M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association of AluI and RsaI polymorphisms of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) gene and 23-bp nucleotide repeat polymorphism of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) gene with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Egyptian women. Two-hundred postmenopausal osteoporotic women as cases and 180 healthy age-matched postmenopausal women as controls were genotyped by PCR fragment length polymorphism for AluI, allele-specific PCR for RsaI, and by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels for ERRα repeats. sRANKL levels were estimated by ELISA. BMD measurements for spine and femoral neck were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A significant difference between women with osteoporosis and controls regarding allele and genotype distributions of AluI G/A (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.77-3.18 and p < 0.001 for A allele) and ERRα polymorphisms (for the two repeats allele OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.09-4.00, and p = 0.02). Osteoporotic women with the AluI AA + GA genotype or with the EERα 2,2 genotype had significantly lower BMD than did women with the other genotypes. Moreover, there was a significant increase of the mean values of sRANKL in carriers of AluI A, RsaI A alleles and in patients having 2,2 genotypes of ERRα (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). We demonstrated an association of ER-β AluI G/A and ERRα 23-repeats polymorphisms with BMD in postmenopausal Egyptian women. A possible effect of ER-β and ERRα polymorphisms on the levels of sRANKL was estimated. PMID:25903400

  7. The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial: an inconvenient finding and the diet-heart hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-11-01

    One goal of the US$700 million Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial was to determine whether post-menopausal women who adopted what was regarded as a 'heart healthy' low-fat diet, high in vegetables, fruits and grains, reduced their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The trial substantially favoured the outcome in the intervention group, who also received an intensive nutritional and behaviour education programme not offered to the control group. These studies neatly disprove the diet-heart hypothesis since adoption of 'heart healthy' eating not only failed to influence future cardiac events in the healthy but it increased such events in the unhealthy and worsened diabetic control in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  PMID:24148164

  8. Behavior and weight correlates of weight-control efforts in Australian women living in disadvantage: The READI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing obesity rates worldwide, more and more people are actively attempting to lose weight or avoid weight gain, but relatively little is known about what specific behaviors comprise these efforts and which, if any, are associated with better weight control over time. Methods This paper reports relationships between body weight, weight-control efforts and related behaviors over a three-year period in 1,634 Australian women. The women were purposefully recruited from 80 disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Weight loss efforts were categorized as trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain and no weight-control efforts. Behavioral correlates examined included different kinds of physical activity and consumption of a number of specific foods types. Results and discussion Self-reported body weight at baseline was higher in women trying to lose weight. Frequency of consumption of low energy density foods was positively associated with reported weight-control efforts, as was frequency of reported total and leisure-time physical activity. Longitudinal associations between changes in weight-control efforts and changes in behaviors were consistent with the cross-sectional findings. At three-year follow up, however, weight-control efforts were not associated with change in body weight. More detailed analyses of specific food choices suggested that part of the explanation of no effect of reported weight-control efforts and weight over time might be that people are not as well-informed as they should be about the energy density of some common foods. In particular, those reporting engagement in weight-control efforts reported reducing consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods such as bread and potatoes more than is justified by their energy content, while they reported increasing consumption of some high energy density foods (e.g., cheese and nuts). Conclusion It is tentatively concluded that women living in disadvantaged

  9. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. PMID:23178326

  10. Why do young women smoke? VI. A controlled study of nicotine effects on attention: pharmacogenetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Rigbi, A; Yakir, A; Sarner-Kanyas, K; Pollak, Y; Lerer, B

    2011-02-01

    In prior studies we found that young, female smokers manifest poorer performance than non-smokers on attention-related tasks and that these findings can be moderated by variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes. We predicted that under controlled conditions (1) nicotine would improve functioning on attentional tasks in smokers who previously manifested relatively poor performance, and that (2) smokers who carry genetic variations associated with poorer attention performance would derive greater benefit from nicotine. To test these hypotheses, 31 young female smokers, who participated in our previous study, performed the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Tower of London Test and Continuous Performance Task (CPT) in a double-blind, within-between subject design, placebo or nicotine (4 mg as gum) serving as the within factor and genetic profile as the between factor. Repeated measures ANCOVA controlling for attention deficit symptomatology, substance abuse and nicotine dependence showed better performance under nicotine among participants with higher levels of attention deficit symptoms (MFFT errors: P=0.04; CPT commissions: P=0.01) and nicotine dependence (CPT stability of response: P=0.04) and greater consumption of caffeine (CPT stability of response: P=0.04). An interactive effect of genetic profile was demonstrated for SNP rs2337980 in CHRNA7. These findings suggest that nicotine may have stronger short-term facilitating effects on attention in women who have more attention deficit symptoms and consume more nicotine and caffeine. This effect may be modified by a specific genetic make-up. Such individuals may be at increased risk for nicotine addiction and for greater difficulties in smoking cessation. PMID:20231857

  11. Avoiding OHSS: Controlled Ovarian Low-Dose Stimulation in Women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.; Reisenbüchler, C.; Rösner, S.; Haussmann, J.; Wimberger, P.; Goeckenjan, M.

    2016-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder which influences outcome and potential risks involved with controlled ovarian stimulation for artificial reproductive techniques (ART). Concrete practical recommendations for the dosage of gonadotropins, the preferred protocol and preventive methods to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are lacking. We present retrospective data of 235 individually calculated gonadotropin low-dose stimulations for ART in a single center from 2012 to 2014. Clinical data and outcome parameter of patients diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria (n = 39) were compared with patients without PCOS (n = 196). The starting dose of gonadotropins was individually calculated depending on patientsʼ age, BMI, ovarian reserve, ovarian response in previous cycles, and diagnostic criteria of PCOS. Mean age and duration of infertility did not differ between the groups, whereas mean BMI (p = 0.007) and AMH (p < 0.001) were higher in the PCOS-group. A lower mean FSH-starting and maximum dose was administered to women with PCOS (p < 0.001). The biochemical pregnancy rate of 42.4 % and the clinical pregnancy rate of 32.2 % for PCOS-patients did not differ from those of the control group (42.2 % and 34.4 % respectively). Neither mild, nor moderate or severe manifestation of OHSS occurred significantly more often in patients with PCOS. Our study supports the use of a calculated low-dose FSH-stimulation strategy in ART for patients with PCOS. Further randomized clinical trials should confirm this strategy and lead to define individual risk factors for OHSS, which can be used for recommendation of safer ART-techniques like in vitro maturation. PMID:27365543

  12. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Hairston, Ilana S.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of disorder. Although the mechanisms for their sleep disturbances are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD vs. healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. Methods Fifty-two AD participants (mean age 36.0 ± 11.0 years, 10 women) who were 3–12 weeks since their last drink (mean abstinence 57.9 ± 19.3 days) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (mean age 34.4 ± 10.6 years, 5 women) participated. Following a 23:00 – 06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 days, and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-hr extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 minutes beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. Results There was a slower rate of rise and a lower maximal amplitude in the AD group. DLMO varied by methodology used. Using 3 pg/ml as a threshold, no significant differences between the AD and HC groups were found. Using two standard deviations above the mean of the first 3 samples, AD DLMO occurred later 21:02 (SD=0:41) than HC 20:44 (SD=0:21) t=-2.4, (p=.02). Conclusions While melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in ADs. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats PMID:22217099

  13. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial

  14. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  15. Individualized Follow-up of Pregnant Women with Asymptomatic Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stoian, Dana; Pantea, Stelian; Margan, Madalin; Timar, Bogdan; Borcan, Florin; Craina, Marius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Maternal hormones are essential for the normal fetal development during pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a frequent pathology in our iodine replete region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in cases with known autoimmune thyroid disease, which were in a euthyroid state prior to pregnancy, and to assess the association between supplemental treatments administered and the outcome of the pregnancy. The study is a prospective interventional controlled study. The two cohorts comprise the interventional group, consisting of 109 pregnant women with known autoimmune asymptomatic thyroid disease, without any levothyroxine (LT4) treatment and an aged-matched control group, with an unknown thyroid disease. After the pregnancy, a monthly evaluation of TSH, FT3, and FT4 was performed. Offspring evaluation was made at birth time. 88.8% of the women developed SCH in the first four weeks of pregnancy. Average LT4 doses increased as the pregnancy progressed. The monthly adjustment was 12.5 or 25 μg. All SCH cases developed in the first trimester of pregnancy. There was no significant difference regarding the gestational week, weight, or length at birth between the interventional group and controls, when TSH values were in the optimal range, during the whole pregnancy. Premature birth was described in one case in the interventional group. PMID:26771604

  16. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  17. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods. PMID:21551135

  18. Prevalence of Child Marriage and its Impact on the Fertility and Fertility Control Behaviors of Young Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5

  19. Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV acquisition in southern African women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Padian, Nancy S; van der Straten, Ariane; Ramjee, Gita; Chipato, Tsungai; de Bruyn, Guy; Blanchard, Kelly; Shiboski, Stephen; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Fancher, Heidi; Cheng, Helen; Rosenblum, Michael; van der Laan, Mark; Jewell, Nicholas; McIntyre, James

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Female-controlled methods of HIV prevention are urgently needed. We assessed the effect of provision of latex diaphragm, lubricant gel, and condoms (intervention), compared with condoms alone (control) on HIV seroincidence in women in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods We did an open-label, randomised controlled trial in HIV-negative, sexually active women recruited from clinics and community-based organisations, who were followed up quarterly for 12–24 months (median 21 months). All participants received an HIV prevention package consisting of pre-test and post-test counselling about HIV and sexually transmitted infections, testing, treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections, and intensive risk-reduction counselling. The primary outcome was incident HIV infection. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00121459. Findings Overall HIV incidence was 4.0% per 100 woman-years: 4.1% in the intervention group (n=2472) and 3.9% in the control group (n=2476), corresponding to a relative hazard of 1.05 (95% CI 0.84–1.32, intention-to-treat analysis). The proportion of women using condoms was significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (54% vs 85% of visits, p<0.0001). The proportions of participants who reported adverse events (60% [1523] vs 61% [1529]) and serious adverse events (5% [130] vs 4% [101]) were similar between the two groups. Interpretation We observed no added protective benefit against HIV infection when the diaphragm and lubricant gel were provided in addition to condoms and a comprehensive HIV prevention package. Our observation that lower condom use in women provided with diaphragms did not result in increased infection merits further research. Although the intervention seemed safe, our findings do not support addition of the diaphragm to current HIV prevention strategies. PMID:17631387

  20. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  1. Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density in evaluating cortical bone loss: a study in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism and subclinical iatrogenic hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Cristiana; Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Scarpiello, Addolorata; Angelozzi, Maurizio; Montesano, Teresa; Minisola, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and 30 age-matched women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (sHTH) were studied to assess cortical bone loss. One hundred two healthy women were also recruited. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and femoral total (FT), and at one-third of the radius (R). Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (ADSoS) and Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI) were also evaluated using phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS). A significant correlation was found between QUS and BMD at LS (ADSoS, p < 0.05) and R (ADSoS and UBPI, p < 0.001) in controls. QUS significantly correlated with BMD at LS, FN (p < 0.01), and FT (p < 0.001) in sHTH. No correlations were found in the PHPT group. Mean T-score values of all parameters were significantly lower in patients compared with controls (p < 0.001); however, they did not differ between PHPT and sHTH patients. T-score of R, ADSoS, and UBPI was reduced compared with other sites (p < 0.001) in both diseases. In postmenopausal women with PHPT and sHTH, bone loss is mainly detectable at cortical level. However, qualitative and/or structural changes of bone could account for the lack of correlations between these 2 techniques at cortical sites. PMID:19815437

  2. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  3. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  4. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  5. [Factors associated with breast feeding. II Study of women with no prenatal control].

    PubMed

    Avila-rosas, H; Ambrosi-c, R; Cabrera-o, P; Gordillo-f, J; Oliva-c, J; Toussaint-m, G; Cruz-r, I; Karchmer-k, S

    1989-01-01

    This prospective study on breastfeeding practices sought to identify if factors that intervene or determine breastfeeding practices are those influenced by women themselves, promoted by institutions such as hospitals or is a combination of both factors. The methodology included 582 women who did not attend prenatal consultations and only attended the 3 hospitals included in the study to deliver their babies. Hospital A studied 252 women, supported breastfeeding practices and gave patients milk samples; hospital B studied 80 women, did not support breastfeeding and gave milk samples; and hospital C interviewed 250 women, did not support breastfeeding and did not give women milk samples. Invitations to attend the study explained that 12 hours postpartum a questionnaire would be given and 15 days postpartum a session would be held to verify if they were breastfeeding. The independent variables were: place of birth, residence of the new mothers and that their own mothers age, educational level, status of relationship with the father of the baby, number of pregnancies, number of live children, background and number of previous stillbirths, were they living with the father of the baby and was he supporting her, was the pregnancy planned, previous problems with breastfeeding, was previous baby breastfed number of previous babies breastfed, reasons for not breastfeeding, and prior to the study what were other sources of information on breastfeeding. Results demonstrated that the sociocultural and demographic differences between each of the 3 populations attending the 3 hospitals were found to have stronger effects on breastfeeding practices than hospital policies. PMID:12342596

  6. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n = 19) or placebo groups (n = 18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

  7. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and risk for psychiatric disorders in girls and women born between 1915 and 2010: A total population study.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Hedvig; Butwicka, Agnieszka; Nordenström, Anna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Falhammar, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise; Landén, Mikael

    2015-10-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a chronic condition and individuals are exposed to elevated androgen levels in utero as a result of the endogenous cortisol deficiency. Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to influence mental health, but population based studies on psychiatric morbidity among girls and women with CAH are lacking. Therefore, we performed a cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers linked with the national CAH register. Girls and women with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 335) born between January 1915 and January 2010 were compared with aged-matched female (n = 33500) and male controls (n = 33500). Analyses were stratified by phenotype [salt wasting (SW), simple virilizing (SV), and non-classical type (NC)] and by CYP21A2 genotype subgroups (null, I2splice, I172N, and P30L). Results are presented as estimated risks (OR, 95%CI) of psychiatric disorders among girls and women with CAH compared with age-matched controls. Any psychiatric diagnoses were more common in CAH females compared with female and male population controls [1.9 (1.4-2.5), and 2.2 (1.7-2.9)]. In particular, the risk of alcohol misuse was increased compared with female and male population controls [2.8 (1.7-4.7) and 2.1 (1.2-3.5)], and appeared most common among the girls and women with the most severe null genotype [6.7 (2.6-17.8)]. The risk of stress and adjustment disorders was doubled compared with female population controls [2.1 (1.3-3.6)]. Girls and women with CAH have an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in general and substance use disorders in particular compared with unexposed females, with the highest risk among those with the most severe genotype. Prenatal androgen exposure and deficient endogenous cortisol and/or adrenaline production may provide explanations for these findings, but other factors related to CAH cannot be excluded. PMID:26184920

  8. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarzad, Aisa; Amani, Reza; Mehrzad Sadaghiani M.D.3, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Materials and Methods Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu), insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C) were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC). Results Waist circumference (WC), insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19) as a marker of IR in infertile PCOS women. Conclusion Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR) in infertile PCOS patients. PMID:27123197

  9. Use of antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women. A population-based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Liou, Jun-Ting; Huang, Yun-Wen; Lin, Chen Wei; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chu, Che-Li; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Wang, Yun-Han

    2016-06-01

    Despite continued uncertainty of venous thromboembolism (VTE) caused from antipsychotic agents, this safety issue has not been examined in postmenopausal women, a population with high usages of antipsychotics and at high risk for VTE. We assessed whether antipsychotic use was associated with an increased VTE risk in women after menopause. We conducted a nested case-control study of all Taiwanese women aged ≥ 50 years (n = 316,132) using a nationwide healthcare claims database between 2000 and 2011. All newly diagnosed VTE patients treated with an anticoagulant or thrombectomy surgery were identified as cases (n = 2,520) and individually matched to select controls (n = 24,223) by cohort entry date, age, cancer diagnosis and major surgery procedure. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of VTE associated with antipsychotics were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regressions. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with a 1.90-fold (95 % CI = 1.64-2.19) increased VTE risk compared with nonuse in postmenopausal women. The VTE risk existed in a dose-dependent fashion (test for trend, p<0.001), with a more than quadrupled risk for high-dose antipsychotics (adjusted OR = 4.60; 95 % CI = 2.88-7.33). Current parenteral administration of antipsychotics also led to a 3.46-fold increased risk (95 % CI = 2.39-5.00). Conversely, there was no increased VTE risk when antipsychotics were discontinued for > 30 days. In conclusion, current use of antipsychotics is significantly associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of VTE in postmenopausal women, especially for those currently taking high-dose or receiving parenteral antipsychotics. PMID:26941052

  10. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga in Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Kavita D.; Perkins, George; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, Nelamangala V.; Spelman, Amy; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Johnson, Kayla; Fortier, Adoneca; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Haddad, Robin; Morris, G. Stephen; Scheetz, Janet; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research incorporating yoga (YG) into radiotherapy (XRT) for women with breast cancer finds improved quality of life (QOL). However, shortcomings in this research limit the findings. Patients and Methods Patients with stages 0 to III breast cancer were recruited before starting XRT and were randomly assigned to YG (n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) three times a week for 6 weeks during XRT or waitlist (WL; n = 54) control. Self-report measures of QOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form survey; primary outcomes), fatigue, depression, and sleep quality, and five saliva samples per day for 3 consecutive days were collected at baseline, end of treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. Results The YG group had significantly greater increases in physical component scale scores compared with the WL group at 1 and 3 months after XRT (P = .01 and P = .01). At 1, 3, and 6 months, the YG group had greater increases in physical functioning compared with both ST and WL groups (P < .05), with ST and WL differences at only 3 months (P < .02). The group differences were similar for general health reports. By the end of XRT, the YG and ST groups also had a reduction in fatigue (P < .05). There were no group differences for mental health and sleep quality. Cortisol slope was steepest for the YG group compared with the ST and WL groups at the end (P = .023 and P = .008) and 1 month after XRT (P = .05 and P = .04). Conclusion YG improved QOL and physiological changes associated with XRT beyond the benefits of simple ST exercises, and these benefits appear to have long-term durability. PMID:24590636

  11. Numbers or words? A randomized controlled trial of presenting screen negative results to pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Marteau, T M; Saidi, G; Goodburn, S; Lawton, J; Michie, S; Bobrow, M

    2000-09-01

    The Objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that presenting risk information using numbers rather than words is a more effective way of communicating the residual risk inherent in a screen negative test result. We used a randomised controlled trial in a large UK teaching hospital. Two hundred and twenty pregnant women who received negative results on serum screening for Down syndrome participated. Presentation of screen negative test results were given either as a numerical probability (e.g. you have a 1:650 chance of having a baby with Down syndrome) or as a verbal probability (your chance of having a baby with Down syndrome is low). In both interventions the verbal anchor 'it is unlikely that your baby has Down syndrome' was used. Our aims were to measure the understanding of the residual risk in a screen negative result, and anxiety. Immediately after receipt of the results, 97% of those receiving their results in the form of a numerical probability and 91% of those receiving their results in the form of a verbal probability correctly understood that their baby probably did not have Down syndrome (95% CI for difference: 0% to 12%; p=0.04). All those who were incorrect believed that their baby definitely did not have Down syndrome. Subgroup analysis showed that this effect was confined to those with lower levels of education (i.e. those without a university degree), amongst whom understanding was poorer. There was no difference between intervention groups in understanding the results at four months. There were no differences between intervention groups in the levels of anxiety at one week or four months after receiving their results. In conclusion, communicating residual risks using numbers rather than words has a small beneficial effect of increasing awareness of residual risks without raising anxiety. Further work is needed to estimate the size of this effect in less well-informed and less highly educated populations. PMID:11015699

  12. Effects of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy on Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    WALITT, BRIAN; PETTINGER, MARY; WEINSTEIN, ARTHUR; KATZ, JAMES; TORNER, JAMES; WASKO, MARY CHESTER; HOWARD, BARBARA V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT) on the incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials evaluated the effects of unopposed estrogen (E-alone) and estrogen plus progestin (E+P) compared with placebo on a diverse set of health outcomes over 7.1 and 5.6 years, respectively. RA cases were identified using historical and medication data. The hazard of developing RA was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Disease symptom severity was estimated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and self-reported joint pain scores at baseline and after 1 year. Mean changes in severity were compared using linear regression models. Results Of the 27,347 participants, 63 prevalent cases and 105 incident cases of RA were identified. A nonsignificant reduction in the risk of developing RA (hazard ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.51, 1.10) was noted with PHT use. PHT use led to improved SF-36 scores in unadjusted analyses (percent change 12.5%; 95% CI −24.45, −0.57) but not after adjustment for relevant covariates (P = 0.33). Nonsignificant improvements in joint pain scores were seen with PHT use (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% CI 0.83, 20.20). PHT did not improve swelling (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.08, 19.63) or prevent new joint pains (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.11, 4.68) in RA participants. Conclusion There were no statistically significant differences in the risk of developing RA or the severity of RA between the PHT and placebo groups. PMID:18311749

