Science.gov

Sample records for age-matched controls children

  1. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  2. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  3. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  4. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  5. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  6. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  7. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  8. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  9. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  10. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  11. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  12. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  13. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  14. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  15. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  16. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  17. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  18. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  19. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  20. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  1. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  2. Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2016-05-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring processes (the ability to accurately represent one's own mental states) and control processes (the ability to control one's cognitive processes effectively). Both processes play vital roles in self-regulated learning. However, currently it is unclear whether these processes are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aimed to assess metacognition in thirty-two children with ASD, and 30 IQ-/age-matched neurotypical children, using a judgment of confidence task. It was found that children with ASD showed diminished accuracy in their judgments of confidence, indicating metacognitive monitoring impairments in ASD. Children with ASD also used monitoring to influence control processes significantly less than neurotypical children, despite little evidence of impairments in overall control ability. PMID:26985883

  3. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Children with Strabismus and in Children with Vergence Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lions, Cynthia; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of our study was to examine horizontal smooth pursuit performance in strabismic children and in children with vergence deficits, and to compare these data with those recorded in a group of control age-matched children. Methods Binocular eye movements were recorded by video-oculography in ten strabismic children (mean age: 9.8±0.8) and seven children with vergence deficits (mean age: 10.8±0.6). Data were compared to that of age-matched control children (mean age: 9.8±0.8 years). Results Catch-up saccades amplitude in strabismic children and in children with vergence deficits were significantly higher than in control age-matched children. Moreover, in strabismic children the amplitude of catch-up saccades was significantly higher in rightward than in leftward direction. The number of catch-up saccades was also significantly higher in rightward than in leftward direction. The gain value of pursuits in rightward direction was significantly higher in the right eye than in the left one; for the right eye, the gain value was significantly higher in rightward than in leftward direction. Binocular coordination of pursuit was better in control age-matched children than in children with vergence deficits and than in strabismic children. Conclusions Binocular coordination of pursuit is abnormal in children with vergence deficits and worse in strabismic children. Binocular vision plays an important role in improving binocular coordination of pursuit. PMID:24376777

  4. Learning of grasp control in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Duff, Susan V; Gordon, Andrew M

    2003-11-01

    This study examined whether children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) have anticipatory control of fingertip forces during lifts of familiar objects, and what type of practice (blocked or random) best enhances the retention of anticipatory control during lifts of novel objects. Eighteen children with hemiplegic CP (7 females, 11 males; 7 to 14 years of age, mean age 10 years, SD 1.8) and 18 age-matched typically developing children (8 males, 10 females; mean age 10.4 years, SD 1.7) participated in the study. In the first experiment the children lifted familiar objects of various weights and sizes five times each, while the vertical lifting (load) force was measured. Most participants demonstrated higher rates of load force increase for heavier (and larger) objects already during the first lift, indicating anticipatory control. Furthermore, the load force rates generally were similar across the five lifts for each object, suggesting that they had stable representations of the objects' properties. In the second experiment children lifted three novel objects varying in weight (but identical in volume) 27 times each, in either a blocked or a random order, followed by nine immediate and nine delayed (24 hours) retention trials. Blocked practice resulted in greater differentiation of the force rates between objects during acquisition than did random practice. Both practice schedules resulted in similar retention. These findings suggest that children with hemiplegic CP have a priori internal representations used for anticipatory force scaling with familiar objects. Furthermore, the results indicate that these children can form and retain internal representations of novel objects for anticipatory control, irrespective of the type of practice schedule employed. Thus, clinically based practice sessions that incorporate lifts with novel objects may enhance anticipatory force scaling and related prehensile function in children with hemiplegic CP. PMID:14580130

  5. Food Variety as a Predictor of Nutritional Status among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Michelle H.; Hart, Laura C.; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Murray, Donna S.; Bing, Nicole M.; Summer, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of selective eating and nutritional deficiency was studied among 22 children with autism and an age matched typically developing control group. Children with autism ate fewer foods on average than typically developing children. (33.5 vs. 54.5 foods, P less than 0.001) As compared to typical controls, children with autism had a higher…

  6. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Method Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9–12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. Results The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Conclusions Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types. PMID:26262428

  7. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  8. Speech-Associated Labiomandibular Movement in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Kinematic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Yang, Fan-pei Gloria; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wong, Alice May-kuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the speech-associated labiomandibular movement during articulation production in Mandarin-speaking children with spastic quadriplegic (SQ) cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with SQ CP (aged 7-11 years) and 12 age-matched healthy children as controls were enrolled for the study. All children underwent…

  9. Physiological sleep disturbance in children with atopic dermatitis: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Stores, G; Burrows, A; Crawford, C

    1998-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that sleep disturbance commonly complicates atopic dermatitis (AD), but the nature of this disturbance, including its physiologic aspects, has been little studied, especially in children. The results of home polysomnography (PSG) were compared for 20 school-age children with AD and sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The findings provided objective confirmation of disruption of sleep by both brief and longer awakenings associated with scratching episodes. Sleep efficiency was reduced but other sleep variables were not significantly affected. Home sleep studies offer advantages for further investigation of the factors involved in the link between AD and sleep disturbance, and the assessment of the contribution made by this disturbance to the daytime psychological problems of children with AD. PMID:9720687

  10. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system. PMID:26924975

  11. Sensitivity of Four Subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention For Children (TEA-Ch) to Stimulant Medication in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Paul A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined on four subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) when on and off stimulant medication. Performance was assessed relative to 18 individually age-matched controls. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse on TEA-Ch measures when off compared…

  12. Recognition of Identity and Expression in Faces by Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jennifer G.; Pitcairn, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of 16 children (ages 8-14) with Down syndrome, 16 age-matched children with nonspecific developmental delay, and 23 younger controls to recognize facial identity and expression was examined. Children with Down syndrome were equally proficient at recognizing unfamiliar faces when expression was varied but significantly poorer at…

  13. The Perception of Lexical Tone Contrasts in Cantonese Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ciocca, Valter; Yung, Sun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the perception of fundamental frequency (f0) patterns by Cantonese children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants were 14 five-year-old children with SLI, and 14 age-matched (AM) and 13 four-year-old vocabulary-matched (VM) controls. The children identified a word from familiar word…

  14. Evidence of a Faster Posterior Dominant EEG Rhythm in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Michael D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with autism. In the course of clinical work, we have observed a posterior dominant EEG rhythm at higher frequency in children with autism. To test this observation, 56 EEG tracings of children with autism were compared to the EEGs of age-matched controls. Children with autism…

  15. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  16. Relation of Melatonin to Sleep Architecture in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Roberta M.; Beyderman, Liya; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Surdyka, Kyla; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often suffer from sleep disturbances, and compared to age-matched controls, have decreased melatonin levels, as indicated by urine levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SM). We therefore investigated the relationship between 6-SM levels and sleep architecture in children with autism spectrum…

  17. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  18. Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

  19. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  20. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  1. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  2. The Impact of Dual Tasking on Sentence Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve; Prigent, Gaid; Maillart, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the hypothesis of a limitation in attentional allocation capacity as underlying poor sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age-matched controls, and 15 grammar-matched controls participated in the study. Sixty sentences were…

  3. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  4. Phonology Matters: A Comprehensive Investigation of Reading and Spelling Skills of School-Age Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.; Ritter, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The investigators measured 7 literacy skills in a group of 21 school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), and compared the scores to those of 2 age-matched groups: children with dyslexia (DYS group) and, as a control, typically developing hearing children (CA group). The MSNH group performed consistently…

  5. "Plyo Play": A Novel Program of Short Bouts of Moderate and High Intensity Exercise Improves Physical Fitness in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Farrell, Anne C.; Radler, Tracy; Zbojovsky, Dan; Chu, Donald A.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kang, Jie; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a school-based plyometric training program (i.e., Plyo Play) on children's fitness performance. Forty children (8 to 11 yrs) participated in the program and 34 age-matched children served as controls. Performance of the long jump, sit and reach flexibility, abdominal curl, push-up, shuttle…

  6. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  7. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  8. Deductive Reasoning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Elizabeth J.; Roberts, Maxwell J.; Donlan, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) requires non-verbal ability to be in the normal range, but little is known regarding the extent to which general reasoning skills are preserved during development. A total of 122 children were tested; 40 SLI, 42 age-matched controls, and 40 younger language-matched controls. Deductive reasoning…

  9. Perception of Stop Onset Spectra in Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra…

  10. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children.…

  11. Deficient Orthographic and Phonological Representations in Children with Dyslexia Revealed by Brain Activation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Bitan, Tali; Chou, Tai-Li; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The current study examined the neuro-cognitive network of visual word rhyming judgment in 14 children with dyslexia and 14 age-matched control children (8- to 14-year-olds) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: In order to manipulate the difficulty of mapping orthography to phonology, we used conflicting and…

  12. Noise on, Voicing off: Speech Perception Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Lorenzi, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Speech perception of four phonetic categories (voicing, place, manner, and nasality) was investigated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19) in quiet and various noise conditions using an AXB two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Children with SLI exhibited robust speech perception deficits in…

  13. Metabolic Imbalance Associated with Methylation Dysregulation and Oxidative Damage in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George J.; Schulz, Eldon; Lopez, Maya; Kahler, Stephen G.; Fussell, Jill J.; Bellando, Jayne; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Rose, Shannon; Seidel, Lisa; Gaylor, David W.; James, S. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and abnormal DNA methylation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autism. We investigated the dynamics of an integrated metabolic pathway essential for cellular antioxidant and methylation capacity in 68 children with autism, 54 age-matched control children and 40 unaffected siblings. The metabolic profile of unaffected…

  14. N450 as a candidate neural marker for interference control deficits in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Yao, Ru; Wang, Zuowei; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-07-01

    A deficit in the ability to suppress irrelevant or interfering stimuli may account for a variety of dysfunctional behaviors in children with learning disabilities (LD). However, neural correlates underlying this deficit in interference control in the LD are still unknown. In this study, we recruited a group of children with LD (age: 10.78 ± 0.52) along with an age-matched control group (age: 10.74 ± 0.86) and asked them to perform a numerical Stroop task. During the task, we used electroencephalogram (EEG) to record their event-related potentials (ERPs). We further evaluated performance of these children on a battery of tests, including the Academic Adaptability Test (AAT), an adapted Chinese version of Pupil Rating Scale (PRS), and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Children's scores on recent math and Chinese exams were also obtained. Results showed that: 1) children with LD had worse performance in the incongruent condition of the numerical Stroop task suggesting that children with LD had interference control deficits but not basic numerical cognition; 2) children with LD had larger N450 effects on the frontal and posterior sites, but did not show any difference in early ERP components, suggesting that the behavioral difference was related with interference control rather than early visual perception processing; and 3) N450 effects were correlated with accuracy in the numerical Stroop task, performance in Raven's SPM, as well as school math performance. These results suggest that N450 can serve as a potential electrophysiology marker for identifying and potentially, providing targeted intervention for children with LD. PMID:24858538

  15. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  16. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  17. The Effect of a Stroop-like Task on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pia Bucci, Maria; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a secondary task on concurrent postural control was explored in twenty-one dyslexic children (mean age: 10.4±0.3 years). Data were compared with twenty age-matched non-dyslexic children. As a secondary task, a modified Stroop test was used, in which words were replaced with pictures of fruits. The postural control of children was recorded in standard Romberg condition as the children were asked to name the colour of fruits appearing consecutively on a computer screen. Two conditions were tested: a congruent condition, in which the fruit was drawn in its natural ripe colour, and a non-congruent colour condition (NC), in which the fruit was drawn in three abnormal colours. A fixating condition was used as baseline. We analyzed the surface, length and mean speed of the center of pressure and measured the number of correct responses in the Stroop-like tasks. Dyslexic children were seen to be significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic ones. For both groups of children, the secondary task significantly increased postural instability in comparison with the fixating condition. The number of correct responses in the modified Stroop task was significantly higher in the non-dyslexic than in the dyslexic group. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children is in line with the cerebellar hypothesis and supports the idea of a deficit in automatic performance in such children. Furthermore, in accordance with cross domain competition model, our findings show that attentional resources are used to a greater extent by the secondary task than in controlling body stability. PMID:24205028

  18. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  19. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  20. Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

  1. Are Kibbutz Children Different from City Children in Locus of Control, Anxiety, and Persistence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    1993-01-01

    Examined personality traits of kibbutz children (n=130) and compared them to those of city children (n=142). Children completed Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Locus of Control for Children, and Persistence Scale for Children. Found differences between kibbutz and city children in locus of control, anxiety, and persistence, and also…

  2. Novel Word Acquisition in Children with Down Syndrome: Does Modality Make a Difference?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Gaskell, Annette; Babineau, Michelle Dallaire; MacDonald, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Novel word learning in three conditions (signed only, spoken only, signed and spoken combined) was compared for young children (N=10) with Down syndrome and mental-age matched controls. No group differences in frequency of imitations or productions were obtained. The frequency of imitations was highest in the combined condition. In the combined…

  3. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  4. Working Memory as a Predictor of Reading Achievement in Orally Educated Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Meredyth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study found that three measures of working memory capacity (processing and storage capacity, reading and listening span, and visual shape span) were good predictors of reading achievement in 30 orally educated children (ages 5 to 14) with hearing impairments as well as in an age-matched hearing control group. Degree of hearing loss did not…

  5. The Perception of Social and Mechanical Causality in Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Elizabeth; Schlottmann, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated perceptual causality in launch and reaction events in children with ASD (CA = 8.4, VMA = 5.1) and mental age matched controls with typical development and learning difficulties. This is of interest because difficulties with global processing in autism suggest that individuals with ASD may not "see" causal Gestalts in…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Joint Attention and Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Peter; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared to age-matched and language-matched controls, 15 autistic children (mean age of 45 months) who were administered the Early Social-Communication Scales displayed deficits in gestural joint attention skills in 2 testing sessions 13 months apart. The measure of gestural nonverbal joint attention predicted language development in subjects.…

  7. Sensory Responsiveness as a Predictor of Social Severity in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Harper, Jacquelyn D.; Kueker, Rachel Holmes; Lang, Andrea Runzi; Abbacchi, Anna M.; Todorov, Alexandre; LaVesser, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sensory responsiveness and social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD; N = 36) and age-matched controls (N = 26) between 6 and 10 years old. Significant relationships were found between social responsiveness scale scores and each of the six sensory profile sensory…

  8. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  9. Do Young Children Modulate Their Cognitive Control?

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Solène; Lemaire, Patrick; Blaye, Agnès

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic, trial-by-trial modulations of inhibitory control are well documented in adults but rarely investigated in children. Here, we examined whether 5-to-7 year-old children, an age range when inhibitory control is still partially immature, achieve such modulations. Fifty three children took flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks. Above and beyond classic congruency effects, the present results showed two crucial findings. First, we found evidence for sequential modulations of congruency effects in these young children in the three conflict tasks. Second, our results showed both task specificities and task commonalities. These findings in young children have important implications as they suggest that, to be modulated, inhibitory control does not require full maturation and that the precise pattern of trial-by-trial modulations may depend on the nature of conflict. PMID:27221602

  10. Interference control in children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shinmin; Gathercole, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether the greater Stroop interference reported in children with reading difficulties compared to typical readers of the same age represents a generalized deficit in interference control or a consequence of their reading problems. In Study 1, a color-word Stroop task and a nonverbal task involving responses to locations associated with pictures were administered to 23 children with single word reading difficulties and 22 typically developing children matched for age and nonverbal ability. Children with reading difficulties showed disproportionate interference effects in the color-word Stroop but not the nonverbal task. In Study 2, groups of poor and typical readers completed a spatial Stroop task with printed input that did not require a verbal response and a nonverbal analogue. Both groups showed comparable interference in these two tasks. Thus, the reported problems in the color-word Stroop task in children with reading difficulties do not appear to entail general impairments in interference control. PMID:24852235

  11. Teaching Self-Control to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a curriculum designed to teach self-control skills to children. Presents ideas for impulse control, following school routines, managing group situations, managing stress, and solving social problems. Gives a detailed process for teaching a self-control skill and emphasizes the importance of practical experience. (RJM)

  12. Brief Report: Dysregulated Immune System in Children with Autism: Beneficial Effects of Intravenous Immune Globulin on Autistic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sudhir; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children (ages 3-12) with autism (n=25) were given intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) treatments at 4-week intervals for at least 6 months. Marked abnormality of immune parameters was observed in subjects, compared to age-matched controls. IVIG treatment resulted in improved eye contact, speech, behavior, echolalia, and other autistic features.…

  13. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  14. Socioeconomic Factors and Asthma Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Shannon F.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma control in children, as defined by the Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional data from a completed study of 879 asthmatic children between the ages of 1 and 18 residing in the Greater Toronto Area were used. The database included data on demographics, health status, asthma control, and health-related quality of life. Stepwise forward modeling multiple regression was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on asthma control, based on six control parameters from the 2003 Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Results Only 11% of patients met the requirements for acceptable control, while 20% had intermediate control, and 69% had unacceptable asthma control. Children from families in lower income adequacy levels had poorer control. Conclusions Disparities in asthma control between children from families of different socio-economic strata persist, even with adjustment for utilization of primary care services and use of controller medications. PMID:18615669

  15. [Kinematics of Stair Ascent in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    PubMed

    Malyar, N L; Maximova, E V; Talis, V L

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed kinematics of stair ascent and descent in autistic children and adolescents in comparison with age-matched healthy children and adolescents. Eight healthy adolescents, 6 autistic adolescents, 7 healthy children and 6 autistic children participated in the study. We found that autistic subjects of both groups showed significantly more fluctuations of hip joint angular velocity than age-matched control subjects while preparing for stair ascent. During preparation for stair descent these velocity fluctuations appeared mainly in autistic adolescents, moreover, autistic children exhibited less velocity fluctuations than children in control group while preparing for stair descent. The kinematics of the movement itself demonstrated significantly less hip abduction in both autistic children and adolescents than in age-matched controls during stair ascent, and less ankle joint plantar extension in autistic adolescents than in healthy adolescents during stair descent. We suppose that age-related changes in kinematics of leg motion during stair ascent and descent in autistic patients indicate aggravated motor coordination in autistic adolescents as compared with both healthy adolescents and autistic children. PMID:27263276

  16. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  17. Prevalence of neurological soft signs and their neuropsychological correlates in typically developing Chinese children and Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M; Yang, Binrang; Lin, Li; Shum, David; Manschreck, Theo C

    2010-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of soft signs in 214 typically developing Chinese children and investigated whether soft signs are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this population. Chinese children with ADHD (N = 54) scored significantly higher than age-matched controls on all three soft signs subscales and motor coordination correlated significantly with Stroop interference. Logistic regression supported the utility of the soft sign scales in discriminating children with ADHD and controls. Children with ADHD had a significant excess of soft signs, which may be a useful marker of developmental disruption in this clinical condition. PMID:21038161

  18. Asthma Controller Medications for Children in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Shota; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Sato, Akira; Iwasaku, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment and management strategies for asthma in children are generally consistent internationally, but prescription of antiasthma drugs differs among countries. The objective of this study was to examine the prescribing patterns of antiasthma drugs, particularly controller medications, in children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed in children with asthma using an administrative claims database in Japan. Results. A total of 1149 preschool-age and 3226 school-age children were identified. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were prescribed for about 80% of the children. Long-acting β-agonists were prescribed for 87.6% and 59.6% of preschool-age and school-age children, respectively, whereas prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids had lower rates of 8.2% and 16.5%, respectively. In an examination of prescriptions at 1-month intervals, a relatively high number of children were prescribed bronchodilators without anti-inflammatory agents. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that asthma care for children in Japan can be improved through changes in drug prescriptions. PMID:27335952

  19. The Nature of the Phonological Processing in French Dyslexic Children: Evidence for the Phonological Syllable and Linguistic Features' Role in Silent Reading and Speech Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that…

  20. Early Indications of Delayed Cognitive Development in Preschool Children Born Very Preterm: Evidence from Domain-General and Domain-Specific Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola; Johnson, Samantha; Scerif, Gaia; Marlow, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment often follows preterm birth but its early underlying nature is not well understood. We used a novel approach by investigating the development of colour cognition in 54 very preterm children born less than or equal to 30 weeks gestational age without severe neurosensory impairment and 37 age-matched term-born controls, aged 2-5…

  1. Sequence-specific procedural learning deficits in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy VM

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children’s performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger typically developing children matched for receptive grammar (n = 28). In a serial reaction time task, the children with SLI performed at the same level as the grammar-matched children, but poorer than age-matched controls in learning motor sequences. When tested with a motor procedural learning task that did not involve learning sequential relationships between discrete elements (i.e. pursuit rotor), the children with SLI performed comparably with age-matched children and better than younger grammar-matched controls. In addition, poor implicit learning of word sequences in a verbal memory task (the Hebb effect) was found in the children with SLI. Together, these findings suggest that SLI might be characterized by deficits in learning sequence-specific information, rather than generally weak procedural learning. PMID:24410990

  2. Children's Participation and Teacher Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilson, Anette; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have tried to come close to, and at the same time problematize, what participation in educational practice might be. The overall aim is to study how a toddler's participation can be understood in two kinds of educational activities, where the degree of teacher control differs. The data in this study are video observations of…

  3. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clémence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  4. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P < 0.05) or when performing a functional reach test (P < 0.001). This is the first study showing significantly enhanced balance performance after ice skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training. PMID:24739083

  5. Environmental Strategies for Portion Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  6. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  7. Executive function and language in deaf children.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Berta; Edwards, Lindsey; Langdon, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between language and executive function (EF) and their development in children have been the focus of recent debate and are of theoretical and clinical importance. Exploration of these functions in children with a peripheral hearing loss has the potential to be informative from both perspectives. This study compared the EF and language skills of 8- to 12-year-old children with cochlear implants (n = 22) and nonimplanted deaf children (n = 25) with those of age-matched hearing controls (n = 22). Implanted and nonimplanted deaf children performed below the level of hearing children on tests assessing oral receptive language, as well as on a number of EF tests, but no significant differences emerged between the implanted and nonimplanted deaf groups. Language ability was significantly positively associated with EF in both hearing and deaf children. Possible interpretations of these findings are suggested and the theoretical and clinical implications considered. PMID:18252699

  8. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7-17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  9. Tobacco Control and Children: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hipple, Bethany J.; Muramoto, Myra; Klein, Jonathan D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use currently claims >5 million deaths per year worldwide and this number is projected to increase dramatically by 2030. The burden of death and disease is shifting to low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco control initiatives face numerous challenges including not being a high priority in many countries, government dependence upon immediate revenue from tobacco sales and production, and opposition of the tobacco industry. Tobacco leads to environmental harms, exploitation of workers in tobacco farming, and increased poverty. Children are especially vulnerable. Not only do they initiate tobacco use themselves, but also they are victimized by exposure to highly toxic secondhand smoke. Awareness of tobacco adverse health effects is often superficial even among health professionals. The tobacco industry continues to aggressively promote its products and recognizes that children are its future. The tools and knowledge exist, however, to dramatically reduce the global burden of tobacco. In 2003 the World Health Organization adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Aggressive tobacco control initiatives have been undertaken not only in high-income countries but also in less-wealthy countries such as Uruguay and Thailand. Stakeholders must come together in coordinated efforts and there must be a broad and sustained investment in global tobacco control. PMID:22375275

  10. Cognitive load affects postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Lopez, Luisa; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-05-01

    Inferring relations between cognitive processes and postural control is a relatively topical challenge in developmental neurology. This study investigated the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in a sample of 50 nine-year-old children. Each subject completed two balance trials of 60 s, one with a concurrent cognitive task (cognitive load) and another with no cognitive load. The concurrent cognitive task consisted of mentally counting backwards in steps of 2. Twelve posturographic parameters (PPs) were extracted from the centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory obtained through a load cell force plate. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the majority of the extracted PPs. CoP was found to travel faster, farther, and with substantially different features demonstrating an overall broadening of the spectrum in the frequency domain. Nonlinear stability factors revealed significant differences when exposed to a concurrent cognitive task, showing an increase of instability in the intervention rate of the postural control system. By grouping children through selected items from Teachers Ratings and PANESS assessment, specific significant differences were also found both in time and frequency domain PPs, thus confirming the hypothesis of an interaction between cognitive processes (and their development), and postural control. PMID:17136524

  11. The reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Morena; Castiello, Umberto; Marks, Deborah; Marraffa, Catherine; Prior, Margot

    2003-01-01

    Autism is associated with a wide and complex array of neurobehavioural symptoms. Examination of the motor system offers a particularly appealing method for studying autism by providing information about this syndrome that is relatively immune to experimental influence. In this article, we considered the relationship between possible movement disturbance and symptoms of autism and introduced an experimental model that may be useful for rehabilitation and diagnostic purposes: the reach-to-grasp movement. Research is reviewed that characterizes kinematically the reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism compared with age-matched 'controls'. Unlike the age-matched children, autistic children showed differences in movement planning and execution, supporting the view that movement disturbances may play a part in the phenomenon of autism. PMID:12639336

  12. Mothers' Cognitions about Children's Self-Control: Implications for Mothers' Responses to Children's Helplessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Elizabeth A.; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the role of mothers' cognitions about children's self-control in their responses to children's helplessness. Mothers and their four-year-old children (N = 109) were asked to work on a difficult task in the laboratory. Mothers' hostility and warmth as well as children's helpless (vs. mastery) behavior were coded every minute.…

  13. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  14. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  15. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  16. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Molly J; Walline, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or ointment. Several studies have shown that lower concentrations of atropine slow the progression of myopia control with fewer side

  17. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  18. Behavioral Self-Control Strategies for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…

  19. Self-Control and Impulsivity in Children: Multiple Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, L. B.; Michels, Jennifer L.; Carapella, R. K.; Conway, Patrick; Chelonis, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the relationship between laboratory measures of self-control and delay of gratification in children and explored several other factors that may influence self-control. In the self-control paradigm, 30 four-year-old children repeatedly chose between three reinforcers received after a delay and one reinforcer…

  20. Self-Control in Children: Development of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Wilcox, Lance E.

    1979-01-01

    Referred children were rated as significantly less self-controlled on the self control rating scale (SCRS) than were matched nonreferred children. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures test latencies and behavioral observations. The SCRS appeared to be a reliable and valid index of self-control. (Author)

  1. The Effect of Social Observation on Children's Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social observation on young children's performance during an inhibitory control task. In Experiment 1, children were randomly assigned to either a neutral, facilitation, or interference condition. In the neutral condition, children were presented with a standard black/white task. In the facilitation and…

  2. Goal Directed Locomotion and Balance Control in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernazza-Martin, S.; Martin, N.; Vernazza, A.; Lepellec-Muller, A.; Rufo, M.; Massion, J.; Assaiante, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed: (1) Are gait parameters modified in autistic children? (2) Is equilibrium control affected in autistic children? (3) Is locomotion adjusted to the experimenter-imposed goal? Six healthy…

