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Sample records for age-matched controls participated

  1. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  2. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  3. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  4. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  5. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  6. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  7. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  8. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  9. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  10. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  11. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  12. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  13. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of human hippocampal tissues from Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control brains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting people over 65 years of age. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular deposits known as amyloid β plaques and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, both of which are the principal players involved in synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. Tau protein and Aβ fragment 1–42 have been investigated so far in cerebrospinal fluid as a potential AD biomarkers. However, an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers which will capture disease in the early stages and with better specificity remains. High-throughput proteomic and pathway analysis of hippocampal tissue provides a valuable source of disease-related proteins and biomarker candidates, since it represents one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Results In this study 2954 proteins were identified (with at least 2 peptides for 1203 proteins) from both control and AD brain tissues. Overall, 204 proteins were exclusively detected in AD and 600 proteins in control samples. Comparing AD and control exclusive proteins with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) literature-based proteome, 40 out of 204 AD related proteins and 106 out of 600 control related proteins were also present in CSF. As most of these proteins were extracellular/secretory origin, we consider them as a potential source of candidate biomarkers that need to be further studied and verified in CSF samples. Conclusions Our semiquantitative proteomic analysis provides one of the largest human hippocampal proteome databases. The lists of AD and control related proteins represent a panel of proteins potentially involved in AD pathogenesis and could also serve as prospective AD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:23635041

  14. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  15. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  16. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  17. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  18. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  19. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  20. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  1. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  2. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  3. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  4. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  5. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  6. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  7. Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M A; Rappaport, J

    1988-10-01

    The research integrates the citizen participation literature with research on perceived control in an effort to further our understanding of psychological empowerment. Eleven indices of empowerment representing personality, cognitive, and motivational measures were identified to represent the construct. Three studies examined the relationship between empowerment and participation. The first study examined differences among groups identified by a laboratory manipulation as willing to participate in personally relevant or community relevant situations. Study II examined differences for groups defined by actual involvement in community activities and organizations. Study III replicated Study II with a different population. In each study, individuals reporting a greater amount of participation scored higher on indices of empowerment. Psychological empowerment could be described as the connection between a sense of personal competence, a desire for, and a willingness to take action in the public domain. Discriminant function analyses resulted in one significant dimension, identified as pyschological empowerment, that was positively correlated with leadership and negatively correlated with alienation.

  8. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  9. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Basic Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control....

  10. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control....

  11. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control....

  12. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control....

  13. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 418...: Patient Care § 418.60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and...

  14. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 418....60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and hospice personnel by...

  15. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy...

  16. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy...

  17. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy...

  18. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy...

  19. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.725 Condition of participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy...

  20. Recruiting Participants for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Alix; Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to look across strategies used in a wide range of studies to build a framework for researchers to use in conceptualizing the recruitment process. This paper harvests lessons learned across 19 randomized controlled trials in K-12 school settings conducted by a leading research organization to identify strategies that…

  1. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  2. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 482.42 Section 482.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide...

  3. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  4. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  5. Health locus of control and participation in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B R; Petti, K

    1989-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity participation patterns of college students when defined by their Health Locus of Control orientation. One thousand thirty-three college-aged students completed the Wellness Activity Profile, a questionnaire that yielded data on Health Locus of Control and self-reported frequency of participation in physical activities. Discriminant analyses indicated that the combination of physical activities associated with internally and externally oriented students were different for both males and females. Participation in high caloric expenditure activities was more frequent among internal subjects (Male: bicycling, volleyball, other individual sports, and snorkel/scuba diving; Female: basketball, weight training, tennis, fast walking/jogging/running, and judo/karate), while low caloric expenditure activities were associated with an external orientation (Male: baseball/softball, sailing, fishing, golf, and other recreational sports; Female: track and field jumping and fishing).