  13. Carbohydrate ingestion induces sex-specific cardiac vagal inhibition, but not vascular sympathetic modulation, in healthy older women.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Graham, Stuart L; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    The role of vagal function in cardiovascular risk in older women remains unclear. Autonomic modulation following carbohydrate ingestion (CI) and postural stress (PS) were investigated in 14 healthy men and 21 age-matched postmenopausal women (age: 65.0 ± 2.1 vs. 64.1 ± 1.6 years), with normal and comparable insulin sensitivity. Continuous noninvasive finger arterial pressure and ECG were recorded in the lying and the standing positions before and after ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal (600 kcal, carbohydrate 78%, protein 13%, and fat 8%). Low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) components (ms(2)) of heart rate variability (HRV), low-frequency power (mmHg(2)) of systolic blood pressure variability (SBP LF power), and the sequence method for spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, ms/mmHg) were used to quantify autonomic modulation. In response to CI and PS, mean arterial pressure maintained stable, and heart rate increased in women and men in the lying and standing positions. Following CI (60, 90, and 120 min postprandially) in the standing position, SBP LF power increased by 40% in men (P = 0.02), with unchanged HRV parameters; in contrast, in women, HRV HF power halved (P = 0.02), with unaltered SBP LF power. During PS before and after CI, similar magnitude of SBP LF power, HRV, and BRS changes was observed in men and women. In conclusion, CI induces sex-specific vascular sympathetic activation in healthy older men, and cardiac vagal inhibition in healthy older women; this CI-mediated efferent vagal inhibition may suggest differential cardiovascular risk factors in women, irrespective of insulin resistance, and impairment of autonomic control. PMID:27147618

  14. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  15. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  16. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women protects them over two consecutive influenza seasons in a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mutsaerts, Eleonora; Madhi, Shabir A.; Cutland, Clare L.; Jones, Stephanie; Hugo, Andrea; Trenor, Siobhan; Treurnicht, Florette K.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Weinberg, Adriana; Nunes, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: We assessed the persistence of hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) antibodies and the vaccine efficacy (VE) of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) following vaccination of a cohort of pregnant South African women during a second influenza season. Methods: A cohort of women who participated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial on the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of IIV3 in 2011 had HAI titers measured in 2012 and were monitored for influenza illness until the end of 2012. Results: The proportion of women with HAI titers ≥1:40 was significantly greater in vaccinees (63%) compared to placebo-recipients (22%; p < 0.001). VE in 2012 was 63.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: −33.7%, 90.2%); combined VE for 2011 and 2012 was 58.3% (95%CI: 0.2%, 82.6%). Conclusion: The majority of women who received IIV3 during pregnancy had HAI titers above the putative threshold for protection against influenza illness one year after vaccination and showed a trend towards protection against influenza disease. PMID:27212228

  17. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  18. Dynamic Changes of Functional Pain Connectome in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Hsuan; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Chuang, Chih-Ying; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Chou, Chih-Che; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM) is the most prevalent gynecological problem. Many key brain systems are engaged in pain processing. In light of dynamic communication within and between systems (or networks) in shaping pain experience and behavior, the intra-regional functional connectivity (FC) in the hub regions of the systems may be altered and the functional interactions in terms of inter-regional FCs among the networks may be reorganized to cope with the repeated stress of menstrual pain in PDM. Forty-six otherwise healthy PDM subjects and 49 age-matched, healthy female control subjects were enrolled. Intra- and inter-regional FC were assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and ReHo-seeded FC analyses, respectively. PDM women exhibited a trait-related ReHo reduction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, part of the default mode network (DMN), during the periovulatory phase. The trait-related hypoconnectivity of DMN-salience network and hyperconnectivity of DMN-executive control network across the menstrual cycle featured a dynamic transition from affective processing of pain salience to cognitive modulation. The altered DMN-sensorimotor network may be an ongoing representation of cumulative menstrual pain. The findings indicate that women with long-term PDM may develop adaptive neuroplasticity and functional reorganization with a network shift from affective processing of salience to the cognitive modulation of pain. PMID:27089970

  19. Dynamic Changes of Functional Pain Connectome in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsuan; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Chuang, Chih-Ying; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Chou, Chih-Che; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM) is the most prevalent gynecological problem. Many key brain systems are engaged in pain processing. In light of dynamic communication within and between systems (or networks) in shaping pain experience and behavior, the intra-regional functional connectivity (FC) in the hub regions of the systems may be altered and the functional interactions in terms of inter-regional FCs among the networks may be reorganized to cope with the repeated stress of menstrual pain in PDM. Forty-six otherwise healthy PDM subjects and 49 age-matched, healthy female control subjects were enrolled. Intra- and inter-regional FC were assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and ReHo-seeded FC analyses, respectively. PDM women exhibited a trait-related ReHo reduction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, part of the default mode network (DMN), during the periovulatory phase. The trait-related hypoconnectivity of DMN-salience network and hyperconnectivity of DMN-executive control network across the menstrual cycle featured a dynamic transition from affective processing of pain salience to cognitive modulation. The altered DMN-sensorimotor network may be an ongoing representation of cumulative menstrual pain. The findings indicate that women with long-term PDM may develop adaptive neuroplasticity and functional reorganization with a network shift from affective processing of salience to the cognitive modulation of pain. PMID:27089970

  20. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

  1. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Therapist-Assisted, Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Women with Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Nicole E.; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Dirkse, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression impacts up to 15% of Canadian women following childbirth. Remarkably, many women suffering from this disorder do not receive appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel-group randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of Therapist-Assisted Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TA-ICBT) for the treatment of postpartum depression. This study was registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials (ISRCTN: 85456371) and received funding from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (#101526) and the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation. Fifty women who gave birth to an infant in the past year, who scored above 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and who resided in Saskatchewan, Canada were eligible to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either TA-ICBT (n = 25) or waitlist control (n = 25). The efficacy of the treatment was investigated at baseline and at seven- to 10-week follow-up. TA-ICBT participants were also contacted four-weeks following treatment completion. Symptoms of postpartum depression decreased more for participants in the TA-ICBT group (average reduction of 6.24 points on the EPDS; n = 21 included in analyses) compared to those participants in the waitlist control group (average reduction of 2.42 points on the EPDS; n = 20 included in analyses), and these results were clinically significant and maintained at four-week follow-up. TA-ICBT participants demonstrated a reduction in postnatal anxiety, general stress, and parental distress, and an increase in psychological and environmental quality of life when compared to the waitlist control participants. Study implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN85456371 PMID:26930488

  2. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  3. Risks of Breast and Endometrial Cancer in Women with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Fen; Liu, Ming-Der; Chen, Peter; Chen, Li-Huan; Chang, Ya-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the overall and age-specific risks of developing breast and endometrial cancer among women with diabetes in a population-based cohort study. Methods Women with diabetes (n = 319310) and age-matched controls (n = 319308), selected from ambulatory care claims and beneficiary registry in 2000, respectively were linked to the in-patient claims (2000–2008) to identify admissions due to breast (ICD-9-CM: 174) and endometrial (ICD-9-CM: 182) cancer. The person-year approach with Poisson assumption was used to estimate the incidence density rate. The age-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of above malignancies in relation to diabetes with multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. Results The overall incidence density rate of breast and endometrial cancer was estimated at 1.21 and 0.21 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively, for diabetes. The corresponding figures for controls were lower at 1.00 and 0.14 per 10,000 patient-years. Compared with the controls, the covariate adjusted HR for breast and endometrial cancer was 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.50) and 1.71 (95% CI 1.48–1.97), respectively in women with diabetes. Elderly (> = 65 years) diabetes had the highest HR (1.61) of breast cancer, while the highest HR (1.85) of endometrial cancer was observed in diabetes aged < = 50 years. Conclusions Diabetes may significantly increase the risks of breast and endometrial cancer in all age stratifications. Health education for strict adherence of cancer screening program in women with diabetes is essential. PMID:23826297

  4. Control and Constraint for Low-Income Women Choosing Outpatient Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing non-consensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. These women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children’s lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We conclude that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision making autonomy, as well as more equitable social structures, are still needed. PMID:23761929

  5. Control and constraint for low-income women choosing outpatient sterilization.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing nonconsensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. The women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children's lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We concluded that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision-making autonomy and more equitable social structures are still needed. PMID:23761929

  6. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ≥ 13.2 gr/dL at 13th - 18th weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20th week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of < 0.05 and confidence level of 95% were considered as statistically significant. Results: None of the GI complications were significantly different between the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24th - 28th weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32nd - 36th weeks was not observed in any cases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications. PMID:26430520

  7. Efficacy of an Adapted HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Catherine I.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Neevel, A. M.; Parker, Sharon D.; Carry, Monique; White, Becky L.; Fasula, Amy M.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Gelaude, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We tested the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based HIV–sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral intervention (Providing Opportunities for Women′s Empowerment, Risk-Reduction, and Relationships, or POWER) among incarcerated women. Methods We conducted a randomized trial with 521 women aged 18 to 60 years in 2 correctional facilities in North Carolina in 2010 and 2011. Intervention participants attended 8 POWER sessions; control participants received a single standard-of-care STI prevention session. We followed up at 3 and 6 months after release. We examined intervention efficacy with mixed-effects models. Results POWER participants reported fewer male sexual partners than did control participants at 3 months, although this finding did not reach statistical significance; at 6 months they reported significantly less vaginal intercourse without a condom outside of a monogamous relationship and more condom use with a main male partner. POWER participants also reported significantly fewer condom barriers, and greater HIV knowledge, health-protective communication, and tangible social support. The intervention had no significant effects on incident STIs. Conclusions POWER is a behavioral intervention with potential to reduce risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV and STIs among incarcerated women returning to their communities. PMID:25211714

  8. Sexual Response in Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Laboratory Study Measuring Vaginal Blood Flow and Subjective Sexual Arousal.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Ter Kuile, Moniek; Enzlin, Paul; Dekkers, Olaf; van Dijk, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk to develop sexual dysfunctions. In the current study, we hypothesized that lower genital arousal response-as a consequence of diabetes-related damage to nerves and blood vessels-might play a part in these higher prevalence rates. Vaginal blood flow, subjective sexual response, and clitoral sensitivity were compared between women with diabetes and healthy controls, and associations with diabetes complications were investigated. In pre- and postmenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 46), vaginal blood flow was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA). VPA was assessed at rest, during erotic film viewing, and during vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. Subjective sexual arousal was measured using a questionnaire. Clitoral sensitivity was assessed by a vibration perception test. Data on diabetes complications were obtained from medical records, and neuropathy was assessed by quantitative sensory testing. VPA, subjective sexual arousal, and clitoral sensitivity were not significantly different between women with diabetes and controls. Nevertheless, women with diabetes who had retinopathy showed significantly lower VPA than women without retinopathy, and women with diabetes who had neuropathy showed significantly higher sensation thresholds for vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. The results do not support the hypothesis of a disrupted genital arousal response in women with diabetes. However, the observed associations between retinopathy and vaginal blood flow, and between neuropathy and clitoral sensitivity, suggest that diabetes-related complications might adversely affect the physiological basis of female sexual response. PMID:26054485

  9. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atif J.; Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter; Goyal, Sharad; Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard; Lyden, Maureen; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  10. Emotionally controlled decision-making and a gene variant related to serotonin synthesis in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Maurex, Liselotte; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wiens, Stefan; Asberg, Marie; Leopardi, Rosario; Ohman, Arne

    2009-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to examine (i) social decision-making in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and (ii) the relationship between impaired decision-making and the tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) gene, involved in serotonin synthesis. Forty-two women with BPD and a history of suicide attempts were genotyped, and the frequency of a TPH-1 haplotype previously uniquely associated with BPD was calculated. The BPD group scored significantly lower than a control group in the IGT. Furthermore, the TPH-1 haplotype displayed a significantly higher frequency in BPD participants with impaired decision making, compared to BPD participants with normal scores. These findings suggest that impaired decision-making as determined by the IGT is a feature of BPD and may be (i) associated with serotonin dysfunction, and (ii) possibly relevant for suicidal behavior. PMID:18826425

  11. "He Never Did Anything You Typically Think of as Abuse": Experiences With Violence in Controlling and Non-Controlling Relationships in a Non-Agency Sample of Women.

    PubMed

    Velonis, Alisa J

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, any physical aggression within intimate relationships has been labeled "domestic violence," even as researchers and advocates continue to disagree about the nature of that phenomenon vis-à-vis gender and control. As part of a larger mixed-methods study, 22 women from a non-agency, community-based sample who reported experience with relationship violence were interviewed. The existence of patterned coercive and controlling behaviors substantially differentiated experiences with violence, suggesting this dynamic is at least as important to identify as physical violence. Although preliminary, the impact of these findings on intervention and prevention strategies and on the debate surrounding gender symmetry is discussed. PMID:26873747

  12. Case management vocational rehabilitation for women with breast cancer after surgery: a feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of methodologically robust vocational rehabilitation (VR) intervention trials. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a VR trial of women with breast cancer to inform the development of a larger interventional study. Methods Women were recruited in Scotland and randomised to either a case management VR service or to usual care. Data were collected on eligibility, recruitment and attrition rates to assess trial feasibility, and interviews conducted to determine trial acceptability. Sick leave days (primary outcome) were self-reported via postal questionnaire every 4 weeks during the first 6 months post-surgery and at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were change in employment pattern, quality of life and fatigue. Results Of the 1,114 women assessed for eligibility, 163 (15%) were eligible. The main reason for ineligibility was age (>65 years, n = 637, 67%). Of those eligible, 111 (68%) received study information, of which 23 (21%) consented to participate in the study. Data for 18 (78%) women were analysed (intervention: n = 7; control: n = 11). Participants in the intervention group reported, on average, 53 fewer days of sick leave over the first 6 months post-surgery than those in the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.122; 95% confidence interval −15.8, 122.0). No statistically significant differences were found for secondary outcomes. Interviews with trial participants indicated that trial procedures, including recruitment, randomisation and research instruments, were acceptable. Conclusions Conducting a pragmatic trial of effectiveness of a VR intervention among cancer survivors is both feasible and acceptable, but more research about the exact components of a VR intervention and choice of outcomes to measure effectiveness is required. VR to assist breast cancer patients in the return to work process is an important component of cancer survivorship plans. Trial

  13. Exercising Choice and Control--Women with Learning Disabilities and Contraception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This research project used semi-structured in-depth interviews to ask women with learning disabilities about the experience of being prescribed contraception. It also asked general practitioners about their prescribing practices through a postal survey. A service user group was involved at different stages of the project. Most of the women…

  14. Role of the ovarian cycle on neural cardiovascular control in sleep-deprived women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Durocher, John J.; Larson, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The midluteal (ML) phase of the ovarian cycle is often sympathoexcitatory compared with the early follicular (EF) phase. We recently reported that 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) augmented cardiovascular reactivity in both men and women, but that sex differences existed in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses to TSD. In the present study, we hypothesized increased resting MSNA and augmented cardiovascular reactivity to acute laboratory stressors during the ML phase in sleep-deprived women. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), forearm vascular conductance (FVC), and MSNA were measured in 14 eumenorrheic women (age, 20 ± 1 yr) during 10 min supine rest, 5 min mental stress (MS) trial, and 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) trial. Subjects were tested twice after TSD: once during EF phase and once during ML phase (randomized, crossover design). Estradiol (29 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 8 pg/ml, P = 0.001) and progesterone (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 4.4 ± 0.7 ng/ml, P = 0.002) were elevated during the ML phase. Resting supine MAP (75 ± 2 vs. 72 ± 1 mmHg, P = 0.042) was lower during the ML phase. In contrast, resting supine HR, MSNA, and FVC were not significantly different between EF and ML phases. MAP, HR and FVC reactivity to MS were not statistically different between the EF and ML phases. Similarly, MAP and HR reactivity to CPT were not different between the ovarian phases. Contrary to our original hypothesis, the ML phase was not associated with sympathoexcitation or exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity in sleep-deprived premenopausal women. However, our data reveal elevated resting blood pressure during the EF phase in sleep-deprived women. PMID:25539931

  15. Role of the ovarian cycle on neural cardiovascular control in sleep-deprived women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Durocher, John J; Larson, Robert A; Carter, Jason R

    2015-02-15

    The midluteal (ML) phase of the ovarian cycle is often sympathoexcitatory compared with the early follicular (EF) phase. We recently reported that 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) augmented cardiovascular reactivity in both men and women, but that sex differences existed in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses to TSD. In the present study, we hypothesized increased resting MSNA and augmented cardiovascular reactivity to acute laboratory stressors during the ML phase in sleep-deprived women. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), forearm vascular conductance (FVC), and MSNA were measured in 14 eumenorrheic women (age, 20 ± 1 yr) during 10 min supine rest, 5 min mental stress (MS) trial, and 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) trial. Subjects were tested twice after TSD: once during EF phase and once during ML phase (randomized, crossover design). Estradiol (29 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 8 pg/ml, P = 0.001) and progesterone (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 4.4 ± 0.7 ng/ml, P = 0.002) were elevated during the ML phase. Resting supine MAP (75 ± 2 vs. 72 ± 1 mmHg, P = 0.042) was lower during the ML phase. In contrast, resting supine HR, MSNA, and FVC were not significantly different between EF and ML phases. MAP, HR and FVC reactivity to MS were not statistically different between the EF and ML phases. Similarly, MAP and HR reactivity to CPT were not different between the ovarian phases. Contrary to our original hypothesis, the ML phase was not associated with sympathoexcitation or exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity in sleep-deprived premenopausal women. However, our data reveal elevated resting blood pressure during the EF phase in sleep-deprived women. PMID:25539931

  16. Cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women with menopause symptoms: findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Tomás, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151). The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311) and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10) per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention. PMID:26258804

  17. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100 000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100 000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7 days (range 3–29 days) and 2 days (range 0–16 days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  18. Can Intrapartum Cardiotocography Predict Uterine Rupture among Women with Prior Caesarean Delivery?: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Malene M.; Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Krebs, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiotocographic abnormalities recorded during labour in women with prior caesarean delivery (CD) and complete uterine rupture with those recorded in controls with prior CD without uterine rupture. Study Design Women with complete uterine rupture during labour between 1997 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (n = 181). Cases were validated by review of medical records and 53 cases with prior CD, trial of labour, available cardiotocogram (CTG) and complete uterine rupture were included and compared with 43 controls with prior CD, trial of labour and available CTG. The CTG tracings were assessed by 19 independent experts divided into groups of three different experts for each tracing. The assessors were blinded to group, outcome and clinical data. They analyzed occurrence of defined abnormalities and classified the traces as normal, suspicious, pathological or pre-terminal according to international guidelines (FIGO). Results A pathological CTG during the first stage of labour was present in 77% of cases and in 53% of the controls (OR 2.58 [CI: 0.96–6.94] P = 0.066). Fetal tachycardia was more frequent in cases with uterine rupture (OR 2.50 [CI: 1.0–6.26] P = 0.053). Significantly more cases showed more than 10 severe variable decelerations compared with controls (OR 22 [CI: 1.54–314.2] P = 0.022). Uterine tachysystole was not correlated with the presence of uterine rupture. Conclusion A pathological cardiotocogram should lead to particular attention on threatening uterine rupture but cannot be considered a strong predictor as it is common in all women with trial of labour after caesarean delivery. PMID:26872018

  19. Does whole-body vibration training have acute residual effects on postural control ability of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Mazzà, Claudia; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate acute residual effects of a single vibration session on balance control in a group of elderly women. Several studies, in fact, have shown that whole-body vibration (WBV) training may improve balance in the elderly, but possible side effects of acute exposure to WBV, such as temporary reduction of balance control ability because of perturbations of the vestibular system, have not been investigated. Twenty-two healthy elderly women (71.8 ± 4.7 years of age) were trained with a 9.5-minute bout of static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises executed on a vibrating platform (Well-net Vibe Revolution). The vibration frequency was set at 35 Hz. A subgroup of 14 subjects performed the same exercise protocol also without the vibrations to discriminate between vibration and exercise effects. Balance control ability was assessed through computerized posturography: a force plate (Bertec Co, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to measure the center of pressure trajectories during 4 different experimental trials: before, immediately after, 15 minutes after, and 60 minutes after the training. A set of postural parameters, typically adopted to assess elderly subjects, was then computed and 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between values found in the 4 postural tests (level of significance p = 0.05) in the 2 groups. The results showed no significant variations in the postural parameters recorded during the 4 sessions. A significant group effect was found for 2 postural parameters, with no interaction between the 2 factors. In conclusion, the proposed single bout of WBV does not induce dangerous acute effects on elderly women balance control ability and could be safely administered as part of a long-term intervention program. PMID:21088549

  20. The impact of pregnancy on breast cancer survival in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Adriana; Lubinski, Jan; Byrski, Tomasz; Ghadirian, Parviz; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Ainsworth, Peter; Neuhausen, Susan L; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Singer, Christian F; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Saal, Howard; Lyonnet, Dominique Stoppa; Foulkes, William D; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Manoukian, Siranoush; Zakalik, Dana; Armel, Susan; Senter, Leigha; Eng, Charis; Grunfeld, Eva; Chiarelli, Anna M; Poll, Aletta; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2013-11-01