  3. The Relations of Parenting, Effortful Control, and Ego Control to Children's Emotional Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Zhou, Qing; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Murphy, Bridget, C.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Cumberland, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    Examined longitudinal relations of observed parental warmth and positive expressivity and children's effortful control and ego control with children's high versus low emotional expressivity. Found that moderate child expressivity related to high effortful control. Children's ego overcontrol mediated relations between parental warmth/positive…

  4. The Overjustification Effect in Retarded Children: Durability and Generalizability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Lee; Prior, Margot

    1982-01-01

    Generalizability and durability of the overjustification effect (on decline in intrinsic motivation due to the lack of rewards in behavior modification programs) were examined in 35 normal preschool children and 17 mental age-matched retarded children. (Author/SW)

  5. The effect of social observation on children's inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the effects of social observation on young children's performance during an inhibitory control task. In Experiment 1, children were randomly assigned to either a neutral, facilitation, or interference condition. In the neutral condition, children were presented with a standard black/white task. In the facilitation and interference conditions, children were asked to observe the task performance of another person, who gave either correct (facilitation) or incorrect (interference) responses, and then complete the task themselves. The results revealed that the performance of children in the interference condition was worse than in the other two conditions, but the difference between the two other conditions was not significant. The results of Experiment 2 show that social observation did not facilitate inhibitory control in children. These results suggest that social observation interferes with but does not facilitate inhibitory control in children. Therefore, social observation may interfere with certain aspects of executive function. PMID:22781163

  6. Children's Responses to Daily Social Stressors: Relations with Parenting, Children's Effortful Control, and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined children's coping and involuntary stress responses as mediators of the relations between parenting or children's effortful control (EC) and adjustment. Method: Two hundred and forty primarily Mexican American 7- to 12-year-old children reported on their EC, coping, involuntary stress responses, and problem behaviors.…

  7. Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

  8. Children's Locus of Control and Intrinsically Motivated Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Patricia

    A study investigated the relationship between locus of control and intrinsically motivated reading for children. The entire sixth grade, totalling 53 students, of a parochial school in San Francisco was administered the Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale. A free-choice paperback reading rack provided the measure for…

  9. Emerging Conceptions of Children's Responses to Parental Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczynski, Leon

    This paper reviews the behavior modification and internalization models of parental control of children, and explores the conceptualizations of children's responses to control that are emerging from the literature on development. In the behavior modification model, no distinction is made among types of child compliance or noncompliance.…

  10. Associations between Parental Control and Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…

  11. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  12. Effect of verb argument structure on picture naming in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI)

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods & Procedures Twenty-four children with SLI (ages 5;3–8;2 [years;months]), 24 age-matched controls (ages 5;3–8;2), 24 MLU-w controls (ages 3;3–7;1 years), and 31 adults participated in a picture-naming study. Outcomes & Results The results show all groups produced more correct responses and were faster for nouns than all verbs together. As regards verb type accuracy, there were no differences between groups in naming one-argument verbs. However, for both two- and three-argument verbs, children with SLI were less accurate than adults and age-matched controls, but similar to the MLU-matched controls. For verb type latency, children with SLI were slower than both the age-matched controls and adults for one- and two-argument verbs, while no differences were found in three-argument verbs. No differences were found between children with SLI and MLU-matched controls for any verb type. Conclusions & Implications It has been shown that the naming of verbs is delayed in Spanish children with SLI. It is suggested that children with SLI may have problems encoding semantic representations. PMID:23121524

  13. Attentional Control in Early and Later Bilingual Children.

    PubMed

    Kapa, Leah L; Colombo, John

    2013-07-01

    This study examined differences in attentional control among school-age children who were monolingual English speakers, early childhood Spanish-English bilinguals who began speaking both languages by age 3, and later childhood Spanish-English bilingual children who began speaking English after age 3. Children's attentional control was tested using the Attention Network Test (ANT). All language groups performed equally on ANT networks; however, when controlling for age and verbal ability, groups differed significantly on reaction time. Early bilingual children responded faster on the ANT compared to both monolingual and later bilingual children, suggesting an attentional monitoring advantage for early bilinguals. These results add to mounting evidence of advantaged cognitive functioning among bilinguals, and are consistent with the possibility that children who begin speaking a second language earlier in childhood have larger advantages due either to differential effects of acquiring a second language earlier during development or due to longer duration of bilingual experience. PMID:24910499

  14. Attentional Control in Early and Later Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Kapa, Leah L.; Colombo, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in attentional control among school-age children who were monolingual English speakers, early childhood Spanish-English bilinguals who began speaking both languages by age 3, and later childhood Spanish-English bilingual children who began speaking English after age 3. Children's attentional control was tested using the Attention Network Test (ANT). All language groups performed equally on ANT networks; however, when controlling for age and verbal ability, groups differed significantly on reaction time. Early bilingual children responded faster on the ANT compared to both monolingual and later bilingual children, suggesting an attentional monitoring advantage for early bilinguals. These results add to mounting evidence of advantaged cognitive functioning among bilinguals, and are consistent with the possibility that children who begin speaking a second language earlier in childhood have larger advantages due either to differential effects of acquiring a second language earlier during development or due to longer duration of bilingual experience. PMID:24910499

  15. Patterns of Brain Activation in Foster Children and Nonmaltreated Children During an Inhibitory Control Task

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Graham, Alice M.; Moore, William E.; Peake, Shannon J.; Mannering, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than the foster children across several regions including the right anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior occipital cortex including the lingual gyrus and cuneus during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540

  16. Patterns of brain activation in foster children and nonmaltreated children during an inhibitory control task.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A; Graham, Alice M; Moore, William E; Peake, Shannon J; Mannering, Anne M

    2013-11-01

    Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than did the foster children across several regions, including the right anterior cingulate cortex, the middle frontal gyrus, and the right lingual gyrus, during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior occipital cortex, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus, during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540

  17. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  18. Does strategy knowledge influence working memory in children with mathematical disabilities?

    PubMed

    Keeler, M L; Swanson, H L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Experiment 1 examined the relationship between strategy knowledge, verbal WM, and visual-spatial WM in children with MD as a function of initial, gain, and maintenance conditions. The results showed that after partialing the influence of reading, stable strategy choices rather than specific strategy knowledge was related to verbal and visual-spatial WM span in high demand (maintenance) conditions. Experiment 2 compared children with MD to a group of chronological age-matched children and a group of math ability-matched children on the same conditions as Experiment 1. Age-matched children's verbal and visual-spatial WM performance was superior to that of children with MD, whereas WM performance was statistically comparable between children with MD and younger children matched on math ability. The selection of expert strategies was related to high WM span scores in the initial conditions. After controlling for reading achievement in a regression analysis, verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed independent variance to math achievement. Overall, these results suggest that WM and math achievement are related to strategy knowledge. PMID:15503591

  19. Modified expression of peripheral blood lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptors in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Emanuela; Tabbì, Luca; Scozzi, Davide; Mariotta, Salvatore; Galli, Elena; Carello, Rossella; Avitabile, Simona; Tayebati, Seyed Koshrow; Amenta, Francesco; De Vitis, Claudia; Mancini, Rita; Ricci, Alberto

    2015-07-15

    Lymphocytes possess an independent cholinergic system. We assessed the expression of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in lymphocytes from 49 asthmatic children and 10 age matched controls using Western blot. We demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressed M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors which density were significantly increased in asthmatic children in comparison with controls. M2 and M4 receptor increase was strictly related with IgE and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements and with impairment in objective measurements of airway obstruction. Increased lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression may concur with lung cholinergic dysfunction and with inflammatory molecular framework in asthma. PMID:26025056

  20. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  1. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  2. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Controllability of Cognitive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children's and adults' judgments related to the controllability of cognitive activities, including object recognition, inferential reasoning, counting, and pretending. In Experiment 1, fifth-grade children and adults rated transitive inference and interpretation of ambiguous pictures as more…

  3. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  4. Kindergarten Adjustment Difficulty: The Contribution of Children's Effortful Control and Parental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This paper examines the extent to which children's effortful control and early family experiences predict difficulty in kindergarten adjustment. One hundred and eighty-two children from 31 kindergarten classrooms in rural elementary schools in the Southeast participated. Teachers reported on children's difficulty with…

  5. Categorical perception of speech by children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Coady, Jeffry A; Kluender, Keith R; Evans, Julia L

    2005-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that children with specific language impairments (SLI) have deficits in basic speech perception abilities, and this may be an underlying source of their linguistic deficits. These findings have come from studies in which perception of synthetic versions of meaningless syllables was typically examined in tasks with high memory demands. In this study, 20 children with SLI (mean age = 9 years, 3 months) and 20 age-matched peers participated in a categorical perception task. Children identified and discriminated digitally edited versions of naturally spoken real words in tasks designed to minimize memory requirements. Both groups exhibited all hallmarks of categorical perception: a sharp labeling function, discontinuous discrimination performance, and discrimination predicted from identification. There were no group differences for identification data, but children with SLI showed lower peak discrimination values. Children with SLI still discriminated phonemically contrastive pairs at levels significantly better than chance, with discrimination of same-label pairs at chance. These data suggest that children with SLI perceive natural speech tokens comparably to age-matched controls when listening to words under conditions that minimize memory load. Further, poor performance on speech perception tasks may not be due to a speech perception deficit, but rather to a consequence of task demands. PMID:16378484

  6. Gesture–speech integration in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W.; Hostetter, Autumn B.; Evans, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that speakers are especially likely to produce manual communicative gestures when they have relative ease in thinking about the spatial elements of what they are describing, paired with relative difficulty organizing those elements into appropriate spoken language. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit poor expressive language abilities together with within-normal-range nonverbal IQs. Aims This study investigated whether weak spoken language abilities in children with SLI influence their reliance on gestures to express information. We hypothesized that these children would rely on communicative gestures to express information more often than their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers, and that they would sometimes express information in gestures that they do not express in the accompanying speech. Methods & Procedures Participants were 15 children with SLI (aged 5;6–10;0) and 18 age-matched TD controls. Children viewed a wordless cartoon and retold the story to a listener unfamiliar with the story. Children's gestures were identified and coded for meaning using a previously established system. Speech–gesture combinations were coded as redundant if the information conveyed in speech and gesture was the same, and non-redundant if the information conveyed in speech was different from the information conveyed in gesture. Outcomes & Results Children with SLI produced more gestures than children in the TD group; however, the likelihood that speech–gesture combinations were non-redundant did not differ significantly across the SLI and TD groups. In both groups, younger children were significantly more likely to produce non-redundant speech–gesture combinations than older children. Conclusions & Implications The gesture–speech integration system functions similarly in children with SLI and TD, but children with SLI rely more on gesture to help formulate, conceptualize or express the messages they

  7. Factor Structure of Locus of Control in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    The present study attempted to identify the factor structure of the Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale by factor-analysis of the responses of 388 junior high, 389 high school and 449 elementary school students. (MS)

  8. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  9. Inhibitory Control and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…

  10. Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children.

    PubMed

    Noordstar, Johannes J; Stuive, Ilse; Herweijer, Hester; Holty, Lian; Oudenampsen, Chantal; Schoemaker, Marina M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n = 31) and a group of control children (n = 38), aged 7-12 years. All children were categorized in four groups: (1) children with DCD/low PAC, (2) children with DCD/normal to high PAC, (3) control children/low PAC, and (4) control children/normal to high PAC. PAC was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and PA was assessed with the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Children with DCD participated less in unorganized PA, but not in organized PA, compared with control children. Normal to high PAC was found in more than half of the children (64.5%) with DCD. Children with DCD/low PAC and children with DCD/normal to high PAC participated significantly less in unorganized physical activity compared with control children/normal to high PAC, but not compared with control children/low PAC. The results indicate that there are large individual differences in PAC in children with DCD. PMID:25244693

  11. Saccade-target selection of dyslexic children when reading Chinese.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the eye movements of dyslexic children and their age-matched controls when reading Chinese. Dyslexic children exhibited more and longer fixations than age-matched control children, and an increase of word length resulted in a greater increase in the number of fixations and gaze durations for the dyslexic than for the control readers. The report focuses on the finding that there was a significant difference between the two groups in the fixation landing position as a function of word length in single-fixation cases, while there was no such difference in the initial fixation of multi-fixation cases. We also found that both groups had longer incoming saccade amplitudes while the launch sites were closer to the word in single fixation cases than in multi-fixation cases. Our results suggest that dyslexic children's inefficient lexical processing, in combination with the absence of orthographic word boundaries in Chinese, leads them to select saccade targets at the beginning of words conservatively. These findings provide further evidence for parafoveal word segmentation during reading of Chinese sentences. PMID:24508073

  12. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. PMID:21700421

  13. Remote Control and Children's Understanding of Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somanader, Mark C.; Saylor, Megan M.; Levin, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Children use goal-directed motion to classify agents as living things from early in infancy. In the current study, we asked whether preschoolers are flexible in their application of this criterion by introducing them to robots that engaged in goal-directed motion. In one case the robot appeared to move fully autonomously, and in the other case it…

  14. Low Serum Alpha-Antitrypsin Associated with Anti-PR-3 ANCA in Autistic Children with GI Disease

    PubMed Central

    Russo, AJ; Krigsman, A; Jepson, B; Wakefield, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess the possible relationship between serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) levels and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in autistic children with severe GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between low serum AAT levels, the presence of ANCA and inflammatory GI disease seen in some autistic children. Subjects and Methods Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (many with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH) and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach), and 41 controls (21 age matched autistic children with no GI disease and 20 age matched children without autism or GI disease) were tested using ELISAs designed to quantitate ANCA (anti-PR3), AAT and PR3 levels. Results We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had anti-PR3 ANCA, high serum PR3 and high severity of disease when compared to controls. This same group of autistic children had low serum levels of AAT compared to controls, which also correlated with the presence of anti-PR3 ANCA, high serum PR3, as well as the severity of intestinal disease, particularly LNH and severe erythema. Discussion These results suggest a relationship between low AAT levels, ANCA and severity of GI disease seen in a subpopulation of ASD individuals. We suggest that low AAT levels may result in high levels of PR3, which may, in turn be associated with the presence of ANCA. PMID:26244018

  15. Inhibitory Control and Working Memory in Post-Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory control and working memory were examined in post-institutionalized (PI) children adopted into United States families from Russian institutions. The PI sample originated from institutions that were less severely depriving than those represented in previous studies and approximated the level of psychosocial deprivation, which is characterized by adequate physical resources but a lack of consistent and responsive caregiving. PI children (N=75; 29 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.97; SD=3.03) and were grouped according to whether they were adopted after 14 months or before 9 months. A non-adopted comparison group (N=133; 65 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.26; SD=2.75). PI children adopted after 14 months of age displayed poorer performance on the stop-signal and spatial span tasks relative to PI children adopted before 9 months of age after controlling for age at assessment. The two PI groups did not differ in their performance on a spatial self-ordered search task. Older-adopted PI children also showed poorer spatial span task performance compared to non-adopted children, but younger-adopted PI children did not. Task performance was significantly associated with parent-rated hyperactive-impulsive behavior in everyday contexts. These findings suggest that exposure to prolonged early institutional deprivation may be linked with inhibitory control and working memory difficulties years after adoption. PMID:23519375

  16. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  17. Eyewitness Memory and Suggestibility in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared how well 31 children (ages 11-12) with mental retardation, 19 age-matched (CA) children, and 21 mental-age (MA) matched children were able to recall a staged event one day later. Children with mental retardation were more suggestible in response to closed misleading questions than were CA children. (Contains references.)…

  18. Increasing Children's Self-Control through Cognitive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on cognitive interventions which affect children's self-control. Five types of effective manipulations are discussed: self-verbalization; external verbalization; affect manipulation; cognitive transformation; and manipulation of attention. Self-control behaviors include modification of impulsive behaviors; delay of…

  19. A longitudinal investigation of oral narrative skills in children with mixed reading disability.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T; Moran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study investigated oral narrative ability in 14 children with mixed reading disability and their age-matched peers with typical development. The children were aged between 6;4 and 7;8 at the commencement of the study and assessments were administered individually to the children on three occasions over a 2-year period. Oral narratives were elicited in a personal narrative context (i.e., the child was encouraged to relate personal experiences in response to photo prompts) and a story retelling context. Oral narrative comprehension was assessed in a fictional story context through questions relating to story structure elements. Results indicated that the children with mixed reading disability demonstrated inferior oral narrative production and oral narrative comprehension performance compared to children with typical reading development at each assessment occasion. To further explore these children's difficulties in oral narrative ability, their performance was compared to a reading comprehension-age match control group at the third assessment trial. The results suggested the children with mixed reading disability had a specific deficit in oral narrative comprehension. PMID:20840047

  20. Spelling Errors in French-speaking Children with Dyslexia: Phonology May Not Provide the Best Evidence.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Daniel; Costerg, Agnès; Plisson, Anne; Ruberto, Noémia; Varin, Joëlle

    2016-05-01

    For children with dyslexia, learning to write constitutes a great challenge. There has been consensus that the explanation for these learners' delay is related to a phonological deficit. Results from studies designed to describe dyslexic children's spelling errors are not always as clear concerning the role of phonological processes as those found in reading studies. In irregular languages like French, spelling abilities involve other processes than phonological processes. The main goal of this study was to describe the relative contribution of these other processes in dyslexic children's spelling ability. In total, 32 francophone dyslexic children with a mean age of 11.4 years were compared with 24 reading-age matched controls (RA) and 24 chronological-age matched controls (CA). All had to write a text that was analysed at the graphemic level. All errors were classified as either phonological, morphological, visual-orthographic or lexical. Results indicated that dyslexic children's spelling ability lagged behind not only that of the CA group but also of the RA group. Because the majority of errors, in all groups, could not be explained by inefficiency of phonological processing, the importance of visual knowledge/processes will be discussed as a complementary explanation of dyslexic children's delay in writing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146375

  1. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aneliza Maria Monteiro; de França Barros, Jônatas; de Sousa Neto, Brígido Martins

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO); open base, eyes closed (OBEC); closed base, eyes open (CBEO); closed base, eyes closed (CBEC). The body sway velocity (V) of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap) and mediolateral (COPml) of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%. Results In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology showed 58% of cases and congenital rubella in 16%. The discovery of deafness occurred in 70% of children before the age of 3 years. Conclusion In this study, children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing children. This finding confirms the need to investigate postural control through longitudinal studies to identify the area of

  2. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  3. Emotions and their cognitive control in children with cerebellar tumors.

    PubMed

    Hopyan, Talar; Laughlin, Suzanne; Dennis, Maureen

    2010-11-01

    A constellation of deficits, termed the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS), has been reported following acquired cerebellar lesions. We studied emotion identification and the cognitive control of emotion in children treated for acquired tumors of the cerebellum. Participants were 37 children (7-16 years) treated for cerebellar tumors (19 benign astrocytomas (AST), 18 malignant medulloblastomas (MB), and 37 matched controls (CON). The Emotion Identification Task investigated recognition of happy and sad emotions in music. In two cognitive control tasks, we investigated whether children could identify emotion in situations in which the emotion in the music and the emotion in the lyrics was either congruent or incongruent. Children with cerebellar tumors identified emotion as accurately and quickly as controls (p > .05), although there was a significant interaction of emotions and group (p < .01), with the MB group performing less accurately identifying sad emotions, and both cerebellar tumor groups were impaired in the cognitive control of emotions (p < .01). The fact that childhood acquired cerebellar tumors disrupt cognitive control of emotion rather than emotion identification provides some support for a model of the CCAS as a disorder, not so much of emotion as of the regulation of emotion by cognition. PMID:20887648

  4. Circulating lipids and glycaemic control in insulin dependent diabetic children.

    PubMed Central

    Azad, K; Parkin, J M; Court, S; Laker, M F; Alberti, K G

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and its relation to glycaemic control was studied in a group of 51 diabetic children and a control population of 132 schoolchildren. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the fasting state was increased in the diabetic group (39%) compared with control subjects (17%). Serum cholesterol concentration alone was raised in 25% of diabetic subjects while serum cholesterol and triglycerides were raised in 14%, compared with 16% and 0.7% respectively in control subjects. Serum total cholesterol (5.1 v 4.5 mmol/l), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.2 v 2.6 mmol/l), non-esterified fatty acids (0.91 v 0.50 mmol/l), and triglycerides (0.94 v 0.76 mmol/l) were higher in diabetic children. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein (apo)B concentrations increased with worsening control, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations were unaltered. There were also positive correlations between glycated haemoglobin and total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apoB in diabetic children. Thus, abnormalities in circulating lipids are common in young subjects with IDDM but largely disappear if blood glucose concentrations are reasonably controlled. PMID:7944528

  5. [Relationship between perinatal pathology and refractogenesis, incidence and type of ocular diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Parameĭ, O V; Sidorenko, E I

    1999-01-01

    Three-year-old children with a history of perinatal diseases differed from healthy age-matched children by a higher incidence of ocular diseases (78.9% vs. 21.6% in the control, p < 0.001). These children often presented with severe visual disorders: partial atrophy and hypoplasia of ocular nerves (7.2%), congenital abnormalities in the eyeball membranes (5.2%), retinopathy neonatorum (5.2%), cortical blindness (3.1%), oculomotor disorders (20.8%), and congenital deformations of the eyelids (19.7%). Disorders of refractogenesis in these children presented as a higher incidence of myopia (19.8% vs. 3.8% in the control, p < 0.001) and a shift of the percentage of refraction abnormalities towards myopia. Therefore, all children with a history of perinatal disease should be referred to a group at a high risk of ocular disease. PMID:10665287

  6. Early-onset hearing loss reorganizes the visual and auditory network in children without cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Yang, Li-Zhuang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shu-Li; Wang, Ying; Gu, Feng; Yang, Zhiyu; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-02-10

    The present study investigates the effect of early-onset hearing loss on the reorganization of visual and auditory networks in children without cochlear implants. Eleven congenitally deaf children and 12 age-matched hearing children were included in the study. Bilateral transverse temporal cortices and bilateral lateral occipital cortices were defined as auditory and visual seeds, respectively (as verified using an independent component analysis). The four seed-based connectivity maps were computed for each participant. As a result, group analysis showed that the primary auditory cortex was less connected with the motor cortex, whereas the visual cortex showed strengthened connectivity with motor and speech cortices in congenitally deaf children compared with the controls. Moreover, we found that the differences in functional connectivity between deaf and control children were not because of morphometric changes. Our results provide neural evidence for the sensorimotor coupling model of speech development. PMID:26730516

  7. Chinese Children's Effortful Control and Dispositional Anger/Frustration: Relations to Parenting Styles and Children's Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…

  8. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  9. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Reuterskiöld, Christina; Grigos, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs) and nonwords (NWs). A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills. PMID:26557688

  10. Phonological profile of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment at age 4: are there any changes over time?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Serra-Raventós, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children with SLI continue to show a delay in the acquisition of segments, syllabic structures and in the use of the simplification processes, but not in word structures, compared with their age-matched controls. Children with SLI also display significant differences compared with their language level controls, but not in the same areas as observed at age 3: the differences are now in nasals and liquids at the segmental level, and in CCV, CVC and other complex structures at the syllabic level. There are also some simplification processes that seem to be more prevalent in these children than in their language level controls: absence of trill, cluster reductions and consonant deletions. The results enable us to interpret SLI as more than a delayed development and to show the differences in the profiles over time. PMID:17108698

  11. Cognitive Control Predicts Academic Achievement in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…

  12. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  13. Metacognition and Control of Study Choice in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2013-01-01

    Middle childhood may be crucial for the development of metacognitive monitoring and study control processes. The first three experiments, using different materials, showed that Grade 3 and Grade 5 children exhibited excellent metacognitive resolution when asked to make delayed judgments of learning (JOLs, using an analogue scale) or binary…

  14. Control of Lead Poisoning in Children. (Pre-Publication Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Community Environmental Management.

    This document presents information about aspects of the lead pollution problem that relate to children, suggests a community action program for controlling lead hazards, estimates the staff and other costs involved in developing such a program, and tells how to synthesize the program components for maximum effectiveness. The seven parts of the…

  15. Young Children Using Assistive Robotics for Discovery and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Albert M.; Cavalier, Albert R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of robotics with children with severe disabilities. Spotlights a toddler with developmental delays and quadriplegic athetoid cerebral palsy who is able to use a robotic arm and computer control systems to reach and manipulate objects. Provides guidelines for selecting and using assistive robotics. (CR)

  16. Postural Control in Children, Teenagers and Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was…

  17. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  18. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Gentle Control When Predicting Children's Subsequent Academic Functioning: Evidence of Mediation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…

  19. Chinese children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control, anger/frustration, externalizing problems, and socially appropriate behaviors: and peers rated aggression and leadership/sociability. High effortful control and low dispositional anger/frustration uniquely predicted Chinese children's high social functioning, and the relation of anger/frustration to social functioning was moderated by effortful control. Authoritarian parenting was associated with children's low effortful control and high dispositional anger/frustration, which (especially effortful control) mediated the negative relation between authoritarian parenting and children's social functioning. Effortful control weakly mediated the positive relation of authoritative parenting to social functioning. PMID:15122962

  20. Deficient cognitive control fuels children's exuberant false allegations.

    PubMed

    Poole, Debra Ann; Dickinson, Jason J; Brubacher, Sonja P; Liberty, Allison E; Kaake, Amanda M

    2014-02-01

    In eyewitness studies as in actual investigations, a minority of children generate numerous false (and sometimes incredulous) allegations. To explore the characteristics of these children, we reinterviewed and administered a battery of tasks to 61 children (ages 4-9 years) who had previously participated in an eyewitness study where a man broke a "germ rule" twice when he tried to touch them. Performance on utilization, response conflict (Luria tapping), and theory of mind tasks predicted the number of false reports of touching (with age and time since the event controlled) and correctly classified 90.16% of the children as typical witnesses or exuberant (more than 3) false reporters. Results of a factor analysis pointed to a common process underlying performance on these tasks that accounted for 49% of the variability in false reports. Relations between task performance and testimony confirmed that the mechanisms underlying occasional intrusions are different from those that drive persistent confabulation and that deficient cognitive control fuels young children's exuberant false reports. PMID:24157217

  1. Teasing, depression and unhealthy weight control behaviour in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Madowitz, J.; Knatz, S.; Maginot, T.; Crow, S. J.; Boutelle, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Data were taken from 80 obese children (mean age = 10.03 years; mean body mass index = 27.37; %white = 29.37%; %female = 58.8%). Self-report surveys were used to collect data on rates of depressive symptoms, unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCBs), teasing, sources of teasing and how much the teasing bothered the child. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate relationships between weight-related teasing and UWCBs and depression in obese children. Teasing by peers and/or family, negative feelings due to teasing, frequency of teasing, and number of teasing sources reported and associations with UWCBs and depression were analysed. Methods Logistical and linear regressions were used to evaluate relationships between the teasing variables, depression and UWCBs, controlling for age and gender. Results Results indicated that children teased by other children have significantly higher levels of depression (B = 6.1 [SE = 2.3]) and are five times more likely to engage in UWCBs (OR = 5.1 [CI = 1.5–17.4]). Children who endorsed that teasing by peers bothered them had significantly higher levels of depression (B = 2.3 [SE = 0.8]). The frequency of weight-related teasing was significantly associated with depression (B = 2.5 [SE = 0.8]), as was the number of teasing sources (B = 4.6 [SE = 1.5]). No significant relationships were found between familial teasing and depression or UWCBs. Conclusions Weight-related teasing, especially by other children, was associated with negative psychosocial measures in these obese children. Interventions are needed to reduce teasing, and longitudinal studies are recommended to understand the impact of teasing over time. PMID:22991215

  2. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  3. Prediction of Children's Empathy-Related Responding from Their Effortful Control and Parents' Expressivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the linear and interactive relations of children's effortful control and parents' emotional expressivity to children's empathy-related responses were examined. Participants were 214 children, 4.5 to 8 years old. Children's effortful control was negatively related to their personal distress and was positively related to their…

  4. Plasma Oxytocin in Children with Autism and Its Correlations with Behavioral Parameters in Children and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Husarova, Veronika Marcincakova; Lakatosova, Silvia; Pivovarciova, Anna; Babinska, Katarina; Bakos, Jan; Durdiakova, Jaroslava; Kubranska, Aneta; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated to play an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) etiology. We aimed to find out the differences in plasma OT levels between children with autism and healthy children, the associations of OT levels with particular autism symptoms and the associations of particular parental autistic traits with their ASD children OT levels. Methods We included 19 boys with autism and 44 healthy age-matched boys. OT levels were analyzed by ELISA method. Children with autism were scored by Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), adjusted research version. Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Systemizing Quotient (SQ) and Empathizing Quotient were completed by parents of children with autism. Results Children with autism had significantly lower plasma OT levels than controls. OT levels positively correlated with ADI Reciprocal Interaction and Communication scores. AQ and SQ of fathers positively correlated with children plasma OT level. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis of OT deficiency in autism. The "paradoxical" associations of OT levels and social skills in children with autism indicate disturbances at various levels of OT system. We first reported associations of OT levels in children with autism and behavioral measures in fathers indicating that OT abnormalities stay between parental autistic traits and autism symptoms in their children. PMID:27081377

  5. [How can asthma in children be controlled?].