    Physicians are often approached by young women with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer who wish to have a baby. They wish to know if pregnancy impacts upon their future risks of cancer recurrence and survival. To date, there is little information on the survival experience of women who carry a mutation in one of the BRCA genes and who become pregnant. From an international multi-center cohort study of 12,084 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, we identified 128 case subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant or who became pregnant after a diagnosis of breast cancer. These women were age-matched to 269 mutation carriers with breast cancer who did not become pregnant (controls). Subjects were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis until the date of last follow-up or death from breast cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 15-year survival rates. The hazard ratio for survival associated with pregnancy was calculated using a left-truncated Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer when pregnant or who became pregnant thereafter, the 15-year survival rate was 91.5 %, compared to a survival of 88.6 % for women who did not become pregnant (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.31-1.91; p = 0.56). Pregnancy concurrent with or after a diagnosis of breast cancer does not appear to adversely affect survival among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:24136669

  1. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  2. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  3. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2013-12-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability

  4. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education) randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms; 1) PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention), 2) REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention), and 3) CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted). A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary), immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Discussion If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral sciences and m

  5. Mixing Nulliparous and Multiparous Women in Randomised Controlled Trials of Preeclampsia Prevention Is Debatable: Evidence from a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Emmanuel; Caille, Agnès; Perrotin, Franck; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Nulliparity is a major risk factor of preeclampsia investigated in numerous trials of its prevention. Objective We aimed to assess whether these trials considered nulliparity in subject selection or analysis of results. Search Strategy 01 April 2013 search of MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. 01 April 2013 search of trials registered in Clinicaltrials.gov. Selection Criteria Randomised controlled trials and metaanalyses of preeclampsia prevention with no restriction to period of publication or language. Metaanalyses were selected to fully identify relevant trials. Data Collection and Analysis One reader appraised each selected article/registered protocol using a pretested, standardized data abstraction form developed in a pilot test. For each article, he recorded whether both nulliparous and multiparous were included and, in case of mixed populations, whether randomisation was stratified, and whether subgroup analyses had been reported. For registered protocols, he only assessed whether it was planned to include mixed populations. Main Results 88 randomised controlled trials were identified, representing 83,396 included women. In 58 of the 88 articles identified (65.9%), preeclampsia was the primary outcome. In 31 of these (53.4%), the investigation combined nulliparous and multiparous women; only two reports in 31 (6.5%) stated that randomisation was stratified on parity and only four (12.9%) described a subgroup analysis by parity. Of the 30 registered trials, 20 (66.6%) planned to include both nulliparous and multiparous women. Conclusion Parity is largely ignored in randomised controlled trials of preeclampsia prevention, which raises difficulties in interpreting the results. PMID:23826112

  6. Parent-Child Conflict and Drug Use in College Women: A Moderated Mediation Model of Self Control and Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Lamis, Dorian A.; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Masuda, Akihiko; Dvorak, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parent-child conflict and illicit drug use in a sample of female college students (N = 928). The mediating roles of self-control and mindfulness, as well as an interaction between self-control and mindfulness, were examined in a moderated mediation model for the purposes of expanding etiological theory and introducing targets for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Whereas deficits in self-control were found to facilitate the positive relation observed between parent-child conflict and the likelihood of experiencing drug-related problems, an interaction between mindfulness and self-control helped explain the association between parent-child conflict and intensity of drug-related problems. Parent-child conflict was related to low mindfulness when self-control was low, and low mindfulness in turn was related to a higher intensity of drug-related problems. This association did not exist for women with high self-control. Findings are consistent with developmental research on the etiology of drug use and the protective properties of mindfulness and self-control. Mindfulness as a potential target of intervention for drug users with low self-control to prevent drug-related problems is explored. PMID:24660687

  7. Parent-child conflict and drug use in college women: a moderated mediation model of self-control and mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Lamis, Dorian A; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Masuda, Akihiko; Dvorak, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parent-child conflict and illicit drug use in a sample of female college students (N = 928). The mediating roles of self-control and mindfulness, as well as an interaction between self-control and mindfulness, were examined in a moderated mediation model for the purposes of expanding etiological theory and introducing targets for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Whereas deficits in self-control were found to facilitate the positive relation observed between parent-child conflict and the likelihood of experiencing drug-related problems, an interaction between mindfulness and self-control helped explain the association between parent-child conflict and intensity of drug-related problems. Parent-child conflict was related to low mindfulness when self-control was low, and low mindfulness in turn was related to a higher intensity of drug-related problems. This association did not exist for women with high self-control. Findings are consistent with developmental research on the etiology of drug use and the protective properties of mindfulness and self-control. Mindfulness as a potential target of intervention for drug users with low self-control to prevent drug-related problems is explored. PMID:24660687

  8. [Domestic and family violence against women: a case-control study with victims treated in emergency rooms].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with treatment of victims of domestic and family violence in emergency rooms in Brazil. This is a case-control study based on the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), 2011. Women ≥ 18 years who were victims of family and domestic violence were selected as cases and compared to accident victims (controls). Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. 623 cases and 10,120 controls were included. Risk factors according to the adjusted analysis were younger age (18-29 years), low schooling, lack of paid work, alcohol consumption, having sought treatment in a different health service, and violence on weekends or at night or in the early morning hours. The study concludes that domestic and family violence shows alcohol consumption as a strongly associated factor. Days and hours with the highest ocurrence reveal the need to adjust emergency services to treat victims. PMID:27096297

  9. Comparison of Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Inflammatory Markers Between Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy Pregnant Control

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Jalali, Mohammad-Taha; Shahbazian, Nahid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Azadegan, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D appears to be involved in regulation of glycemic and inflammatory responses in gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), inflammatory biomarkers and glycemic profile between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, fasting serum levels of 25(OH)D, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and TNF-α were measured in 45 GDM and 45 NGT women at week 20-30 gestation whom referred to Reference Medical Laboratory of Ahvaz, Iran in 1394. Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.003 ) in the GDM group compared to the NGT group which remained even after controlling for confounders. Insulin and TNF-α levels were not statistically different between groups (p > 0.05). However, in unadjusted model, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly different between groups that disappeared in adjusted model. In the GDM group, there was a negative significant correlation between 25 (OH) D and fasting blood sugar (p = 0.009) and pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001). Levels of 25(OH)D were also negatively correlated with pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001) and hs-CRP levels (p = 0.003) in the NGT group. Conclusion: The lower level of vitamin D may be responsible for impairments of some glycemic and inflammatory markers in pregnant women. This is more important in overweight pregnant women. However, further studies with larger sample size are recommended in this regards. PMID:27385967

  10. A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang; Nam, Seok-Jin; Kong, Gu; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-02-15

    To evaluate the association between dietary mushroom intake and breast cancer risk, a total of 362 women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who were histologically confirmed to have breast cancer were matched to controls by age (+/-2 years) and menopausal status. Mushroom intake was measured via a food frequency questionnaire that was administered by well-trained interviewers. The associations between the daily intake and the average consumption frequency of mushrooms with breast cancer risk were evaluated using matched data analysis. Both the daily intake (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78, p for trend 0.030) and the average consumption frequency of mushrooms (4th vs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.82, p for trend 0.008) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for education, family history of breast cancer, regular exercise [>or=22.5 MET (metabolic equivalent)-hr/week], BMI (body mass index, Kg/m(2)), number of children and whether they are currently smoking, drinking or using multivitamin supplements. Further adjustments were made for energy-adjusted carbohydrate, soy protein, folate and vitamin E levels, which tended to attenuate these results. After a stratification was performed according to menopausal status, a strong inverse association was found in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.54, p for trend = 0.0058 for daily intake; OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.54, p for trend = 0.0037 for average frequency), but not in premenopausal women. In conclusion, the consumption of dietary mushrooms may decrease breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:17943725

  11. Gabapentin for the Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women (GaPP1): A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Steff C.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Wu, Olivia; Vincent, Katy; Jack, Stuart A.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Porter, Maureen A.; Cranley, Denise; Wilson, John A.; Horne, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects 2.1–24% of women. Frequently, no underlying pathology is identified, and the pain is difficult to manage. Gabapentin is prescribed for CPP despite no robust evidence of efficacy. We performed a pilot trial in two UK centres to inform the planning of a future multicentre RCT to evaluate gabapentin in CPP management. Our primary objective was to determine levels of participant recruitment and retention. Secondary objectives included estimating potential effectiveness, acceptability to participants of trial methodology, and cost-effectiveness of gabapentin. Women with CPP and no obvious pelvic pathology were assigned to an increasing regimen of gabapentin (300-2700mg daily) or placebo. We calculated the proportion of eligible women randomised, and of randomised participants who were followed up to six months. The analyses by treatment group were by intention-to-treat. Interviews were conducted to evaluate women’s experiences of the trial. A probabilistic decision analytical model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness. Between September 2012–2013, 47 women (34% of those eligible) were randomised (22 to gabapentin, 25 to placebo), and 25 (53%) completed six-month follow-up. Participants on gabapentin had less pain (BPI difference 1.72 points, 95% CI:0.07–3.36), and an improvement in mood (HADS difference 4.35 points, 95% CI:1.97–6.73) at six months than those allocated placebo. The majority of participants described their trial experience favorably. At the UK threshold for willingness-to-pay, the probabilities of gabapentin or no treatment being cost-effective are similar. A pilot trial assessing gabapentin for CPP was feasible, but uncertainty remains, highlighting the need for a large definitive trial. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN45178534 PMID:27070434

  12. Self-hypnosis for intrapartum pain management in pregnant nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Downe, S; Finlayson, K; Melvin, C; Spiby, H; Ali, S; Diggle, P; Gyte, G; Hinder, S; Miller, V; Slade, P; Trepel, D; Weeks, A; Whorwell, P; Williamson, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective (Primary) To establish the effect of antenatal group self-hypnosis for nulliparous women on intra-partum epidural use. Design Multi-method randomised control trial (RCT). Setting Three NHS Trusts. Population Nulliparous women not planning elective caesarean, without medication for hypertension and without psychological illness. Methods Randomisation at 28–32 weeks’ gestation to usual care, or to usual care plus brief self-hypnosis training (two × 90-minute groups at around 32 and 35 weeks’ gestation; daily audio self-hypnosis CD). Follow up at 2 and 6 weeks postnatal. Main outcome measures Primary: epidural analgesia. Secondary: associated clinical and psychological outcomes; cost analysis. Results Six hundred and eighty women were randomised. There was no statistically significant difference in epidural use: 27.9% (intervention), 30.3% (control), odds ratio (OR) 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.24], or in 27 of 29 pre-specified secondary clinical and psychological outcomes. Women in the intervention group had lower actual than anticipated levels of fear and anxiety between baseline and 2 weeks post natal (anxiety: mean difference −0.72, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.28, P = 0.001); fear (mean difference −0.62, 95% CI −1.08 to −0.16, P = 0.009) [Correction added on 7 July 2015, after first online publication: ‘Mean difference’ replaced ‘Odds ratio (OR)’ in the preceding sentence.]. Postnatal response rates were 67% overall at 2 weeks. The additional cost in the intervention arm per woman was £4.83 (CI −£257.93 to £267.59). Conclusions Allocation to two-third-trimester group self-hypnosis training sessions did not significantly reduce intra-partum epidural analgesia use or a range of other clinical and psychological variables. The impact of women's anxiety and fear about childbirth needs further investigation. Tweetable abstract Going to 2 prenatal self-hypnosis groups didn't reduce labour epidural use but did

  13. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ≥3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  14. A pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of yoga as an intervention for PTSD symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Karen S; Dick, Alexandra M; DiMartino, Dawn M; Smith, Brian N; Niles, Barbara; Koenen, Karestan C; Street, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 10% of women in the United States. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD exist, clients with PTSD report additional benefits of complementary and alternative approaches such as yoga. In particular, yoga may downregulate the stress response and positively impact PTSD and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. We conducted a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-session Kripalu-based yoga intervention with an assessment control group. Participants included 38 women with current full or subthreshold PTSD symptoms. During the intervention, yoga participants showed decreases in reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The assessment control group, however, showed decreases in reexperiencing and anxiety symptoms as well, which may be a result of the positive effect of self-monitoring on PTSD and associated symptoms. Between-groups effect sizes were small to moderate (0.08-0.31). Although more research is needed, yoga may be an effective adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Participants responded positively to the intervention, suggesting that it was tolerable for this sample. Findings underscore the need for future research investigating mechanisms by which yoga may impact mental health symptoms, gender comparisons, and the long-term effects of yoga practice. PMID:24668767

  15. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Lee, Seojung; Yoon, Kang Joon; Choi, Moonjong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-12-30

    The biological underpinnings of the psychological factors characterizing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to evaluate alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in CFS patients. Participants comprised 18 women with CFS and 18 age-matched female healthy controls who were recruited from the local community. Structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a 6-min passive-viewing block scan. Posterior cingulate cortex seeded resting-state functional connectivity was evaluated, and correlation analyses of connectivity strength were performed. Graph theory analysis of 90 nodes of the brain was conducted to compare the global and local efficiency of connectivity networks in CFS patients with that in healthy controls. The posterior cingulate cortex in CFS patients showed increased resting-state functional connectivity with the dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Connectivity strength of the posterior cingulate cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score, while the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score was controlled. Connectivity strength to the rostral anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score. Global efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex was significantly lower in CFS patients, while local efficiency showed no difference from findings in healthy controls. The findings suggest that CFS patients show inefficient increments in resting-state functional connectivity that are linked to the psychological factors observed in the syndrome. PMID:26602611

  16. Ibuprofen versus fosfomycin for uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bleidorn, Jutta; Kochen, Michael M; Schmiemann, Guido; Wegscheider, Karl; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Study question Can treatment of the symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) with ibuprofen reduce the rate of antibiotic prescriptions without a significant increase in symptoms, recurrences, or complications? Methods Women aged 18-65 with typical symptoms of UTI and without risk factors or complications were recruited in 42 German general practices and randomly assigned to treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin 3 g (n=246; 243 analysed) or ibuprofen 3×400 mg (n=248; 241 analysed) for three days (and the respective placebo dummies in both groups). In both groups additional antibiotic treatment was subsequently prescribed as necessary for persistent, worsening, or recurrent symptoms. The primary endpoints were the number of all courses of antibiotic treatment on days 0-28 (for UTI or other conditions) and burden of symptoms on days 0-7. The symptom score included dysuria, frequency/urgency, and low abdominal pain. Study answer and limitations The 248 women in the ibuprofen group received significantly fewer course of antibiotics, had a significantly higher total burden of symptoms, and more had pyelonephritis. Four serious adverse events occurred that lead to hospital referrals; one of these was potentially related to the trial drug. Results have to be interpreted carefully as they might apply to women with mild to moderate symptoms rather than to all those with an uncomplicated UTI. What this paper adds Two thirds of women with uncomplicated UTI treated symptomatically with ibuprofen recovered without any antibiotics. Initial symptomatic treatment is a possible approach to be discussed with women willing to avoid immediate antibiotics and to accept a somewhat higher burden of symptoms. Funding, competing interests, data sharing German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) No 01KG1105. Patient level data are available from the corresponding author. Patient consent was not obtained but the data are anonymised and risk of

  17. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Berger, Jacques; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    Community-based social marketing and mobilization increased knowledge and participation in preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Rates of buying and taking the weekly supplement containing 60 mg elemental iron and 3.5 mg folic acid among non-pregnant women of reproductive age was between 55% and 92%. Free distribution to pregnant women of the weekly supplement containing 120 mg iron and 3.5 mg folic acid covered almost all pregnant women during the project. In developing countries where community women's groups and health networks are strong, preventive supplementation can be successfully promoted to encourage active participation in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:16466084

  18. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  19. European survey of fertility and pregnancy in women with Crohn's disease: a case control study by European collaborative group.

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, J F; Weterman, I T

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy five patients with Crohn's disease from five countries were interviewed. Each patient was matched with a control of the same age. Of the 275 women with Crohn's disease 224 had been married at some time compared with 208 controls. The mean age at marriage was 23 years. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made five years later and the survey was conducted on average 16 years after marriage. Cases and controls had a similar obstetric study before diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a significant reduction in the number of children born to patients (0.4) compared with controls (0.7). Crohn's disease did not increase the rate of miscarriage or Caesarean section but prematurity was more common in patients (16%) than controls (7%). The site of disease at diagnosis did not affect these findings. Medical advice against pregnancy may be partly responsible for this reduction in fertility, but patients practised contraception less than controls and a significantly greater proportion of these (42%) failed to become pregnant compared with controls (28%). Crohn's disease results in subfertility. PMID:3732892

  20. Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on Glycemic Control and Inflammatory Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Sadaf; Jafarnejad, Farzan; Arab, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM. Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 41) which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (n = 41). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention. Results. After 8 wk of supplementation FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels remained unchanged in the probiotic and placebo groups. The comparison between the two groups showed no significant differences with FPG and HbA1c, but there were significant differences in insulin levels and HOMA-IR (16.6 ± 5.9; 3.7 ± 1.5, resp.). Unlike the levels of IFN-g (19.21 ± 16.6), there was a significant decrease in levels of IL-6 (3.81 ± 0.7), TNF-α (3.10 ± 1.1), and hs-CRP (4927.4 ± 924.6). No significant increase was observed in IL-10 (3.11 ± 5.7) in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Conclusions. In women with GDM, supplementation with probiotics (VSL#3) may help to modulate some inflammatory markers and may have benefits on glycemic control. PMID:27429803

  1. Changes in sexual problems over time in women with and without early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Aft, Rebecca L.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Gillanders, William E.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate whether age-matched women with and without early-stage breast cancer differentially experience sexual problems over time and whether changes in patients’ problems differ by surgery type. Methods We conducted four interviews (4–6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years) after surgery (patients) or a negative/benign screening mammogram (controls). Mixed-effects models with repeated ordinal measurements tested effects of time and diagnostic group (stages 0, I, IIA vs. controls) and, for patients, effects of time and type of surgery (mastectomy vs. lumpectomy), on a newly developed 9-item sexual-problems measure. Two-sided P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Using data from 1033 women (17.3% stage 0, 33.4% stage I/IIA, 49.3% controls; mean age 57.1; 23.1% non-white; 64.7% married), two factors measuring problems with sexual attractiveness and sexual interest/enjoyment emerged in exploratory factor analysis (alpha ≥ .74 for each subscale and the 9-item measure). Patients and controls reported few sexual problems on average, but compared with baseline, controls were more likely to report sexual problems on the 9-item measure over time, and stage I patients were less likely to report problems with sexual attractiveness over time (each P < 0.05). Patients with mastectomy (35.7%) were 2.7 times more likely to report sexual problems on the 9-item measure at 2-year follow-up compared with baseline (P = 0.0339). Conclusions Patients and controls experienced few sexual problems over time and, in fact, controls were more likely to report sexual problems at subsequent interviews, whereas patients did not. PMID:20461020

  2. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1986-10-24

    A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

  3. The impact of clothing style on bone mineral density among post menopausal women in Morocco: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Fadoua; Aichaoui, Siham El; Saoud, Bouchra; Maaroufi, Houda; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni1, Najia

    2006-01-01

    Background The clothing style is an important factor that influences vitamin D production and thus bone mineral density. We performed a case-control study in order to evaluate the effect of veil wearing (concealing clothing) on bone mineral density in Moroccan post menopausal women. Methods The cases were osteoporotic women whose disease was assessed by bone mineral density measurement. Each patient was matched with a non osteoporotic woman for age, and body mass index. All our patients were without secondary causes or medications that might affect bone density. The veil was defined as a concealing clothing which covered most of the body including the arms, the legs and the head. This definition is this of the usual Moroccan traditional clothing style. Results 178 post menopausal osteoporotic patients and 178 controls were studied. The mean age of the cases and the controls was 63.2 years (SD 7) and the mean body mass index was 32.1 (SD 8). The results of crude Odds Ratios analyses indicated that wearing a veil was associated with a high risk of osteoporosis: OR 2.29 (95% CI, 1.38–3.82). Multiparity or a history of familial peripheral osteoporotic fractures had also a significant effect on increasing the osteoporosis risk (ORs: 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05–3.49) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.20–3.38)). After a multiple regression analysis, wearing the veil and a history of familial osteoporotic fractures remained the both independent factors that increased the osteoporosis risk (ORs: 2.20 (95% CI, 1.22–3.9) and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.12–4.29) respectively). Conclusion our study suggested that in Moroccan post menopausal women, wearing a traditional concealing clothing covering arms, legs and head increased the risk of osteoporosis. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical impact of the above findings and to clarify the status of vitamin D among veiled women in Morocco. PMID:16712731