    PubMed

    Rousso, Sharon; Shoseyov, David; Kerem, Eitan

    2013-05-01

    Asthma is a disease manifested by recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing or cough that often require treatment at the emergency department or even hospitalization. These exacerbations are caused by an increased inflammatory process in the airways. This review focuses on the various daily long term control medications used to prevent exacerbations. The pharmacotherapy used to manage asthma is based mainly on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In more severe cases, other drugs can be added, such as long-acting beta 2 agonists lare used only in conjunction with ICS] as well as additional drugs such as slow release theophylline, anti-lgE monoclonal antibodies, and more. The step-up step-down approach is used to decide on the controller medication needed. If the preventive therapy fails, it is essential to assess the adherence to therapy, the technique used, the existence of aggravating factors and the possibility that the cause of the symptoms is not asthma. For proper disclosure the third author (E.K.) has received payment in the past for lectures from Asthma drug companies. PMID:23885456

  6. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8–14 years) with high-functioning autism and 8 age-matched typically developing controls. Despite subtle differences in the facial actions of the children with autism, children in both groups had similar facial and autonomic emotional responses to the odors. However, children with autism were less likely than controls to report an emotional reaction to the odors that matched their facial expression, suggesting difficulties in the self report of emotional states. PMID:22918860

  7. Lexical access in children with hearing loss or specific language impairment, using the cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-02-01

    In this study we compared lexical access to spoken words in 25 deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs), 13 hard-of-hearing (HoH) children and 20 children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-one age-matched typically developing children served as controls. The children with CIs and the HoH children in the present study had good speech perception abilities. We used a cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm to examine lexical access. Results showed that children with SLI revealed overall slower reaction times and produced more errors than the children with CIs, the HoH children, and the control children. Reaction times of children with CIs and the HoH children did not differ from those of the control children. Thus, problems with spoken language processing, as is the case in children with SLI, seem to affect lexical access more than limitations in auditory perception, as is the fundamental problem in children with hearing loss. We recommend that improvement of lexical access in children with SLI deserves specific attention in therapy and education. PMID:25460222

  8. Home-Based Peer Social Networks of Young Children With Down Syndrome: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Connor, Robert T.; Johnson, L. Clark

    2010-01-01

    Numerous dimensions of the peer social networks of children with Down syndrome were examined within a developmental framework. Results revealed that for many key measures, particularly involvement in play, linkages to other settings, and control of play, children with Down syndrome have less well-developed peer networks even in comparison to a mental age matched group of typically developing children. This suggests both an absence of any social advantage in the peer context for children with Down syndrome and the existence of unusual difficulties that may be traced to underlying problems in peer-related social competence. The need for future observational studies of peer interactions for this group of children was emphasized. PMID:19928016

  9. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  10. Children with Dyslexia Are Slow Writers Because They Pause More Often and Not Because They Are Slow at Handwriting Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that children with dyslexia are slower at handwriting than other children. However, evidence of slow handwriting in children with dyslexia is very mixed. Thirty-one children with dyslexia, aged 9 years, were compared to both age-matched children and younger spelling-ability matched children. Participants completed an…

  11. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  12. Inhibitory Control after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sinopoli, Katia J.; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory control describes a number of distinct processes. Effortless inhibition refers to acts of control that are automatic and reflexive. Effortful inhibition refers to voluntary, goal-directed acts of control such as response flexibility, interference control, cancellation inhibition, and restraint inhibition. Disruptions to a number of inhibitory control processes occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This paper reviews the current knowledge of inhibition deficits following childhood TBI, and includes an overview of the inhibition construct and a discussion of the specific deficits shown by children and adolescents with TBI and the factors that mediate the expression of these deficits, including injury-related variables and the expression of pre- and post-injury attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The review illustrates that inhibitory control processes differ in terms of measurement, assessment, and neurological underpinnings, and also that childhood TBI may selectively disrupt particular forms of inhibition. PMID:22100363

  13. Effects of emotional videos on postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Arthur de Freitas; Palluel, Estelle; Olivier, Isabelle; Nougier, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The link between emotions and postural control has been rather unexplored in children. The objective of the present study was to establish whether the projection of pleasant and unpleasant videos with similar arousal would lead to specific postural responses such as postural freezing, aversive or appetitive behaviours as a function of age. We hypothesized that postural sway would similarly increase with the viewing of high arousal videos in children and adults, whatever the emotional context. 40 children participated in the study and were divided into two groups of age: group 7-9 years (n=23; mean age=8 years ± 0.7) and group 10-12 years (n=17; mean age=11 years ± 0.7). 19 adults (mean age=25.8 years ± 4.4) also took part in the experiment. They viewed emotional videos while standing still on a force platform. Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements were analysed. Antero-posterior, medio-lateral mean speed and sway path length increased similarly with the viewing of high arousal movies in the younger, older children, and adults. Our findings suggest that the development of postural control is not influenced by the maturation of the emotional processing. PMID:26979902

  14. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  15. Cognitive Impairments of Children with Severe Arithmetic Difficulties: Cognitive Deficit or Developmental Lag?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Derek H.

    2008-01-01

    An age-matched/achievement-matched design was utilized to examine the cognitive functioning of children with severe arithmetic difficulties. A battery of cognitive tasks was administered to three groups of elementary aged children: 20 children with severe arithmetic difficulties (SAD), 20 children matched in age (CAM) to the children with SAD, and…

  16. A Comparison of Urinary Mercury between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Control Children

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Pearce, Helen; Allgar, Victoria; Miles, Jeremy; Whitton, Clare; Leon, Irene; Jardine, Jenny; McCaffrey, Nicola; Smith, Rob; Holbrook, Ian; Lewis, John; Goodall, David; Alderson-Day, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. Methods Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to their siblings (n = 42) and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121) and special schools (n = 34). Results There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. Conclusions This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors. PMID:22355303

  17. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English–Speaking Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine 3 forms (am, is, are) of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)–speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through samples and a probe. Results Across tasks, visual inspection suggested that the children with SLI overtly marked BE at lower rates than the controls, and all groups marked am at higher rates than is and are, with few dialect-inappropriate errors. Within the samples, the children also overtly marked is at higher rates when preceded by it/that/what than when it was preceded by a personal pronoun. A subset of these results was confirmed statistically. The children’s marking of BE also varied across tasks; for the age-matched controls, this variation was tied to their AAE dialect densities. Conclusions These findings show across-dialect similarities and differences between children’s acquisition of AAE and mainstream American English. Similarities involve the rate of the children’s BE marking as a function of their clinical status and the nature of their dialect-inappropriate errors. Differences involve the children’s rates of BE marking as a function of the form, context, and task. PMID:20643790

  18. Metalinguistic Ability in Bilingual Children: The Role of Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Although bilingual children tend to obtain lower scores than their monolingual peers on tests of formal language ability, they exhibit a processing advantage on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks. This advantage may be attributable to EC practice that bilinguals routinely receive from the constant need to manage attention to two jointly activated languages. Metalinguistic tasks, unlike linguistic tasks, require children to access both their language knowledge (i.e., representations) and recruit EC ability; that is, metalinguistic tasks require children to use attentional processes to operate on linguistic forms. In this article, we review our recent studies examining linguistic and metalinguistic abilities in tasks that differed in the extent to which solutions were based on linguistic knowledge (representations) or control processes, allowing us to examine the relative contribution of each to bilingual language processing. Results indicate that bilinguals’ superior EC ability allows them to compensate for weaker linguistic knowledge in metalinguistic tasks where greater recruitment of control processes is required. PMID:24782696

  19. Oral health comparison between children with neutropenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Park, Michael S; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Dror, Yigal; Gloguaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare the oral health of children with neutropenia, who are under the active care of a hematologist in a designated marrow failure and myelodysplasia program, to a healthy control group. Children aged 6-18 with neutropenia attending the Marrow Failure and Myelodysplasia Program at SickKids Hospital and controls attending the Children's Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto were asked to participate in the study consisting of a patient questionnaire followed by a dental and radiographic examination. Fifteen patients with neutropenia (mean age 12.14 ± 4.04 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age 11.61 ± 3.82 years) participated in this study. Patients with neutropenia reported significantly increased mouth sores (p < .008) and bleeding gums while brushing (p < .001). The dmft/t score was significantly lower for the neutropenia group (p < .009). The clinical examination also showed that there were no statistically significant differences with respect to ulcerations, gingival recession, tooth mobility, gingival inflammation, periodontal bone loss, DMFT/T scores, plaque, and calculus levels. Preliminary data demonstrates that pediatric patients who are under the active care of a hematologist do not present with an increased risk of oral diseases. PMID:24382366

  20. Ameliorating children's reading-comprehension difficulties: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paula J; Snowling, Margaret J; Truelove, Emma; Hulme, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Children with specific reading-comprehension difficulties can read accurately, but they have poor comprehension. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy of three interventions designed to improve such children's reading comprehension: text-comprehension (TC) training, oral-language (OL) training, and TC and OL training combined (COM). Children were assessed preintervention, midintervention, postintervention, and at an 11-month follow-up. All intervention groups made significant improvements in reading comprehension relative to an untreated control group. Although these gains were maintained at follow-up in the TC and COM groups, the OL group made greater gains than the other groups did between the end of the intervention and follow-up. The OL and COM groups also demonstrated significant improvements in expressive vocabulary compared with the control group, and this was a mediator of the improved reading comprehension of the OL and COM groups. We conclude that specific reading-comprehension difficulties reflect (at least partly) underlying oral-language weaknesses that can be effectively ameliorated by suitable teaching. PMID:20585051

  1. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  2. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  3. The Effect of Placement Instability on Adopted Children's Inhibitory Control Abilities and Oppositional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Erin E.; Dozier, Mary; Ackerman, John; Sepulveda-Kozakowski, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relations among placement instability, inhibitory control, and caregiver-rated child behavior. The sample included 33 adopted children who had experienced placement instability, 42 adopted children who had experienced 1 stable placement, and 27 children never placed in foster care. Five- and 6-year-old children completed the…

  4. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  5. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  6. Different Visual Preference Patterns in Response to Simple and Complex Dynamic Social Stimuli in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lijuan; Zhou, Yuanyue; Ou, Jianjun; Gong, Jingbo; Wang, Suhong; Cui, Xilong; Lyu, Hailong; Zhao, Jingping; Luo, Xuerong

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking studies in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown a visual attention preference for geometric patterns when viewing paired dynamic social images (DSIs) and dynamic geometric images (DGIs). In the present study, eye-tracking of two different paired presentations of DSIs and DGIs was monitored in a group of 13 children aged 4 to 6 years with ASD and 20 chronologically age-matched typically developing children (TDC). The results indicated that compared with the control group, children with ASD attended significantly less to DSIs showing two or more children playing than to similar DSIs showing a single child. Visual attention preference in 4- to 6-year-old children with ASDs, therefore, appears to be modulated by the type of visual stimuli. PMID:25781170

  7. Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. PMID:25868552

  8. Maternal and child locus of control and field-dependence in cleft palate children.

    PubMed

    Brantley, H T; Clifford, E

    1979-04-01

    The cleft palate experience includes events which are beyond the control of cleft palate children and their mothers. To investigate whether the experiences relate to other maternal and child variables, 44 cleft palate children, 9--18 years of age, and their mothers were compared to 61 control children and their mothers. Maternal variables included locus of control and perceived reactions to the child's birth. Child variables included locus of control, field dependence, parental perceptions, and teacher ratings. Mothers of children with cleft palates indicated a significantly greater negative impact at their children's births but did not indicate greater externality. Children with clefts were significantly more external in control, were more field-dependent, perceived parental reactions as more negative, and had more negative academic ratings. Mothers who were more external in locus of control had children who were more field-dependent and had more external control. PMID:284868

  9. Visual Influences on Speech Perception in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarocci, Grace; Rombough, Adrienne; Yager, Jodi; Weeks, Daniel J.; Chua, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The bimodal perception of speech sounds was examined in children with autism as compared to mental age--matched typically developing (TD) children. A computer task was employed wherein only the mouth region of the face was displayed and children reported what they heard or saw when presented with consonant-vowel sounds in unimodal auditory…

  10. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  11. Repair Behaviors of Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scudder, Rosalind R.; Tremain, Deborah Hobbs

    1992-01-01

    Communication repair behaviors of 10 children with mental retardation (ages 11-13) and 10 mental age-matched children without mental retardation were examined. The children with mental retardation did not respond as often and rarely used details to expand their utterances. Results have implications for the development of conversational skills in…

  12. Phonotactic Patterns in the Speech of Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupela, V.; Manjula, R.

    2007-01-01

    Phonotactic patterns of seven 11-15-year-old Kannada speaking children with Down syndrome (DS), mental age matched children with mental retardation (MR) without DS and six 4-5-year-old typically developing (TD) children were investigated. Conversational speech analyses and target analyses of conversational speech were carried out in all three…

  13. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  14. Use of Acoustic Cues by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Escudero, Paola; Baker, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the use of different acoustic cues in auditory perception of consonant and vowel contrasts by profoundly deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to age-matched children and young adults with normal hearing. Method: A speech sound categorization task in an XAB format was administered to 15 children ages…

  15. Relations of Young Children's Agreeableness and Resiliency to Effortful Control and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland-Li, Amanda; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's agreeableness would be at least partly indirect through their resiliency was tested. Eighty-two children (M age = 58.67 mos.) were participants. Children nominated peers on agreeableness and completed a behavioral measure of effortful control. Teachers and a…

  16. Adult Children of Workaholics: Self-Concept, Anxiety, Depression, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.; Kelley, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Adult children of workaholics were compared with adult children of nonworkaholics on self-concept, anxiety, depression, and external locus of control. Results indicate greater depression and external locus of control among the offspring of workaholics. Children of workaholic fathers also experienced higher anxiety. Self-concept was not related to…

  17. Sensory Organization of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare functional balance performance and sensory organization of postural control between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (2) determine the association between postural control and participation diversity among children with DCD. We recruited 81 children with DCD and 67 typically…

  18. Children with a Learning Disorder Show Prospective Control Impairments during Visuomanual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roon, Dominique; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a learning disorder (LD) are able to use prospective motor control, 30 children with LD (mean age 8 years and 11 months) and an age- and gender-matched control group were asked to smoothly track an accelerating dot presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizer. Children with LD performed worse…

  19. Motor Control in Children and Adults during a Non-Speech Oral Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; Robin, Donald A.; McCullagh, Gail; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy and stability of oral motor control in 20 adults and 20 children. Although the children were less accurate and less stable, adults and children exhibited similar variability in their generalized motor program. Results are discussed within the framework of a schema model of motor control, especially the strategic…

  20. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  1. Lexical access in children with hearing loss or language impairments, using the cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Brigitte E.; Langereis, Margreet C.; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Knoors, Harry E.T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    In this study we compared the lexical access skills of 25 deaf children with cochlear implants, 13 hard-of-hearing children and 20 children with specific language impairments (SLI). Twenty-one age-matched typically developing children served as controls. The two groups of children with hearing loss in the present study had good speech perception abilities. We used a cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm to examine the lexical access skills. Results showed that children with SLI revealed overall slower reaction times and produced more errors than the implanted children, the hard-of-hearing children, and the control children. Both groups of children with hearing loss did not reveal slower reaction times than the control children. Semantic and phonological representations in long-term memory were affected more by inadequacies in linguistic processing than by a deficit in auditory perception, suggesting that a measure of lexical access could be a suitable clinical marker for SLI identification. We recommend to differentiate between the clinical groups of children regarding the focus of their language training. PMID:25460222

  2. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: a case control study using speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Joon; Moon, Kyung Pil; Yoon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong Koo; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack Ki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), a fatal disease, requires multiple transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, and finally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as the definitive treatment. We hypothesized that iron overloading associated with multiple transfusions and HSCTrelated complications may adversely affect cardiac function. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed in children after HSCT for SAA. Methods Forty-six consecutive patients with a median age of 9.8 years (range, 1.5-18 years), who received HSCT for SAA and who underwent comprehensive echocardiography before and after HSCT, were included in this study. The data of LV functional parameters obtained using conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) were collected from pre- and post-HSCT echocardiography. These data were compared to those of 40 age-matched normal controls. Results In patients, the LV ejection fraction, shortening fraction, end-diastolic dimension, mitral early diastolic E velocity, TDI mitral septal E' velocity, and STE LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (SSR) decreased significantly after HSCT. Compared to normal controls, patients had significantly lower post-HSCT early diastolic E velocity and E/A ratio. On STE, patients had significantly decreased LV deformational parameters including LV longitudinal systolic strain (SS), SSR, and diastolic SR (DSR), and circumferential SS and DSR. Serum ferritin levels showed weak but significant correlations (P<0.05) with LV longitudinal SS and SSR and circumferential SS and DSR. Conclusion Subclinical LV dysfunction is evident in patients after HSCT for SAA, and was associated with increased iron load. Serial monitoring of cardiac function is mandatory in this population. PMID:27186230

  3. Clinical Trial of Erythropoietin in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kye Hee; Min, Kyunghoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, SunHee; An, SeongSoo A; Kim, MinYoung

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in young children with cerebral palsy aged between 6 months and 3 years. All participants received subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin and 8 weeks of rehabilitation therapy. Adverse events, changes of vital signs, and hematologic tests were monitored up to 8 weeks postinjection. Functional measures of development at 4 and 8 weeks postinjection were compared with baseline values, and improvements were compared with those of an age-matched historical control group. Nine participants completed the trial from June 2012 to February 2015. No adverse events were related to recombinant human erythropoietin. Erythropoiesis was noted, although within normal range. Functional improvements were observed in all participants (P < .05) and increases in motor function were higher in recombinant human erythropoietin group than the control group. Accordingly, recombinant human erythropoietin administration was safe without any significant adverse events and improved the functional outcomes in young children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27233796

  4. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number

    PubMed Central

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit. PMID:25018746

  5. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number.

    PubMed

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit. PMID:25018746

  6. When words lead to solutions: executive function deficits in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Roello, Mara; Ferretti, Maria Letizia; Colonnello, Valentina; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Several studies indicate that school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with tasks that rely on executive functions. Whether executive function deficits in children with SLI emerge during preschool age remains unclear. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating executive function performances in two age groups of preschoolers with and without SLI. Children with SLI (N=60; young: 53.6±5.3 months; old: 65.4±3.8 months) and age-matched control children (N=58) were tested for problem-representation ability, using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST), rule-use skills, using a Stroop-like Day-Night test (D/N), and planning skills, using the Tower of London test (TOL). Older children performed better than younger children did across tasks. Children with SLI had poorer performance, compared to typically developing children, on measures of problem representation, planning skills, and use of rules. Our results clearly indicate that executive function impairment is evident during the preschool period. Although old children with SLI performed better than young children with SLI, their performances were still poor, compared to those of control peers. These findings suggest that children with SLI have altered executive functioning at 53.6 months. PMID:25528081

  7. Quality of life in children with well-controlled epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wildrick, D; Parker-Fisher, S; Morales, A

    1996-06-01

    In our pediatric neurology clinic, we noticed that some of the children and adolescents with well-controlled epilepsy seemed to have difficulty in school, social and family life situations. We postulated that having epilepsy and needing to take daily antiepileptic drugs caused occasional problems in these areas. A questionnaire assessing self concept, home life, school life, social activities and medication issues was developed to explore this issue. Sixty patients with mild epilepsy from our pediatric neurology clinic were surveyed. With an age range of 8-18 years, the mean age of the participants was 12.38 years (SD = 2.93). Thirty-five were females and 25 were males. Twenty had generalized tonic-clonic, 7 absence, 30 partial with motor symptoms, 2 partial with sensory symptoms and 1 unspecified type. Preliminary data indicate statistically significant correlations (p < .05) between children's concerns about seizure activity and self-perceived academic and social difficulties. A simple tool like this questionnaire can be used to help nurses assess quality of life issues in children and adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:8818985

  8. Spelling of Derivational and Inflectional Suffixes by Greek-Speaking Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanti, Vassiliki; Goulandris, Nata; Stuart, Morag; Campbell, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the spelling of derivational and inflectional suffixes by 10-13-year-old Greek children. Twenty children with dyslexia (DYS), 20 spelling-level-matched (SA) and 20 age-matched (CA) children spelled adjectives, nouns, and verbs in dictated word pairs and sentences. Children spelled nouns and verbs more accurately than adjectives and…

  9. Sensory responsiveness as a predictor of social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Claudia L; Harper, Jacquelyn D; Kueker, Rachel Holmes; Lang, Andrea Runzi; Abbacchi, Anna M; Todorov, Alexandre; LaVesser, Patricia D

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between sensory responsiveness and social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD; N = 36) and age-matched controls (N = 26) between 6 and 10 years old. Significant relationships were found between social responsiveness scale scores and each of the six sensory profile sensory system scores for children with HFASD and controls. Multivariate regression analyses revealed atypical scores from multisensory responsiveness, and responsiveness of the proximal senses of oral sensory/olfactory and touch as the strongest predictors of greater social impairment in the participants. Findings suggest that the relationship between sensory responsiveness and other autistic traits is more important than previously recognized and addressing sensory modulation issues in children with HFASD may be more critical than previously understood. PMID:20108030

  10. Quantitative EEG: investigation in children with end stage renal disease before and after haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Balzar, E; Saletu, B; Khoss, A; Wagner, U

    1986-10-01

    Changes in brain function of 9 children (6 males and 3 females) ages 7 to 14 years (mean 12 years) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were investigated before and after haemodialysis treatment, utilizing computer assisted spectral analysis of the scalp-recorded EEG. A control group of age-matched healthy children was studied as well. Statistical analyses demonstrated that ESRD children exhibited more Delta and Theta activity, less Beta activity, a slower dominant frequency of the Alpha activity as well as a slower centroid of the total activity before treatment than the controls. These findings suggest a deterioration of vigilance as characterized by Head. Haemodialysis decreased slow activity and increased Alpha and Beta activity, thereby inducing an improvement of brain function. PMID:3791647

  11. Patient-controlled analgesia: an appropriate method of pain control in children.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A J; Cooper, M G

    2001-01-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is an analgesic technique originally used in adults but now with an established role in paediatric practice. It is well tolerated in children as young as 5 years and has uses in postoperative pain as well as burns, oncology and palliative care. The use of background infusions is more frequent in children and improves efficacy; however, it may increase the occurrence of adverse effects such as nausea and respiratory depression. Monitoring involves measurement of respiratory rate, level of sedation and oxygen saturation. Efficacy is assessed by self-reporting, visual analogue scales, faces pain scales and usage patterns. This is optimally performed both at rest and on movement. The selection of opioid used in PCA is perhaps less critical than the appropriate selection of parameters such as bolus dose, lockout and background infusion rate. Moreover, opioid choice may be based on adverse effect profile rather than efficacy. The concept of PCA continues to be developed in children, with patient-controlled epidural analgesia, subcutaneous PCA and intranasal PCA being recent extensions of the method. There may also be a role for patient-controlled sedation. PCA, when used with adequate monitoring, is a well tolerated technique with high patient and staff acceptance. It can now be regarded as a standard for the delivery of postoperative analgesia in children aged >5 years. PMID:11354699

  12. Modifying Media Content for Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Michelle M.; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. METHODS: We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06–1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34–1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: −0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60–11.37]). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior. PMID:23420911

  13. A Randomized Controlled Study of Parent-Assisted Children's Friendship Training with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Myatt, Robert; Sugar, Catherine; Whitham, Cynthia; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated Children's Friendship Training (CFT), a manualized parent-assisted intervention to improve social skills among second to fifth grade children with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison was made with a delayed treatment control group (DTC). Targeted skills included conversational skills, peer entry skills, developing friendship…

  14. Indirect Estimates of Jaw Muscle Tension in Children with Suspected Hypertonia, Children with Suspected Hypotonia, and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…

  15. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  16. Cognitive Flexibility and Social Responsiveness in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Güler, Ayşegül Selcen; Berkem, Meral; Yazgan, Yanki; Kalaça, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined cognitive flexibility and social responsiveness in children and adolescents with Tourette Syndrome (TS). Thirty one subjects with TS were compared to 32 age-matched healthy controls. Assessments included semi-structured interviews to assess psychopathology, parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and a brief neuropsychological battery selected as measures of cognitive flexibility. Completion time for both Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) were significantly longer for TS group than controls, however the difference in perseverative errors on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was not significant. SRS total score was significantly higher in the TS group compared to controls, indicating greater impairment in social responsiveness. Group difference for TMTs and SRS failed to reach significance after controlling for co-occurring conditions. Clinicians might consider social impairment in the evaluation plan of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. PMID:25631951