  4. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  5. Effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal overweight and obese Indian women: A randomized controlled 24 weeks preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Annil; Mahajan, Shagun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal (PM) overweight and obese Indian women in a randomized controlled 24 week study. Materials and Methods: Two groups were formed Group I (n = 30) was designated as intervention (dietary and exercise group) and Group II (n = 24) served as control. Comparison of weight, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were made and compared among two groups at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Results: Mean age at menopause was 48.35 years versus 49.65 years; mean number of menopausal symptoms were 5.70 ± 1.76 versus 5.10 ± 1.56 and mean duration since menopause was 2.70 versus 2.90 years in Groups I and II respectively. When the effect of Group I and control on weight was compared at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between them up to 8 week. At 8 weeks Group I caused a significant decrease in weight (P ≤ 0.05) when compared with control arm and which continued throughout the study period (P < 0.05) at both 16 and 24 weeks. Group I produced a significant reduction in WC from 8 weeks onwards up to 24 weeks (P ≤ 0.05). BMI was statistically significant in Group I and the effect started at 4th week (P ≤ 0.05) and the differences in BMI reduction were highly significant at 16th and 24th weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study strongly recommend the life-style management to be incorporated in daily style of postmenopausal women under controlled supervision. PMID:24672202

  6. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  7. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Somdat; Baer, David J; Johnson, Laura L; Dorgan, Joanne F; Campbell, William; Brown, Ellen; Hartman, Terryl J; Clevidence, Beverly; Albanes, Demetrius; Judd, Joseph T; Taylor, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d) for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels. Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion. PMID:15353002

  8. Effect of various doses of vitamin D supplementation on pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingying; Cheng, Yan; He, Mulan; Li, Tingting; Ma, Ziwen; Cheng, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the influence of vitamin D on the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus is associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer and other systemic diseases, and is considered an important indicator of general health. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of various doses of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid concentrations, inflammation and the levels of oxidative stress of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 133 pregnant women with GDM during weeks 24–28 of pregnancy. The patients were randomly divided into four groups. The control group (n=20) received a placebo (sucrose; one granule/day), the low dosage group (n=38) received the daily recommended intake of 200 IU vitamin D (calciferol) daily, the medium dosage group (n=38) received 50,000 IU monthly (2,000 IU daily for 25 days) and the high dosage group (n=37) received 50,000 IU every 2 weeks (4,000 IU daily for 12.5 days). The general characteristics and dietary intakes of the patients with GDM were similar between each group. Using ELISA kits, it was determined that insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance and total cholesterol were significantly reduced by high dosage vitamin D supplementation (P<0.05). Total antioxidant capacity and total glutathione levels were significantly elevated as a result of high dosage vitamin D supplementation (P<0.01). In conclusion, high-dose vitamin D supplementation (50,000 IU every 2 weeks) significantly improved insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM. PMID:27588106

  9. Effects of Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control on Future Preconception Counseling Plans of Adult Women With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grady, Caroline M; Geller, Pamela A

    2016-02-01

    Objective. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that women with diabetes attend preconception counseling and improve blood glucose levels before pregnancy to decrease risks of adverse outcomes. However, two-thirds of women with diabetes do not plan their pregnancies. Research has examined views regarding preconception counseling of pregnant women with diabetes, but perceptions of women with diabetes who have never been pregnant have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between women's locus of control, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations of preconception counseling. Design and Methods. A sample of 147 nulligravid women with type 1 diabetes (mean age 25.9 years) was recruited online to complete a self-report survey. Measures included a sociodemographics form, a study-specific questionnaire regarding diabetes management and education, the Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behaviors instrument, and the Diabetes-Specific Locus of Control measure. Results. A standard multiple linear regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy was positively associated with expectations of preconception counseling (P <0.001), whereas self-blame was negatively associated (P = 0.001). Three-fourths of the women reported not receiving preconception counseling from health care providers. Conclusion. Self-efficacy was positively associated with women's expectation of preconception counseling usefulness, whereas self-blame for poor disease management was inversely related. The low reported rates of preconception counseling demonstrate that ADA recommendations for starting preconception counseling at puberty have not been followed uniformly. Women with diabetes should be provided education to increase their belief that they have control over their disease, which may lead to positive perceptions of preconception counseling and healthier pregnancies. PMID:26912964

  10. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  11. Abstracting women: essentialism in women's health research.

    PubMed

    McCormick, J; Kirkham, S R; Hayes, V

    1998-01-01

    Women's desire to take control of their own bodies creates a natural affinity between the projects of feminism and women's health research. Feminists have used the categories of woman/women, gender, and sex as foundation terms to designate the subject of feminist theories. Universal categories, which have been exposed as essentialist by postmodern and poststructural critiques, create falsely unified subject positions that fail to account for the diversity of women and also fail to acknowledge the situated interests of the dominant groups whose perspectives they reflect. Because it adopts these same categories, research in women's health is also permeated with this essentialized understanding, whether or not it is overtly feminist. In this paper, we point out the dangers of the unreflective use of woman/women, gender, and sex in women's health research. We conclude, that for political purposes, however, a carefully considered "strategic essentialism" can be warranted in research aimed at improving women's health. PMID:9849195

  12. Correlation between Overactive Bladder Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Keun-Soo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder syndrome is characterized by urinary urgency, usually accompanied by Frequent urination and nocturia, with or without urgent urinary incontinence. There must be the absence of causative infection or pathological conditions. Overactive bladder syndrome is related to mental disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. However, obsessive-compulsive symptoms are investigated much less frequently. The purpose of the present study was thus to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms in overactive bladder syndrome patients. Methods Fifty-seven women patients with overactive bladder syndrome and fifty-seven women without it (age matched control group) were prospectively enrolled. They completed the overactive bladder syndrome-validated 8-question screener and the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire at the same time they visited the clinic. Patients were compared with controls on the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire and its checking, tidiness, doubting, and fear of contamination components. Results Patients showed more obsessive traits than controls on the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire total score (P=0.006) and on the checking subscale (P=0.001). Odds ratio for the overactive bladder syndrome group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms traits (score≥14) was 5.47 (P=0.001). The Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire total score was associated with the overactive bladder syndrome-validated 8-question screener score in patients (P=0.03). Conclusion Obsessive-compulsive symptoms may constitute an important aspect of the psychiatric profile of overactive bladder syndrome patients. The severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms seems to be related to the degree of the overactive bladder syndrome severity. Clinicians may consider screening women with overactive bladder syndrome for

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the RHANI Wives HIV Intervention for Women in India at Risk for HIV from Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Naik, D. D.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G.; Balaiah, Donta

    2013-01-01

    This study involved evaluation of the shortterm impact of the RHANI Wives HIV intervention among wives at risk for HIV from husbands in Mumbai, India. A two-armed cluster RCT was conducted with 220 women surveyed on marital sex at baseline and 4–5 month followup. RHANI Wives was a multisession intervention focused on safer sex, marital communication, gender inequities and violence; control participants received basic HIV prevention education. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to assess program impact, with cluster as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects. A significant time by treatment effect on proportion of unprotected sex with husband (p = 0.01) was observed, and the rate of unprotected sex for intervention participants was lower than that of control participants at follow-up (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. PMID:23921584

  14. Randomized controlled trial to test the RHANI Wives HIV intervention for women in India at risk for HIV from husbands.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Naik, D D; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2013-11-01

    This study involved evaluation of the short-term impact of the RHANI Wives HIV intervention among wives at risk for HIV from husbands in Mumbai, India. A two-armed cluster RCT was conducted with 220 women surveyed on marital sex at baseline and 4-5 month follow-up. RHANI Wives was a multisession intervention focused on safer sex, marital communication, gender inequities and violence; control participants received basic HIV prevention education. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to assess program impact, with cluster as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects. A significant time by treatment effect on proportion of unprotected sex with husband (p = 0.01) was observed, and the rate of unprotected sex for intervention participants was lower than that of control participants at follow-up (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. PMID:23921584

  15. Engaging South Asian women with type 2 diabetes in a culturally relevant exercise intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Alamelu; Nimbal, Vani C; Ivey, Susan L; Wang, Elsie J; Madsen, Kristine A; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the efficacy of a culturally relevant exercise program in improving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes, compared with usual care. Methods This was a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study of Bollywood dance among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 1 h Bollywood dance classes offered twice per week. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The effect of attendance on this outcome was also examined. Results The intervention group demonstrated a decrease in HbA1c from baseline (−0.18% (0.2%); p=0.018) compared with a non-significant increase in the usual care group (+0.03% (0.2%)); p value for difference between groups was 0.032. Participants attending at least 10 of 16 sessions had a statistically significant reduction in weight (−0.69 kg (0.76 kg)) compared with those attending fewer sessions (+0.86 kg (0.71 kg)). Conclusions These results support culturally relevant dance as a successful exercise intervention to promote HbA1c control, compared with usual care. Trial registration number NCT02061618. PMID:26566446

  16. Anthropometric Risk Factors for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Young Men and Women From Eastern France: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, Constance; de Vathaire, Florent; Cléro, Enora; Maillard, Stéphane; Ren, Yan; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Sassolas, Geneviève; Schvartz, Claire; Colonna, Marc; Lacour, Brigitte; Danzon, Arlette; Velten, Michel; Marrer, Emilie; Bailly, Laurent; Barjoan, Eugènia Mariné; Schlumberger, Martin; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Rubino, Carole

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has risen over the past decade, along with a rise in obesity. We studied the role of anthropometric risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer at the time of diagnosis and at age 20 years in a case-control study conducted in eastern France between 2005 and 2010. The study included 761 adults diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006. They were matched with 825 controls from the general population. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression models and were reported for all participants, those with papillary cancer only, and women only. The risk of thyroid cancer was higher for participants with a high body surface area (BSA), great height, or excess weight and for women with a high body fat percentage. Conversely, no significant association was found between body mass index and the risk of thyroid cancer. In the present study, we provide further evidence of the role of BSA and excess weight in the risk of thyroid cancer. These epidemiologic observations should be confirmed by further exploration of the biological mechanisms responsible for the associations of obesity and BSA with thyroid cancer. PMID:26133374

  17. Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Women With Postnatal Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial of MumMoodBooster

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Danaher, Brian G; Holt, Charlene; Holt, Christopher J; Seeley, John R; Tyler, Milagra S; Ross, Jessica; Ericksen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few published controlled trials examining the efficacy of Internet-based treatment for postnatal depression (PND) and none that assess diagnostic status (clinical remission) as the primary outcome. This is despite the need to improve treatment uptake and accessibility because fewer than 50% of postnatally depressed women seek help, even when identified as depressed. Objective In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), we aimed to test the efficacy of a 6-session Internet intervention (the MumMoodBooster program, previously evaluated in a feasibility trial) in a sample of postnatal women with a clinical diagnosis of depression. The MumMoodBooster program is a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention, is highly interactive, includes a partner website, and was supported by low-intensity telephone coaching. Methods This was a parallel 2-group RCT (N=43) comparing the Internet CBT treatment (n=21) to treatment as usual (n=22). At baseline and at 12 weeks after enrollment, women’s diagnostic status was assessed by telephone with the Standardized Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV) and symptom severity with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Depression symptoms were measured repeatedly throughout the study period with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results At the end of the study, 79% (15/19) of women who received the Internet CBT treatment no longer met diagnostic criteria for depression on the SCID-IV (these outcome data were missing for 2 intervention participants). This contrasted with only 18% (4/22) remission in the treatment as usual condition. Depression scores on the BDI-II showed a large effect favoring the intervention group (d=.83, 95% CI 0.20-1.45). Small to medium effects were found on the PHQ-9 and on measures of anxiety and stress. Adherence to the program was very good with 86% (18/21) of users completing all sessions; satisfaction with the program was rated 3.1 out of 4 on average. Conclusions Our results

  18. Topical administration of isoflavones for treatment of vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfarpour, M; Latifnejad Roudsari, R; Treglia, G; Sadeghi, R

    2015-01-01

    Current systematic review evaluated the efficacy of topical isoflavones to relieve vaginal symptoms in menopausal women. MEDLINE (1966 to January 2014), Scopus (1990 to January 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2013) were searched using keywords 'isoflavone and vagina'. Relevant studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review. Out of 115 potentially relevant publications, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Topical isoflavones showed beneficial effects on dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and maturation value. Based on only one trial, the result of conjugated equine oestrogen cream (0.3 mg/day) was similar to use of isoflavone vaginal gel and superior to that of placebo gel. However, drawing any definite conclusion was difficult because of the limited number of RCTs, the small sample sizes, weak methodology and considerable heterogeneity of the included studies. PMID:25710207

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate an Abuse Prevention Curriculum for Women and Men With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed (a) to assess the impact of the ESCAPE-DD curriculum on the decision-making skills of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in hypothetical situations of abuse, (b) to examine the role of problem awareness, and (c) to identify factors associated with posttest decision-making performance. Fifty-eight women and men with IDD were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Participants who experienced ESCAPE-DD made significantly greater gains on measures of overall effective decision making and safe-now effective decision-making relative to participants in the control group. Problem awareness was related to decision making, but it did not improve as a result of the intervention. Implications of the findings for future curriculum-development efforts are discussed. PMID:26505870

  20. Intravaginal Misoprostol for Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction in Nulliparous Women: A Double-blinded, Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Hao-Ping; Fan, Jian-Xia; Yu, Hong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Chen, Lian; Chang, Qing; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Di, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, no multicenter double-blinded prospective randomized controlled study on labor induction has been conducted till now. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravaginal accurate 25-μg misoprostol tablets for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancy in nulliparous women. Methods: This was a double-blinded, prospective randomized controlled study including nulliparous women from 6 university hospitals across China. Subjects were randomized into misoprostol or placebo group with the sample size ratio set to 7:2. Intravaginal 25-μg misoprostol or placebo was applied at an interval of 4 h (repeated up to 3 times) for labor induction. Primary outcome measures were the incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h. Safety assessments included the incidences of maternal morbidity and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes. Results: A total of 173 women for misoprostol group and 49 women for placebo were analyzed. The incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h was higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo (64.2% vs. 22.5%, relative risk [RR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–6.0). The incidence of onset of labor within 24 h was significantly higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo group (48.0% vs. 18.4%, RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2–5.7); and the induction-onset of labor interval was significantly shorter in the misoprostol group (P = 0.0003). However, there were no significant differences in the median process time of vaginal labor (6.4 vs. 6.8 h; P = 0.695), incidence (39.3% vs. 49.0%, RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.5) and indications (P = 0.683) of cesarean section deliveries, and frequencies of maternal, fetal/neonatal adverse events between the groups. Conclusion: Intravaginal misoprostol 25 μg every 4 h is efficacious and safe in labor induction and cervical ripening. PMID:26481739

  1. C-reactive protein gene variants associated with recurrent pregnancy loss independent of CRP serum levels: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salma K; Mahmood, Naeema; Malalla, Zainab H; Alsobyani, Fanar M; Al-Kiyumi, Israa S; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) with altered C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels, and genetic variation in CRP gene. This was a retrospective case-control study, involving 275 women with three or more consecutive pregnancy losses, and 290 age-matched control women, who were recruited from outpatient obstetrics/gynecology clinics. CRP serum levels (hs-CRP) were determined by latex-enhanced nephelometry, and CRP genotyping was done by allelic discrimination. Mean serum CRP levels were higher in RPL cases than in control women, and carriage of the (minor) T allele of rs2794520 was associated with significant increase in CRP levels (P=0.017). Minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs7553007 was significantly different between RPL cases and control women, and was associated with reduced risk of RPL after adjusting for BMI and menarche. There was a significant enrichment of minor allele-carrying genotypes of rs1130864 and rs1417938 SNPs, and reduced frequency of minor allele-carrying genotypes of rs876537, rs2794520, and rs7553007 in RPL cases, thus assigning RPL-susceptible and -protective nature to these genotypes, respectively. Carriage of (minor) T allele of only rs2794520 was associated with significant increase in CRP levels. CRP variants that influenced circulating CRP levels in chronic inflammatory conditions are also associated with RPL, pointing to CRP as RPL candidate gene. PMID:26013044

  2. Evaluation of a Mammography Screening Decision Aid for Women Aged 75 and Older: Protocol for a Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A; Kistler, Christine E; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Fagerlin, Angela; Davis, Roger B; Wee, Christina C; Marcantonio, Edward R; Lewis, Carmen L; Stanley, Whitney A; Crutchfield, Trisha M.; Hamel, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is insufficient evidence to recommend mammography for women >75 years. Guidelines recommend that older women be informed of the uncertainty of benefit and potential for harm, especially for women with short life expectancy. However, few older women are informed of harms of screening and many with short life expectancy are screened. Therefore, we aim to test whether a mammography screening decision aid (DA) for women >75 years affects their use of mammography, particularly for women with <10 year life expectancy. Methods/Design The DA is a self-administered pamphlet that includes information on screening outcomes, tailored information on breast cancer risk, health, life expectancy, and competing mortality risks, and includes a values clarification exercise. We are conducting a large cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the DA with the primary care provider (PCP) as the unit of randomization to evaluate its efficacy. We plan to recruit 550 women 75-89 years from 100 PCPs to receive either the mammography DA or a pamphlet on home safety for older adults (control arm) before a visit with their PCP, depending on their PCP's randomization assignment. The primary outcome is receipt of mammography screening assessed through chart abstraction. Secondary outcomes include effect of the DA on older women's screening intentions, knowledge, and decisional conflict, and on documented discussions about mammography by their PCPs. We will recruit women from 5 Boston-based primary care practices (3 community-based internal medicine practices and 2 academic practices), and 2 North Carolina-based academic primary care practices. Discussion It is essential that we test the DA in a large RCT to determine if it is efficacious and to substantiate the need for broad translation into clinical practice. Our DA has the potential to improve health care utilization and care in a manner dictated by patient preferences. PMID:26229741

  3. The effect of information about overdetection of breast cancer on women's decision-making about mammography screening: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hersch, Jolyn; Barratt, Alexandra; Jansen, Jesse; Houssami, Nehmat; Irwig, Les; Jacklyn, Gemma; Dhillon, Haryana; Thornton, Hazel; McGeechan, Kevin; Howard, Kirsten; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Women are largely unaware that mammography screening can cause overdetection of inconsequential disease, leading to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of breast cancer. Evidence is lacking about how information on overdetection affects women's breast screening decisions and experiences. This study investigates the consequences of providing information about overdetection of breast cancer to women approaching the age of invitation to mammography screening. Methods and analysis This is a randomised controlled trial with an embedded longitudinal qualitative substudy. Participants are a community sample of women aged 48–50 in New South Wales, Australia, recruited in 2014. Women are randomly allocated to either quantitative only follow-up (n=904) or additional qualitative follow-up (n=66). Women in each stream are then randomised to receive either the intervention (evidence-based information booklet including overdetection, breast cancer mortality reduction and false positives) or a control information booklet (including mortality reduction and false positives only). The primary outcome is informed choice about breast screening (adequate knowledge, and consistency between attitudes and intentions) assessed via telephone interview at 2 weeks postintervention. Secondary outcomes measured at this time include decision process (decisional conflict and confidence) and psychosocial outcomes (anticipated regret, anxiety, breast cancer worry and perceived risk). Women are further followed up at 6 months, 1 and 2 years to assess self-reported screening behaviour and long-term psychosocial outcomes (decision regret, quality of life). Participants in the qualitative stream undergo additional in-depth interviews at each time point to explore the views and experiences of women who do and do not choose to have screening. Ethics and dissemination The study has ethical approval, and results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. This research will help ensure

  4. Psychosocial influences on prisoner suicide: a case-control study of near-lethal self-harm in women prisoners.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena

    2011-03-01

    We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. PMID:21345561

  5. Effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Song, Qipeng; Li, Weiping; Cong, Yan; Chang, Shuwan; Mao, Dewei; Hong, Youlian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi (TC) on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women. A total of 41 elderly women (55 years-68 years) completed the study. The TC group (n = 21) performed the 24-form TC, while the control group (C, n = 20) was instructed to read newspapers or watch television when the TC group practised. Electromyogram measurements were conducted before and after intervention. After a year-long intervention, the post-test results of between-group neuromuscular reaction time showed significant differences in the rectus femoris (t = 3.607, p = 0.001), semitendinosus (t = 2.678, p = 0.011), anterior tibialis (t = 3.455, p = 0.001), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 4.061, p = 0.000). Within-group results showed that the TC group had significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time compared to its baseline value in the rectus femoris (t = 3.066, p = 0.006), semitendinosus (t = 2.485, p = 0.022), anterior tibialis (t = 2.311, p = 0.032), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 2.462, p = 0.023). Results suggested that year-long regular TC can improve neuromuscular reaction function in elderly women. PMID:27161956

  6. Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G

    2014-07-14

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 μg/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0·039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917

  7. Decrease social inequalities return-to-work: development and design of a randomised controlled trial among women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the improvement in the care management, women cancer patients who are still in employment find themselves for the most part obliged to stop working while they are having treatment. Their return-to-work probability is impacted by numerous psychosocial factors. The objective is to describe the development and the content of an intervention aimed to facilitate the return to work of female breast cancer patients and in particular the women in the most precarious situations through early active individualised psychosocial support (APAPI). Methods The intervention proposed is made up of 4 interviews with a psychologist at the hospital, distributed over the year according to the diagnosis and conducted on the same day as a conventional follow-up consultation, then a consultation with a specialist job retention physician. We expect, in the first instance, that this intervention will reduce the social inequalities of the return-to-work rate at 12 months. The EPICES score will enable the population to be broken down according to the level of social precariousness. The other expected results are the reduction of the social inequalities in the quality of the return to work at 18 and 24 months and the disparities between the individual and collective resources of the patients. This intervention is assessed in the context of a controlled and randomised multi-centre study. The patients eligible are women aged between 18 and 55 years with a unilateral breast cancer with local extension exclusively, having received surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, in employment at the time of the diagnosis and dealt with by one of the 2 investigating centres. Discussion It is essential to assess this type of intervention before envisaging its generalisation. The study set in place will enable us to measure the impact of this intervention aiming to facilitate the return to work of breast cancer patients, in particular for those who suffer from social fragility

  8. A case-control study of air pollution and tobacco smoking in lung cancer among women in Athens

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulos, D.; Kalandidi, A.; Tomos, P.; Riboli, E. )

    1991-03-01

    A case-control study exploring the role of smoking and outdoor air pollution in the causation of lung cancer, by histologic type, in nonsmoking women, was undertaken in Athens between 1987 and 1989. One hundred one women with lung cancer and 89 comparison women with fractures or other orthopedic conditions, all permanent residents of Greater Athens, were included in the study. Smoking habits were ascertained through interviews, whereas lifetime exposure to air pollution was assessed by linking blindly lifelong residential and employment addresses of all subjects with objectively estimated or presumed air pollution levels. The age-adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer among current smokers compared with nonsmokers was 3.40 (1.75-6.61); it was 7.43 (2.88-19.13) among those smoking for more than 30 years and 7.46 (2.40-23.17) among those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. The age-adjusted relative risk was 1.70 (0.75-3.89) for adenocarcinoma and 6.45 (2.73-15.25) for other histologic types of lung cancer; statistically significant dose-response trends were evident for both histologic groups. Air pollution levels were associated with increased risk for lung cancer but the relative risk was small and statistically not significant. However, when both air pollution and duration (or quantity) of tobacco smoking, as well as their interaction, were introduced in a multiple logistic regression model, the interaction term was significant at the suggestive level of 0.10. Whereas there is no effect of air pollution among nonsmokers, the relative risk contrasting extreme quartiles of air pollution among smokers of 30 years duration was 2.23. The interaction was almost exclusively accounted for by the nonadenocarcinoma lung tumors.

  9. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%)]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%)], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  10. Can weight loss improve migraine headaches in obese women? Rationale and design of the WHAM randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Thomas, J. Graham; Lipton, Richard B.; Papandonatos, George D.; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Daniello, Richard; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity. Obesity increases the risk of frequent migraines and is associated with migraine prevalence among reproductive-aged women. These findings are substantiated by several plausible mechanisms and emerging evidence of migraine improvements after surgical and non-surgical weight loss. However, no previous study has examined the effect of weight loss on migraine within a treatment-controlled framework. The WHAM trial is a RCT to test the efficacy of behavioral weight loss as a treatment for migraine. Study design Overweight/obese women (n=140; BMI=25.0–49.9 kg/m2) who meet international diagnostic criteria for migraine and record ≥3 migraines and 4–20 migraine days using a smartphone-based headache diary during a 4-week baseline period, will be randomly assigned to 4 months of either group-based behavioral weight loss (intervention) or migraine education (control). Intervention participants will be taught strategies to increase physical activity and consume fewer calories in order to lose weight. Control participants will receive general education on migraine symptoms/triggers and various treatment approaches. Both groups will use smartphones to record their headaches for 4 weeks at baseline, after the 16-week treatment period, and at the end of a 16-week follow-up period. Changes in weight and other potential physiological (inflammation), psychological (depression), and behavioral (diet and physical activity) mediators of the intervention effect will also be assessed. Conclusion The WHAM trial will evaluate the efficacy of a standardized behavioral weight loss intervention for reducing migraine frequency, and the extent to which weight loss and other potential mediators account for intervention effects. PMID:23524340

  11. Spiritual therapy to improve the spiritual well-being of Iranian women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Emami, Hamid; Loghmani, Amir; Jafari, Nooshin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 31). Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12) and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30), respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18) for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD = 6.63) to 37.24 (SD = 3.52) in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between arms of study (F = 22.91, P < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was detected between meaning and peace with all subscales of functional subscales on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) (P < 0.05). Hierarchical regression analyses of participants indicated that the study arm, pain, and financial impact were significant predictors of spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer. PMID:24023572

  12. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Danny J; Kalra, Girish L; Rifai, Luay; Eapen, Christina A; Merchant, Nadya; Khan, Bobby V

    2010-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:21072287

  13. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  14. Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  15. Recruiting and retaining low-income, multi-ethnic women into randomized controlled trials: Successful strategies and staffing

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Josephine; Aguilar, Stephanie; Brittner, Mindy; Bonuck, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Developing effective recruitment and retention strategies in populations with traditionally high attrition rates is critical to the success of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). Data on successful participation of women from low-income, minority populations in RCTs of behavioral interventions are limited. This is problematic given the multiplicity of Healthy People 2020 goals that target health disparities in these populations. This paper reports successful recruitment and retention methods from two separately funded NIH clinical trials of primary care-based prenatal interventions to increase breastfeeding among ethnically diverse, low-income women in urban medical centers in the Bronx, NY. It also presents the required staff effort necessary to conduct such a successful RCT, in terms of full-time equivalents (FTEs). Results include timely recruitment of 941 participants over 29 months, with 98.1% completing 1̄ follow-up interview. A recruitment and retention plan that maximized study staff access and availability to the participant, as well as strong study staff rapport with participants, addressed previously reported barriers in this population, optimizing follow-up rates. A qualitative assessment of the participants' study experience suggesting that high retention was due to strong rapport with participants, short interviews requiring little time commitment, and participants' perception of the study as informative, provides further evidence of our approach's effectiveness. Logistical protocol procedures and staff management strategies relating to successful recruitment/retention are provided to propose a practical, cost-effective and translational recruitment–retention plan for other researchers to adopt. PMID:22732312

  16. Dietary and reproductive factors associated with benign breast disease in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2002-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is common in women in the reproductive age group. The results of epidemiological studies that have examined the relationship between diet and BBD are controversial and scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify and evaluate the impact of dietary and reproductive risk factors in the development of BBD in Mexican women. Between 1994 and 1996, 121 women with BBD and 121 age-matched (+/- 3 yr) clinical controls with non-breast-related diseases were identified. The study population was directly interviewed about their reproductive history, and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain dietary information. The population was originally identified as part of a hospital-based case-control study examining exposure to 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane and breast cancer. A significant reduction in the risk of BBD was observed when comparing the upper with the lower tertiles of consumption of citrus fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.21-0.88], non-citrus fruit (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.16-0.76), diary products (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.18-0.75), and food sources of lignans (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.24-0.98). A marginally significant reduction in the risk of BBD associated with the consumption of vitamin B-12 (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.23-1.02) was also observed. Our results add new information about the role of diet in the etiology of BBD. PMID:12588693

  17. Bone quantitative ultrasound at hand phalanges of women following breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Bolanowski, Marek; Chwałczyńska, Agnieszka; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer surgery and its adjunctive therapy follow in lymphedema, decreased limb mobility and bone deterioration. The aim was to establish relation of postsurgical limb lymphedema with bone properties assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of hand phalanges in postmenopausal women after breast cancer surgery. In all, 63 women aged 62.81 ± 8.83 years, after breast cancer surgery were compared with control group of 418 age-matched women. Their skeletal status was assessed by QUS measurements at proximal phalanges using DBM Sonic 1200. There were no statistically significant differences in QUS measurements (Ad-SoS) between groups of operated subjects and the controls, between limbs (operated vs. nonoperated side, with and without lymphedema), and regarding method of surgery. Ad-SoS was greater in estrogen-treated patients than in nontreated ones at the side with no breast surgery (1994.11 ± 67.83 vs. 1943.27 ± 58.34; P = 0.046). Ad-SoS was lower in patients with adjunctive antiestrogen therapy than without this therapy at the side of surgery (1937.35 ± 54.71 vs. 1966.78 ± 59.18; P = 0.0449), and nonbreast surgery side (1934.55 ± 52.06 vs. 1973.31 ± 57.17; P = 0.0066). Breast cancer surgery followed by concomitant therapies does not influence significantly QUS at hand phalanges. This was proven regarding method of surgery, side of surgery, and lymphedema. Additional hormonal treatment can influence phalangeal QUS in breast cancer survivors. PMID:21495803

  18. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, P<0.01) and the P450 amplitude (F(3,27)=3.57, P<0.05) was present for normal pre-adolescents which was absent in pathological pre-adolescents. Moreover, enhanced N450 ERP amplitudes to our Memory Workload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, P<0.004). Furthermore, significant differences between normal and pathological groups were found in bilateral electrodermal activity (F(1,18)=23.86, P<0.001) and on the Mangina-Test performance (F(1,18)=75.35, P<0.001). Our present research findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning disabled/ADHD with severe behavioral disorders as opposed to normal subjects. PMID:10828376

  19. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination. PMID:23706890

  20. Effect of iron supplementation on fatigue in nonanemic menstruating women with low ferritin: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaucher, Paul; Druais, Pierre-Louis; Waldvogel, Sophie; Favrat, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The true benefit of iron supplementation for nonanemic menstruating women with fatigue is unknown. We studied the effect of oral iron therapy on fatigue and quality of life, as well as on hemoglobin, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels, in nonanemic iron-deficient women with unexplained fatigue. Methods: We performed a multicentre, parallel, randomized controlled, closed-label, observer-blinded trial. We recruited from the practices of 44 primary care physicians in France from March to July 2006. We randomly assigned 198 women aged 18–53 years who complained of fatigue and who had a ferritin level of less than 50 ug/L and hemoglobin greater than 12.0 g/dL to receive either oral ferrous sulfate (80 mg of elemental iron daily; n = 102) or placebo (n = 96) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fatigue as measured on the Current and Past Psychological Scale. Biological markers were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. Results: The mean score on the Current and Past Psychological Scale for fatigue decreased by 47.7% in the iron group and by 28.8% in the placebo group (difference –18.9%, 95% CI −34.5 to −3.2; p = 0.02), but there were no significant effects on quality of life (p = 0.2), depression (p = 0.97) or anxiety (p = 0.5). Compared with placebo, iron supplementation increased hemoglobin (0.32 g/dL; p = 0.002) and ferritin (11.4 μg/L; p < 0.001) and decreased soluble transferrin receptor (−0.54 mg/L; p < 0.001) at 12 weeks. Interpretation: Iron supplementation should be considered for women with unexplained fatigue who have ferritin levels below 50 μg/L. We suggest assessing the efficiency using blood markers after six weeks of treatment. Trial registration no. EudraCT 2006–000478–56. PMID:22777991

  1. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women: a community randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pusparini; Dharma, Rahayuningsih; Suyatna, Fransiscus D; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Hidajat, Adi

    2013-01-01

    A 12-month randomized double blind controlled trial was conducted among 182 Indonesian postmenopausal women aged 47 to 60 years to determine the effect of 100 mg/day soy isoflavone supplementation on vascular endothelial function such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as oxidative stress marker. The subjects were randomized to the intervention group receiving tablets consisting of 100 mg soy isoflavones and calcium carbonate 500 mg, and to the control group receiving 500 mg calcium carbonate. The concentrations of VCAM-1, NO and MDA were measured at baseline, and postsupplementation at 6 months and 12 months. After supplementation, the MDA concentrations were significantly lower in the soy isoflavone group compared with the control group (p=0.001). The concentrations of VCAM-1 and NO were not affected (p=0.992 and p=0.759, respectively). In all group the MDA concentration increased compared with baseline concentrations but the relative change of MDA concentrations was significantly lower in the soy isoflavone group compared with the control group. This study demonstrates that supplemental intake of soy isoflavones for 6 months and 12 months had an effect on oxidative stress by decreasing MDA concentration, but did not improve vascular endothelial function. PMID:23945405

  2. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400 mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  3. Safety and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for pregnant women to prevent excessive maternal weight gain: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with short- and long-term health problems among mothers and their offspring. There is a strong need for effective intervention strategies targeting excessive GWG to prevent adverse outcomes. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial in eight gynecological practices evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention presented to all pregnant women; 250 healthy, pregnant women were recruited for the study. The intervention program consisted of two individually delivered counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity, and weight monitoring. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women exceeding weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Secondary outcome variables were maternal weight retention and short-term obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Results The intervention resulted in a lower proportion of women exceeding IOM guidelines among women in the intervention group (38%) compared with the control group (60%) (odds ratio (OR): 0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3 to 0.9) without prompting an increase in the proportion of pregnancies with suboptimal weight gain (19% vs. 21%). Participants in the intervention group gained significantly less weight than those in the control group. Only 17% of the women in the intervention group showed substantial weight retention of more than 5 kg compared with 31% of those in the control group at month four postpartum (pp) (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9). There were no significant differences in obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Lifestyle counseling given to pregnant women reduced the proportion of pregnancies with excessive GWG without increasing suboptimal weight gain, and may exert favorable effects on pp weight retention. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003801. PMID:23865624

  4. Plasma equol concentration is not associated with breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions among women in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Ray, Roberta M; Li, Wenjin; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Shannon, Jackilen; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy L; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, David B; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Equol (a bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein) is produced by 30% to 50% of humans and may be associated with health outcomes. We hypothesized that plasma equol would be inversely associated with risks of fibrocystic breast conditions (FBC) and breast cancer (BC). Plasma from women in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai with BC (n=269) or FBC (n=443), and age-matched controls (n=1027) was analyzed for isoflavones. Equol was grouped into categories (<20, 20-<45, and ≥45nmol/L) and, among women with daidzein ≥20nmol/L, the log10 equol:daidzein ratio was grouped into tertiles. Where available, non-cancerous tissue (NCT) adjacent to the carcinomas from women with BC were classified as non-proliferative or proliferative (n=130 and 172, respectively). The lesions from women with FBC were similarly classified (n=99 and 92, respectively). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated across equol categories and tertiles of log10 equol:daidzein ratio. Equol categories were not associated with FBC or BC (P>.05). For log10 equol:daidzein, compared to controls there were positive associations in the mid tertile for proliferative FBC (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08-3.93), BC with proliferative NCT (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.37-6.35), and all BC regardless of histology (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.43-3.95). However, trends in ORs with increasing plasma equol values or equol:daidzein ratios were not observed (P>.05). The results of this study do not provide evidence that equol plays a role in the etiology of these breast conditions. However, further work is needed to confirm or refute this conclusion. PMID:27440541

  5. HPTN 068: A Randomized Control Trial of a Conditional Cash Transfer to Reduce HIV Infection in Young Women in South Africa-Study Design and Baseline Results.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Selin, Amanda; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Rosenberg, Molly; Wagner, Ryan G; Mabuza, Wonderful; Hughes, James P; Suchindran, Chirayath; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Wang, Jing; Twine, Rhian; Daniel, Tamu; Andrew, Philip; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Agyei, Yaw; Tollman, Stephen; Kahn, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Young women in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection. Cash transfers offer promise to reduce HIV risk. We present the design and baseline results from HPTN 068, a phase III, individually randomized trial to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV acquisition among South African young women. A total of 2533 young women were randomized to receive a monthly cash transfer conditional on school attendance or to a control group. A number of individual-, partner-, household- and school-level factors were associated with HIV and HSV-2 infection. After adjusting for age, all levels were associated with an increased odds of HIV infection with partner-level factors conveying the strongest association (aOR 3.05 95 % CI 1.84-5.06). Interventions like cash transfers that address structural factors such as schooling and poverty have the potential to reduce HIV risk in young women in South Africa. PMID:26891839

  6. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  7. Fracture Risk Is Decreased in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Register-Based and Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Glintborg, Dorte; Nybo, Mads; Andersen, Marianne; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Hyperandrogenism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia may protect against osteoporosis, whereas amenorrhea, increased cortisol, and low growth hormone may be associated with higher fracture risk in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to investigate fracture risk in PCOS. In the PCOS Denmark study, women with PCOS and/or hirsutism were identified in the Danish National Patient Register (1995-2012). Each patient was assigned three age-matched controls on the index date of PCOS diagnosis. Individuals with a previous endocrine diagnosis were excluded. Within PCOS Denmark, we embedded a well-characterized subcohort of patients, PCOS OUH, diagnosed with PCOS at Odense University Hospital (n = 1217). We identified incident fractures by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes and used conditional Cox regression analyses to compare fracture risk. In the PCOS Denmark study, there were 19,199 women with PCOS and 57,483 controls were included, mean age 30.6 years (range, 12-60 years). Fracture rates were decreased in PCOS Denmark (10.3/1000 patient years) versus controls (13.6/1000 patient years). The adjusted ORs were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.80) for all fractures, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.92) for major osteoporotic fractures, and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.70) for fractures of head and face. The risk reduction was more pronounced below the age of 30 years at diagnosis. Women with PCOS had significant more hospital contacts due to strains and sprains. In the PCOS OUH subcohort, the risk reduction of fractures did not differ between PCOS women with elevated versus normal testosterone levels and the risk reduction was nominally smaller in overweight versus normal weight PCOS women. Women with PCOS had reduced risk of fractures, in particular of the appendicular skeleton. The risk reduction was greater in women with younger age at diagnosis suggesting that the skeletal effects of PCOS may be greater in women who have not yet

  8. LIF and LIF‑R expression in the endometrium of fertile and infertile women: A prospective observational case‑control study.

    PubMed

    Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Prapas, Yannis; Petousis, Stamatios; Milias, Stefanos; Ravanos, Konstantinos; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mavromatidis, George; Haitoglou, Constantinos; Prapas, Nikolaos; Rousso, David

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and LIF receptor (LIF‑R) in the endometrium of fertile and infertile women during the implantation window. A prospective study was conducted between March 2013 and March 2015 at Iakentro, Infertility Treatment Center (Thessaloniki, Greece) and the 3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Thessaloniki, Greece). The patient group consisted of women diagnosed with infertility, whereas the control group consisted of women who had delivered at least one live newborn (fertile women). An endometrial biopsy was obtained using a Pipelle on day 7 or 8 post‑ovulation, and the expression of LIF and LIF‑R was assessed by immunohistochemistry in epithelial and stromal cells. Primary outcomes included positive cellular percentage, staining intensity and H‑score. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Overall, 45 women were included in the present analysis (15 fertile women and 30 infertile women). Mean age was 32.8±6.0 years for the fertile group, and 37.6±3.7 for the infertile group. LIF and LIF‑R expression was significantly reduced in the epithelial cells of infertile women (P=0.05 and P=0.006, respectively). However, no significant differences were detected with regards to the expression of LIF in stromal cells (P=0.95). In addition, LIF‑R expression was relatively higher in the stromal cells of the fertile group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). In conclusion, endometrial expression of LIF and LIF‑R is significantly reduced in the epithelial cells of infertile women. Expression patterns of LIF‑R in stromal cells require further research in order to achieve definitive results. PMID:27082016

  9. Socioeconomic Status in Relation to the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Moorman, Patricia G; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Wang, Frances; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Cote, Michelle L; Ford, Marvella E; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kelemen, Linda E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Terry, Paul; Wallace, Kristin; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-15

    We investigated the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer in African-American women. We used a population-based case-control study design that included case patients with incident ovarian cancer (n = 513) and age- and area-matched control participants (n = 721) from 10 states who were recruited into the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study from December 2010 through December 2014. Questionnaires were administered via telephone, and study participants responded to questions about several characteristics, including years of education, family annual income, and risk factors for ovarian cancer. After adjustment for established ovarian cancer risk factors, women with a college degree or more education had an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.99) when compared with those with a high school diploma or less (P for trend = 0.02); women with family annual incomes of $75,000 or more had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.16) when compared with those with incomes less than $10,000 (P for trend = 0.055). When these variables were dichotomized, compared with women with a high school diploma or less, women with more education had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93), and compared with women with an income less than $25,000, women with higher incomes had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.12). These findings suggest that ovarian cancer risk may be inversely associated with socioeconomic status among African-American women and highlight the need for additional evidence to more thoroughly characterize the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer. PMID:27492896

  10. Cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure before and after 4 h of head-down bed rest and seated control in men and women.