  17. Neuropsychological profile of Italian children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Stefano; Mantovan, Manuela; Addona, Francesca; Costanzo, Floriana; Verucci, Lorena; Menghini, Deny

    2012-03-01

    As individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) show a wide range of IQs, intellectual heterogeneity could mask the neuropsychological profile of the syndrome. This study was designed to identify specific neuropsychological features of children and adolescents with 22q11DS by taking into account the possible source of variability deriving from intellectual disability (ID). First, we compared several neuropsychological domains involving linguistic, visual-motor/visual-perceptual and memory abilities in 34 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 83 mental age-matched typically developing (TD) participants. Then, we selected participants with 22q11DS according to whether or not they had ID and compared their neuropsychological profiles with those of chronological age-matched TD controls. Although language and several aspects of memory have been found impaired only in children with 22q11DS with ID, deficits in visual-spatial abilities and visual-object short-term memory persist in participants without ID and might be considered a characteristic of 22q11DS, not just related to the presence of ID. On the basis of our findings, children and adolescents with 22q11DS cannot be considered as a single group with a homogeneous neuropsychological profile and must be studied in relation to their global intellectual abilities. PMID:21870177

  18. Relationship between Self-Concept and Locus of Control in Grade School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madonna, Stephen, Jr.; And Others

    Several investigators have proposed that locus of control has a significant effect on several aspects of classroom behavior. Horak (1979) found that children with a high self-concept tended to be internally controlled, whereas children with a low self-concept tended to be externally controlled. The present investigation sought to further examine…

  19. Assessment of Postural Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Silvia Leticia; dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Woollacott, Marjorie Hines; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to review studies that assessed postural control (PC) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and describe the methods used to investigate postural control in this population. It also intended to describe the performance of children with CP in postural control. An extensive database search was performed using the keywords: postural…

  20. Verbal Self-Regulation of Behavior by Children with Internal and External Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standahl, Jerry Joel

    Forty children each from nursery school, first grade, and third grade participated in a study of the use of symbolic mediators in the control of overt behavior of children with internal and external locus of control. Each child participated in three different verbal control tasks: a push-button task, a pounding-board task, and a serial-recall…

  1. Exploratory Procedures of Tactile Images in Visually Impaired and Blindfolded Sighted Children: How They Relate to Their Consequent Performance in Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Annie; Fernandes, Viviane; Orlandi, Oriana; Morgan, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the types of exploratory procedures employed by children when exploring bidimensional tactile patterns and correlate the use of these procedures with the children's shape drawing performance. 18 early blind children, 20 children with low vision and 24 age-matched blindfolded sighted children aged…

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from two cohorts of young children in Santiago, Chile: incidence of and lack of correlation between illness and proposed virulence factors.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J G; Prado, V; Ferreccio, C; Robins-Browne, R M; Bordun, A M; Cayazzo, M; Kay, B A; Levine, M M

    1991-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from children in two cohorts in Santiago, Chile. In a cohort containing a cross section of children aged 0 to 4 years, Y. enterocolitica was isolated from stool samples of 1.1% of children with diarrhea and 0.2% of age-matched control children. In a subgroup of this cohort from which weekly stool samples were obtained from all children irrespective of clinical status, 6% of children had asymptomatic Yersinia infections. In a birth cohort (with a greater representation of children less than 1 year of age and a significantly higher rate of diarrhea), Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 1.9% of children with diarrhea and 0.6% of controls (P = 0.05). Biogroup 1A strains (which lacked traditional phenotypic and molecular markers for pathogenicity) were isolated from seven children with diarrhea but from no control children in the birth cohort (P = 0.02). All other isolates, including all isolates from asymptomatic children, were "pathogenic" strains in biogroup 4, serogroup O3; no association between these isolates and occurrence of disease was found. Y. enterocolitica is found among young children in Santiago, with asymptomatic infections not uncommon occurrences. However, questions about the association between previously described virulence factors and diarrheal illness remain. PMID:1757549

  3. Epidemiology and control of human gastrointestinal parasites in children

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Michael O; Horton, John; Olliaro, Piero L

    2010-01-01

    Parasites found in the human gastrointestinal tract can be largely categorized into two groups, protozoa and helminths. The soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura) are the most prevalent, infecting an estimated one-sixth of the global population. Infection rates are highest in children living in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by Asia and then Latin America and the Caribbean. The current momentum towards global drug delivery for their control is at a historical high through the efforts of numerous initiatives increasingly acting in coordination with donors, governments and local communities. Together, they have delivered enormous quantities of drugs, especially anthelmintics to children through nationwide annual or biannual mass drug administration largely coordinated through schools. However, a much larger and rapidly growing childhood population in these regions remains untreated and suffering from more than one parasite. Mass drug administration has profound potential for control but is not without considerable challenges and concerns. A principal barrier is funding. Stimulating a research and development pipeline, supporting the necessary clinical trials to refine treatment, in addition to procuring and deploying drugs (and sustaining these supply chains), requires substantial funding and resources that do not presently exist. Limited options for chemotherapy raise concerns about drug resistance developing through overuse, however, satisfactory pharmacoepidemiology and monitoring for drug resistance requires more developed health infrastructures than are generally available. Further, the limited pharmacopeia does not include any effective second-line options if resistance emerges, and the research and development pipeline is severely depressed. Herein, we discuss the major gastrointestinal protozoa and helminths reviewing their impact on child health, changing epidemiology and how this relates to their control. PMID

  4. Role of phonotactic frequency in nonword repetition by children with specific language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Jeffry; Evans, Julia L.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children with specific language impairments (SLI) repeat nonwords less accurately than typically developing children, suggesting a phonological deficit. Much work has attempted to explain these results in terms of a phonological memory deficit. However, subsequent work revealed that these results might be explained better as a deficit in phonological sensitivity. Aims This study used a nonword repetition task to examine how children with SLI extract phonological regularities from their language input. Methods & Procedures Eighteen English-speaking children with SLI (7;3–10;6) and 18 age-matched controls participated in two English nonword repetition tasks. Three- and four-syllable nonwords varied in a single phonotactic frequency manipulation, either consonant frequency or phoneme co-occurrence frequency, while all other factors were held constant. Repetitions were scored in terms of accuracy as either the percentage of phonemes correctly produced or phoneme co-occurrences (diphones) correctly produced. In addition, onset-to-onset reaction times and repetition durations were measured. Outcomes & Results Accuracy results revealed significant group, length, and phonotactic frequency effects. Children with SLI repeated nonwords less accurately than age-matched peers, and all children repeated three-syllable nonwords and those with higher frequency phonotactic patterns more accurately. However, phonotactic frequency by group interactions were not significant. Timing results were mixed, with group reaction time differences for co-occurrence frequency, but not consonant frequency, and no group repetition duration differences. Conclusions & Implications While children with SLI were less accurate overall, non-significant interactions indicate that both groups of children were comparably affected by differences in consonant and diphone frequency. PMID:19821795

  5. Motor Control of the Lower Extremity Musculature in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpin, David J.; Stuberg, Wayne; Stergiou, Nicholas; Kurz, Max J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify the differences in torque steadiness and variability of the muscular control in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children. Fifteen children with CP (age = 14.2 [plus or minus] 0.7 years) that had a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score of I-III and 15…

  6. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  7. A Controlled Social Skills Training for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Frankel, Fred; Paley, Blair; Schonfeld, Amy M.; Carpenter, Erika; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Marquardt, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have significant social skills deficits. The efficacy of a child friendship training (CFT) versus a delayed treatment control (DTC) was assessed for 100 children ages 6 to 12 years with FASD. Children in the CFT showed clear evidence of improvement in their knowledge of appropriate social…

  8. Neuromotor Task Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeijer, A. S.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Schoemaker, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neuromotor task training (NTT), a recently developed child-centred and task-oriented treatment programme for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A treatment and a non-treatment control group of children with DCD were included. Children were selected if they scored below the 15th centile on…

  9. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  10. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  11. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  12. The interplay of maternal sensitivity and gentle control when predicting children's subsequent academic functioning: Evidence of mediation by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L; Seay, Danielle M; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and measures of children's academic functioning were combined across 72 and 84 months (T5/T6; Ns = 255, 222, 200, 162, and 143). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that T1 maternal sensitivity moderated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and T2 EC, and T3 EC predicted children's later academic functioning. There was evidence for moderated mediation, such that when maternal sensitivity was high, children's EC mediated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and children's academic functioning, even after controlling for stability of the constructs. The relation between maternal gentle control and children's EC was not significant under conditions of low maternal sensitivity. Implications for parenting programs are offered and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228451

  13. Orthographic learning in dyslexic Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Alvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla 2009; Spinelli, De Luca, Di Filippo, Mancini, Martelli, & Zoccolotti, 2005; Wimmer, 1993). Therefore, the main problem for these children could be the difficulty in developing orthographic representations of the words they read. The aim of this study was to test the ability of dyslexic Spanish-speaking children (whose native language is Spanish) to develop orthographic representations and determine if the context helps them. For this, two experiments were conducted with a group of 100 children, 7-12 years of age. The groups were comprised of 20 dyslexics, 40 chronological age-matched controls and 40 reading level-matched controls. In the first experiment, eight unfamiliar words (four short and four long) were presented six times within the context of a story. In the second experiment, eight pseudowords were presented on a computer and the children had to read them aloud. In both experiments, the reading and articulation times of experimental and control stimuli were compared, before and after the training. Children without dyslexia showed a decrease of the influence of length of word on reading speed, indicating a lexical reading, while for dyslexic children, the influence of length remained unchanged. These results appeared when the stimuli were presented in the context of a story as well as when presented in isolation. In short, our results describe that dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems have problems in developing orthographic representations of words. PMID:25056668

  14. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  15. Are There More Bowel Symptoms in Children with Autism Compared to Normal Children and Children with Other Developmental and Neurological Disorders?: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. A.; Farnworth, H.; Wright, B.; Allgar, V.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable controversy as to whether there is an association between bowel disorders and autism. Using a bowel symptom questionnaire we compared 51 children with autism spectrum disorder with control groups of 35 children from special school and 112 from mainstream school. There was a significant difference in the reporting of certain…

  16. DNA Repair Alterations in Children With Pediatric Malignancies: Novel Opportunities to Identify Patients at Risk for High-Grade Toxicities

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebe, Claudia E.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, in a pilot study, the phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}H2AX) foci approach for identifying patients with double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: The DSB repair capacity of children with solid cancers was analyzed compared with that of age-matched control children and correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses (n = 47). Double-strand break repair was investigated by counting {gamma}H2AX foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after irradiation of blood samples. Results: Whereas all healthy control children exhibited proficient DSB repair, 3 children with tumors revealed clearly impaired DSB repair capacities, and 2 of these repair-deficient children developed life-threatening or even lethal normal-tissue toxicities. The underlying mutations affecting regulatory factors involved in DNA repair pathways were identified. Moreover, significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity were observed between children with tumors and control children, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DSB repair function. Conclusions: Double-strand break repair alteration in children may predispose to cancer formation and may affect children's susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. Phosphorylated H2AX analysis of blood samples allows one to detect DSB repair deficiencies and thus enables identification of children at risk for high-grade toxicities.

  17. Social decentering and locus of control in children.

    PubMed

    Deysach, R E; Keller, H R; Ross, A W; Hiers, T G

    1975-07-01

    Relationships beteen social decentering, personality variables, and social competence were investigated for children attending a seven-week therapeutic summer camp. Ss were 23 males and females ranging in age from 10 to 13 years old had been referred to the camp because they lacked age-appropriate social skills. Feffer's Role Taking Task was used to measure social decentering, and counselor ratings of camper adjustment were measures of social competence. Predicted positive relationships between decentering and competence were found. Striking sex differences were found, however, when comparisons were made between social decentering and two personality variables--the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale and the Kiddie Mach. Predicted negative correlations were found between Role Taking Task scores and externality and machiavellianism for females, but not for males. Implications concerning age by sex interactions in the study of personality correlates of social decentering were discussed. PMID:1195148

  18. Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieben, James

    Children referred for externalizing behavior problems may not represent a homogeneous population. The objective of this study was to assess the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation that might distinguish subtypes of externalizing children from each other and from their typically developing age-mates. Children with pure externalizing (EXT) problems were compared with children comorbid for externalizing and internalizing (MIXED) problems and with age-matched controls. Only boys were included in the analysis because so few girls were referred for treatment. A go/no-go task with a negative emotion induction was used to examine dense-array EEG data together with behavioral measures of performance. Four event-related potential (ERP) components tapping inhibitory control or self-monitoring were assessed including the inhibitory N2, the error-related negativity (ERN), the error positivity (Pe) and the frontal inhibitory P3 (iP3). Source models were constructed estimating the cortical generators of these components. The MIXED children's N2s increased in response to the emotion induction, resulting in greater amplitudes than EXT children in the following trial block. MIXED and EXT children showed increased N2 latencies compared to controls. ERN amplitudes were greatest for control children and smallest for EXT children with MIXED children in between, but only prior to the emotion induction. N2 component latencies were shorter for controls but only before and after the induction block with a significantly faster N2 for controls only in block C relative to MIXED children. Latencies for the ERN component were longer for the EXT children in blocks A and B relative to both MIXED and controls. Mixed results were found for both the Pe and frontal P3 amplitude. Pe amplitudes were smallest for control children in blocks A and B relative to both clinical groups. Pe latencies were consistent across groups with the exception of block B where EXT children showed an increase in

  19. Summer diarrhoea in African infants and children.

    PubMed Central

    Robins-Browne, R M; Still, C S; Miliotis, M D; Richardson, N J; Koornhof, H J; Freiman, I; Schoub, B D; Lecatsas, G; Hartman, E

    1980-01-01

    Of 70 black South African infants and children with acute summer diarrhoea, 30 (43%) were infected with enteropathogenic serogroups of Escherichia coli (EPEC), 13 (19%) with enterotoxigenic Gram-negative bacilli, 12 (17%) with Salmonella sp., 6 (9%) with Shigella sp., and 3 (4%) with rotaviruses. 13 (19%) patients were infected simultaneously with more than one enteropathogen, and no pathogen was detected in 22 (31%). In addition, 6 (15%) of 41 unselected patients were excreting Campylobacter fetus. Of 30 age-matched controls drawn from the same population, 5 (17%) were infected with EPEC serotypes, and 1 each with Salmonella sp. and rotavirus. This study stresses the polymicrobial nature of paediatric diarrhoea in a developing community and shows the continued importance of EPEC in this setting. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6257185

  20. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison with age-matched (6-12 years) typically developing controls (16 participants in Experiment 1, 18 in Experiment 2), children with autism (18 participants in Experiment 1, 16 in Experiment 2) showed enhanced neural discriminatory sensitivity in the nonspeech conditions but not for speech stimuli. The results indicate domain specificity of enhanced pitch processing in autism, which may interfere with lexical tone acquisition and language development for children who speak a tonal language. PMID:26111738

  1. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  2. Immaturity of the Oculomotor Saccade and Vergence Interaction in Dyslexic Children: Evidence from a Reading and Visual Search Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:22438934

  3. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  4. Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children (ages 2-11) with pervasive developmental disorders. Slightly more than half of parents reported a sleep problem in their child. All of the children exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. (Contains references.)…

  5. Planum Temporale Volume in Children and Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Donald C.; Camou, Suzanne L.; Reite, Martin L.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a lack of planum temporale (PT) asymmetry in adults with autism. This finding is now extended to children and adolescents with the disorder. MRI scans were obtained from 12 children with autism and 12 gender, handedness and age-matched comparison participants. The volume of gray matter in the PT and Heschl's gyrus…

  6. Intermodal Matching of Emotional Expressions in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…

  7. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  8. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  9. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  10. The Development of Two Types of Inhibitory Control in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Rhee, Michelle M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that bilingual children excel in tasks requiring inhibitory control to ignore a misleading perceptual cue. The present series of studies extends this finding by identifying the degree and type of inhibitory control for which bilingual children demonstrate this advantage. Study 1 replicated the earlier research by…

  11. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  12. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  13. How Home Gets to School: Parental Control Strategies Predict Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Aimee Kleisner; MacPhee, David

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families' control style (autonomy support and coercive control) was examined in relation to children's school readiness; children's social skills and mastery motivation were hypothesized mediating variables. In two different, low-income samples from diverse ethnic backgrounds, one preschool sample recruited from Head Start (N = 199) and a…

  14. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  15. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  16. Reduced Delay of Gratification and Effortful Control among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We explored internal control of behavior using direct observation and parent report. Previous research has found that both the delay of gratification task and parent-reported effortful control predict later social ability and more positive outcomes in typically developing children. Children with autism spectrum disorder have previously been…

  17. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  18. Effects of Social Context and Mothers' Requesting Strategies on Down's Syndrome Children's Social Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Social context and maternal style of requesting and responsiveness were examined in teaching and social interactions in relation to 28 Down's Syndrome (DS) and 28 mental-age matched normal children's cooperation and social initiative. Compliance for DS children was similar to that of normal children for child-initiated exchanges but decreased…

  19. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  20. The Use of Cohesive Markers in Narratives by Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how children and adolescents with Williams syndrome (WS; ages 8 years, 0 months [8;0]-14;5) used referential devices (determiners and pronouns), tense, and connectives to create cohesion in oral narratives based on a storybook compared to typically developing mentally and chronologically age-matched children. WS children used…

  1. Production and Processing Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Tense Morphology by Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Marinis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the production and online processing of English tense morphemes by sequential bilingual (L2) Turkish-speaking children with more than three years of exposure to English. Thirty-nine six- to nine-year-old L2 children and twenty-eight typically developing age-matched monolingual (L1) children were administered the production…

  2. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  3. Sequence-Specific Procedural Learning Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children's performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger…

  4. Imitation of Body Postures and Hand Movements in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Within the domain-general theory of language impairment, this study examined body posture and hand movement imitation in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers. Participants included 40 children with SLI (5 years 3 months to 6 years 10 months of age) and 40 children with typical language development (5…

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with PMNE and five controls (5%) (P=0.01). Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P=0.08) and 15 (15%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P=0.84), respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE. PMID:26787570

  6. A Case-Control Study on the Behavior Status of Rural Left-Behind Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhi-xin, Yang; Yu-qi, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aiming to exploring the behavior status of rural left-behind children in China. In a case-control study, we used Rutter Children's Behavior Questionnaire for teacher to measure behavior status of children in left-behind group and control group. Furthermore, we also compared behavior status of children in different age groups…

  7. Polysomnographic Sleep Characteristics of Generally-Anxious and Healthy Children Assessed in the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Mellman, Thomas A.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Alfano, Candice A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) we recently provided evidence of significantly prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL) and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep among non-depressed children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to healthy age-matched controls. In the current study we conducted unattended ambulatory PSG in a new sample of children with GAD and controls in order to examine sleeping characteristics in the home environment. Method Thirty-two children (ages of 7–11 years) including 16 children with primary GAD and 16 controls receiving no psychotropic medications were studied. The anxious group had a primary diagnosis of GAD without secondary mood disorders and controls were free of any medical or psychiatric diagnoses. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments and completed one night of home-based polysomnography (PSG). Results Children with GAD exhibited significantly higher sleep efficiency (SE) and fewer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods compared to controls. Self-reported somatic arousal during the pre-sleep period was negatively correlated with the percentage of total REM sleep among controls, but positively correlated with REM sleep percentage in the GAD group. Limitations A small sample size and one night of PSG only. Conclusions Home-based PSG recording do not provide evidence of disrupted sleep patterns in children with GAD. Contextual factors that better elucidate differences between laboratory and home-based sleep findings are suggested as important directions for future research. PMID:24751311

  8. Coeliac disease: a potentially treatable health problem of Saharawi refugee children.

    PubMed Central

    Rätsch, I. M.; Catassi, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and nutritional impact of coeliac disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy) among Saharawi children living as refugees in Algeria. METHODS: A total of 65 Saharawi children with coeliac disease were compared with 71 age-matched non-coeliac controls. For each participant, the clinical history was taken and a clinical examination, non-quantitative 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric and skinfold measurements, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition, and venous blood sampling for haemoglobin determination were performed. RESULTS: Gluten-containing food, especially bread, was the staple diet of Saharawi children. Abdominal pain and distension were significantly commoner among children with coeliac disease than in controls (P < 0.05). The mean height-for-age was significantly lower in such children than in controls (-2.5 +/- 1.4 units vs -1.8 +/- 1.3 units, respectively, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found for either skinfold or BIA measurements. Haemoglobin values tended to be lower in children with coeliac disease than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Coeliac disease has a negative effect on the health status of Saharawi refugee children. Because of the high prevalence of the condition in the Saharawi, a specific programme for treating all affected individuals should be established. Further studies are required to quantify the impact of coeliac disease in other areas of the developing world. PMID:11436476

  9. Association Between Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Familial Mediterranean Fever Disease in Turkish Children.

    PubMed

    Kizildag, S; Dedemoglu, F; Anik, A; Catli, G; Kizildag, S; Abaci, A; Makay, B; Bober, E; Unsal, E

    2016-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive, inherited autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent, self-limited attacks of fever, and inflammation of serosal surfaces. The aim of our study was to determine a possible relationship between Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risk of children with FMF. We investigated VDR FokI (rs10735810), TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410), and ApaI (rs7975232) polymorphisms in 50 children with FMF and 150 age-matched healthy control subjects. This study was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no significant difference between patients and controls for VDR FokI, TaqI, BsmI, and ApaI genotypes and alleles (p > 0.05). Results need to be supported by further investigations that define haplotype patterns for VDR gene polymorphisms in a larger group and different ethnic groups of FMF patients. PMID:26742922

  10. Acute renal transplant rejection in children: assessment by Duplex Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Vergesslich, K A; Khoss, A E; Balzar, E; Schwaighofer, B; Ponhold, W

    1988-01-01

    Over a two year period 74 consecutive Duplex Doppler scans were performed in 23 children with renal allografts and were compared to the Doppler sonographic findings in orthotopic kidneys of 25 age matched healthy controls. The Doppler waveforms of renal arterial flow were analyzed qualitatively assessing systolic and diastolic flow amplitudes, for quantitation the Pourcelot index (PI) was used. There was no variation between the Doppler waveforms in recipients with normal allograft function and healthy controls. In 12 patients with biopsy proven acute rejection a decrease or absence of the diastolic flow amplitude was noted, resulting in increased pulsatility of the Doppler waveform. The mean PI in acute rejection differed significantly from the mean PI in normal allograft function. Duplex Doppler sonography is a useful imaging modality in the differentiation between acute rejection and normal allograft function and should therefore be integrated in the screening of children after renal transplantation. PMID:3054768

  11. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  12. Functional MRI compliance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Karakaş, Sirel; Dinçer, Elvin Doğutepe; Ceylan, Arzu Özkan; Tileylioğlu, Emre; Karakaş, Hakkı Muammer; Talı, E. Turgut

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to test the effect of prescan training and orientation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to investigate whether fMRI compliance was modified by state anxiety. METHODS Subjects included 77 males aged 6–12 years; there were 53 patients in the ADHD group and 24 participants in the healthy control group. Exclusion criteria included neurological and/or psychiatric comorbidities (other than ADHD), the use of psychoactive drugs, and an intelligence quotient outside the normal range. Children were individually subjected to prescan orientation and training. Data were acquired using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and an 8-channel head coil. Functional scans were performed using a standard neurocognitive task. RESULTS The neurocognitive task led to reliable fMRI maps. Compliance was not significantly different between ADHD and control groups based on success, failure, and repetition rates of fMRI. Compliance of ADHD patients with extreme levels of anxiety was also not significantly different. CONCLUSION The fMRI compliance of ADHD children is typically lower than that of healthy children. However, compliance can be increased to the level of age-matched healthy control children by addressing concerns about the technical and procedural aspects of fMRI, providing orientation programs, and performing on-task training. In patients thus trained, compliance does not change with the level of state anxiety suggesting that the anxiety hypothesis of fMRI compliance is not supported. PMID:25519454

  13. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairments.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha; Cumming, Ruth; Chait, Maria; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Wilson, Angela M; Barnes, Lisa; Fosker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children's processing of slow (<4 Hz) versus faster (∼33 Hz) temporal modulations in speech. We compare groups of children with either developmental dyslexia (Experiment 1) or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2) to groups of typically-developing (TD) children age-matched to each disorder group. Ten nursery rhymes were filtered so that their modulation frequencies were either low-pass filtered (<4 Hz) or band-pass filtered (22 - 40 Hz). Recognition of the filtered nursery rhymes was tested in a picture recognition multiple choice paradigm. Children with dyslexia aged 10 years showed equivalent recognition overall to TD controls for both the low-pass and band-pass filtered stimuli, but showed significantly impaired acoustic learning during the experiment from low-pass filtered targets. Children with oral SLIs aged 9 years showed significantly poorer recognition of band pass filtered targets compared to their TD controls, and showed comparable acoustic learning effects to TD children during the experiment. The SLI samples were also divided into children with and without phonological difficulties. The children with both SLI and phonological difficulties were impaired in recognizing both kinds of filtered speech. These data are suggestive of impaired temporal sampling of the speech signal at different modulation rates by children with different kinds of developmental language disorder. Both SLI and dyslexic samples showed impaired discrimination of amplitude rise times. Implications of these findings for a temporal sampling framework for understanding developmental language disorders are discussed. PMID:27303348

  14. Verbal and nonverbal semantic processing in children with developmental language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Alycia; Čeponienė, Rita

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing age-matched controls (ages 7–15 years). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while children performed a forced-choice matching task on semantically matching and mismatching visual-auditory picture-word and picture-environmental sound pairs. Behavioral accuracy and reaction time measures were similar for both groups of children, with environmental sounds eliciting more accurate responses than words. In picture-environmental sound trials, behavioral performance and the brain’s response to semantic incongruency (i.e., the N400 effect) of the children with language impairment were comparable to those of their typically developing peers. However, in picture-word trials, children with LI tended to be less accurate than their controls and their N400 effect was significantly delayed in latency. Thus, the children with LI demonstrated a semantic integration deficit that was somewhat specific to the verbal domain. The particular finding of a delayed N400 effect is consistent with the storage deficit hypothesis of language impairment (Kail & Leonard, 1986) suggesting weakened and/or less efficient connections within the language networks of children with LI. PMID:19698728

  15. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  16. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions. PMID:26773674

  17. Proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in human immunodeficiency virus-positive children who fail to thrive.

    PubMed

    Frost, R A; Nachman, S A; Lang, C H; Gelato, M C

    1996-08-01

    Failure to thrive is a common manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children. Given the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in stimulating postnatal growth, we have examined whether HIV-infected pediatric patients with growth failure have lower serum concentrations of IGF-I than age-matched control subjects. IGF-I was measured in 16 HIV-infected children and 13 HIV-negative controls. Ten of the HIV-infected children failed to thrive based on height and linear growth that was below the National Center for Health Statistics 10th percentile. IGF-I levels were significantly lower in children who failed to thrive compared to those in age-matched controls (20 vs. 60 micrograms/L; P < 0.001). Children who failed to thrive also displayed lower IGF-I levels than HIV-positive children, who exhibited normal growth velocity (20 vs. 91 micrograms/L; P < 0.001). Failure to thrive was associated with a significant reduction in circulating levels of IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as determined by ligand and Western blotting (P < 0.001), enhanced IGFBP-3 proteolysis (P < 0.001), and a decrease in the serum concentration of the acid-labile subunit of the IGFBP-3 ternary complex (P < 0.005). IGFBP-3 proteolysis was negatively correlated with IGF-I (r = 0.78) and IGFBP-3 levels (r = 0.70). Failure to thrive was associated with a reduction in the formation of the ternary complex, but the ternary complex could be restored by the addition of an excess of IGFBP-3 to serum. These results indicate that low levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and acid-labile subunit are associated with a failure to thrive in HIV-infected children. PMID:8768858

  18. Endangered Children and the Misuse of Intoxication by Controlling Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walonick, David

    A review of the academic literature regarding the existence or lack of relationship between chemically dependent adults and neglected or abused children supports the conclusion that alcohol and other drugs are a significant factor in most behavioral patterns associated with endangering children. The author identifies five modes of parent-child…

  19. [Activation of peripheral T lymphocytes in children with epilepsy and production of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Chongkang; Jiang, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Objective To study the state of peripheral T lymphocytes and cytokine levels in children with epilepsy. Methods Twenty children with epilepsy and 20 healthy age-matched children were recruited and their peripheral blood was collected. The activation of T lymphocytes was evaluated by detecting the expressions of CD25, CD69 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-assicated antigen 4 (CTLA4). The function of T lymphocytes was evaluated by detecting the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-17A and IL-6. The activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was evaluated by detecting the expression of IL-10. Results Children with epilepsy had higher expressions of CD25, CD69 and CTLA-4 in T lymphocytes than the controls did. The expressions of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 in T lymphocytes of children with epilepsy were higher than those of the controls. Frequency of Tregs producing IL-10 was higher in children with epilepsy as compared with the controls. Conclusion Peripheral T lymphocytes of children with epilepsy are activated and produce cytokines. PMID:27609580

  20. Executive functioning deficits in preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Anita J.; Whitley, Marisa L.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Boys, Christopher J.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Fink, Birgit A.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficit is a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but the vast majority of available evidence comes from school-age children and adolescents. Very little is known about EF during the critical developmental period prior to 6 years of age in FASD. We evaluated EF in 39 children with FASD (3.0 – 5.5 years) and a comparison group of 50 age-matched, non-exposed controls. Measures included the EF Scale for Early Childhood and a Delay of Gratification task. Compared to age-matched controls, pre-school children with FASD had impairments on the EF Scale and showed more impulsivity on the Delay of Gratification task. To confirm the EF Scale finding, FASD group performance was compared to a separate normative dataset (N=1,400). Those with FASD performed below normal (M= −0.57, SD=0.92). Within the FASD group, IQ was correlated with the EF Scale (partial r=.60, p=.001) and Delay of Gratification (partial r=.58, p=.005). EF Scale performance did not differ significantly across levels of FASD severity [fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS, or alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder (ARND)]. However, compared to normative data, those with FAS had the largest deficits (M= −0.91 SD, SE=0.23), followed by partial FAS (M= −0.66 SD, SE=0.26), then ARND (M= −0.36 SD, SE=0.20). These novel data show that EF deficits manifest well before the age of 6 years in children with FASD, that they occur across the spectrum, and that EF may be most impaired in children with more severe forms of FASD and/or lower IQs. PMID:25011516

  1. Executive functioning deficits in preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Whitley, Marisa L; Carlson, Stephanie M; Boys, Christopher J; Eckerle, Judith K; Fink, Birgit A; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficit is a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but the vast majority of available evidence comes from school-age children and adolescents. Very little is known about EF during the critical developmental period prior to 6 years of age in FASD. We evaluated EF in 39 children with FASD (3.0-5.5 years) and a comparison group of 50 age-matched, nonexposed controls. Measures included the EF Scale for Early Childhood and a Delay of Gratification task. Compared to age-matched controls, preschool children with FASD had impairments on the EF Scale and showed more impulsivity on the Delay of Gratification task. To confirm the EF Scale finding, FASD group performance was compared to a separate normative dataset (N = 1,400). Those with FASD performed below normal (M = -0.57, SD = 0.92). Within the FASD group, IQ was correlated with the EF Scale (partial r = .60, p = .001) and Delay of Gratification (partial r = .58, p = .005). EF Scale performance did not differ significantly across levels of FASD severity (fetal alcohol syndrome [FAS], partial FAS, or alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder [ARND]). However, compared to normative data, those with FAS had the largest deficits (M = -0.91 SD from the mean, SE = 0.23), followed by partial FAS (M = -0.66 SD from the mean, SE = 0.26), then ARND (M = -0.36 SD from the mean, SE = 0.20). These novel data show that EF deficits manifest well before the age of 6 years in children with FASD, that they occur across the spectrum, and that EF may be most impaired in children with more severe forms of FASD and/or lower IQs. PMID:25011516

  2. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control.

    PubMed

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  3. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  4. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Impaired Trunk Control in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyrman, Lieve; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Verheyden, Geert; Klingels, Katrijn; Monbaliu, Elegast; Feys, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics of impaired trunk control in hundred children with spastic CP (mean age 11.4 [plus or minus] 2.1 years, range 8-15 years). Assessment of trunk control was performed with the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS). Trunk control was clearly impaired, indicated by a median total TCMS score of…

  6. Parental Control: A Second Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Parental control is among the important factors influencing the psychological development of children. In addition to other questionnaires, a questionnaire of father and mother control was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results showed that parental control differs across cultures. Parental control was higher in the eastern than…

  7. Low-income, minority fathers' control strategies and their children's regulatory skills.

    PubMed

    Malin, Jenessa L; Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24 months, and children's regulatory skills at prekindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income, minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (n = 71), we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24 months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers overwhelmingly used commands (e.g., "Do that.") to promote compliance in their 24-month-old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predicted fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction whereas children's gender predicted fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24 months predicted children's sustained attention at pre-K whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24 months predicted children's emotion regulation at pre-K. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. PMID:25798496

  8. Gait characteristics and functional assessment of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Graf, Adam; Hassani, Sahar; Krzak, Joseph; Caudill, Angela; Flanagan, Ann; Bajorunaite, Ruta; Harris, Gerald; Smith, Peter

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the evaluation process of children with type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) by providing a quantitative comparison of gait and selected functional assessments to age-matched controls. A 14-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used for gait analysis along with selected functional assessments (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument [PODCI], Functional Assessment Questionnaire [FAQ], Faces Pain Scale-Revised [FPS-R]) conducted on 10 subjects with type I OI and 22 age-matched healthy controls. The results of the OI group demonstrated abnormal gait parameters including increased double support, delayed foot off, reduced ankle range of motion and plantarflexion during third rocker, along with greater ankle power absorption during terminal stance and reduced ankle power generation during push off. The functional assessment scores of the OI group were similar to the control group for basic mobility and function, but were lower than their peers in the sports and physical function category. The evaluation of individuals with OI by means of gait analysis and selected functional assessments, along with an accurate biomechanical model of the lower extremities, is proposed to better understand and predict OI disability and improve quality of life. PMID:19242979

  9. An Eight Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Intervention Alters Resting State Synchrony in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Camchong, Jazmin; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) children 8–11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  10. An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  11. Preserving the Past: An Early Interview Improves Delayed Event Memory in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Deirdre A; Lewis, Charlie N; Lamb, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of an early interview on children's (N = 194) later recall of an experienced event was examined in children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (CWID; 7–12 years) and typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological (7–12 years) or mental (4–9 years) age. Children previously interviewed were more informative, more accurate, and less suggestible. CWID (mild) recalled as much information as TD mental age matches, and were as accurate as TD chronological age matches. CWID (moderate) recalled less than TD mental age matches but were as accurate. Interviewers should elicit CWID's recall as early as possible and consider developmental level and severity of impairments when evaluating eyewitness testimony. PMID:25876042

  12. Impaired visually guided weight-shifting ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ballaz, Laurent; Robert, Maxime; Parent, Audrey; Prince, François; Lemay, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The ability to control voluntary weight shifting is crucial in many functional tasks. To our knowledge, weight shifting ability in response to a visual stimulus has never been evaluated in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of the study was (1) to propose a new method to assess visually guided medio-lateral (M/L) weight shifting ability and (2) to compare weight-shifting ability in children with CP and typically developing (TD) children. Ten children with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and II; age 7-12 years) and 10 TD age-matched children were tested. Participants played with the skiing game on the Wii Fit game console. Center of pressure (COP) displacements, trunk and lower-limb movements were recorded during the last virtual slalom. Maximal isometric lower limb strength and postural control during quiet standing were also assessed. Lower-limb muscle strength was reduced in children with CP compared to TD children and postural control during quiet standing was impaired in children with CP. As expected, the skiing game mainly resulted in M/L COP displacements. Children with CP showed lower M/L COP range and velocity as compared to TD children but larger trunk movements. Trunk and lower extremity movements were less in phase in children with CP compared to TD children. Commercially available active video games can be used to assess visually guided weight shifting ability. Children with spastic diplegic CP showed impaired visually guided weight shifting which can be explained by non-optimal coordination of postural movement and reduced muscular strength. PMID:24858794

  13. I Hear What You Say but I See What You Mean: The Role of Gestures in Children's Pragmatic Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Elizabeth; Pine, Karen J.; Ryder, Nuala

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether gesture can enhance the pragmatic comprehension of language impaired children. Language impaired children (N = 21) and age matched typically developing children (N = 26) were presented verbal scenarios in two conditions: speech only and speech+gesture. In the speech+gesture condition, speech was accompanied by…

  14. Assessment of the Prerequisite Skills for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickel, Athena; MacLean, William E., Jr.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7-12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ,…

  15. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with…

  16. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  17. Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

  18. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  19. Conflicts over Directing the Education of Children: Who Controls, Parents or School Officials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    When dealing with the issues of quality control and the rights of parents to direct the upbringing of their school-aged children, one of the key factors that affects parental rights is compulsory attendance laws. Put another way, insofar as parents must educate their children, whether in regular public or nonpublic schools or by homeschooling…

  20. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  1. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  2. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  3. A Randomized Control Study of Responsive Teaching with Young Turkish Children and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaaslan, Ozcan; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    A randomized control study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of responsive teaching (RT) with a sample of 19 Turkish preschool-age children with disabilities and their mothers over a 6-months period. RT is an early intervention curriculum that attempts to promote children's development by encouraging parents to engage in highly…

  4. Efficacy of family-based weight control program for pre-school children in primary care

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an innovative family-based intervention for overweight pre-school children and overweight parents conducted in the primary care setting. METHODS: 96 children with BMI >85th percentile and an overweight parent were randomized to Intervention or Information Control...

  5. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-12-01

    In this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activity, aerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years). Specifically, physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement. For example, higher fit children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers. Higher fit children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children. The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain and cognitive benefits compared to a control group. Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the developing brain. This research is important because children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth. PMID:25387414

  6. Theory of Mind Training in Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40).…

  7. Efficacy of a Reading and Language Intervention for Children with Down Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J.; Clarke, Paula J.; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods: Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the…

  8. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Children's Cooperative Behaviors during a Structured Puzzle Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated…

  9. Brief Report: Inhibitory Control of Socially Relevant Stimuli in Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Begeer, Sander; Stockmann, Lex

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored whether inhibitory control deficits in high functioning autism (HFA) emerged when socially relevant stimuli were used and whether arousal level affected the performance. A Go/NoGo paradigm, with socially relevant stimuli and varying presentation rates, was applied in 18 children with HFA (including children with autism…

  10. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development among Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal…

  11. Size Sequencing as a Window on Executive Control in Children with Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Margaret; Bodner, Kimberly; Fox-Pitt, Alicia; Nicholson, Laura

    2008-01-01

    A study is reported in which size sequencing on a touch screen is used as a measure of executive control in 20 high-functioning children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The data show a significant and age-independent effect of the length of sequence that can be executed without errors by these children, in comparison with a chronologically…

  12. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  13. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  14. Neural network connectivity differences in children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Affecting 1% of the general population, stuttering impairs the normally effortless process of speech production, which requires precise coordination of sequential movement occurring among the articulatory, respiratory, and resonance systems, all within millisecond time scales. Those afflicted experience frequent disfluencies during ongoing speech, often leading to negative psychosocial consequences. The aetiology of stuttering remains unclear; compared to other neurodevelopmental disorders, few studies to date have examined the neural bases of childhood stuttering. Here we report, for the first time, results from functional (resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging) and structural connectivity analyses (probabilistic tractography) of multimodal neuroimaging data examining neural networks in children who stutter. We examined how synchronized brain activity occurring among brain areas associated with speech production, and white matter tracts that interconnect them, differ in young children who stutter (aged 3–9 years) compared with age-matched peers. Results showed that children who stutter have attenuated connectivity in neural networks that support timing of self-paced movement control. The results suggest that auditory-motor and basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks develop differently in stuttering children, which may in turn affect speech planning and execution processes needed to achieve fluent speech motor control. These results provide important initial evidence of neurological differences in the early phases of symptom onset in children who stutter. PMID:24131593

  15. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06). Conclusions This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support. PMID:24987498

  16. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Usha; Cumming, Ruth; Chait, Maria; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Wilson, Angela M.; Barnes, Lisa; Fosker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children’s processing of slow (<4 Hz) versus faster (∼33 Hz) temporal modulations in speech. We compare groups of children with either developmental dyslexia (Experiment 1) or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2) to groups of typically-developing (TD) children age-matched to each disorder group. Ten nursery rhymes were filtered so that their modulation frequencies were either low-pass filtered (<4 Hz) or band-pass filtered (22 – 40 Hz). Recognition of the filtered nursery rhymes was tested in a picture recognition multiple choice paradigm. Children with dyslexia aged 10 years showed equivalent recognition overall to TD controls for both the low-pass and band-pass filtered stimuli, but showed significantly impaired acoustic learning during the experiment from low-pass filtered targets. Children with oral SLIs aged 9 years showed significantly poorer recognition of band pass filtered targets compared to their TD controls, and showed comparable acoustic learning effects to TD children during the experiment. The SLI samples were also divided into children with and without phonological difficulties. The children with both SLI and phonological difficulties were impaired in recognizing both kinds of filtered speech. These data are suggestive of impaired temporal sampling of the speech signal at different modulation rates by children with different kinds of developmental language disorder. Both SLI and dyslexic samples showed impaired discrimination of amplitude rise times. Implications of these findings for a temporal sampling framework for understanding developmental language disorders are discussed. PMID:27303348

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children's sympathy across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children's effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children's sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children's subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children's effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children's sympathy. PMID:25329555

  18. Fear Conditioned Responses and PTSD Symptoms in Children: Sex Differences in Fear-Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:26011240

  19. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:26011240

  20. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  1. Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared to Typically Developing Controls on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    As the "Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition" ("BASC-2") is often used to aid in diagnosis it is important to discern how children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) score on the "BASC-2" compared to typically developing controls. This study compared scores of typically developing children and adolescents to…

  2. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, G.; Upham, J. W.; Chang, A. B.; Baines, K. J.; Yerkovich, S. T.; Pizzutto, S. J.; Hodge, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bronchiectasis (BE) in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin) and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα) mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE. Methods Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry. Results There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL. Conclusions Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities. PMID:26258716

  3. Cultural differences in the links between parental control and children's emotional expressivity.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jennifer Y; Oh, Brian J; Lau, Anna S

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests that parental control may be motivated by various socialization goals and contributes to children's adjustment in diverse ways depending on cultural context. The present study examined whether parental psychological control was differentially related to children's emotional expressivity in a sample of 127 Korean, Asian American (AA), and European American (EA) preschoolers. Results indicated that Korean and AA parents endorsed more parental control (emotion suppression, shaming) than EA parents. Similarly, Korean and AA children displayed less observable sadness and exuberance during emotion-eliciting tasks than EA children. Furthermore, moderation analyses revealed that for EA families, parental control was positively correlated with child anger and exuberance; however, the associations were not significant for AA and Korean families. PMID:23834255

  4. Factor Structure of Children's Locus of Control Beliefs: A Cross-Cultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barling, Julian

    1980-01-01

    Nowicki characterized children's locus of control beliefs in terms of three factors: helplessness, luck, and achievement. This study investigated whether these factors are sufficiently consistent or invariant to be used in further analyses. (Author/DB)

  5. Two Novel Treatments to Reduce Overeating in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Peterson, Carol B.; Rydell, Sarah A.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Cafri, Guy; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our purpose in this study was to examine 2 treatments targeted at reducing eating in the absence of hunger in overweight and obese children. Method Thirty-six overweight and obese 8- to 12-year-old children (58% female; mean age = 10.3 years, SD = 1.3), with high scores on eating in the absence of hunger, and their parents were randomly assigned to an 8-week children's appetite awareness training or cue exposure treatment–food. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, an Eating Disorder Examination interview for children, and three 24-hr dietary recalls, and their height and weight were measured. Parents completed the EAH Questionnaire and the Binge Eating Scale, and their height and weight were measured. Assessments were conducted at baseline, posttreatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Results Results showed that both treatments resulted in significant decreases in binge eating in children over time. Additionally, children in the food cue exposure treatment showed significant decreases in EAH posttreatment and 6 months posttreatment, but children in the appetite awareness training showed no change in EAH. Neither treatment produced significant effects on caloric intake in children or on any of the parent outcomes. Conclusions This study demonstrates that training in food cue responsitivity and appetite awareness has the potential to be efficacious for reducing EAH and binge eating in children. Because these data are preliminary, further treatment development and randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:22122291

  6. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  7. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. Methods: This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Results: Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia. PMID:25674110

  8. A Comparison between Locus of Control in Inpatient Alcoholics and Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon K.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Internal-External Control Scale to 22 male alcoholics in residential treatment and 8 adult male children of alcoholics (COAs) in outpatient counseling. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics demonstrated external control orientation. COAs also exhibited external locus of control. Alcoholics in first residential treatment demonstrated more…

  9. The impact of vision on the dynamic characteristics of the gait: strategies in children with blindness.

    PubMed

    Gazzellini, Simone; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Castelli, Enrico; Trombetti, Alessandro; Carniel, Sacha; Vasco, Gessica; Napolitano, Antonio; Petrarca, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    Visually impaired persons present an atypical gait pattern characterized by slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time of stance. Three explanatory hypotheses have been advanced in the literature: balance deficit, lack of an anticipatory mechanisms and foot probing the ground. In the present study, we compared the three hypotheses by applying their predictions to gait analysis and posturography of blind children without neurological impairment and compared their performance with that of an age-matched control group. The gait analysis results documented that blind children presented reduced walking velocity and step length, increased step width and external rotation of the foot progression angle, reduced ground reaction force and ankle maximum angle, moment and power in late stance, increased head flexion, decreased thorax flexion and pelvis anteversion, compared with the control group. The posturographic analysis showed equal skill level between blind children and normally sighted children when they close their eyes. The results are consistent with only one of the three hypotheses: namely, they prove that blind children's gait is influenced only by the absence of visually driven anticipatory control mechanisms. Finally, rehabilitative recommendations for children with blindness are advanced in discussion. PMID:27165507

  10. Music as a feedback mechanism for teaching head control to severely handicapped children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, R P; Crichton, L; Droog, D

    1981-12-01

    Five profoundly mentally retarded cerebral-palsied children were studied in order to determine the effectiveness of music as a biofeedback mechanism in the training of head control. The method used a Head Position Trainer and Time Event Counter, developed at the Ontario Crippled Children's Centre in Toronto. Improvement was obtained in three of the five children in their ability to control their head movements when music was used as the biofeedback stimulus. However, these results should be treated cautiously because the sample was small and the training period was brief. PMID:7319141

  11. Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Ravishankar; Singhi, Pratibha; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2006-06-01

    Some open-label studies suggest that risperidone can be useful in the treatment of certain target symptoms in children with autism. We aimed to study whether the use of risperidone in comparison with placebo improved functioning in children with autism with regard to behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity, irritability), social and emotional responsiveness, and communication skills. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 40 consecutive children with autism, whose ages ranged from 2 to 9 years, who were receiving either risperidone or placebo given orally at a dose of 1 mg/day for 6 months. Autism symptoms were monitored periodically. The outcome variables were total scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after 6 months. Of the 40 children enrolled, 39 completed the trial over a period of 18 months; 19 received risperidone, and 20 received placebo. In the risperidone group, 12 of 19 children showed improvement in the total Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 17 of 19 children in the Children's Global Assessment Scale score compared with 0 of 20 children for the Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 2 of 20 children for the Children's Global Assessment Scale score in the placebo group (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively). Risperidone also improved social responsiveness and nonverbal communication and reduced the symptoms of hyperactivity and aggression. Risperidone was associated with increased appetite and a mild weight gain, mild sedation in 20%, and transient dyskinesias in three children. Risperidone improved global functioning and social responsiveness while reducing hyperactivity and aggression in children with autism and was well tolerated. PMID:16948927

  12. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  13. Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Seassau, Magali; Gérard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8–13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:25400559

  14. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Benefit from Using Vision in Combination with Touch Information for Quiet Standing

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Woei-Nan; Barela, José A.; Whitall, Jill; Jeka, John J.; Clark, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, the ability to use multisensory information (haptic information, provided by lightly touching a stationary surface, and vision) for quiet standing was examined in typically developing (TD) children, adults, and in 7-year-old children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Four sensory conditions (no touch/no vision, with touch/no vision, no touch/with vision, and with touch/with vision) were employed. In experiment 1, we tested 4-, 6- and 8-year-old TD children and adults to provide a developmental landscape for performance on this task. In experiment 2, we tested a group of 7-year-old children with DCD and their age-matched TD peers. For all groups, touch robustly attenuated standing sway suggesting that children as young as 4 years old use touch information similarly to adults. Touch was less effective in children with DCD compared to their TD peers, especially in attenuating their sway velocity. Children with DCD, unlike their TD peers, also benefited from using vision to reduce sway. The present results suggest that children with DCD benefit from using vision in combination with touch information for standing control possibly due to their less well developed internal models of body orientation and self-motion. Internal model deficits, combined with other known deficits such as postural muscles activation timing deficits, may exacerbate the balance impairment in children with DCD. PMID:21571533

  15. Control of voice gender in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Cartei, Valentina; Cowles, Wind; Banerjee, Robin; Reby, David

    2014-03-01

    Adult listeners are capable of identifying the gender of speakers as young as 4 years old from their voice. In the absence of a clear anatomical dimorphism in the dimensions of pre-pubertal boys' and girls' vocal apparatus, the observed gender differences may reflect children's regulation of their vocal behaviour. A detailed acoustic analysis was conducted of the utterances of 34 6- to 9-year-old children, in their normal voices and also when asked explicitly to speak like a boy or a girl. Results showed statistically significant shifts in fundamental and formant frequency values towards those expected from the sex dimorphism in adult voices. Directions for future research on the role of vocal behaviours in pre-pubertal children's expression of gender are considered. PMID:24372318

  16. Comparing the Effects of Self-Controlled and Examiner-Controlled Feedback on Learning in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Mohamad Hosein; Fatemi, Rouholah; Soroushmoghadam, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feedback can improve task learning in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, the frequency and type of feedback may play different role in learning and needs to more investigations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acquisition and retention of new feedback skills in children with DCD under different frequency of self-control and control examiner feedback. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design, participants based on their retention were divided into four feedback groups: self-controlled feedback groups with frequencies of 50% and75%, experimenter controls with frequencies of 50% and 75%. The study sample consisted of 24 boys with DCD aged between 9 to 11 years old in Ahvaz City, Iran. Then subjects practiced 30 throwing (6 blocks of 5 attempts) in eighth session. Acquisition test immediately after the last training session, and then the retention test were taken. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed no significant difference between groups in the acquisition phase (P > 0.05). However,in the retention session, group of self-control showed better performance than the control tester group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Based on the current findings, self-control feedback with high frequency leads to more learning in DCD children. The results of this study can be used in rehabilitation programs to improve performance and learning in children with DCD. PMID:26834805

  17. Investigating Inhibitory Control in Children with Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606

  18. A Chinese Mind-Body Exercise Improves Self-Control of Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Siu, Nicolson Y.; Lau, Eliza M.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2013-01-01

    Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group) or PMR (control group) twice per week for four weeks. The participants’ self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants’ brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org. PMID:23874533

  19. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  20. The prevention of depressive symptoms in rural school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Clare; Kane, Robert; Thomson, Helen; Bishop, Brian; Hart, Bret

    2003-06-01

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate a prevention program aimed at reducing depressive and anxious symptoms in rural school children. Seventh-grade children with elevated depression were selected. Nine primary schools (n = 90) were randomly assigned to receive the program, and 9 control schools (n = 99) received their usual health education classes. Children completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, explanatory style, and social skills. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1991). No intervention effects were found for depression. Intervention group children reported less anxiety than the control group after the program and at 6-month follow-up and more optimistic explanations at postintervention. Intervention group parents reported fewer child internalizing and externalizing symptoms at postintervention only. PMID:12795585

  1. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6–13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information – selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. PMID:24355653

  2. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Hauser, Peter C

    2014-03-01

    Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6-13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information - selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. PMID:24355653

  3. Conflict control of children with different intellectual levels: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Liu, Jizhong

    2011-02-25

    Conflict control is an important cognitive ability in human behavioral regulation. The Eriksen flanker task was employed to explore the neural correlation between conflict control and intelligence with the aid of event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Two groups of early adolescents with different intellectual levels participated in the current study (an intellectually gifted group of 20 children vs. an intellectually average group of 21 children, with mean scores of 43 vs. 35.7 in Cattell's Culture Fair Test, respectively). Behavioral results indicate that the gifted children had better conflict control performances, with increased accuracy and faster response speeds than the intellectually average children. Electrophysiological results further show that the gifted children had more efficient N2 activations during conflict monitoring processing, faster P3 responses over frontal regions, and stronger P3 activations over central-parietal regions during attentional control processing. The difference waveform analysis showed that the gifted children had the weakest N2d activations when elicited by multiple conflicts. N2d amplitudes can be used to distinguish a stimulus conflict from a response conflict, and P3d amplitudes can be used to separate multiple conflicts from a single conflict. The results support the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence and shed light on the close relationship between conflict control ability and human intelligence. PMID:21182895