    PubMed

    Edgell, H; Grinberg, A; Gagné, N; Beavers, K R; Hughson, R L

    2012-11-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning after a 4-h head-down bed rest (HDBR) might be a consequence of the time of day relative to pre-HDBR testing, or simply 4 h of confinement and inactivity rather than the posture change. Ten men and 11 women were studied during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 4-h HDBR and 4-h seated posture (SEAT) as a control for time of day and physical inactivity effects to test the hypotheses that cardiovascular deconditioning was a consequence of the HDBR posture, and that women would have a greater deconditioning response. Following HDBR, men and women had lower blood volume, higher heart rate with a greater increase during LBNP, a greater decrease of stroke volume during LBNP, lower central venous pressure, smaller inferior vena cava diameter, higher portal vein resistance index with a greater increase during LBNP, but lower forearm vascular resistance, lower norepinephrine, and lower renin. Women had lower vasopressin and men had higher vasopressin after HDBR, and women had lower pelvic impedance and men higher pelvic impedance. Following SEAT, brachial vascular resistance was reduced, thoracic impedance was elevated, the reduction of central venous pressure during LBNP was changed, women had higher angiotensin II whereas men had lower levels, and pelvic impedance increased in women and decreased in men. Cardiovascular deconditioning was greater after 4-h HDBR than after SEAT. Women and men had similar responses for most cardiovascular variables in the present study that tested the responses to LBNP after short-duration HDBR compared with a control condition. PMID:22984250

  11. Effects of Stellate Ganglion Block on Vasomotor Symptoms: Findings from a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Walega, David R.; Rubin, Leah H.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled intervention studies, including studies involving breast cancer survivors, have demonstrated improvements in vasomotor symptoms (VMS) following stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) with local anesthetic. This study presents the first randomized, sham-controlled trial of SGB for the treatment of VMS. Methods Participants included 40 postmenopausal women aged 30 to 70 years with moderate-to-severe VMS. The design was a randomized, sham-controlled trial comparing the effect of SGB versus sham injection on the frequency of total and moderate-to-severe VMS as measured by daily diaries. Image-guided SGB was performed with 0.5% bupivacaine 5 mL. Sham injection of saline was performed in the subcutaneous tissue in the neck. VMS were recorded at baseline and for six months thereafter. Objective VMS were recorded using ambulatory sternal skin conductance monitoring over a 24-hour period at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results There were no significant group differences in overall VMS frequency, but the frequency of moderate-to-very severe VMS was reduced more in the active compared to sham treatment group, RR 0.50, CI 0.35–0.71, p<0.001. The frequency of objective VMS was also reduced to a greater degree in the SGB group compared to the sham group (RR 0.71, CI 0.64–0.99, p<0.05). There were no study-related serious adverse events. Conclusions SGB may provide an effective treatment for VMS in women who seek non-hormonal therapies due to safety concerns and personal preference. The finding that SGB significantly reduces objectively measured VMS provides further evidence of efficacy. A larger trial is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:24496086

  12. Cyclical mastalgia as a marker of breast cancer susceptibility: results of a case-control study among French women.

    PubMed Central

    Plu-Bureau, G.; Thalabard, J. C.; Sitruk-Ware, R.; Asselain, B.; Mauvais-Jarvis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A matched case-control study in a population of urban, non-menopaused women living in Paris was performed between 1983 and 1985 to investigate the risk of breast cancer (BC) in relation to various factors with a particular interest in the effect of the use of oral contraceptive (OC) and the existence of cyclical mastalgia (CM). Two hundred and ten non-menopaused women, less than 45 years old, with newly diagnosed BC were compared to 210 controls from the same geographic area matched on year of birth, age, education level and age at first full term pregnancy (FFTP), when justified. The adjusted Relative Risk of BC (RRa) was significantly increased for a total duration of OC use longer than 72 months (RRa 2.80; 95% CI 1.56-5.01), as well as the RRa for OC use above 48 months before FFTP (3.26 95% CI 1.37-7.76) and, to a lesser extent, the RRa for OC use above 48 months after FFTP (2.02 95% CI 1.07-3.84) respectively. Adjustment was performed on familial history of BC, personal history of Benign Breast Disease (BBD), age at menarche. A previous history of cyclical mastalgia was found to be associated with an increased risk of BC. The significant increase remained after adjustment on the previously mentioned confounding factors and OC use: RRa 2.12; 95% CI (1.31-3.43). Under a precise definition related to the hormonal environment, mastalgia appear to be an interesting marker of breast cell susceptibility, the importance of which can only be validated by prospective studies. PMID:1616869

  13. Insulin is an important risk factor of endometrial cancer among premenopausal women: a case-control study in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanli; Cheng, Shijie; Hou, Jianqing; Zuo, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Xia, Min; Mu, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the article was to evaluate the important role played by insulin in the development of endometrial cancer (EC) among Chinese premenopausal women. In this study, 128 endometrial cancer patients and 294 controls who were all premenopausal were included. Baseline characteristics data were collected and serum insulin, C-peptide, sex hormone-binding globulin, C-reaction protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured. Paired t test, χ(2) test, Spearman correlation coefficients, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used in data analysis. Furthermore, insulin levels were categorized into quartiles, and likelihood ratio was calculated for the four categories. Blood insulin levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.001). Factor analysis identified insulin (OR = 2.46; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-3.91; P < 0.001) as the independent risk factor of EC. When insulin levels were categorized into quartiles, we found that insulin was positively associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR comparing extreme quartiles (HR q4-q1) = 4.44; 95 % CI = 2.59-7.62; P trend = 0.025]. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), this association was attenuated, but still significant. In conclusion, insulin plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of EC among premenopausal women. Treatment targeting down-regulation of blood insulin levels seems effective in the prevention of this malignancy. PMID:26511973

  14. Wii-Workouts on Chronic Pain, Physical Capabilities and Mood of Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; Lattari, Eduardo; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira; Mura, Gioia; Machado, Sérgio; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a public health problem and older women have higher incidence of this symptom, which affect body balance, functional capacity and behavior. The purpose of this study was to verifying the effect of exercises with Nintendo Wii on CLBP, functional capacity and mood of elderly. Thirty older women (68 ± 4 years; 68 ± 12 kg; 154 ± 5 cm) with CLBP participated in this study. Elderly individuals were divided into a Control Exercise Group (n = 14) and an Experimental Wii Group (n = 16). Control Exercise Group did strength exercises and core training, while Experimental Wii Group did ones additionally to exercises with Wii. CLBP, balance, functional capacity and mood were assessed pre and post training by the numeric pain scale, Wii Balance Board, sit to stand test and Profile of Mood States, respectively. Training lasted eight weeks and sessions were performed three times weekly. MANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction on pain, siting, stand-up and mood (P = 0.53). However, there was significant difference within groups (P = 0.0001). ANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction for each variable (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences within groups in these variables (P < 0.05). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in pain on both groups (P = 0.0001). Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests identified no significant differences on balance (P > 0.01). Capacity to Sit improved only in Experimental Wii Group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, physical exercises with Nintendo Wii Fit Plus additional to strength and core training were effective only for sitting capacity, but effect size was small. PMID:26556092

  15. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined

  16. Gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples to prevent postnatal common mental disorders among primiparous women: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Proimos, Jenny; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Cann, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Interventions to prevent postpartum common mental disorders (PCMD) among unselected populations of women have had limited success. The aim was to determine whether What Were We Thinking (WWWT) a gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples and babies can prevent PCMD among primiparous women 6 months postpartum. Design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres (MCHCs) from 6 Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia were allocated randomly to usual care (24) or usual care plus WWWT (24). Participants English-speaking primiparous women receiving primary care at trial MCHCs were recruited to the intervention (204) and control (196) conditions. Of these, 187 (91.7%) and 177 (90.3%) provided complete data. Intervention WWWT is a manualised programme comprising primary care from a trained nurse, print materials and a face-to-face seminar. Main outcome measures Data sources were standardised and study-specific measures collected in blinded computer-assisted telephone interviews at 6 and 26 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was PCMD assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interviews and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder modules. Results In intention-to-treat analyses the adjusted OR (AOR) of PCMD in the intervention compared to the usual care group was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.63, ns), but mild to moderate anxiety symptoms (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.97) and poor self-rated health (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.97) were significantly lower. In a per protocol analysis, comparing the full (three component) intervention and usual care groups, the AOR of PCMD was 0.36, (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95). The WWWT seminar was appraised as salient, comprehensible and useful by >85% participants. No harms were detected. Conclusions WWWT is readily integrated into primary care, enables inclusion of fathers and addresses modifiable risks for PCMD directly. The full

  17. Asymmetric dimethylarginine is associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and early carotid atherosclerosis in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Li, Dajiang; Zhang, Chunquan; Xu, Li; Xu, Wenliang; Shao, Yibing

    2015-03-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is increased in subjects with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ADMA levels and early carotid atherosclerosis in women with history of GDM. A total of 42 normoglycemic women with previous GDM and 42 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Serum levels of ADMA, lipids, insulin, fasting and 2-h glucose following 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated by ultrasonographically determined intima-media thickness (IMT). Serum ADMA and hsCRP were higher in women with previous GDM compared to the healthy controls (0.72 ± 0.16 vs. 0.41 ± 0.15 μmol/L, p < 0.001; 1.81 ± 0.32 vs. 1.05 ± 0.26 mg/L, p < 0.001; respectively). Carotid IMT was also increased in the previous GDM group (0.77 ± 0.14 vs. 0.52 ± 0.13 mm, p < 0.001). In women with previous GDM, ADMA was positively correlated with hsCRP (r = 41, p < 0.001) and carotid IMT (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that ADMA was a significant predictor for elevated carotid IMT in subjects with previous GDM after adjusting for traditional risk factors (β = 0.26, p = 0.017). Our data demonstrated that serum ADMA was associated with hsCRP and carotid IMT in normoglycemic women with previous GDM. PMID:24962795

  18. Increased expression of circulating miRNA-93 in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may represent a novel, non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sathyapalan, T.; David, R.; Gooderham, N. J.; Atkin, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a novel class of small noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. There is increasing evidence of their importance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to determine if miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 are differentially expressed in the circulation of women with PCOS compared to age matched women. A case–control study comparing women with PCOS (n = 25) to age and weight matched controls (n = 24) without PCOS was performed. MiRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were determined by total RNA reverse transcription. Both miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were significantly increased relative to the control group (p < 0.01, p = 0.029 respectively). In both groups there was no correlation of either miRNA-93 or miRNA-223 with insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β or testosterone levels. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for miR-223 and miR-93 was 0.66 and 0.72 respectively, suggesting miR-93 is a more efficient biomarker than miR-223 for diagnosis of PCOS. The combination of the two miRNAs together, tested using multiple logistic regression analysis, did not improve the diagnostic potential. In conclusion, circulating miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were higher in women with PCOS compared to age and weight matched controls independent of insulin resistance and testosterone levels, and miR-93 may represent a novel diagnostic biomarker for PCOS. PMID:26582398

  19. Increased expression of circulating miRNA-93 in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may represent a novel, non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, T; David, R; Gooderham, N J; Atkin, S L

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a novel class of small noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. There is increasing evidence of their importance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to determine if miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 are differentially expressed in the circulation of women with PCOS compared to age matched women. A case-control study comparing women with PCOS (n = 25) to age and weight matched controls (n = 24) without PCOS was performed. MiRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were determined by total RNA reverse transcription. Both miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were significantly increased relative to the control group (p < 0.01, p = 0.029 respectively). In both groups there was no correlation of either miRNA-93 or miRNA-223 with insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β or testosterone levels. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for miR-223 and miR-93 was 0.66 and 0.72 respectively, suggesting miR-93 is a more efficient biomarker than miR-223 for diagnosis of PCOS. The combination of the two miRNAs together, tested using multiple logistic regression analysis, did not improve the diagnostic potential. In conclusion, circulating miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were higher in women with PCOS compared to age and weight matched controls independent of insulin resistance and testosterone levels, and miR-93 may represent a novel diagnostic biomarker for PCOS. PMID:26582398

  20. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20 weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30 weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30 mm up to 28 weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration

  1. Earlier Joint Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Low Perceived Self-control as Predictors of Later Poor Health for Women in their Mid-60s

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current study was designed to assess the prospective relationship between the earlier joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and low perceived self-control (X¯ age = 40-48) and later health problems (X¯ age = 65.2) within a community sample of understudied females. Methods: The participants were given self-administered questionnaires. Results: The results of the growth mixture model suggested 5 joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and perceived self-control, which consisted of 1 at-risk group (chronic smoking and low perceived self-control), 1 low-risk group (infrequent or nonsmoking and high perceived self-control), and 3 intermediate groups (i.e., high on one factor and low on the other). The results from logistic regression analyses supported a model by which (a) women in the at-risk group, in comparison with the low-risk group, were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; p < .001) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 5.98; p < .001); (b) women in the at-risk group as compared with women in the intermediate groups were also more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.36; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.86; p < .01); and (c) women in the intermediate group were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.04; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.09; p < .05) than women in the low-risk group. Conclusions: The findings highlight the significance of targeting dispositional factors (e.g., perceived self-control) in conjunction with smoking in designing programs for promoting the health of women in midlife. PMID:22193579

  2. Bone Mineral Density in Young Women With Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Results of a Three-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Physiological Transdermal Estradiol and Testosterone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Calis, Karim A.; Kalantaridou, Sophia N.; Vanderhoof, Vien H.; Koziol, Deloris; Troendle, James F.; Reynolds, James C.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have significantly lower serum estradiol and T levels compared with regularly menstruating women. They also have significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of hormone replacement in maintaining BMD in these young women. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health clinical center (Bethesda, Maryland). Participants: Young women with primary ovarian insufficiency participated in the study. Interventions: We compared the effect of estradiol and progestin replacement (n = 72) vs estradiol, progestin, and T replacement (n = 73) on BMD. We also compared findings with a contemporaneous control group of normal women (n = 70). All patients received transdermal estradiol (100 μg/d) plus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/d (12 d/mo) for a 3-month run-in period before being randomized in a double-blinded fashion to the addition of transdermal T (150 μg/d) or placebo. Main Outcome Measure: Change in BMD at the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: At screening, patients had significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared with control women (0.77 vs 0.81 g/cm2, P = .001) and did not differ in body mass index, age at menarche, or education level. Normal control women lost femoral neck BMD over the study period, whereas patients on estradiol and progestin therapy gained BMD; and at the end of the study period, femoral neck BMD of patients on estradiol and progestin therapy did not differ from that of control women (0.80 g/cm2 in both groups, P = .9). The addition of T showed no further benefit (percentage change in BMD 3.9 vs 2.4, respectively, P = .9). Nonetheless, using a repeated-measures model, the T group achieved a mean BMD in the femoral neck 0.015 g/cm2 higher than the placebo group at 3 years (95% confidence

  3. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota--a randomised controlled trial in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Blædel, Trine; Håkansson, Janet; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Lesli H

    2015-08-14

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9.4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0.05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0.01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species. PMID:26134388

  4. Duloxetine versus placebo for the treatment of women with stress predominant urinary incontinence in Taiwan: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Sun, Mou-Jong; Tai, Hui-Lung; Chuang, Yao Chi; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Wang, Nick; Zhao, Yan Daniel; Beyrer, Julie; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan; Levine, Louise; Chang, Curtis; Viktrup, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Background This manuscript compares the efficacy and safety of duloxetine with placebo in Taiwanese women with SUI. Methods Taiwanese women with SUI were were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 61) or duloxetine 80 mg/day (n = 60) in this double-blind, 8-week, placebo-controlled study. Outcome variables included: incontinence episode frequency (IEF), Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL) scores, and Patient Global Impression of Improvement rating (PGI-I). Results Decrease in IEF was significantly greater in duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (69.98% vs 42.56%, P < .001). No treatment differences in I-QOL scores were significant. There were significant differences in PGI-I rating. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were experienced by more duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (80.0% vs 44.3%; P < .001). Discontinuations due to adverse events were significantly greater for duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (26.7% vs 6.6%; P = .003). Conclusion Data provide evidence for the safety and efficacy of duloxetine for the treatment for Taiwanese women with SUI. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00475358 PMID:18221532

  5. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  6. Preventing College Women's Sexual Victimization Through Parent Based Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Turrisi, Rob

    2010-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial, using parent-based intervention (PBI) was designed to reduce the incidence of alcohol-involved sexual victimization among first-year college students. The PBI, adapted from Turrisi et al. (2001), was designed to increase alcohol-specific and general communication between mother and daughter. Female graduating high school seniors and their mothers were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to one of four conditions: Alcohol PBI (n=305), Enhanced Alcohol + Sex PBI (n= 218), Control (n=288) or Unmeasured Control (n=167). Mothers in the intervention conditions were provided an informational handbook and encouraged to discuss its contents with their daughters prior to college matriculation. Consistent with hypotheses, PBI, either standard or enhanced, was associated with lower incidence of incapacitated rape in the first year of college relative to controls. Path analysis revealed support for a hypothesized indirect effects model, by which intervention increased mother-daughter communication, which predicted lower frequency of first semester heavy episodic drinking, resulting in lower rates of alcohol-involved sexual victimization in the first year of college. PMID:20169410

  7. Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Amal K

    2014-03-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C; Bell, Douglas A; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic studies have not shown a strong relationship between blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk. However, two recent studies showed a stronger association among postmenopausal white women with the inducible M2 polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated breast cancer risk in relation to PCBs and the CYP1A1 polymorphisms M1 (also known as CYP1A1*2A), M2 (CYP1A1*2C), M3 (CYP1A1*3), and M4 (CYP1A1*4). The study population consisted of 612 patients (242 African American, 370 white) and 599 controls (242 African American, 357 white). Results There was no evidence of strong joint effects between CYP1A1 M1-containing genotypes and total PCBs in African American or white women. Statistically significant multiplicative interactions were observed between CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes and elevated plasma total PCBs among white women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.02). Multiplicative interactions were also observed between CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes and elevated total PCBs among African American women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.10). Conclusions Our results confirm previous reports that CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes modify the association between PCB exposure and risk of breast cancer. We present additional evidence suggesting that CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes modify the effects of PCB exposure among African American women. Additional studies are warranted, and meta-analyses combining results across studies will be needed to generate more precise estimates of the joint effects of PCBs and CYP1A1 genotypes. PMID:15642161

  9. Validity of activity monitors worn at multiple nontraditional locations under controlled and free-living conditions in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kumahara, Hideaki; Ayabe, Makoto; Ichibakase, Misato; Tashima, Akari; Chiwata, Maiko; Takashi, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of counting steps and computing indices of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using miniature activity monitors with 3-D technology worn at various locations under controlled (CON) and free-living conditions (FL). Kenz e-style2, Tanita Calorism Smart, and Omron Calori Scan HJA-306 activity monitors were assessed. Nine and 31 young adult women were assigned to the CON and FL studies, respectively. While walking or jogging on a treadmill at 5 different speeds, the subjects simultaneously carried the 3 different monitors in a pants pocket (PP), a chest shirt pocket, and a shoulder bag (B). Under the FL condition, the 3 monitors were placed only at the PP and B locations for practical reasons. Significant effects of monitor location and walking/jogging speed on the step count measured by the 3 monitors were evaluated under the CON condition. Monitors placed at both PP and B tended to underestimate the number of steps; however, there were no significant differences between the values obtained with the Kenz monitor and those obtained with a criterion accelerometer under the FL condition. Moreover, strong correlations were observed between steps measured by monitors placed at PP and steps measured by the criterion accelerometer. The amount of MVPA for the PP location and the non-carrying duration of the bag for the B location were considered to be important determinants of the accuracy of step counting under the FL condition. In conclusion, monitors placed at the PP location, especially the Kenz monitor, showed acceptable accuracy for young adult women in real-life settings. In contrast, MVPA indices assessed using these monitors showed limited validity. PMID:25832964

  10. Metabolomics reveals the metabolic shifts following an intervention with rye bread in postmenopausal women- a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that whole grain (WG) cereals can protect against the development of chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Among WG products, WG rye is considered even more potent because of its unique discrepancy in postprandial insulin and glucose responses known as the rye factor. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to study the metabolic effects of WG rye as a tool to determine the beneficial effects of WG rye on human health. Methods Thirty-three postmenopausal Finnish women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L) and BMI of 20–33 kg/m2 consumed a minimum of 20% of their daily energy intake as high fiber WG rye bread (RB) or refined wheat bread (WB) in a randomized, controlled, crossover design with two 8-wk intervention periods separated by an 8-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, fasting serum was collected for NMR-based metabolomics and the analysis of cholesterol fractions. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. Results The metabolomics analysis of serum showed lower leucine and isoleucine and higher betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine levels after RB than WB intake. To further investigate the metabolic effects of RB, the serum cholesterol fractions were measured. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher after RB intake than after WB (p<0.05). Conclusions This study revealed favorable shifts in branched amino acid and single carbon metabolism and an unfavorable shift in serum cholesterol levels after RB intake in postmenopausal women, which should be considered for evaluating health beneficial effects of rye products. PMID:23088297

  11. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost Effect on Local Tumor Control in Young Women With Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guinot, Jose-Luis; Baixauli-Perez, Cristobal; Soler, Pablo; Tortajada, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Araceli; Santos, Miguel Angel; Mut, Alejandro; Gozalbo, Francisco; Arribas, Leoncio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rate and complications of a single fraction of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) boost in women aged 45 yeas and younger after breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2007, 167 patients between the ages of 26 and 45 years old (72 were 40 years old or younger), with stages T1 to T2 invasive breast cancer with disease-free margin status of at least 5 mm after breast-conserving surgery received 46 to 50 Gy whole-breast irradiation plus a 7-Gy HDR-BT boost (“fast boost”). An axillary dissection was performed in 72.5% of the patients and sentinel lymph node biopsy in 27.5%. A supraclavicular area was irradiated in 19% of the patients. Chemotherapy was used in 86% of the patients and hormone treatment in 77%. Clinical nodes were present in 18% and pathological nodes in 29%. The pathological stage was pT0: 5%, pTis: 3%, pT1: 69% and pT2: 23%. Intraductal component was present in 40% and 28% were G3. Results: At a median follow-up of 92 months, 9 patients relapsed on the margin of the implant, and 1 patient in another quadrant, resulting in a 10-year local relapse rate of 4.3% and a breast relapse rate of 4.9%, with breast preservation in 93.4%; no case of mastectomy due to poor cosmesis arose. Actuarial 5- and 10-year disease-free, cause-specific, and overall survival rates were 87.9% and 85.8%, and 92.1% and 88.4%, and 92.1% and 87.3%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, triple-negative cases and negative hormone receptors did worse, but in a multivariate analysis, only the last factor was significant for local and breast control. Asymptomatic fibrosis G2 was recorded in 3 cases, and there were no other late complications. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 97% of cases. Conclusions: A single dose of 7 Gy using the fast-boost technique is well tolerated, with a low rate of late complications and improved local tumor control in women aged 45 and younger, compared to published data

  12. A study of the effects of latent iron deficiency on measures of cognition: a pilot randomised controlled trial of iron supplementation in young women.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-06-01

    Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ≤ 20 μg/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18-35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

  13. Prior to Conception: The Role of an Acupuncture Protocol in Improving Women's Reproductive Functioning Assessed by a Pilot Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Suzanne; Smith, Caroline A.; Possamai-Inesedy, Alphia; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The global average of couples with fertility problems is 9%. Assisted reproductive technologies are often inaccessible. Evidence points to acupuncture offering an opportunity to promote natural fertility. This study asked whether providing a multiphasic fertility acupuncture protocol to women with sub/infertility would increase their awareness of fertility and achieve normalisation of their menstrual cycle compared with a lifestyle control. In a pragmatic randomised controlled trial sub/infertile women were offered an intervention of acupuncture and lifestyle modification or lifestyle modification only. There was a statistically significant increase in fertility awareness in the acupuncture group (86.4%, 19) compared to 40% (n = 8) of the lifestyle only participants (Relative Risk (RR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.25, 4.50), with an adjusted p value of 0.011. Changes in menstrual regularity were not statistically significant. There was no statistical difference in the pregnancy rate with seven women (adjusted p = 0.992) achieving pregnancy during the course of the study intervention. Those receiving the acupuncture conceived within an average of 5.5 weeks compared to 10.67 weeks for the lifestyle only group (p = 0.422). The acupuncture protocol tested influenced women who received it compared to women who used lifestyle modification alone: their fertility awareness and wellbeing increased, and those who conceived did so in half the time. PMID:27242910

  14. Women's Dependency on Prescription Drugs; Hearing Before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    This record of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control contains testimonies addressing the problems facing drug abusing women. The extensive prescribing of legal drugs such as tranquilizers, sedatives, pain killers, and stimulants is examined. The problems of polydrug abuse and alcohol abuse in combination with other drugs are also…

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Income Young Minority Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…

  16. Sexual and Psychosocial Functioning in Women with MRKHS after Neovaginoplasty According to Wharton-Sheares-George: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) has a major impact on a woman’s psychological and sexual well-being. In most of the studies that addressed treatment techniques, postoperative sexual function was reported to be satisfactory; however, comparatively few studies have additionally provided an accurate analysis of psychosocial functions in MRKHS patients following different kinds of neovaginal treatment. This study is to evaluate sexual and psychosocial functioning after creation of a neovagina according to Wharton-Sheares-George in women with MRKHS. Methods We performed a case-control-study using multiple measures to assess sexual and psychosocial functioning. Ten MRKHS patients and 20 controls of a University hospital and tertiary center for pediatric and adolescent gynecology were assessed. The follow-up assessment comprised 6 standardized questionnaires (Female Sexuality Function Index, FSFI; Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ; Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI; World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, WHOQoL-BREF; Parental Bonding Instrument, PBI; and a German questionnaire on body image). The main outcome measures were sexual function, psychological status, quality of life, body image, and parental bonding styles. Findings Sexual function, psychological status (including depressive and somatic symptoms), quality of life, and own-body experience were at least as good in operated MRKHS patients as in controls. In some measures (FSFI, PHQ-15, psychological domain of the WHOQoL-BREF, and BSI Positive Symptom Total), patients scored significantly better than controls. The results of the PBI indicated a close and sustainable mother-daughter-relationship in MRKHS patients. Conclusions We found no evidence for an impairment of sexual or psychosocial functioning in patients after neovaginoplasty according to Wharton-Sheares-George. MRKHS may not necessarily compromise sexual and psychological well-being, provided that the syndrome is

  17. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

    PubMed Central

    Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p < 0.0001) at the ending of the program in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The participants in the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p < 0.0001). The intervention group subjects exhibited a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 mmHg) than the control group women (+2.0. mmHg). The mean ranks for posttest healthy heart knowledge in

  18. Women's Perceptions of Breastfeeding Barriers in Early Postpartum Period: A Qualitative Analysis Nested in Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Josephine; Bonuck, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This study examined women's perceptions of early infant feeding experiences and identified early postpartum barriers to successful breastfeeding. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semistructured exit interviews at 6 months postpartum with a subsample of participants (n=67) enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of breastfeeding promotion. Study arms included (1) routine pre- and postnatal visits with an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) (LC group), (2) electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP group), (3) EP+LC combined, and (4) standard of care (control group). Interview transcripts were coded using grounded theory and analyzed in MAXqda. Code matrices were used to identify early postpartum breastfeeding barriers and were further examined in relation to treatment group using a mixed methods analysis. Results: The majority of the participants reported experiencing at least one barrier to breastfeeding. Barriers to breastfeeding were more commonly reported in the early postpartum than late postpartum period. The most common barrier during the early postpartum period was the perception of inadequate milk supply (“lactational”) (n=18), followed by problems with latch, medical problems that were perceived as precluding breastfeeding, and medical staff and hospital practices. Participants frequently reported that the IBCLCs assisted them in anticipating, managing, and overcoming these barriers. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of integrating IBCLCs into routine pre- and postpartum care because they provide critical support that effectively addresses early postpartum barriers to breastfeeding. PMID:24304033

  19. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  20. Associations between antioxidant vitamins and the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liyuan; Zhu, Hong; Lin, Chengjun; Che, Jianhua; Tian, Xiujuan; Han, Shiyu; Zhao, Honghui; Zhu, Yumei; Mao, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cervical cancer remain inconsistent, and little evidence is available for serum antioxidant vitamins, which provide more accurate measurements of these nutrients. We conducted a case-control study of 458 incident cases with invasive cervical cancer and 742 controls to assess the effects of diet or serum antioxidant vitamins. Higher serum antioxidant vitamins were associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46-0.93; P = 0.024) for α-carotene, 0.63 (95% CI = 0.45-0.90; P = 0.006) for β-carotene, 0.53 (95% CI = 0.37-0.74; P < 0.001) for vitamin E, and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.33-0.69; P < 0.001) for vitamin C. Dietary intakes of vitamins E and C were inversely associated with the risk of cervical cancer. Risk of cervical cancer from serum antioxidant vitamins was more evident in passive smokers than non-passive smokers. These findings indicated that antioxidant vitamins (mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, and vitamins E and C) might be beneficial in reducing the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women, especially in passive smokers. PMID:26337940

  1. Randomised placebo-controlled trials and HIV-infected pregnant women in developing countries. Ethical imperialism or unethical exploitation?

    PubMed

    de Zulueta, P

    2001-08-01

    The maternal-fetal HIV transmission trials, conducted in developing countries in the 1990s, undoubtedly generated one of the most intense, high profile controversies in international research ethics. They sparked off a prolonged acrimonious and public debate and deeply divided the scientific community. They also provided an impetus for the revision of the Declaration of Helsinki--the most widely known guideline for international research. In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the context, outline the arguments for and against the controversial use of placebo controls, and focus on particular areas that I believe merit further discussion or clarification. On balance, I argue that the researchers failed in their duties to protect the best interests of their research subjects, and to promote distributive justice. I discuss the difficulties of obtaining valid consent in this research context, and argue that it is unethical to inform women of their HIV status without at least offering them prophylactic treatment for their unborn children. A global view of justice, which endorses international equity, cannot be squared with international research guidelines that allow 'local conditions' to define the scope of duty to the control group. Finally, I suggest that the heated debate reflects a tension, if not an outright war, between two conflicting meta-ethical systems, or incommensurable paradigms, that underpin scientific research involving human subjects. PMID:11697387

  2. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40–79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  3. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to…

  4. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: Detailed Analysis of the Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Kristina M.; Carlsen, Emma M.; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted. Objective To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342) among obese pregnant women with BMI≥30 kg/m2. Methods Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11–14) and endpoint (weeks 36–37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (<1wk) intake. The results for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149 PMID:26192183

  5. History of Abuse in Women with Vulvar Pruritus, Vulvodynia and Asymptomatic Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Sacher, Bina; Haefner, Hope K.; Dalton, Vanessa K.; Berger, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic vulvar pruritus and vulvodynia are common vulvar diseases. The aim of this study was to compare gynecological and sexual and physical abuse histories from patients with these diagnoses, and from healthy controls. Materials and Methods Questionnaires were self-completed by patients diagnosed with vulvar itch-scratch (n= 93), vulvodynia (n= 232), and patients presenting for annual gynecological examinations (n= 104) at the University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Results Patients who came for annual examinations were less likely to report past gynecological infections (p < 0.05) and indicated higher interest in and more frequent sexual activity than the other two groups (p = 0.003). Vulvodynia patients had the highest scores on the McGill Pain Questionnaire (p < 0.001). Subjects with either vulvar disorder were more likely to self-report a history of gynecologic infections than annual examination controls. Rates of sexual (p = 0.78) and physical abuse (p = 0.12) were similar for all three groups. Conclusions Patients with vulvar pruritus and vulvodynia report similar rates of sexual and physical abuse. PMID:26111040

  6. Hedonic Hunger Prospectively Predicts Onset and Maintenance of Loss of Control Eating among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R.; Arigo, Danielle; Butryn, Meghan L.; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Sarwer, David; Stice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective The subjective feeling of loss of control (LOC) over eating is common among eating disordered individuals and has predicted weight gain in past research. Restrained eating and negative affect are risk factors for binge eating (which involves LOC), but intense feelings of pleasure derived from palatable foods might also predict the emergence or intensification of LOC eating. The Power of Food Scale (PFS; Lowe et al., 2009) assesses preoccupation with the pleasure derived from palatable food. Method The current sample (n = 294) comprised female college freshmen at risk for weight gain. LOC was assessed using an abbreviated version of the Eating Disorders Examination interview. LOC was assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-ups. Results Among those exhibiting LOC eating at baseline, (and controlling for baseline depression, restrained eating and body image dissatisfaction), those scoring higher on the PFS at baseline showed a smaller reduction in LOC frequency over time relative to those scoring lower. Using the same covariates, the PFS predicted the first emergence of LOC over two years among those showing no LOC at baseline. Conclusions These results suggest that powerful hedonic attraction to palatable foods may represent a risk factor for the maintenance of LOC in those initially experiencing it and the emergence of LOC eating in those who are not. An enhanced ability to identify individuals at increased risk of developing or maintaining LOC eating could be useful in prevention programs. PMID:26690638

  7. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  8. ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current

  9. [Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women. (Results of a case control study)].

    PubMed

    Vutuc, C

    1982-08-01

    Smoking habits of 297 female lung cancer patients (Kreyberg I: 202, Kreyberg II: 95) and 580 controls were analyzed. In addition tar exposures (TE) were calculated. Calculation of TE includes amount of consumptions, duration and the tar yields of all cigarette brands ever smoked. These are significant more smokers among patients (63%) and patients with a K I tumor (80%) compared to the controls (21%); K II: 29%. All patients and patients with a K I tumor had a significant longer smoking career (39.3 years; 39.6 years) and a higher tar exposure (TE = 1767; TE - 1810) compared to the controls (31.9 years, TE = 1146). K II: 37.4 years, TE = 1508. Lung cancer risks (adj. for TE) and population attributable risks (PAR) were: all age groups R = 7.3*, PAR = 54%; less than 40 years R = 1.1, PAR = 3%; 41-50 years R = 4.2*, PAR = 42% ; 51-60 years R = 7.6*, PAR = 62%; 61-70 years R = 7.8*, PAR = 54%; greater than 71 years R = 8.0*, PAR = 55%. Lung cancer risks (adj. for age) in relation to tar exposure and attributable risks (AR) were: TE less than 500: all cases R = 1.5, AT = 34% (KIR = 2.9, K II R = 0.8); TE 501-1000: all cases R = 4.2*, AR = 76% (KIR = 9.9*, K II R - 1.1): TE 1001-2000: all cases R = 12.1*, AR = 92% (KIR = 27.2*, K II R = 2.6**); TE 2001-3000: all cases R = 11.1*, AR = 91% (KIR = 25.2*, K II R = 2.0); TE greater than 3001: all cases R = 13.0*, AR = 92% (KIR = 29.3*, K II R = 3.3). These is a significant increase of risk of cigarette smokers beyond a TE of 501, which could be identified as a sort of critical exposure. There is a pronounced dose response relationship between cigarette smoking in relation to TE and lung cancer risk as concerning K I tumors but not KII tumors. Lung cancer risks in relation to age began smoking: less than 19 years R = 7.8*; 19 years and above R = 6.5*. *P less than 1%, **P less than 5%. PMID:7148206

  10. The effect of distant reiki on pain in women after elective Caesarean section: a double-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Berger, Howard; Tam, Carolyn; Goh, Y Ingrid; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Taddio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of all babies in North America are delivered via Caesarean section (C-section). Though a common surgical procedure, C-section recovery can be painful. Opioids, specifically codeine, are commonly used to ease pain; however, its active metabolite, morphine, passes into breast milk, and may produce unwanted side effects in neonates; therefore, alternatives to opioids are being sought. Reiki is an ancient Japanese form of healing where practitioners transfer healing energy through light touch and positive healing intention. Although 1.2 million Americans use reiki to reduce pain or depression, there is a lack of strong evidence supporting its effectiveness. A recent systematic review showed existing studies to be of poor methodological quality, with the common limitation of lack of blinding. To overcome this issue, the authors used distant reiki to assess its effectiveness in reducing pain following an elective C-section. Methods In this randomised, double-blinded study, women who underwent an elective C-section were allocated to either usual care (control, n=40) or three distant reiki sessions in addition to usual care (n=40). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary endpoint was the Area Under the VAS-Time Curve (AUC) for days 1–3. Secondary measures included: the proportion of women who required opioid medications and dose consumed, rate of healing and vital signs. Results AUC for pain was not significantly different in the distant reiki and control groups (mean±SD; 212.1±104.7 vs 223.1±117.8; p=0.96). There were no significant differences in opioid consumption or rate of healing; however, the distant reiki group had a significantly lower heart rate (74.3±8.1 bpm vs 79.8±7.9 bpm, p=0.003) and blood pressure (106.4±9.7 mm Hg vs 111.9±11.0 mm Hg, p=0.02) post surgery. Conclusion Distant reiki had no significant effect on pain following an elective C-section. Clinical Trial Registration

  11. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  12. Yoga decreases kyphosis in senior women and men with adult onset hyperkyphosis: results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Seeger, Leanne; Crawford, Sybil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether a specifically designed Yoga intervention can reduce hyperkyphosis. Design A 6-month, 2 group, randomized, controlled, single masked trial. Setting Community research unit. Participants 118 women and men aged >60 years with kyphosis angle >40 degrees. Major exclusions were: serious medical comorbidity; use of assistive device; unable to hear or see adequately for participation; or unable to pass a physical safety screen. Intervention The active treatment group attended hour-long Yoga classes, 3 days per week, for 24 weeks. The control group attended a monthly luncheon/seminar and received mailings. Measurements Primary outcomes were change (baseline to 6 months) in Debrunner kyphometer-assessed kyphosis angle, standing height, timed chair stands, functional reach and walking speed. Secondary outcomes were change in: kyphosis index, flexicurve kyphosis angle, the Rancho Bernardo Blocks posture assessment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results Compared to control participants, those randomized to Yoga experienced a 4.4% improvement in flexicurve kyphosis angle (p=0.006) and a 5% improvement in kyphosis index (p=0.004). The intervention did not result in statistically significant improvement in Debrunner kyphometer angle, measured physical performance or in self-assessed HRQOL (each p>0.1). Conclusion The decrease in flexicurve kyphosis angle in the Yoga treatment group shows that hyperkyphosis is remediable, a critical first step in the pathway to treating or preventing this condition. Larger, more definitive studies of Yoga or other interventions for hyperkyphosis should be considered. Targeting individuals with more malleable spines and using longitudinally precise measures of kyphosis could strengthen the treatment effect. PMID:19682114

  13. Communicating public health preparedness information to pregnant and postpartum women: an assessment of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web pages.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Brianna; Felter, Elizabeth; Downes, Amia; Trauth, Jeanette

    2015-04-01

    Pregnant and postpartum women have special needs during public health emergencies but often have inadequate levels of disaster preparedness. Thus, improving maternal emergency preparedness is a public health priority. More research is needed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to how preparedness information is communicated to these women. A sample of web pages from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intended to address the preparedness needs of pregnant and postpartum populations was examined for suitability for this audience. Five of the 7 web pages examined were considered adequate. One web page was considered not suitable and one the raters split between not suitable and adequate. None of the resources examined were considered superior. If these resources are considered some of the best available to pregnant and postpartum women, more work is needed to improve the suitability of educational resources, especially for audiences with low literacy and low incomes. PMID:25882119

  14. Underestimating risk in women delays diagnosis of CVD.

    PubMed

    Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    CVD remains the most common cause of mortality in women. In 2007, the annual mortality in women secondary to CAD was 4.7 times that of breast cancer. Around 2.8 million women are living with CVD in the UK. There has been an increase in the prevalence of MI in women aged 35 to 54, while a decline in prevalence was observed in age-matched men. Difficulty in evaluating symptoms of ischaemic heart disease in women is well documented and remains challenging because of their atypical nature. The main gender difference is that women tend to present less frequently with exertional symptoms of chest pain before an AMI. Although men and women share classic cardiovascular risk factors the relative importance of each risk factor may be gender specific. The impact of smoking is greater in women than men, especially in those under 50. Diabetes is a more potent risk factor for fatal CHD in women than men. Risk factors specific to women include postmenopausal status, hysterectomy and complications during pregnancy. Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus or pre-eclampsia more than double their risk of CVD later in life. Transition to the menopause is associated with a worsening CHD risk profile. After the menopause women may experience an increase in weight, alteration in fat distribution and an increase in other CVD risk factors such as diabetes and a more adverse lipid profile. Pharmacological stress testing is preferred for diagnosing CAD in females with lower exercise capacity. Stress cardiomyopathy is triggered by intense, unexpected emotional or physical stress and is characterised by transient apical systolic dysfunction or ballooning of the left ventricle. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women. Women presenting with STEMI have worse outcomes compared with men. However, in those presenting with NSTEMI there were no differences in outcomes. PMID:27214974

  15. Impact of an Educational Intervention on Women's Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sossauer, Gaëtan; Zbinden, Michel; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Fosso, Gisèle K.; Untiet, Sarah; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. Method Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group) or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group). Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV), the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. Results A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the “control group” and 152 in the “intervention group”) completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (p<0.05), but no significant difference on Self-HPV acceptability and confidence in the method was noticed between the two groups. Conclusion Educational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. Trials Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register ISRCTN78123709 PMID:25333793

  16. The Effect of Information About Gynecological Examination on the Anxiety Level of Women Applying to Gynecology Clinics: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ulker, Kahraman; Kivrak, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crowded hospital outpatient clinics and endless waiting lines that make patients feel overlooked tend to exaggerate patients’ anxiety levels. In addition, fear of pain, shyness, religious and traditional thoughts, women’s sexual role in society, and previous information and experience also contribute to people’s anxiety levels with regard to gynecologic examination. Objectives: We aimed to analyze the effect of specific information about gynecologic examination on anxiety levels of women applying to gynecology clinics. Materials and Methods: In this randomized prospective study, the women applying for a gynecological examination were randomly allocated into control, intervention 1, and intervention 2 groups. Power analysis indicated that in order to achieve a one-point decrease from the previous anxiety score of 43.85 ± 5.41 at one side alpha 0.05 with a power of 80%, at least 79 women were needed in each group. Four medical school students interviewed 75 women (25 in control, 25 in intervention 1, and 25 in intervention 2). The data were collected using the demographic, social, and economic data form, and the Turkish version of the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The women in the intervention 1 and 2 groups were instructed to read a paper that contained brief information about the gynecological examination procedure and the profits obtained from forests, respectively. All participants, including the women in the control group, filled the STAI by themselves. The three groups were compared appropriately. Results: The demographics pertaining to age, gravidity and parity, miscarriage, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy, offspring number, place of residence, working status, education level and previous experience of gynecological examination did not differ among the groups (P > 0.05). According to the STAI scores, all groups had mild state (control: 40.20 ± 10.53, intervention 1: 42.00 ± 11.98, and intervention 2: 39.53 ± 10.32) and severe