  4. Impact on children of a parent with ALS: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca; Benelli, Enrico; Sambin, Marco; Monsurrò, Maria R.; Femiano, Cinzia; Querin, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have explored how patients and their caregivers cope with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the literature completely lacks research on the psychological impact of the disease on patients’ children. The aim of our study was to investigate the emotional and psychological impact of a parent with ALS on school-age children and adolescents in terms of problem behavior, adjustment, and personality characteristics. Methods: The study involved 23 children (mean age = 10.62 years, six females) with a parent suffering from ALS, and both their parents. Children were matched for age, gender, and birth-order with a control group of children with healthy parents. They were administered the Youth Self Report (YSR) questionnaire and the Rorschach Comprehensive System, and their healthy parent completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results: Findings clearly showed that, compared with controls, children with a parent who had ALS had several clinically significant adverse emotional and behavioral consequences, with emotional and behavioral problems, internalizing problems, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Children of a parent with ALS scored higher than controls for the Total Problems, Internalizing Problems, Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn/Depressed scales in the YSR. A relevant percentage of children fell within the clinical range (42.9%) and borderline range (28.6%) for Internalizing Problems. The Rorschach CS confirmed the substantial impact of ALS in a parent on their offspring in terms of internalizing behavior and depression, with adjustment difficulties, psychological pain, and thought problems. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that school-aged children and adolescents with a parent who has ALS are vulnerable and carry a substantially higher risk of internalizing behavior, depressive symptoms, and reactive problems than children with healthy parents. Families affected may need support to cope with such an overwhelming disease

  5. Reflection-Impulsivity and Self-Control in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among children's performance on a simplified version of Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test of conceptual tempo, their IQ, their performance on several measures of self-regulatory behavior, and their general activity level. Subjects were 55 preschool boys and girls. (Author/JMB)

  6. Optical Flow Structure Effects in Children's Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Daniela; Barela, José A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of distance and optic flow structure on visual information and body sway coupling in children and young adults. Thirty children (from 4 to 12 years of age) and 10 young adults stood upright inside of a moving room oscillating at 0.2 Hz, at 0.25 and 1.5 m from the front wall, and under three optical flow conditions (global, central, and peripheral). Effect of distance and optic flow structure on the coupling of visual information and body sway is age-dependent, with 4-year-olds being more affected at 0.25 m distance than older children and adults are. No such difference was observed at 1.5 m from the front wall. Moreover, 4-year-olds' sway was larger and displayed higher variability. These results suggest that despite being able to accommodate change resulting from varying optic flow conditions, young children have difficulty in dodging stronger visual stimuli. Lastly, difference in sway performance may be due to immature inter-modality sensory reweighting. PMID:27352305

  7. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  8. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  9. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  10. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  11. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  12. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  13. Knowledge of Mathematical Equivalence in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Insights from Gesture and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W.; Ryan, Kristin; Evans, Julia L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated understanding of mathematical equivalence in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children (ages 8;1 [years;months] to 11;7), including 9 with expressive SLI (E-SLI), 8 with expressive and receptive SLI (ER-SLI), and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children…

  14. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  15. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  16. Fundamental Movement Skills and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer Comparisons and Stimulant Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…

  17. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Children with Autism: Relationship with Sensory Processing Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Fu, Chung-Pei; Cermak, Sharon A.; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sensory processing (SP) dysfunction and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children with autism and then examine the relationship between the SP dysfunction and emotional and behavioral problems. The parents of 112 children aged 48-84 months (67 with autism; 45 age-matched typically developing)…

  18. Rhythmic Bimanual Coordination Is Impaired in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenhower, Robert W.; Marsh, Kerry L.; Richardson, Michael J.; Helt, Molly; Schmidt, R. C.; Fein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in motor coordination are a common behavioral manifestation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We, therefore, used a drumming methodology to examine rhythmic bimanual coordination in children diagnosed with ASD (M = 47.3 months) and age-matched typically developing (TD) children (M = 42.6 months). Both groups were instructed to drum on…

  19. How do you think she feels? Vulnerability in empathy and the role of attention in school-aged children born extremely preterm.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Horlin, Chiara; Reid, Corinne; McMichael, Judy; Forrest, Laura; Brydges, Chris; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine empathic competence in children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) given vulnerabilities in social relationships. Empathy in typically developing children is mediated by executive functions. Executive functioning is also impaired in preterm children. Of particular interest in this study are the attentional components of executive functioning as mediators of empathic development. Thirty-two 7-year-old EP children and 40 age-matched term children participated in the Project K.I.D.S program and completed the Kids Empathy Development Scale (KEDS), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). Children born extremely preterm exhibited poorer performance on all measures. The mediating role of attention in empathy competence was not supported by mediation modelling when FSIQ was controlled. As predicted, the EP group showed weaker empathic development relative to typically developing children. They also showed poorer attentional abilities. However, the effect of preterm birth on empathy was not mediated by executive-level attention. The cognitive mechanisms underpinning poor empathy competence in EP children remain unclear. Future research needs to examine the role of inhibition, social-emotional recognition, and regulation. PMID:26061791

  20. Attention-Related Eye Vergence Measured in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Solé Puig, Maria; Pérez Zapata, Laura; Puigcerver, Laura; Esperalba Iglesias, Neus; Sanchez Garcia, Carmen; Romeo, August; Cañete Crespillo, Josep; Supèr, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence shows a novel role for eye vergence in orienting attention in adult subjects. Here we investigated whether such modulation in eye vergence by attention is present in children and whether it is altered in children with ADHD compared to control subjects. We therefore measured the angle of eye vergence in children previously diagnosed with ADHD while performing a cue task and compared the results to those from age-matched controls. We observed a strong modulation in the angle of vergence in the control group and a weak modulation in the ADHD group. In addition, in the control group the modulation in eye vergence was different between the informative cue and uninformative cue condition. This difference was less noticeable in the ADHD group. Our study supports the observation of deficient binocular vision in ADHD children. We argue that the observed disruption in vergence modulation in ADHD children is manifest of altered cognitive processing of sensory information. Our work may provide new insights into attention disorders, like ADHD. PMID:26694162

  1. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population. PMID:25810598

  2. Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Experience Reduced Control of Isotonic Force

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tanya T.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Simmons, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can result in diverse and extensive damage to the central nervous system, including the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. Given that these brain regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of motor force, we predicted that prenatal alcohol exposure would adversely affect this parameter of motor control. We previously reported that children with gestational alcohol exposure experience significant deficits in regulating isometric (i.e., constant) force. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these children exhibit similar deficits when producing isotonic (i.e., graded) force. Methods Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and typically developing children completed a series of isotonic force contractions by exerting force on a load cell to match a criterion target force displayed on a computer monitor. Two levels of target force (5% or 20% of maximum voluntary force) were investigated in combination with varying levels of visual feedback. Results Compared to controls, children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure generated isotonic force signals that were less accurate, more variable, and less complex in the time domain compared to control children. Specifically, interactions were found between group and visual feedback for response accuracy and signal complexity, suggesting that these children have greater difficulty altering their motor output when visual feedback is low. Conclusions These data suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure produces deficits in regulating isotonic force, which presumably result from alcohol-related damage to developing brain regions involved in motor control. These children will most likely experience difficulty performing basic motor skills and daily functional skills that require coordination of finely graded force. Therapeutic strategies designed to increase feedback and, consequently, facilitate visual-motor integration could improve isotonic force

  3. Serum levels of ghrelin and obestatin in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying of unclear etiology

    PubMed Central

    Saliakellis, Efstratios; Karatzas, Nikolaos; Iakovou, Ioannis; Farmaki, Evangelia; Varlamis, Georgios; Fotoulaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Ghrelin and obestatin are peptides of the gut-brain axis affecting appetite and gastrointestinal motility. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study to determine pre- and postprandial serum levels of total ghrelin and obestatin along with gastric emptying scintigraphy in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying time (GET), not attributable to any identifiable cause. Results Twenty children with symptoms suggestive of delayed GET, of whom 9 had delayed GET, and 20 age-matched healthy children were enrolled. Preprandial ghrelin and obestatin were higher compared to controls (GHR mean level in patients and controls: 1162 pg/mL and 401 pg/mL respectively; P<0.05; OB mean level in patients and controls: 417 pg/mL and 325 pg/mL respectively; not statistically significant). Postprandial ghrelin was significantly decreased in the subgroup of patients with delayed GET (GHR mean level in children with normal and prolonged GET: 1237 pg/mL and 584 pg/mL respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion Obestatin and ghrelin were deranged in children with symptoms indicative of delayed GET of unexplained etiology. Gastric emptying was prolonged in almost half of the patients thus gastric emptying scintigraphy should be considered in the investigation of children with such symptomatology. PMID:26423109

  4. Predicting the Quality of Composition and Written Language Bursts from Oral Language, Spelling, and Handwriting Skills in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Walter, Kirsty; Critten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Writers typically produce their writing in bursts. In this article, the authors examine written language bursts in a sample of 33 children aged 11 years with specific language impairment. Comparisons of the children with specific language impairment with an age-matched group of typically developing children (n = 33) and a group of younger,…

  5. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  6. Evaluation of postural stability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kenis-Coskun, Ozge; Giray, Esra; Eren, Beyhan; Ozkok, Ozlem; Karadag-Saygi, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postural stability is the ability of to maintain the position of the body within the support area. This function is affected in cerebral palsy. The aim of the present study was to compare static and dynamic postural stability between children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and healthy controls. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven children between the ages of 5 and 14 diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (19 right, 18 left) and 23 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Postural stability was evaluated in both of the groups using a Neurocom Balance. Sway velocity was measured both with the eyes open and closed. Sit to stand and turning abilities were also assessed. [Results] The sway velocities with the eyes open and closed were significantly different between the groups. The weight transfer time in the Sit to Stand test was also significantly slower in children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy also showed slower turning times and greater sway velocities during the Step and Quick Turn test on a force plate compared with their healthy counterparts. [Conclusion] Both static and dynamic postural stability parameters are affected in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Further research is needed to define rehabilitation interventions to improve these parameters in patients. PMID:27313338

  7. Assessment of Sleep in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Louise Victoria; Lomax, Michelle; Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Hare, Dougal Julian; Wraith, James Ed; Jones, Simon; Bigger, Brian; Langford-Smith, Kia; Canal, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III), yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7–10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice. PMID:24504123

  8. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children) completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2) and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6). Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042). At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6%) or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7%) than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p < 0.001). Most children (75.5%) enjoyed playing the game and teachers considered it a useful resource. Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour. PMID:20219104

  9. Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

    2014-07-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  10. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  11. Deficient Brainstem Encoding of Pitch in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Russo, N. M.; Skoe, E.; Trommer, B.; Nicol, T.; Zecker, S.; Bradlow, A.; Kraus, N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Deficient prosody is a hallmark of the pragmatic (socially contextualized) language impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Prosody communicates emotion and intention and is conveyed through acoustic cues such as pitch contour. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the subcortical representations of prosodic speech in children with ASD. Methods Using passively-evoked brainstem responses to speech syllables with descending and ascending pitch contours, we examined sensory encoding of pitch in children with ASD who had normal intelligence and hearing and were age-matched with typically-developing (TD) control children. Results We found that some children on the autism spectrum show deficient pitch tracking (evidenced by increased frequency and slope errors and reduced phase locking) compared with TD children. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of subcortical involvement in prosody encoding deficits in this population of children. Significance Our findings may have implications for diagnostic and remediation strategies in a subset of children with ASD and open up an avenue for future investigations. PMID:18558508

  12. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Macwhinney, Brian

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  13. CLOCK DRAWING IN CHILDREN WITH PERI-NATAL STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Yousefian, Omid; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Doo, Alex; Trauner, Doris A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with peri-natal stroke may show evidence of contralateral spatial neglect. The goal of this study was to determine whether a clock drawing task commonly used in adults to identify neglect would be effective in detecting neglect in children with peri-natal stroke. METHODS Thirty-eight individuals (age range 6–21 years) with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) peri-natal onset unilateral lesions and one hundred seventy-nine age-matched controls were given the free-drawn Clock Drawing Task (CDT) in a cross-sectional design. An adapted scoring system that evaluated right- and left-sided errors separately was developed as part of the investigation. RESULTS Children with LH lesions made a greater number of errors on both the right and left sides of the clock drawings in all age subgroups (6–8 years, 9–14 years, and 15–21 years) compared to controls. Children with RH lesions showed greater left and right errors in the younger groups compared to controls, with significantly poorer performance on the left at 6–8 years, suggestive of contralateral neglect. However, by ages 15–21 years, the RH lesion subjects no longer differed from controls. CONCLUSIONS Clock drawing can identify spatial neglect in children with early hemispheric damage. However, brain development is a dynamic process, and as children age, spatial neglect may no longer be evident. These findings demonstrate the limitations of predicting long-term outcome after peri-natal stroke from early neuro-cognitive data. Children with peri-natal stroke may require different neural pathways to accomplish specific skills or to overcome deficits, but ultimately they may have “typical” outcomes. PMID:26002051

  14. EXECUTIVE FUNCTION PROFILES IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee; Eichorn, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    We present findings from a study that focused on specific executive functions (EF) in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We analyzed performance patterns and EF profiles (spatial working memory, inhibition control, and sustained attention) in school-age SLI children and two control groups: age-matched and language matched. Our main research goal was to identify those EFs that show a weakness in children with SLI. Our specific aims were to: (1) examine whether the EF problems in children with SLI are domain-general; (2) examine whether deficits in EF in children with SLI can be explained by the general slowness hypothesis or by an overall delay in development; (3) compare EF profiles to examine whether children with SLI show a distinct pattern of performance from their peers. Our findings showed different EF profiles for the groups. We observed differences in performance patterns related to age (e.g., reaction time in response inhibition) and differences related to language status (e.g., sensitivity to interference). The findings show interesting associations in EFs that play a crucial role in language processing. PMID:25302062

  15. Hyperbaric treatment for children with autism: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Rossignol, Lanier W; Smith, Scott; Schneider, Cindy; Logerquist, Sally; Usman, Anju; Neubrander, Jim; Madren, Eric M; Hintz, Gregg; Grushkin, Barry; Mumper, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Background Several uncontrolled studies of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism have reported clinical improvements; however, this treatment has not been evaluated to date with a controlled study. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism. Methods 62 children with autism recruited from 6 centers, ages 2–7 years (mean 4.92 ± 1.21), were randomly assigned to 40 hourly treatments of either hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atmosphere (atm) and 24% oxygen ("treatment group", n = 33) or slightly pressurized room air at 1.03 atm and 21% oxygen ("control group", n = 29). Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Results After 40 sessions, mean physician CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0008), receptive language (p < 0.0001), social interaction (p = 0.0473), and eye contact (p = 0.0102); 9/30 children (30%) in the treatment group were rated as "very much improved" or "much improved" compared to 2/26 (8%) of controls (p = 0.0471); 24/30 (80%) in the treatment group improved compared to 10/26 (38%) of controls (p = 0.0024). Mean parental CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0336), receptive language (p = 0.0168), and eye contact (p = 0.0322). On the ABC, significant improvements were observed in the treatment group in total score, irritability, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and speech (p < 0.03 for each), but not in the control group. In the treatment group compared to the control group, mean changes on the ABC total score and subscales were similar except a greater number of children improved in irritability (p = 0.0311). On the ATEC, sensory/cognitive awareness significantly improved (p = 0.0367) in the treatment group

  16. Typhoid Fever in Young Children in Bangladesh: Clinical Findings, Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, Md. Abu; Choudhury, Feroza Kaneez; Sheikh, Alaullah; Ahmed, Dilruba; Goswami, Doli; Hossain, Md. Lokman; Brooks, Abdullah; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Charles, Richelle C.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains. Methods As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest) during acute typhoid fever in adults. We similarly assessed membrane preparation (MP) IgA responses in young children at clinical presentation, and then 7-10 days and 21-28 days later. We also assessed plasma IgA, IgG and IgM responses and T cell proliferation responses to MP at these time points. We compared responses in young children (1-5 years) with those seen in older children (6-17 years), adults (18-59 years), and age-matched healthy controls. Principal Findings We found that, compared to age-matched controls patients in all age cohorts had significantly more MP-IgA responses in lymphocyte secretion at clinical presentation, and the values fell in all groups by late convalescence. Similarly, plasma IgA responses in patients were elevated at presentation compared to controls, with acute and convalescent IgA and IgG responses being highest in adults. T cell proliferative responses increased in all age cohorts by late convalescence. Clinical characteristics were similar in all age cohorts, although younger children were more likely to present with loss of appetite, less likely to complain of headache compared to older cohorts, and adults were more likely to have ingested antibiotics. Multi-drug resistant strains were present in approximately 15% of each age cohort, and 97% strains had resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions This study demonstrates that S. Typhi bacteremia is associated with comparable clinical courses, immunologic responses in various age cohorts

  17. Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

  18. Parenting Young Children with and without Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used…

  19. Discourse Formulation in Children with Closed Head Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Emma; Moran, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In this study, narrative and expository discourse-retelling abilities were compared in 9 children with closed head injury (CHI) age 9;5-15;3 (years;months) and 9 typically developing age-matched peers. Narrative and expository retellings were analyzed according to language variables (i.e., number of words, number of T-units, and sentential…

  20. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Background In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM) children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children. Methods In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50) with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354). Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline. Results The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion and Significance We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case

  1. The effect of face exploration on postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to explore how face exploration affects postural control in healthy children. The novelty here is that eye movements and posture were simultaneously recorded. Three groups of children participated in the study: 12 children of 7.8±0.5 years old, 13 children of 10.4±0.5 years old and 12 children of 15.7±0.9 years old. Eye movements were recorded by video-oculography and postural stability was recorded by a platform. Children were invited to explore five emotional faces (neutral, happy, sad fear and angry). Analysis of eye movements was done on saccadic latency, percentage of exploration time spent and number of saccades for each specific region of interest (ROI): eyes, nose and mouth. Analysis of posture was made on surface area, sway length and mean velocity of the center of pressures (CoP). Results showed that visual strategies, exploration and postural control develop during childhood and adolescence. Indeed, after nine years-old, children started to look the eyes ROI firstly, then the nose ROI and finally the mouth ROI. The number of saccades decreased with the age of children. The percentage of exploration time spent in eyes ROI was longer than the others ROIs and greater for unpleasant faces (sad, fear and angry) with respect to pleasant emotional face (happy). We found that in front of sad and happy faces the surface area of the CoP was significantly larger compared to other faces (neutral and angry). These results suggest that visual strategies and postural control change during children's development and can be influenced by the emotional face. PMID:26050875

  2. [Illness concepts of children. Validation of a modified locus of control test in illness and health].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Altmann-Herz, U

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the health and illness concepts of 53 healthy children aged 8 to 14 years using a modified illness and health locus of control scale (KKG, Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) with the scales internal, external-p (powerful others) and external-c (chance). A comparison of the results with those on self-esteem (FSK 4-6), anxiety (CMAS-R) and hopelessness (HSC) scales showed a decrease in externality, but not an increase in internality, with increasing age and a correlation between self-confidence and a more internal locus of control. The influence of children's health locus of control on treatment compliance is discussed. PMID:1288033

  3. Inhibitory control mediates the relationship between depressed mood and overgeneral memory recall in children.

    PubMed

    Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this relationship. One hundred thirty-five children (ages 9-13) completed measures assessing depressive symptoms, AM specificity, and inhibitory control. The results showed that depressed mood is positively associated with OGM and that inhibitory control mediated this relationship. PMID:20390819

  4. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  5. Theory of mind, inhibitory control, and preschool-age children's suggestibility in different interviewing contexts.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Matthew H; Bonner, Karri

    2006-02-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of mind aided in the prediction of suggestibility about the live event, and inhibitory control was a moderator variable affecting the consistency of children's sensitivity to social pressure across situations. The findings indicate that theory of mind and inhibitory control predict children's suggestibility about a live event above and beyond yield, shift, and age and that the construct validity of shift may improve as children's inhibitory control develops. PMID:16236306

  6. Effects of Social Reinforcement, Locus of Control, and Cognitive Style on Concept Learning among Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panda, Kailas C.

    To examine the effects of locus of control (the extent to which an individual feels he has control over his own behavior) and cognitive style variables on learning deficits among mentally handicapped children, 80 mentally retarded boys (IQ 50 to 83, age 160 to 196 months) were administered a battery of tests. Analyses of student performance…

  7. Respect-Based Control and Anger as Determinants of Children's Socio-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awong, Tsasha; Grusec, Joan E.; Sorenson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Shortly after the birth of their infants, teenage working-class mothers were assessed on attitudes toward the need for deference to family authority (respect-based control) and anger. Their children's internalizing and externalizing problems and self-esteem were assessed approximately 12 years later. High respect-based control was linked to higher…

  8. Establishing Derived Textual Control in Activity Schedules with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Yang, Heejean G.; Finn, Heather E.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Activity schedules are often used to facilitate task engagement and transition for children with autism. This study evaluated whether conditional discrimination training would serve to transfer the control from activity-schedule pictures to printed words (i.e., derived textual control). Two preschoolers with autism were taught to select pictures…

  9. Validity of a Measure of Children's Health Locus of Control: A Second-Order Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    The study reported in this paper investigated the structure of the health locus of control beliefs of elementary school children using second-order factor analysis and the measurement characteristics of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales. Changes of wording were made in 10 of the MHLC Scales items in order to improve the…

  10. The Impact of Inattention and Emotional Problems on Cognitive Control in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the predictive value of parent/teacher reports of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control function in 241 children in primary school. Method: Cognitive control was measured by functions of set-shifting and working memory as assessed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function…

  11. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  12. An Investigation of Control among Parents of Selectively Mute, Anxious, and Non-Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…

  13. Grip Force Control Is Dependent on Task Constraints in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Sui-Heung; Lo, Sing Kai; Chow, Susanna; Cheing, Gladys L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive grip force (GF) is often found in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, their GF control may vary when task constraints are imposed upon their motor performance. This study aimed to investigate how their GF control changes in response to task demands, and to examine their tactile sensitivity. Twenty-one…

  14. The Effect of Peer Modeling on Self-Control in Children: An Alternative to Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.

    Peer modeling as a non-punitive disciplinary technique was examined in two studies assessing its effectiveness in increasing self-control of young children in the absence of an authority figure. The first study investigated the effect of observing the rule-following behavior of a peer model on the observing child's subsequent self-control.…

  15. Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group…

  16. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  17. Paradoxes of Social Control: Children's Perspectives and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Marsha

    1998-01-01

    Describes an action research project that explored whether internally negotiated group control was possible among preadolescents in school settings. Presents John Dewey's thoughts on social control. Discusses study of students' perspectives and actions concerning authority issues and social control. Describes a social studies curriculum used to…

  18. Injury Prevention and Control for Children and Youth. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widome, Mark D., Ed.

    This book was compiled for pediatricians and others who are interested in the control of pediatric injuries. The manual's three sections are: (1) "The Field of Pediatric Injury Prevention and Control," which provides a broad overview of the field and highlights the roles of the pediatrician in the control of injuries and a developmental approach…

  19. Action planning and position sense in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Adams, Imke L J; Ferguson, Gillian D; Lust, Jessica M; Steenbergen, Bert; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined action planning and position sense in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Participants performed two action planning tasks, the sword task and the bar grasping task, and an active elbow matching task to examine position sense. Thirty children were included in the DCD group (aged 6-10years) and age-matched to 90 controls. The DCD group had a MABC-2 total score ⩽5th percentile, the control group a total score ⩾25th percentile. Results from the sword-task showed that children with DCD planned less for end-state comfort. On the bar grasping task no significant differences in planning for end-state comfort between the DCD and control group were found. There was also no significant difference in the position sense error between the groups. The present study shows that children with DCD plan less for end-state comfort, but that this result is task-dependent and becomes apparent when more precision is needed at the end of the task. In that respect, the sword-task appeared to be a more sensitive task to assess action planning abilities, than the bar grasping task. The action planning deficit in children with DCD cannot be explained by an impaired position sense during active movements. PMID:26796420

  20. Alterations in White Matter Structure in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Raman, Mira; Mazaika, Paul; Marzelli, Matthew; Hershey, Tamara; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Aye, Tandy; Buckingham, Bruce; Mauras, Nelly; White, Neil H.; Fox, Larry A.; Tansey, Michael; Beck, Roy W.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether type 1 diabetes affects white matter (WM) structure in a large sample of young children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Children (ages 4 to <10 years) with type 1 diabetes (n = 127) and age-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 67) had diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans in this multisite neuroimaging study. Participants with type 1 diabetes were assessed for HbA1c history and lifetime adverse events, and glucose levels were monitored using a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) device and standardized measures of cognition. RESULTS Between-group analysis showed that children with type 1 diabetes had significantly reduced axial diffusivity (AD) in widespread brain regions compared with control subjects. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes was associated with increased radial diffusivity (RD) and longer duration was associated with reduced AD, reduced RD, and increased fractional anisotropy (FA). In addition, HbA1c values were significantly negatively associated with FA values and were positively associated with RD values in widespread brain regions. Significant associations of AD, RD, and FA were found for CGM measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability but not for hypoglycemia. Finally, we observed a significant association between WM structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes but not in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest vulnerability of the developing brain in young children to effects of type 1 diabetes associated with chronic hyperglycemia and glucose variability. PMID:24319123

  1. Development of reading-related skills in Chinese and English among Hong Kong Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Law, Ada Bui-Yan; Li, Tong; Cheung, Amelie Cho-Yi; Wong, Anita M-Y; Shu, Hua

    2014-06-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8years of age. Three groups of 15 children each-those with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls-participated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8years of age. All children were tested on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), morphological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also speed of processing skill. AM controls outperformed the group with dyslexia on all measures except for phonological awareness, English word reading, and vocabulary. However, those with dyslexia and AM controls developed at a similar rate across all reading-related skills from 6 to 8years of age. Compared with the RM controls, the group with dyslexia scored higher in phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also in English word reading but scored similarly in RAN. Children with dyslexia, thus, manifested clear difficulties in Chinese vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, and RAN as well as general speed of processing, representing a developmental lag in cognitive skills. Among these, RAN deficits are likely to be the most severe deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:24530801

  2. Catecholamine response to exercise in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wigal, Sharon B; Nemet, Dan; Swanson, James M; Regino, Roland; Trampush, Joey; Ziegler, Michael G; Cooper, Dan M

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in catecholamine (CA) response to exercise between children who had received a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and age- and gender-matched controls. On the basis of the notion of a CA dysfunction in ADHD, we reasoned that the normal robust increase in circulating CA seen in response to exercise would be blunted in children with ADHD. To test this, we recruited 10 treatment-naïve children with newly diagnosed ADHD and 8 age-matched controls (all male) and measured CA response to an exercise test in which the work was scaled to each subject's physical capability. After exercise, epinephrine and norepinephrine increased in both control and ADHD subjects (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002, respectively), but the responses were substantially blunted in the ADHD group (p = 0.018) even though the work performed did not differ from controls. Circulating dopamine increased significantly in the control subjects (p < 0.016), but no increase was noted in the subjects with ADHD. Finally, a significant attenuation in the lactate response to exercise was found in ADHD (between groups, p < 0.005). Our data suggest that CA excretion after exercise challenges in children with ADHD is deficient. This deficiency can be detected using a minimally invasive, nonpharmacologic challenge. PMID:12621106

  3. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  4. The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Knecht, Anya M.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ min of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait-list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait-list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control. PMID:23487583

  5. Differences of biased recall memory for emotional information among children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, children and adolescents with MDD, and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Fattahi Asl, Abouzar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mollazade, Javad; Aflakseir, Abdolaziz

    2015-08-15

    This study examines explicit memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were a convenient sample of 28 children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, 28 children and adolescents with MDD, and 29 healthy controls. Their age range was 11-17 years old. The groups were matched for gender ratio, mean age, and the years of educational level. They were assessed by the Recall Task. Emotional stimuli consisted of three sets of words namely sad, happy, and neutral words. Children and adolescents of mothers with MDD similar to children and adolescents with MDD recalled more sadness stimuli in comparison with the controls. In other words, they showed an explicit memory bias towards sad stimuli. Also, healthy children significantly recalled more happy words than the other two groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups for the recall of neutral stimuli. Current findings support that there is a recall memory bias for emotional information in children with MDD. These children more than healthy children recall sad words. Moreover, healthy children recall happy words more than children with MDD. PMID:25998002

  6. Glycemic Control in Kenyan Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ngwiri, Thomas; Were, Fred; Predieri, Barbara; Ngugi, Paul; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common endocrine disorder in children and adolescents worldwide. While data about prevalence, treatment, and complications are recorded in many countries, few data exist for Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control in patients with T1DM aged 1–19 years over a 6-month period in 3 outpatient Kenyan clinics. It also sought to determine how control was influenced by parameters of patient and treatment. Methods. Eighty-two children and adolescents with T1DM were included in the study. Clinical history regarding duration of illness, type and dose of insulin, and recent symptoms of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia were recorded. Glycaemia, HbA1c, and ketonuria were tested. HbA1c of 8.0% and below was defined as the cut-off for acceptable control. Results. The median HbA1c for the study population was 11.1% (range: 6.3–18.8). Overall, only 28% of patients had reasonable glycemic control as defined in this study. 72% therefore had poor control. It was also found that age above 12 years was significantly associated with poor control. Conclusions. African children and with T1DM are poorly controlled particularly in adolescents. Our data strongly support the necessity of Kenya children to receive more aggressive management and follow-up. PMID:26494998

  7. The impact of maternal control on children's anxious cognitions, behaviours and affect: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy

    2010-10-01

    Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety. PMID:20594546

  8. Fitness and ERP Indices of Cognitive Control Mode during Task Preparation in Preadolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive vs. reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness. We compared performance of lower-fit and higher-fit children on a modified AX-continuous performance task, commonly used to examine shifts in the use of proactive and reactive control, along with cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited greater response accuracy for BX (non-target cue - target probe) relative to AY (target cue - non-target probe) trials, whereas lower-fit children had comparable response accuracies for AY and BX trials. Because enhanced BX performance and impaired AY performance may be attributed to the proactive use of context information, these results suggest that greater childhood fitness is associated with more effective utilization of proactive control. Higher-fit children also exhibited larger cue-P3 amplitude and smaller CNV amplitude for BX relative to AY trials, with no such effect of trial type in lower-fit children. These ERP results suggest that greater fitness is associated with more effective utilization of cue information and response preparation more appropriate to trial type, supporting the behavioral findings. The present study provides novel insights into the relationship between fitness and cognition from the perspective of cognitive control mode during task preparation. PMID:27625604

  9. Fitness and ERP Indices of Cognitive Control Mode during Task Preparation in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive vs. reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness. We compared performance of lower-fit and higher-fit children on a modified AX-continuous performance task, commonly used to examine shifts in the use of proactive and reactive control, along with cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited greater response accuracy for BX (non-target cue – target probe) relative to AY (target cue – non-target probe) trials, whereas lower-fit children had comparable response accuracies for AY and BX trials. Because enhanced BX performance and impaired AY performance may be attributed to the proactive use of context information, these results suggest that greater childhood fitness is associated with more effective utilization of proactive control. Higher-fit children also exhibited larger cue-P3 amplitude and smaller CNV amplitude for BX relative to AY trials, with no such effect of trial type in lower-fit children. These ERP results suggest that greater fitness is associated with more effective utilization of cue information and response preparation more appropriate to trial type, supporting the behavioral findings. The present study provides novel insights into the relationship between fitness and cognition from the perspective of cognitive control mode during task preparation. PMID:27625604

  10. Onchocerciasis infection in children born during 14 years of Simulium control in West Africa.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of onchocerciasis infection in children born since the start of vector control is one of the indicators used in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). Though initially of littel value, after a decade of control it has become a sensitive indicator of residual transmission. The results of 14 years of control are reported. In 179 villages parasitological surveys were undertaken at intervals of 3-4 years. 15,286 children were examined and 110 were found to be infected, compared to an expected number of 2467 infected had there been no control. There was considerable geographical variation in the results. In the large central OCP area the results were excellent. Of 12,172 children examined in 127 villages, only 23 were found to be infected compared to an expected number of 1960 without control. This suggests that larviciding had achieved a 99% reduction in the incidence of infection in children. Additional surveys in 2 foci in the central OCP area where transmission had relapsed showed that these problems were very localized. Most villages with infected children were found in OCP border areas in the east and west, which had been reinvaded by infective vectors from elsewhere, and in the intermediate area between forest and savanna in Côte d'Ivoire where there had been partial control failures because of resistance. The incidence of infection in children was reduced by an estimated 68% in the eastern reinvaded area, by 87% in the western reinvaded area, and by 84% in the intermediate area. PMID:1949145

  11. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration. PMID:26162071

  12. The relationship between clinical attachment loss and the duration of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Firatli, E; Yilmaz, O; Onan, U

    1996-04-01

    The periodontal status of 77 diabetic children and adolescents, and 77 paired, systemically-healthy, sex- and age-matched control subjects, was clinical examined. Fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) values were determined. The mean periodontal pocket depths, clinical attachment levels and the parameters to assess diabetes mellitus from the diabetic group were significantly higher than those of the controls. We found a positive correlation between the duration of diabetes and clinical attachment loss, but not with periodontal probing depth, plaque index and gingival index in the diabetic group. A positive correlation was also assessed between the present serum fructosamine and gingival index in the diabetic group, but not in controls. PMID:8739168

  13. Upper Airway Collapsibility During REM Sleep in Children with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie R.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Glinka, Stephen M.; Samuel, John M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: In children, most obstructive events occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We hypothesized that children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), in contrast to age-matched control subjects, would not maintain airflow in the face of an upper airway inspiratory pressure drop during REM sleep. Design: During slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep, we measured airflow, inspiratory time, inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation at a holding pressure at which flow limitation occurred and at 5 cm H2O below the holding pressure in children with OSAS and in control subjects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen children with OSAS and 23 normal control subjects. Results: In both sleep states, control subjects were able to maintain airflow, whereas subjects with OSAS preserved airflow in SWS but had a significant decrease in airflow during REM sleep (change in airflow of 18.58 ± 12.41 mL/s for control subjects vs −44.33 ± 14.09 mL/s for children with OSAS, P = 0.002). Although tidal volume decreased, patients with OSAS were able to maintain minute ventilation by increasing the respiratory rate and also had an increase in inspiratory time and inspiratory time per total respiratory cycle time Conclusion: Children with OSAS do not maintain airflow in the face of upper-airway inspiratory-pressure drops during REM sleep, indicating a more collapsible upper airway, compared with that of control subjects during REM sleep. However, compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain minute ventilation. Local reflexes, central control mechanisms, or both reflexes and control mechanisms need to be further explored to better understand the pathophysiology of this abnormality and the compensation mechanism. Citation: Huang J; Karamessinis LR; Pepe ME; Glinka SM; Samuel JM; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Upper airway collapsibility during REM sleep in children with the obstructive sleep apnea

  14. Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension*

    PubMed Central

    FILIPPI, ROBERTO; MORRIS, JOHN; RICHARDSON, FIONA M.; BRIGHT, PETER; THOMAS, MICHAEL S. C.; KARMILOFF-SMITH, ANNETTE; MARIAN, VIORICA

    2014-01-01

    Studies measuring inhibitory control in the visual modality have shown a bilingual advantage in both children and adults. However, there is a lack of developmental research on inhibitory control in the auditory modality. This study compared the comprehension of active and passive English sentences in 7–10 years old bilingual and monolingual children. The task was to identify the agent of a sentence in the presence of verbal interference. The target sentence was cued by the gender of the speaker. Children were instructed to focus on the sentence in the target voice and ignore the distractor sentence. Results indicate that bilinguals are more accurate than monolinguals in comprehending syntactically complex sentences in the presence of linguistic noise. This supports previous findings with adult participants (Filippi, Leech, Thomas, Green & Dick, 2012). We therefore conclude that the bilingual advantage in interference control begins early in life and is maintained throughout development. PMID:26146479

  15. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation. PMID:26314089

  16. Bilingualism enriches the poor: enhanced cognitive control in low-income minority children.

    PubMed

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Cruz-Santos, Anabela; Tourinho, Carlos J; Martin, Romain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether the cognitive advantage associated with bilingualism in executive functioning extends to young immigrant children challenged by poverty and, if it does, which specific processes are most affected. In the study reported here, 40 Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilingual children from low-income immigrant families in Luxembourg and 40 matched monolingual children from Portugal completed visuospatial tests of working memory, abstract reasoning, selective attention, and interference suppression. Two broad cognitive factors of executive functioning-representation (abstract reasoning and working memory) and control (selective attention and interference suppression)-emerged from principal component analysis. Whereas there were no group differences in representation, the bilinguals performed significantly better than did the monolinguals in control. These results demonstrate, first, that the bilingual advantage is neither confounded with nor limited by socioeconomic and cultural factors and, second, that separable aspects of executive functioning are differentially affected by bilingualism. The bilingual advantage lies in control but not in visuospatial representational processes. PMID:23044796

  17. The role of inhibitory control in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task.

    PubMed

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated Stroop task, were paired with classmates into 125 dyads, and were observed during a 10-min puzzle task. Results confirmed that interaction partners exhibited similar levels of cooperative behaviors, and the cooperative behaviors of children predicted changes in the cooperative behaviors of their partners throughout the puzzle task. Cooperative behaviors of each interaction partner were predicted by the child's own inhibitory control as well as the inhibitory control of the partner. Findings are discussed within a developmental contextual framework. PMID:21645907

  18. Fish Oil Intake and Seizure Control in Children with Medically Resistant Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Diala Mohamed Ali; Abd-El-Fatah, Nesrin Kamal; Omar, Tarek El-Sayed Ismail; Darwish, Olfat Abdel Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence which suggests that Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. Aim: The study was to investigate the effect of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (as fish oil supplementation) in reducing the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Materials and Methods: In the case-control study, a total of 70 children with medically resistant epilepsy underwent assessment of the frequency and severity of the epileptic attacks at baseline, after one month, two months and three months from the beginning of the study; 35 children received fish oil and the other 35 children received placebo. Results: The number of children who received fish oil, having 0 epileptic attacks increased from 0%, before starting the study, up to 57.1% at the end of the third month, while the improvement was minimal in the placebo group, with a significant difference in the improvement between the intervention and the control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement in the severity of the seizures either between cases and control or between the beginning and the end of the study. Conclusion: Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elevated the seizure threshold in epileptic patients and may help in achieving seizure control. PMID:26258079

  19. Aerobic Capacity and Cognitive Control in Elementary School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Scudder, Mark R.; Lambourne, Kate; Drollette, Eric S.; Herrmann, Stephen; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the relationship between children’s performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) subtest of the FitnessGram® and aspects of cognitive control that are believed to support academic success. Methods Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 2nd and 3rd grade children (n = 397) who completed modified versions of a flanker task and spatial n-back task to assess inhibitory control and working memory, respectively. Results Greater aerobic fitness was significantly related to shorter reaction time and superior accuracy during the flanker task, suggesting better inhibitory control and the facilitation of attention in higher fit children. A similar result was observed for the n-back task such that higher fit children exhibited more accurate target detection and discrimination performance when working memory demands were increased. Conclusion These findings support the positive association between aerobic fitness and multiple aspects of cognitive control in a large sample of children, using a widely implemented and reliable field estimate of aerobic capacity. Importantly, the current results suggest that this relationship is consistent across methods used to assess fitness, which may have important implications for extending this research to more representative samples of children in a variety of experimental contexts. PMID:24743109

  20. Brief Report: Compliance and Noncompliance to Parental Control Strategies in Children with High-Functioning Autism and Their Typical Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Crystal I.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined children's compliance and noncompliance behaviors in response to parental control strategies in 20 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 20 matched typically-developing children. Observational coding was used to measure child compliance (committed, situational), noncompliance (passive, defiance, self-assertion,…

  1. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon; Levin, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study described was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-five children and their parents were randomly assigned to either intervention or wait-list control conditions. Children in the intervention participated in six 2-h…

  3. Exercise performance in children with asthma: is it different from that of healthy controls?

    PubMed

    Santuz, P; Baraldi, E; Filippone, M; Zacchello, F

    1997-06-01

    Exercise tolerance and possible limitation in work capacity of asthmatic children is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare ventilation and gas exchange response to exercise of asthmatic children with that of healthy controls. Exercise performance was evaluated in 80 children with mild-to-moderate asthma, aged 7-15 yrs, and in 80 healthy controls matched for age, height, weight and habitual level of physical activity. The children performed a maximal exercise test on a treadmill, during which oxygen uptake (V'O2), carbon dioxide output (V'CO2) and minute ventilation (V'E) were measured continuously. No premedication was given to the asthmatic children. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at rest was 93+/-11% of predicted in asthmatic children and 95+/-9% pred in controls. After the run, the mean fall in FEV1 was 13.9% (range 0-57%) and 1.6% (0-9%), respectively (p<0.001). The two groups achieved similar maximum oxygen uptake (V'O2,max) ((mean+/-SD) 40.3+/-8.4 and 42.6+/-9.6 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) in asthmatics and controls, respectively; NS) and maximum minute ventilation output (V'E,max) (42.9+/-14.8 and 45.7+/-14.9 L x min(-1) respectively; NS). The kinetics of V'O2, V'CO2 and V'E during the test revealed no differences between the two populations. Moreover, anaerobic threshold and oxygen pulse were the same in the two groups. Asthmatics showed a ventilatory pattern with lower respiratory frequencies and greater tidal volumes during the run. These results suggest that asthmatic children can achieve a level of exercise performance similar to that of healthy children, provided that they have a comparable level of habitual physical activity. The only difference found concerned the ventilatory pattern of the asthmatic children, which was characterized by a reduced respiratory frequency and greater tidal volume at the same minute ventilation. The level of physical conditioning was found to be the main determinant of exercise tolerance

  4. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  5. Oral and Written Discourse Skills in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: The Role of Reading and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the discourse skills of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children by comparing their oral and written narratives produced for the wordless picture book, "Frog, Where Are You?" (Mayer, 1969), with those of school-age-matched hearing peers. The written stories produced by 42 Italian 7- to 15-year-old children with…

  6. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  7. Mind and Body: Concepts of Human Cognition, Physiology and False Belief in Children with Autism or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4), 579-600],…

  8. Productive Use of the English Past Tense in Children with Focal Brain Injury and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Saccuman, Cristina; Wulfeck, Beverly

    2004-01-01

    In this study, 22 children with early left hemisphere (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) focal brain lesions (FL, n=14 LHD, n=8 RHD) were administered an English past tense elicitation test (M=6.5 years). Proportion correct and frequency of overregularization and zero-marking errors were compared to age-matched samples of children with specific…

  9. Context Processing and Cognitive Control in Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Reimer, Jason F.

    2008-01-01

    T. S. Braver and colleagues (e.g., T. S. Braver, J. D. Cohen, & D. M. Barch, 2002) have provided a theory of cognitive control that focuses on the role of context processing. According to their theory, an underlying context-processing mechanism is responsible for the cognitive control functions of attention, inhibition, and working memory. In the…

  10. Evaluation of sleep disturbances in children with epilepsy: a questionnaire-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bosco; Cheong, Eric Yau Kin; Ng, Sui Fun Grace; Chan, Yick Chun; Lee, Qun Ui; Chan, Kwok Yin

    2011-08-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder accompanied by a wide range of comorbid conditions that can adversely affect the quality of life of children. Sleep disturbances not only predispose children to mood, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, but also have a significant impact on physical health. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep patterns among Chinese children with epilepsy and healthy subjects in Hong Kong, and examine the relationship between parent-reported sleep problems and specific epilepsy parameters. We conducted a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, case-control study and included 63 children with epilepsy and 169 healthy children aged between 4 and 12 years. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used as an assessment tool. Our results indicated that children with epilepsy have similar sleep patterns but greater sleep disturbances compared with healthy subjects. Sleep problems should not be overlooked, and a comprehensive review of the sleep habits of this group of patients should be conducted. PMID:21704566

  11. The effect of postural control and balance on femoral anteversion in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Gulsen, Mustafa; Ozturk, Basar; Cetin, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between femoral anteversion and functional balance and postural control in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty children with spastic cerebral palsy (mean age=12.4 ± 4.5) with grosss motor functional classification system levels I, II, and III were recruited for this study. Functional balance was evaluated using the Pediatric Balance Scale, postural control was evaluated using the Trunk Control Measurement Scale, and femoral anteversion was assessed with a handheld goniometer using the great trochanter prominence method. [Results] The results indicated that there was significant correlation between femoral anteversion and Trunk Control Measurement Scale dynamic reaching score. There were no significant correlation between femoral anteversion and the Trunk Control Measurement Scale static sitting balance, Trunk Control Measurement Scale selective movement control, total Trunk Control Measurement Scale and Pediatric Balance Scale results. [Conclusion] Increased femoral anteversion has not correlation with functional balance, static sitting, and selective control of the trunk. Femoral anteversion is related to dynamic reaching activities of the trunk, and this may be the result of excessive internal pelvic rotation. It is important for the health professionals to understand that increased femoral anteversion needs to be corrected because in addition to leading to femoral internal rotation during walking, it also effects dynamic reaching activities of spastic children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27390397

  12. The validity of post-concussion syndrome in children: a controlled historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nacajauskaite, Olga; Endziniene, Milda; Jureniene, Kristina; Schrader, Harald

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this controlled historical cohort study was to assess the validity of post-concussion syndrome in children. We identified 301 children aged 4-15 years who had sustained an isolated brain concussion, and another group of 301 children who sustained any other mild body injury excluding the head. Parents from both groups filled in standardized questionnaires containing questions about the health condition of the children: headache, neck pain, dizziness, malaise, fatigability, exercise or noise intolerance, irritability, weepiness, sadness, anxiety, nocturnal enuresis, tics, sleep disorders, memory or learning difficulties, hyperactivity, seizures, attention disorder, buzzing in the ears, subjective parental concerns about the child's health condition, and parental concerns about their child having a brain disorder. The severity of the complaints was rated on the Visual Analogue Scale. After the final exclusion, 102 pairs strictly matched by sex, age, and the date of trauma were analyzed. The differences of parental complaints about the health condition of their children between case and control groups were statistically insignificant for all symptoms, except parental concerns about their child having brain damage which were significantly higher in the case group. The likelihood of parental concerns about the possibility of their child having brain damage was 2.7 times higher in the case group. Headache, learning difficulties, and sleep disorders were significant variables predicting the concerns. These results question the validity of the post-concussion syndrome in children. PMID:16682158

  13. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  14. The evaluation of body image in children with type 1 diabetes: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Troncone, Alda; Prisco, Francesco; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Zanfardino, Angela; Iafusco, Dario

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the body image perception in children with type 1 diabetes in order to identify symptoms of disordered eating behaviours early. Children with type 1 diabetes and controls showed underestimation and dissatisfaction with body size. The patients, especially girls, were more accurate in their perception of body size than the control group. The study sheds light on some of the underlying factors that may contribute to the development of disordered eating behaviours in adolescence. The causes of the differences of perception of body size are discussed. PMID:24752557

  15. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  16. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  17. Intact perception but abnormal orientation towards face-like objects in young children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Quentin; Rogé, Bernadette; Afzali, Mohammad H.; Baduel, Sophie; Kruck, Jeanne; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-01-01

    There is ample behavioral evidence of diminished orientation towards faces as well as the presence of face perception impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms of these deficits are still unclear. We used face-like object stimuli that have been shown to evoke pareidolia in typically developing (TD) individuals to test the effect of a global face-like configuration on orientation and perceptual processes in young children with ASD and age-matched TD controls. We show that TD children were more likely to look first towards upright face-like objects than children with ASD, showing that a global face-like configuration elicit a stronger orientation bias in TD children as compared to children with ASD. However, once they were looking at the stimuli, both groups spent more time exploring the upright face-like object, suggesting that they both perceived it as a face. Our results are in agreement with abnormal social orienting in ASD, possibly due to an abnormal tuning of the subcortical pathway, leading to poor orienting and attention towards faces. Our results also indicate that young children with ASD can perceive a generic face holistically, such as face-like objects, further demonstrating holistic processing of faces in ASD. PMID:26912096

  18. Malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes, and renal tubular functions in children with iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Kurekci, Ahmet Emin; Gursel, Orhan; Hacıhamdioglu, Duygu Ovunc; Kurt, Ismail; Aydın, Ahmet; Ozcan, Okan

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of iron deficiency (ID) or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on oxidative stress and renal tubular functions before and after treatment of children. A total of 30 children with a diagnosis of IDA constituted the IDA group and 32 children with a diagnosis of ID constituted the ID group. Control group consisted 38 age-matched children. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), serum, and urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels, and intra-erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured before and after iron therapy in the IDA and ID groups, whereas it was studied once in the control group. We have divided the study group in groups according to age (infants <2 years, children 3-9 years, and adolescents 10-15 years). Patients with IDA (infant, adolescent) and ID (infant, children, and adolescent) had a significantly high level of MDA in post-treatment period in comparison to those of healthy control. Patients with IDA (children, adolescent) and ID (infant, children) had a significantly high level of pre-treatment GSH-Px than controls. Post-treatment SOD was lower in IDA (children and adolescent) groups than control and post-treatment CAT was lower in IDA and ID (adolescent) groups than control. These findings show that ferrous sulfate used in the treatment of ID or IDA could lead to oxidative stress; however, a marked deterioration of in proximal renal tubular functions was not seen. PMID:25099508

  19. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children

    PubMed Central

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074

  20. Kindergarten children's attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    PubMed Central

    Heikamp, Tobias; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Druey, Michel D.; Hübner, Ronald; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal reports. Children's inhibitory control was measured with the Stop-task. Regression analyses revealed that inhibitory control was positively related to attachment security and to internalization of rules of conduct. Mediational analysis using a bootstrapping approach indicated an indirect effect of attachment security on internalization processes via inhibitory control. Implications for further research on the development of inhibitory control and internalization of rules of conduct are discussed. PMID:23543810

  1. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and pediatric asthma in children: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchial asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in Arab children. Environmental pollution has been suggested to be considered causative of asthma, nasal symptoms and bronchitis in both children and adult. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between serum polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels, asthma and allergic outcomes among Saudi children aged up to 15 yrs. We hypothesized that increased serum PAHs are associated with allergy, asthma, or respiratory symptoms. Methods A total of 195 Saudi children (98 asthma pediatric patients and 97 healthy controls) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. The diagnosis of Asthma was based on established pediatric diagnosis and medications taken. Results Asthma related markers showed highly significant differences between children with and without asthma. Thus IgE, resistin and IL-4 were significantly increased (p 0.004, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively) in children with asthma compared with non-asthma control subjects. GMCSF, IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10, on the other hand, were significantly decreased in children with asthma (p 0.003, 0.03, 0.001, 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Strong associations between serum PAHs levels and biomarkers of childhood asthma were detected in Arabic children. Data confirmed the role of naphthalene, 4H-cyclobenta[def]phenanthrene, 1,2-benzanthracene, chrysene and benzo(e)acephenanthrylene in childhood asthma; levels of these PAHs were correlated with asthma related biomarkers including IgE, resistin, GMCSF and IFN-γ as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines. Conclusions This data highlight the pivotal role of specific PAHs in childhood asthma. PMID:23286340

  3. The generalized bone phenotype in children with neurofibromatosis 1: a sibling matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jett, Kimberly; Birch, Patricia; Kendler, David L; McKay, Heather; Tsang, Erica; Stevenson, David A; Hanley, David A; Egeli, Deetria; Burrows, Melonie; Friedman, J M

    2013-07-01

    People with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) have low bone mineralization, but the natural history and pathogenesis are poorly understood. We performed a sibling-matched case-control study of bone mineral status, morphology, and metabolism. Eighteen children with NF1 without focal bony lesions were compared to unaffected siblings and local population controls. Bone mineral content at the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was lower in children with NF1; this difference persisted after adjusting for height and weight. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal tibia showed that trabecular density was more severely compromised than cortical. Peripheral QCT-derived estimates of bone strength and resistance to bending and stress were poorer among children with NF1 although there was no difference in fracture frequencies. There were no differences in the size or shape of bones after adjusting for height. Differences in markers of bone turnover between cases and controls were in the directions predicted by animal studies, but did not reach statistical significance. Average serum calcium concentration was higher (although within the normal range) in children with NF1; serum 25-OH vitamin D, and PTH levels did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Children with NF1 were less mature (assessed by pubertal stage) than unaffected siblings or population controls. Children with NF1 have a generalized difference of bone metabolism that predominantly affects trabecular bone. Effects of decreased neurofibromin on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and pubertal development may contribute to the differences in bone mineral content observed among people with NF1. PMID:23713011

  4. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  5. Does noise affect learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children

    PubMed Central

    Klatte, Maria; Bergström, Kirstin; Lachmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of research concerning both acute and chronic effects of exposure to noise on children's cognitive performance. Experimental studies addressing the impact of acute exposure showed negative effects on speech perception and listening comprehension. These effects are more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Children with language or attention disorders and second-language learners are still more impaired than age-matched controls. Noise-induced disruption was also found for non-auditory tasks, i.e., serial recall of visually presented lists and reading. The impact of chronic exposure to noise was examined in quasi-experimental studies. Indoor noise and reverberation in classroom settings were found to be associated with poorer performance of the children in verbal tasks. Regarding chronic exposure to aircraft noise, studies consistently found that high exposure is associated with lower reading performance. Even though the reported effects are usually small in magnitude, and confounding variables were not always sufficiently controlled, policy makers responsible for noise abatement should be aware of the potential impact of environmental noise on children's development. PMID:24009598