  17. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  18. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  19. The Effects of a Gentle Yoga Program on Sleep, Mood, and Blood Pressure in Older Women with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of yoga versus an educational film program on sleep, mood, perceived stress, and sympathetic activation in older women with RLS. Methods. Participants were drawn from a larger trial regarding the effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk profiles in overweight, sedentary postmenopausal women. Seventy-five women were randomized to receive either an 8-week yoga (n = 38) or educational film (n = 37) program. All 75 participants completed an RLS screening questionnaire. The 20 women who met all four diagnostic criteria for RLS (n = 10 yoga, 10 film group) comprised the population for this nested study. Main outcomes assessed pre- and post-treatment included: sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), mood (Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), blood pressure, and heart rate. Results. The yoga group demonstrated significantly greater improvements than controls in multiple domains of sleep quality and mood, and significantly greater reductions in insomnia prevalence, anxiety, perceived stress, and blood pressure (all P's≤0.05). Adjusted intergroup effect sizes for psychosocial variables were large, ranging from 1.9 for state anxiety to 2.6 for sleep quality. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest yoga may offer an effective intervention for improving sleep, mood, perceived stress, and blood pressure in older women with RLS. PMID:22474497

  20. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  1. The effect of TCM acupuncture on hot flushes among menopausal women (ACUFLASH) study: A study protocol of an ongoing multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Borud, Einar K; Alraek, Terje; White, Adrian; Fonnebo, Vinjar; Grimsgaard, Sameline

    2007-01-01

    Background After menopause, 10–20% of all women have nearly intolerable hot flushes. Long term use of hormone replacement therapy involves a health risk, and many women seek alternative strategies to relieve climacteric complaints. Acupuncture is one of the most frequently used complementary therapies in Norway. We designed a study to evaluate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care together with self-care is more effective than self-care alone to relieve climacteric complaints. Methods/Design The study is a multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. Participants are postmenopausal women who document ≥7 flushes/24 hours and who are not using hormone replacement therapy or other medication that may influence flushes. According to power calculations 200 women are needed to detect a 50% reduction in flushes, and altogether 286 women will be recruited to allow for a 30% dropout rate. The treatment group receives 10 sessions of Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care and self-care; the control group will engage in self-care only. A team of experienced Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncturists give acupuncture treatments. Discussion The study tests acupuncture as a complete treatment package including the therapeutic relationship and expectation. The intervention period lasts for 12 weeks, with follow up at 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint is change in daily hot flush frequency in the two groups from baseline to 12 weeks; secondary endpoint is health related quality of life, assessed by the Women's Health Questionnaire. We also collect data on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnoses, and we examine treatment experiences using a qualitative approach. Finally we measure biological variables, to examine potential mechanisms for the effect of acupuncture. The study is funded by The Research Council of Norway. PMID:17324253

  2. Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Relieving Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Women: A Triple-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Coca, Kelly Pereira; Marcacine, Karla Oliveira; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena

    2016-08-01

    Pain accruing from nipple lesions caused by inadequate latching by the baby is a common complaint among breastfeeding women and an important obstacle to successful breastfeeding. Nipple pain occurs during the first days after delivery and is considered one of the main causes for early weaning. To investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a treatment for nipple pain due to breastfeeding. A triple-blind, randomized, clinical study. A university-affiliated hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty-nine women with nipple lesions at the time of their admission. Thirty women (intervention group) received three sessions of laser therapy (InGaAIP laser, 660 nanometer, 40 milliwatts of power, 5 Joules per square centimeter of energy density for 5 seconds each, total energy = 0.6 Joules) in the region of the nipples at three different points in time (0 hour, 24 hours, and 48 hours after diagnosis of nipple lesion). Twenty-nine women with similar clinical conditions were randomly assigned to the control group. Self-reported pain was recorded before and after laser therapy using a visual analogue scale. The intervention group experienced a decrease of 2.0 centimeters in intensity of pain (p = .016) 24 hours after the first intervention and also presented lower levels of pain compared with the control group. Low-level laser therapy was considered effective for treating nipple lesions in breastfeeding women with pain, providing relief and prolonging exclusive breastfeeding. More clinical trials with different laser dosimetry and parameters are necessary to optimize laser therapy protocols for breastfeeding women. PMID:27363734

  3. The natural course of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women illustrated by a randomized placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Sven A; Holm, Stig E; Stenlund, Hans; Lundholm, Rolf; Monsen, Tor J

    2004-01-01

    This prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled study was performed to describe the natural course of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 1143 women 18 y and above, consulting at 18 primary health care centres in northern Sweden for symptoms suggestive of UTI were included. The symptoms urgency, dysuria, suprapubic pain and loin pain were registered, and urine cultures performed at inclusion and follow-up visits 8-10 d and 5-7 weeks later. Associations between all symptoms and bacteriuria or bacterial counts were unpredictable. Eradication of symptoms and bacteriuria and combinations of them were studied in 288 patients placebo treated for 7 d, of whom 39% dropped out after the first follow-up visit. The spontaneous cure rate of symptoms was 28% after the first week, and 37% had neither symptoms nor bacteriuria after 5-7 weeks. Considering the high dropout rate after the first follow-up visit, the spontaneous cure rate of symptoms and bacteriuria was calculated to 24% at the end of study. We conclude that patient near-laboratory tests are required to establish the diagnosis of lower UTI, and the guidelines for diagnosis of UTI need to be revised. PMID:15198188

  4. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Levonorgestrel Vs. The Yuzpe Regimen as Emergency Contraception Method among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Fatemeh Sadat; Eslami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Mohammed; Noroozi Fashkhami, Fatemeh; Besharati, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background We aimed to compare acceptability of Levonorgestrel with the Yuzpe regimen among Iranian women based on their side-effects and resulting changes in the amount and pattern of menses. Methods Five hundred twenty nine participants aged 15-49 having regular menses and one act of unprotected intercourse within 72 h were included in the double-blind, controlled trial in 2006-2007 and randomly assigned into LNG (n=263) and HD (n=266) groups, receiving Levonorgestrel 0.75 mg given 12 h apart and ethinyl estradiol 100 μg plus 0.5 mg Levonorgestrel 0.5 mg repeated after 12 h, respectively. Results The participants receiving Levonorgestrel experienced significantly lower side-effects in the case of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness (P<0.05). The changes occurred in the amount and pattern of menses were the same for both groups (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed between the efficiencies of the treatments. Conclusion Significantly lower side-effects of Levonorgestrel can be considered as greater acceptability and translated to higher efficiency. PMID:26060625

  5. Comparison of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment strategies in promotion of infertility self-efficacy scale in infertile women: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Hajar; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Salmalian, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (p<0.0001, p=0.033; respectively), but increase in the CBT group was significantly greater than flouxetine group. Finally, there was evidence of high infertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group. Conclusion: CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012061710048N1 PMID:24639784

  6. Zinc transporter gene expression and glycemic control in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Chu, Anna; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated often with underlying zinc deficiency and nutritional supplements such as zinc may be of therapeutic benefit in the disease. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial in postmenopausal women (n=48) with Type 2 DM we investigated the effects of supplementation with zinc (40mg/d) and flaxseed oil (FSO; 2g/d) on the gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT1, ZnT5, ZnT6, ZnT7, ZnT8, Zip1, Zip3, Zip7, and Zip10) and metallothionein (MT-1A, and MT-2A), and markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. No significant effects of zinc or FSO supplementation were observed on glycemic marker concentrations, HOMA-IR or fold change over 12 weeks in zinc transporter and metallothionein gene expression. In multivariate analysis, the change over 12 weeks in serum glucose concentrations (P=0.001) and HOMA-IR (P=0.001) predicted the fold change in Zip10. In secondary analysis, marginal statistical significance was observed with the change in both serum glucose concentrations (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.007) being predictive of the fold change in ZnT6. ZnT8 mRNA expression was variable; HbA1c levels were higher (P=0.006) in participants who exhibited ZnT8 expression compared to those who did not. The significant predictive relationships between Zip10, ZnT6, serum glucose and HOMA-IR are preliminary, as is the relationship between HbA1c and ZnT8; nevertheless the observations support an association between Type 2 DM and zinc homeostasis that requires further exploration. PMID:25156968

  7. Associations between antioxidant vitamins and the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liyuan; Zhu, Hong; Lin, Chengjun; Che, Jianhua; Tian, Xiujuan; Han, Shiyu; Zhao, Honghui; Zhu, Yumei; Mao, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cervical cancer remain inconsistent, and little evidence is available for serum antioxidant vitamins, which provide more accurate measurements of these nutrients. We conducted a case-control study of 458 incident cases with invasive cervical cancer and 742 controls to assess the effects of diet or serum antioxidant vitamins. Higher serum antioxidant vitamins were associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46–0.93; P = 0.024) for α-carotene, 0.63 (95% CI = 0.45–0.90; P = 0.006) for β-carotene, 0.53 (95% CI = 0.37–0.74; P < 0.001) for vitamin E, and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.33–0.69; P < 0.001) for vitamin C. Dietary intakes of vitamins E and C were inversely associated with the risk of cervical cancer. Risk of cervical cancer from serum antioxidant vitamins was more evident in passive smokers than non-passive smokers. These findings indicated that antioxidant vitamins (mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, and vitamins E and C) might be beneficial in reducing the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women, especially in passive smokers. PMID:26337940

  8. Site-specific mesenchymal control of inflammatory pain to yeast challenge in vulvodynia afflicted and pain-free women

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David C.; Falsetta, Megan L.; Woeller, Collynn F.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Song, Kunchang; Bonham, Adrienne; Haidaris, Constantine G.; Stodgell, Chris J.; Messing, Susan P.; Iadarola, Michael; Phipps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast strains were derived from two regions of the lower genital tract of localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) cases and pain-free controls. Sixteen strains were derived from four cases and four controls, age and race matched, following pre-sampling mechanical pain threshold assessments. Strains were challenged with six separate stimuli: live yeast species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and S. cerevisiae), yeast extract (zymosan), or inactive vehicle. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were pro-inflammatory response measures. Highest IL-6 and PGE2 occurred with vestibular strains following C. albicans, C. glabrata, and zymosan challenges, resulting in the ability to significantly predict IL-6 and PGE2 production by genital tract location. Following C. albicans and C. glabrata challenge of all sixteen fibroblast strains, adjusting for dual sampling of subjects, PGE2 and IL-6 production significantly predicted the pre-sampling pain threshold from the genital tract site of sampling. At the same location of pain assessment and fibroblast sampling, in situ immunohistochemical (IHC)(+) fibroblasts for IL-6 and Cox-2 were quantified microscopically. The correlation between IL-6 production and IL-6 IHC(+) was statistically significant yet biological significance is unknown because of the small number of IHC(+) IL-6 fibroblasts identified. A low fibroblast IL-6 IHC(+) count may result from most IL-6 produced by fibroblasts existing in a secreted, extracellular state. Enhanced, site-specific, innate immune responsiveness to yeast pathogens by fibroblasts may be an early step in LPV pathogenesis. Fibroblast strain testing may offer an attractive/objective marker of LPV pathology in women with vulvodynia of inflammatory origin. PMID:25679469

  9. Effects of phylloquinone supplementation on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Sousan; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an excess mortality from cardiovascular disease which is likely attributed to an atherogenic lipid profile. Among nutritional factors vitamin K has been recently focused as a pivotal nutrient in improvement of lipid related markers. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of vitamin K on lipid profile in this disease. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifty eight patients with definitive RA were participated in the present double blind placebo controlled study. They were randomly allocated into two groups to receive vitamin K1 as phylloquinone [10 mg/day] (n = 30) or placebo pills (n = 28), for eight weeks. In order to control the effects of probable confounders dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements including weight and height, clinical status using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28), physical activity and anxiety status were evaluated at baseline. Moreover, serum levels of lipid related markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any of the baseline characteristics. After adjusting for some relevant confounders, in comparison between two groups, we observed no significant changes in lipid related markers at the end of intervention. Also, there was no significant difference between before and after intervention values within groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Function of vitamin K1 in lipid profile modification remains still controversial. This study showed that vitamin K1 has no effect on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with a longer follow-up are required to determine the effects of vitamin K on atherogenic lipid profile. PMID:25861426

  10. Pregnant women living with HIV (WLH) supported at clinics by peer WLH: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Van Heerden, Alastair; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Harwood, Jessica M; Rochat, Tamsen; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Comulada, W Scott; Tang, Zihling

    2014-04-01

    Throughout Africa, Peer Mentors who are women living with HIV (WLH) are supporting pregnant WLH at antenatal and primary healthcare clinics (McColl in BMJ 344:e1590, 2012). We evaluate a program using this intervention strategy at 1.5 months post-birth. In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for their WLH to receive either: standard care (SC), based on national guidelines to prevent mother-to-child transmission (4 clinics; n = 656 WLH); or an enhanced intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH). The EI consisted of four antenatal and four postnatal small group sessions led by Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy and 70 % were reassessed at 1.5 months post-birth. EI's effect was ascertained on 16 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall effectiveness. Among EI WLH reassessed, 87 % attended at least one intervention session (mean 4.1, SD 2.0). Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. However, it is important to note that EI WLH were significantly less likely to adhere to ARV during pregnancy compared to SC. Secondarily, compared to SC, EI WLH were more likely to ask partners to test for HIV, better protected their infants from HIV transmission, and were less likely to have depressed mood and stunted infants. Adherence to clinic intervention groups was low, yet, there were benefits for maternal and infant health at 1.5 months post-birth. PMID:24469222

  11. The mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Greek-Cypriot women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet has long been suspected to impact on breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated whether the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern modifies breast cancer risk amongst Greek-Cypriot women. Methods Subjects included 935 cases and 817 controls, all participating in the MASTOS case-control study in Cyprus. The study was approved by the Cyprus National Bioethics Committee. Information on dietary intakes was collected using an interviewer administered 32-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Information on demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and other confounding factors was also collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern was assessed using two a-priory defined diet scores. In addition, dietary patterns specific to our population were derived using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the dietary patters and breast cancer risk. Results There was no association with breast cancer risk for either score, however, higher consumptions of vegetables, fish and olive oil, were independently associated with decreased risk. In addition, the PCA derived component which included vegetables, fruit, fish and legumes was shown to significantly reduce risk of breast cancer (ORs across quartiles of increasing levels of consumption: 0.89 95%CI: 0.65-1.22, 0.64 95%CI: 0.47-0.88, 0.67 95%CI: 0.49-0.92, P trend < 0.0001), even after adjustment for relevant confounders. Conclusions Our results suggest that adherence to a diet pattern rich in vegetables, fish, legumes and olive oil may favorably influence the risk of breast cancer. This study is the first investigation of dietary effects on breast cancer risk in Cyprus, a country whose population has traditionally adhered to the Mediterranean diet. PMID:22443862

  12. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 1% topical minoxidil solution in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Tanaka, Takao; Nishikawa, Tooru; Ueki, Rie; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takeda, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil is effective in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by stimulating hair follicles to undergo transition from early to late anagen phase. However, there have been no controlled studies of topical minoxidil in Asian women. The objective of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia in Japanese female patients using a double-blind controlled method. This trial included 280 Japanese female patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 1% topical minoxidil (n = 140) or placebo (n = 140) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change from baseline in non-vellus hair count/cm(2). The mean change was 8.15 in the 1% topical minoxidil group and 2.03 in the placebo group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001) [difference: 6.12 (two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.29-8.96)]. Secondary variables included investigators' assessments and patients' self-assessments. As assessed by investigators, 29.2% (40/137) of the patients had moderate or better improvement in the 1% topical minoxidil group compared to 11.8% (16/136) in the placebo group (p < 0.001 versus placebo). The effect on hair growth was assessed as improved or better by 36.5% (50/137) of the patients themselves in the 1% topical minoxidil group compared to 23.5% (32/136) in the placebo group (p = 0.019 versus placebo). The patients tolerated treatment with 1% topical minoxidil well without significant adverse effects. PMID:17324826

  13. Pregnant Women Living with HIV (WLH) Supported at Clinics by Peer WLH: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Van Heerden, Alastair; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Harwood, Jessica M.; Rochat, Tamsen; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Comulada, W. Scott; Tang, Zihling

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Peer Mentors who are women living with HIV (WLH) are supporting pregnant WLH at antenatal and primary healthcare clinics (McColl in BMJ 344:e1590, 2012). We evaluate a program using this intervention strategy at 1.5 months post-birth. In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for their WLH to receive either: standard care (SC), based on national guidelines to prevent mother-to-child transmission (4 clinics; n = 656 WLH); or an enhanced intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH). The EI consisted of four antenatal and four postnatal small group sessions led by Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy and 70 % were reassessed at 1.5 months post-birth. EI's effect was ascertained on 16 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall effectiveness. Among EI WLH reassessed, 87 % attended at least one intervention session (mean 4.1, SD 2.0). Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. However, it is important to note that EI WLH were significantly less likely to adhere to ARV during pregnancy compared to SC. Secondarily, compared to SC, EI WLH were more likely to ask partners to test for HIV, better protected their infants from HIV transmission, and were less likely to have depressed mood and stunted infants. Adherence to clinic intervention groups was low, yet, there were benefits for maternal and infant health at 1.5 months post-birth. PMID:24469222

  14. Effects of overnight sleep restriction on brain chemistry and mood in women with unipolar depression and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Denise; Bartha, Robert; Devarajan, Sivakumaran; MacMaster, Frank P.; Schmidt, Matthias H.; Rusak, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial or total overnight sleep deprivation produces immediate mood improvement in about 50% of patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Our objectives were to compare the neurochemical changes that accompanied partial overnight sleep deprivation in healthy and depressed participants, and to compare baseline neurochemical profiles and overnight neurochemical changes between those depressed participants who did and did not respond to sleep loss with mood improvement. Methods We studied 2 brain regions (left dorsal prefrontal area and pons) in 12 women with unipolar depression and in 15 healthy women using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquired at 1.5 T. The scans took place at baseline and 24 hours later after a night with sleep restricted to a maximum of 2.5 hours (22:30–01:00). We assessed 3 neurochemical signals (referenced to internal water): N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (Cho) and creatine-plus-phosphocreatine (tCr). Results In both groups combined, sleep restriction caused a 20.1% decrease in pontine tCr (F1–16 = 5.07, p = 0.039, Cohen’s d = 0.54) and an 11.3% increase in prefrontal Cho (F1–21 = 5.24, p = 0.033, Cohen’s d = 0.46). Follow-up tests revealed that prefrontal Cho increases were significant only among depressed participants (17.9% increase, t9 = −3.35, p = 0.008, Cohen’s d = 1.06). Five depressed patients showed at least 30% improvement in mood, whereas 6 showed no change or worsening in mood after sleep restriction. Baseline pontine Cho levels distinguished subsequent responders from nonresponders to sleep restriction among depressed participants (z = 2.61, p = 0.008). Limitations A limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. Conclusion Sleep restriction altered levels of pontine tCr and prefrontal Cho in both groups combined, suggesting effects on phospholipid and creatine metabolism. Baseline levels of pontine Cho were linked to subsequent mood responses to sleep loss

  15. The Story of Three Navajo Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Beth; Barry, Tom

    1978-01-01

    The place of Navajo women on the reservation (as breadwinners, caretakers, and leaders) has suffered from a century of Anglo control. Three Navajo women tell how Navajos can effect change through the strength of their women. (Author/AM)

  16. Malaria control under the Taliban regime: insecticide-treated net purchasing, coverage, and usage among men and women in eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scaling up insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) coverage is a key malaria control strategy even in conflict-affected countries [1,2]. Socio-economic factors influence access to ITNs whether subsidized or provided free to users. This study examines reported ITN purchasing, coverage, and usage in eastern Afghanistan and explores women's access to health information during the Taliban regime (1996-2001). This strengthens the knowledge base on household-level health choices in complex-emergency settings. Methods Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with men and women from ITN-owning and non-owning households. FGDs included rank ordering, pile sorting and focused discussion of malaria knowledge and ITN purchasing. Interviews explored general health issues, prevention and treatment practices, and women's malaria knowledge and concerns. Seven key informant interviews with health-related workers and a concurrent survey of 200 ITN-owning and 214 non-owning households were used to clarify or quantify findings. Results Malaria knowledge was similar among men and women and ITN owners and non-owners. Women reported obtaining health information through a variety of sources including clinic staff, their husbands who had easier access to information, and particularly female peers. Most participants considered ITNs very desirable, though not usually household necessities. ITN owners reported more household assets than non-owners. Male ITN owners and non-owners ranked rugs and ITNs as most desired, while women ranked personal assets such as jewellery highest. While men were primarily responsible for household decision-making and purchasing, older women exerted considerable influence. Widow-led and landless households reported most difficulties purchasing ITNs. Most participants wanted to buy ITNs only if they could cover all household members. When not possible, preferential usage was given to women and children

  17. Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Further