  6. Viral Agents of Diarrhea in Young Children in Two Primary Health Centers in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Paul Erhunmwunse; Eghafona, Nosakhare Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viruses have been shown to be responsible for diarrhea among children during their early childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 0–36 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavirus was 28.3%, adenovirus 19.3%, and norovirus 3.6%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (P < 0.0001). Seasonal pattern of enteric viruses was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The overall coinfection rate was 7.6% and rotavirus-adenovirus coinfection had the highest with 5.4%. Rotavirus was the most prevalent viral agent. Coinfections are not uncommon among the population studied. The most commonly associated clinical symptom of viral diarrhea in this study was vomiting. Viral diagnostic tests are advocated for primary health care facilities in this locality. PMID:26064123

  7. Variations in Brain Volume and Growth in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mazaika, Paul K; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Mauras, Nelly; Buckingham, Bruce; White, Neil H; Tsalikian, Eva; Hershey, Tamara; Cato, Allison; Aye, Tandy; Fox, Larry; Wilson, Darrell M; Tansey, Michael J; Tamborlane, William; Peng, Daniel; Raman, Mira; Marzelli, Matthew; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-02-01

    Early-onset type 1 diabetes may affect the developing brain during a critical window of rapid brain maturation. Structural MRI was performed on 141 children with diabetes (4-10 years of age at study entry) and 69 age-matched control subjects at two time points spaced 18 months apart. For the children with diabetes, the mean (±SD) HbA1c level was 7.9 ± 0.9% (63 ± 9.8 mmol/mol) at both time points. Relative to control subjects, children with diabetes had significantly less growth of cortical gray matter volume and cortical surface area and significantly less growth of white matter volume throughout the cortex and cerebellum. For the population with diabetes, the change in the blood glucose level at the time of scan across longitudinal time points was negatively correlated with the change in gray and white matter volumes, suggesting that fluctuating glucose levels in children with diabetes may be associated with corresponding fluctuations in brain volume. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glycemic variation were significantly negatively correlated with the development of surface curvature. These results demonstrate that early-onset type 1 diabetes has widespread effects on the growth of gray and white matter in children whose blood glucose levels are well within the current treatment guidelines for the management of diabetes. PMID:26512024

  8. IL-4 and interferon-gamma production in children with atopic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M; Kemp, A; Varigos, G

    1993-01-01

    In vitro studies have implicated reciprocal roles for IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the regulation of IgE production. As elevated IgE is a major feature of atopic disease, an important question is whether an imbalance of IL-4 and IFN-gamma is present in vivo. The production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from atopic children was examined to determine if there is an increased production of IL-4 and/or a reduced production of IFN-gamma. Highly atopic children with IgE > 600 U/ml produced significantly more IL-4 and less IFN-gamma in vitro than age-matched non-atopic controls. Production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in mildly atopic children was equivalent to controls. These findings indicate that highly atopic children have an imbalance of IL-4 and IFN-gamma production and that the degree of imbalance relates to severity of the atopic state. The ratio of in vitro IL-4: IFN-gamma production correlated positively with serum IgE, which suggests that the balance of these two cytokines is a factor in the regulation of IgE, in vivo. It remains to be determined whether this imbalance of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in the highly atopic children is the cause or result of the disease process. PMID:8467557

  9. Does noise affect learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Maria; Bergström, Kirstin; Lachmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of research concerning both acute and chronic effects of exposure to noise on children's cognitive performance. Experimental studies addressing the impact of acute exposure showed negative effects on speech perception and listening comprehension. These effects are more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Children with language or attention disorders and second-language learners are still more impaired than age-matched controls. Noise-induced disruption was also found for non-auditory tasks, i.e., serial recall of visually presented lists and reading. The impact of chronic exposure to noise was examined in quasi-experimental studies. Indoor noise and reverberation in classroom settings were found to be associated with poorer performance of the children in verbal tasks. Regarding chronic exposure to aircraft noise, studies consistently found that high exposure is associated with lower reading performance. Even though the reported effects are usually small in magnitude, and confounding variables were not always sufficiently controlled, policy makers responsible for noise abatement should be aware of the potential impact of environmental noise on children's development. PMID:24009598

  10. Probing the nature of deficits in the 'Approximate Number System' in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called 'Approximate Number System' (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched controls. The integrity of the ANS was measured using the Panamath (www.panamath.org) non-symbolic numerical discrimination test. Children with DD demonstrated imprecise ANS acuity indexed by larger Weber fraction (w) compared to TD controls. Given recent findings showing that non-symbolic numerical discrimination is affected by visual parameters, we went further and investigated whether children performed differently on trials on which number of dots and their overall area were either congruent or incongruent with each other. This analysis revealed that differences in w were only found between DD and TD children on the incongruent trials. In addition, visuo-spatial working memory strongly predicts individual differences in ANS acuity (w) during the incongruent trials. Thus the purported ANS deficit in DD can be explained by a difficulty in extracting number from an array of dots when area is anti-correlated with number. These data highlight the role of visuo-spatial working memory during the extraction process, and demonstrate that close attention needs to be paid to perceptual processes invoked by tasks thought to represent measures of the ANS. PMID:26227387

  11. Sunflower therapy for children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bull, Leona

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and perceived effectiveness of the Sunflower therapy in the treatment of childhood dyslexia. The Sunflower therapy includes applied kinesiology, physical manipulation, massage, homeopathy, herbal remedies and neuro-linguistic programming. A multi-centred, randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 70 dyslexic children aged 6-13 years. The research study aimed to test the research hypothesis that dyslexic children 'feel better' and 'perform better' as a result of treatment by the Sunflower therapy. Children in the treatment group and the control group were assessed using a battery of standardised cognitive, Literacy and self-esteem tests before and after the intervention. Parents of children in the treatment group gave feedback on their experience of the Sunflower therapy. Test scores were compared using the Mann Whitney, and Wilcoxon statistical tests. While both groups of children improved in some of their test scores over time, there were no statistically significant improvements in cognitive or Literacy test performance associated with the treatment. However, there were statistically significant improvements in academic self-esteem, and reading self-esteem, for the treatment group. The majority of parents (57.13%) felt that the Sunflower therapy was effective in the treatment of learning difficulties. Further research is required to verify these findings, and should include a control group receiving a dummy treatment to exclude placebo effects. PMID:17210507

  12. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. PMID:27349708

  13. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions. PMID:27219739

  14. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  15. Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants Do Not Appear to Use Sentence Context to Help Recognize Spoken Words

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Deocampo, Joanne A.; Walk, Anne M.; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The authors investigated the ability of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) to use sentence context to facilitate the perception of spoken words. Method Deaf children with CIs (n = 24) and an age-matched group of children with normal hearing (n = 31) were presented with lexically controlled sentences and were asked to repeat each sentence in its entirety. Performance was analyzed at each of 3 word positions of each sentence (first, second, and third key word). Results Whereas the children with normal hearing showed robust effects of contextual facilitation—improved speech perception for the final words in a sentence—the deaf children with CIs on average showed no such facilitation. Regression analyses indicated that for the deaf children with CIs, Forward Digit Span scores significantly predicted accuracy scores for all 3 positions, whereas performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test, Children’s Version (Golden, Freshwater, & Golden, 2003) predicted how much contextual facilitation was observed at the final word. Conclusions The pattern of results suggests that some deaf children with CIs do not use sentence context to improve spoken word recognition. The inability to use sentence context may be due to possible interactions between language experience and cognitive factors that affect the ability to successfully integrate temporal–sequential information in spoken language. PMID:25029170

  16. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut

    PubMed Central

    van der Valk, Johanna P. M.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; de Jong, Nicolette W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction. Methods and Findings A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2–17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine. Conclusion This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens

  17. Differential Effect of Taekwondo Training on Knee Muscle Strength and Reactive and Static Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Chow, Lina P. Y.; Ma, Ada W. W.; Tsang, William W. N.

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the effect of short-term intensive TKD training on the isokinetic knee muscle strength and reactive and static balance control of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Among the 44 children with DCD (mean age: 7.6 plus or minus 1.3 years) recruited, 21 were randomly assigned…

  18. Maternal Control and Sensitivity, Child Gender, and Maternal Education in Relation to Children's Behavioral Outcomes in African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6 - 7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers (Sensitivity and Control), and three in children (Task Involvement, Responsiveness, and Communicative). Children's negativity during a clean up task was coded and mothers were interviewed about their children's problem behaviors. Parenting sensitivity was associated with positive child behaviors and parenting control was associated with negative child behaviors. Maternal education was associated with greater maternal sensitivity and less control. Child gender predicted their task involvement, responsiveness, communicativeness, negativity during clean-up, and behavior problems; maternal control and sensitivity mediated some of these relations. Findings underscore heterogeneity of African American parenting and factors that promote positive parenting and children's behavioral adjustment in early childhood. PMID:20161193

  19. Physiological reactivity to responsive and unresponsive children as moderated by perceived control.

    PubMed

    Bugental, D B; Cortez, V L

    1988-06-01

    80 undergraduate women, pretested on the Parent Attribution Test (PAT), watched videotapes of responsive and unresponsive children in anticipation of subsequent interaction with them. Physiological measures (heart rate, skin temperature, and skin conductance) were monitored as subjects viewed videotapes and during a postinterview. Subjects who perceived caregiving failure as uncontrollable (on the PAT) were significantly more reactive to variations in child responsiveness than were those who perceived failure as controllable. The highest level of arousal (elevated heart rate and skin conductance) was manifested by "low-control" women anticipating interaction with unresponsive children. The increased arousal level shown in reaction to unresponsive children was accompanied by decreased skin temperature--suggesting the presence of fear or anxiety. Results were interpreted as indicating the importance of social cognitions as moderators of caregiver response to child behavior. PMID:3383677

  20. Behavioral trends in young children with conductive hearing loss: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gouma, Panagiota; Mallis, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis; Gouveris, Haralambos; Armenakis, Nikolaos; Naxakis, Stephanos

    2011-01-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common condition affecting children and a well-known cause of conductive hearing loss that can potentially lead to speech development disorders. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated the influence of OME on development of attention disorders or social adaptation and acceptance. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the behavioral trends of children with OME based on the Achenbach test. A group of 117 patients with episodes of OME at the age of 4-5 was compared with a control group according to the Achenbach system of evaluation, by application of the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL). Patients suffering from OME had more anxiety/depression related disorders and attention disorders as compared with the control group. The psychological effect of OME in children of ages 6-8 is evident with anxiety and depression disorders being especially prominent among these patients. PMID:20665042

  1. Multifactorial intervention for children with asthma and overweight (Mikado): study design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In children, the prevalence’s of both obesity and asthma are disconcertingly high. Asthmatic children with obesity are characterised by less asthma control and a high need for asthma medication. As the obese asthmatic child is becoming more common in the clinical setting and the disease burden of the asthma-obesity phenotype is high, there is an increasing need for effective treatment in these children. In adults, weight reduction resulted in improved lung function, better asthma control and less need for asthma medication. In children this is hardly studied. The Mikado study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a long term multifactorial weight reduction intervention, on asthma characteristics in children with asthma and a high body weight. Methods/design The Mikado study is a two-armed, randomised controlled trial. In total, 104 participants will be recruited via online questionnaires, pulmonary paediatricians, the youth department of the Municipal Health Services and cohorts of existing studies. All participants will be aged 6–16 years, will have current asthma, a Body Mass Index in the overweight or obesity range, and no serious comorbidities (such as diabetes, heart diseases). Participants in the intervention arm will receive a multifactorial intervention of 18 months consisting of sessions concerning sports, parental involvement, individual counselling and lifestyle advices including dietary advices and cognitive behavioural therapy. The control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome variables will include Forced Expiratory Volume in one second and Body Mass Index - Standard Deviation Score. Secondary outcomes will include other lung function parameters (including dynamic and static lung function parameters), asthma control, asthma-specific quality of life, use of asthma medication and markers of systemic inflammation and airway inflammation. Discussion In this randomised controlled trial we will study the potential of a

  2. Case-control study of disease determinants for non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among Michigan children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infections with Salmonella serotypes continue to be a significant global public health problem. In addition to contaminated foods, several other sources contribute to infections with Salmonella serotypes. We have assessed the role of socioeconomic factors, exposure to food, and environmental sources in the etiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Michigan children. Findings A case-control study among Michigan children aged ≤ 10 years was conducted. A total of 123 cases of children with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections and 139 control children, who had not experienced symptoms of gastrointestinal illness during the month prior to the interviews, were enrolled. The cases and controls were matched on age-category (<1 year, 2-<6 years and 6-10 years). Data on socioeconomic status, food intake, and environmental exposures, were collected on the queried case and control subjects. After adjusting for race and household-income the final regression multivariable model revealed that Salmonella infections were significantly associated with attendance of a daycare center (adjusted matched odds ratio = 5.00, 95% CI: 1.51 - 16.58), contact with cats (MOR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.14 - 5.88), and contact with reptiles (MOR = 7.90, 95% CI: 1.52 - 41.01), during the 3 days prior to the onset of child's illness. Conclusions Study results suggest that exposure to environmental sources may play an important role in sporadic infections with Salmonella serotypes in children. Additional efforts are needed to educate parents and caretakers about the risk of Salmonella transmission to children from these sources. PMID:20398398

  3. Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J; Clarke, Paula J; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the intervention immediately, whereas the remaining children received the treatment after a 20-week delay. Fifty-seven children with Down syndrome in mainstream primary schools in two UK locations (Yorkshire and Hampshire) were randomly allocated to intervention (40 weeks of intervention) and waiting control (20 weeks of intervention) groups. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, after 20 weeks of intervention, and after 40 weeks of intervention. Results After 20 weeks of intervention, the intervention group showed significantly greater progress than the waiting control group on measures of single word reading, letter-sound knowledge, phoneme blending and taught expressive vocabulary. Effects did not transfer to other skills (nonword reading, spelling, standardised expressive and receptive vocabulary, expressive information and grammar). After 40 weeks of intervention, the intervention group remained numerically ahead of the control group on most key outcome measures; but these differences were not significant. Children who were younger, attended more intervention sessions, and had better initial receptive language skills made greater progress during the course of the intervention. Conclusions A TA-delivered intervention produced improvements in the reading and language skills of children with Down syndrome. Gains were largest in skills directly taught with little evidence of generalization to skills not directly taught in the intervention. PMID:22533801

  4. Effortful Control, Positive Emotional Expression, and Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Burnson, Cynthia; Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of high effortful control in the expression of positive emotion and development of behavior problems in children born preterm (mean gestational age = 31.4 weeks). Using data from a prospective longitudinal study, the present study assessed effortful control and behavior problems at 24 and 36 months and positive emotional expression at 24 months in a sample of 173 children born preterm. Less positive emotional expression was associated with higher effortful control for boys but not girls. Higher effortful control was associated with fewer total behavior problems, but this relation was attenuated when socioeconomic assets were included in the model. More socioeconomic assets were associated with fewer behavior problems for both boys and girls and higher effortful control for girls. Socioeconomic assets appear to be an important factor in the development of effortful control and behavior problems in children born preterm regardless of gender, whereas positive emotional expression was important for boys. Future intervention research should examine fostering adaptive levels of effortful control in high-risk populations as a means to facilitate resilience processes. PMID:23810984

  5. Urinary Bromotyrosine Measures Asthma Control and Predicts Asthma Exacerbations in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wedes, Samuel H.; Wu, Weijia; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; McDowell, Karen M.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the usefulness of urinary bromotyrosine, a noninvasive marker of eosinophil-catalyzed protein oxidation, in tracking with indexes of asthma control and in predicting future asthma exacerbations in children. Study design Children with asthma were recruited consecutively at the time of clinic visit. Urine was obtained, along with spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, and Asthma Control Questionnaire data. Follow-up phone calls were made 6 weeks after enrollment. Results Fifty-seven participants were enrolled. Urinary bromotyrosine levels tracked significantly with indexes of asthma control as assessed by Asthma Control Questionnaire scores at baseline (R = 0.38, P = .004) and follow-up (R = 0.39, P = .008). Participants with high baseline levels of bromotyrosine were 18.1-fold (95% CI 2.1–153.1, P = .0004) more likely to have inadequately controlled asthma and 4.0-fold more likely (95% CI 1.1–14.7, P = .03) to have an asthma exacerbation (unexpected emergency department visit; doctor’s appointment or phone call; oral or parenteral corticosteroid burst; acute asthma-related respiratory symptoms) over the ensuing 6 weeks. Exhaled nitric oxide levels did not track with Asthma Control Questionnaire data; and immunoglobulin E, eosinophil count, spirometry, and exhaled nitric oxide levels failed to predict asthma exacerbations. Conclusions Urinary bromotyrosine tracks with asthma control and predicts the risk of future asthma exacerbations in children. PMID:21392781

  6. Effortful control, positive emotional expression, and behavior problems in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Burnson, Cynthia; Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A J

    2013-12-01

    The present study focused on the role of high effortful control in the expression of positive emotion and development of behavior problems in children born preterm (mean gestational age = 31.4 weeks). Using data from a prospective longitudinal study, the present study assessed effortful control and behavior problems at 24 and 36 months and positive emotional expression at 24 months in a sample of 173 children born preterm. Less positive emotional expression was associated with higher effortful control for boys but not girls. Higher effortful control was associated with fewer total behavior problems, but this relation was attenuated when socioeconomic assets were included in the model. More socioeconomic assets were associated with fewer behavior problems for both boys and girls and higher effortful control for girls. Socioeconomic assets appear to be an important factor in the development of effortful control and behavior problems in children born preterm regardless of gender, whereas positive emotional expression was important for boys. Future intervention research should examine fostering adaptive levels of effortful control in high-risk populations as a means to facilitate resilience processes. PMID:23810984

  7. Genetic diversity of norovirus in hospitalised diarrhoeic children and asymptomatic controls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Sabrina; Hanevik, Kurt; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel; Langeland, Nina

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated and reports norovirus diarrhoea, genetic diversity and associated clinical symptoms, HIV status and seasonality in a paediatric population of Tanzania. Stool specimens and demographic/clinical information, were prospectively collected from 705 hospitalised children with diarrhoea (cases) and 561 children without diarrhoea (controls) between 2010 and 2011. Norovirus detection was done by real-time RT-PCR. Genotype was determined using Gel-based and real time RT-PCR methods and sequencing targeting the polymerase and the capsid region respectively. Norovirus was detected in 14.3%, 181/1266 children. The prevalence of norovirus was significantly higher in cases (18.3%, 129/705) than in controls, (9.2%, 52/561), P<0.05. Except for one child who had double infection with GI and GII all 129 cases had GII. Among controls, 23.1% had GI and 76.9% had GII. Norovirus GII.4 was significantly more prevalent in cases 87.9% than in controls 56.5%. Other genotypes detected in both cases and controls were GII.21, GII.16 and GII.g. The highest numbers of norovirus were detected in April 2011. The number of norovirus detected was significantly higher during the first than second year of life (109/540, 20.2% vs. 20/165, 12.1%). The prevalence of norovirus in HIV-positive and negative children was (21.2%, 7/33) and (10.3%, 40/390, P=0.05) respectively, regardless of diarrhoea symptoms. No significant difference in gender, parent's level of education or nutritional status with norovirus infection was observed within cases or controls. This study confirms the significant role of norovirus infection, especially GII.4 in diarrhoeic children who need hospitalisation and adds knowledge on norovirus epidemiology in the African region. PMID:24960396

  8. Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age.…

  9. Executive Control and Dimensions of Problem Behaviors in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Clark, Caron A. C.; Moehr, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of executive control (EC) in externalizing psychopathology, the relation between EC and problem behavior has not been well characterized, particularly in typically developing preschoolers. Method: Using the sample, battery of laboratory tasks, and latent variable modeling methods…

  10. Schools Against Children: The Case for Community Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Annette T., Ed.

    This collection of articles revolves around the struggle for full racial equality through community control of schools by the black and Puerto Rican people of New York City. The opening chapter describes the city Board of Education's deliberate policy of intensifying and consolidating segregation during the very years when it was most volubly…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Antecedents of Locus of Control Orientation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Kincheloe, Amy Ransom; Osborn, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control (LOC) is related to many aspects of human behavior, yet relatively little is known about what factors in early childhood may dispose a child to develop an internal or external LOC orientation. Data from a British epidemiological, longitudinal, cohort study of 12,463 children and their mothers were used to identify, from a wide…

  12. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  13. Control of Angular Momentum during Walking in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Kaat, Desloovere; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Children with hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (CP) walk with marked asymmetries. For instance, we have recently shown that they have less arm swing on the affected side, and more arm swing at the unaffected side. Such an increase in arm swing at the unaffected side may be aimed at controlling total body angular momentum about the vertical axis,…

  14. Assessing Self-Control Training in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloh, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this…

  15. Training Anxious Children to Disengage Attention from Threat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Morag, Inbar; Glickman, Shlomit

    2011-01-01

    Background: Threat-related attention biases have been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. As a result, attention bias modification (ABM) protocols have been employed as treatments for anxious adults. However, they have yet to emerge for children. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to…

  16. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  17. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  18. Motor Signs Distinguish Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome from Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansiewicz, Eva M.; Goldberg, Melissa C.; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Landa, Rebecca; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2006-01-01

    While many studies of motor control in autism have focused on specific motor signs, there has been a lack of research examining the complete range of subtle neuromotor signs. This study compared performance on a neurologic examination standardized for children (PANESS, Physical and Neurological Exam for Subtle Signs, Denckla ["1974 Developmental…

  19. Reading and Language Intervention for Children at Risk of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children…

  20. Parenting and Child "DRD4" Genotype Interact to Predict Children's Early Emerging Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children's development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. This study examined whether the "DRD4" exon III variable number tandem…

  1. A Controlled Trial of Working Memory Training for Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Steven J.; Hanson, Christine A.; Puffenberger, Synthia S.; Benninger, Kristen L.; Benninger, William B.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a 5-week, intensive working memory training program for 52 children and adolescents (ages 7-17) who had Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other comorbid diagnoses. This study provided a treatment replication since the waitlist control group also completed training and was included in the…

  2. School Age Workaholic Children: Type A Behaviors, Self-Esteem, Anxiety and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.; Kelley, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationships between childhood workaholism and Type A behavior among fourth and fifth graders. Found no relationships between parent-rated Type A behaviors and children's self-perceived workaholism, self esteem, anxiety, or locus of control. Found no relationship between parental workaholism and child scores. Teachers' ratings related to…

  3. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  4. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  5. Autoimmune Diseases in Parents of Children with Infantile Autism: A Case--Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Nedergaard, Niels Jorgen

    2007-01-01

    This register study compared the rates and types of autoimmune disease in the parents of 111 patients (82 males, 29 females; mean age at diagnosis 5y 5mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with infantile autism (IA) with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All parents were screened through the nationwide Danish National…

  6. Emotional Expression and Control in School-Age Children in India and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n =…

  7. Influences of a Hand Positioning Device on Upper-Extremity Control of Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Denise T.; Sochaniwskyj, Alex

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a hand positioning device on aspects of upper extremity movement control and muscular activity and visual motor performance in 10 children with cerebral palsy. Although no significant results were found, individual subject data revealed a trend toward increased numbers of movement units, slower movements, and…

  8. Attentional Control in Children's Metalinguistic Performance and Measures of Field Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Children between the ages of seven and nine years were given metalinguistic tasks and measures of field dependence-independence (FDI). Results showed a common basis for FDI and metalinguistic problems requiring high levels of control of linguistic processing but not for FDI and problems requiring high levels of analysis of linguistic knowledge.…

  9. Severe Life Events and Chronic Adversities as Antecedents to Anxiety in Children: A Matched Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Sandberg, Seija

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the number of severe life events and chronic adversities as reported retrospectively by mothers of children with an anxiety disorder (n = 39) prior to the onset of their most recent episode, with controls (n = 39) matched for age and sex. The parent version of the Psychosocial Assessment of Childhood Experiences (PACE)…

  10. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  11. Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Part II: Pharmacologic Control--What Works and Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.; Loggie, Jennifer M. H.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing pharmacologic control of hypertension in children and adolescents who participate in sports, the second of two articles emphasizes drugs with few side effects and that usually do not alter heart rate (e.g., long-lasting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium channel blockers). Such drugs allow continued sports…

  12. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This document is the fourth revision of a statement by the Centers for Disease Control. Introductory and background chapters present data that indicate significant adverse effects of lead levels in children's blood that were previously believed to be safe. Other chapters discuss: (1) sources of lead exposure, including paint, soil and dust, and…

  13. A Pilot Controlled Trial of Topiramate for Mania in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Findling, Robert L.; Kushner, Stuart; Wang, Daniel; Olson, William H.; Capece, Julie A.; Fazzio, Lydia; Rosenthal, Norman R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of topiramate monotherapy for acute mania in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder type 1. Method: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was discontinued early when adult mania trials with topiramate failed to show efficacy. Efficacy end points included the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Brief…

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of Transdermal Secretin on Behavior of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Carey, Tracy; Reeves, Gretchen; Rogers, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Previous trials of secretin for the treatment of autism have utilized a single or double dose administered intravenously. This is a report of a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trial of transdermally applied secretin in 15 children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental delay. Secretin or placebo was applied daily, in…

  15. A Controlled Evaluation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention in Turkish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Savaser, Sevim

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to assess the effect of a weight management program in Turkish school children with overweight and obesity. Forty one students formed the intervention group while 40 students formed the control group in two elementary schools. Students in intervention group were given seven training sessions in a period of 2.5 months.…

  16. Development of Active Control within Working Memory: Active Retrieval versus Monitoring in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain-Brière, Bénédicte; Bouchard, Caroline; Bigras, Nathalie; Cadoret, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare children's performance on two mnemonic functions that engage the lateral prefrontal cortex. Brain imaging studies in adults have shown that the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in active controlled retrieval, and the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in…

  17. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  18. Effortful Control, Executive Attention, and Emotional Regulation in 7-10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Jennifer; Kieras, Jessica E.; Rueda, M. Rosario; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, self-regulation was investigated in 7- to 10-year-old children using three different measures: (1) parent and child report questionnaires measuring temperamental effortful control, (2) a conflict task assessing efficiency of executive attention, and (3) the mistaken gift paradigm assessing social smiling in response to an…

  19. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  20. Some Effects among Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Attribution in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John L.; And Others

    Each of 91 kindergarten and 79 second grade children attending public and parochial schools were assessed to explore possible relationships between students' performance increments and decrements on experimenter-manipulated puzzle games and their causal attribution for performance, locus of control, and self-concept. The first research question…