  6. Controlling patient participation during robot-assisted gait training

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The overall goal of this paper was to investigate approaches to controlling active participation in stroke patients during robot-assisted gait therapy. Although active physical participation during gait rehabilitation after stroke was shown to improve therapy outcome, some patients can behave passively during rehabilitation, not maximally benefiting from the gait training. Up to now, there has not been an effective method for forcing patient activity to the desired level that would most benefit stroke patients with a broad variety of cognitive and biomechanical impairments. Methods Patient activity was quantified in two ways: by heart rate (HR), a physiological parameter that reflected physical effort during body weight supported treadmill training, and by a weighted sum of the interaction torques (WIT) between robot and patient, recorded from hip and knee joints of both legs. We recorded data in three experiments, each with five stroke patients, and controlled HR and WIT to a desired temporal profile. Depending on the patient's cognitive capabilities, two different approaches were taken: either by allowing voluntary patient effort via visual instructions or by forcing the patient to vary physical effort by adapting the treadmill speed. Results We successfully controlled patient activity quantified by WIT and by HR to a desired level. The setup was thereby individually adaptable to the specific cognitive and biomechanical needs of each patient. Conclusion Based on the three successful approaches to controlling patient participation, we propose a metric which enables clinicians to select the best strategy for each patient, according to the patient's physical and cognitive capabilities. Our framework will enable therapists to challenge the patient to more activity by automatically controlling the patient effort to a desired level. We expect that the increase in activity will lead to improved rehabilitation outcome. PMID:21429200

  7. Perceptions of Massage Therapists Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Adam; Dreusicke, Mark; Keever, Teresa; Ali, Ather

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical practice and randomized trials often have disparate aims, despite involving similar interventions. Attitudes and expectancies of practitioners influence patient outcomes, and there is growing emphasis on optimizing provider–patient relationships. In this study, we evaluated the experiences of licensed massage therapists involved in a randomized controlled clinical trial using qualitative methodology. Methods Seven massage therapists who were interventionists in a randomized controlled trial participated in structured interviews approximately 30 minutes in length. Interviews focused on their experiences and perceptions regarding aspects of the clinical trial, as well as recommendations for future trials. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for emergent topics and themes using standard qualitative methods. Results Six themes emerged. Therapists discussed 1) promoting the profession of massage therapy through research, 2) mixed views on using standardized protocols, 3) challenges of sham interventions, 4) participant response to the sham intervention, 5) views on scheduling and compensation, and 6) unanticipated benefits of participating in research. Conclusions Therapists largely appreciated the opportunity to promote massage through research. They demonstrated insight and understanding of the rationale for a clinical trial adhering to a standardized protocol. Evaluating the experiences and ideas of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners provides valuable insight that is relevant for the implementation and design of randomized trials. PMID:26388961

  8. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  9. Participation Bias among Suicidal Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Fox, Allison J.; Chohan, Mariam Zahid; Beck, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Although individuals who attempt suicide have poor compliance rates with treatment recommendations, the nature and degree of participation bias in clinical treatment research among these individuals is virtually unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine participation bias by comparing the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of adult…

  10. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  11. Is participation contagious? Evidence from a household vector control campaign in urban Peru

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Barbu, Corentin; Skovira, Christine; Calderón, Javier Quintanilla; Riveros, Lina Margot Mollesaca; Cornejo, Juan Oswaldo; Small, Dylan S.; Bicchieri, Christina; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High rates of household participation are critical to the success of door-to-door vector control campaigns. We used the Health Belief Model to assess determinants of participation, including neighbor participation as a cue to action, in a Chagas disease vector control campaign in Peru. Methods We evaluated clustering of participation among neighbors; estimated participation as a function of household infestation status, neighborhood type, and number of participating neighbors; and described reported reasons for refusal to participate in a district of 2911 households. Results We observed significant clustering of participation along city blocks (p< .0001). Participation was significantly higher for households in new vs. established neighborhoods, for infested households, and for households with more participating neighbors. The effect of neighbor participation was greater in new neighborhoods. Conclusions Results support a “contagion” model of participation, highlighting the possibility that one or two participating households can tip a block towards full participation. Future campaigns can leverage these findings by making participation more visible, by addressing stigma associated with spraying, and by employing group incentives to spray. PMID:24062411

  12. Community Participation or Control? From New York to Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of community control of public education, examining: sub-regional communities (New York City's community school boards and Detroit's regional decentralization); school-based decentralization (preserving professional privilege in Salt Lake City and local school councils in Chicago); balancing bottom-up and top-down; whether…

  13. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... investigation of infectious and communicable diseases that— (1) Is an integral part of the hospice's quality... infectious and communicable disease problems; and (ii) A plan for implementing the appropriate actions that... personnel by preventing and controlling infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Prevention....

  14. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... infectious and communicable diseases that— (1) Is an integral part of the hospice's quality assessment and... and controlling infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Prevention. The hospice must follow accepted standards of practice to prevent the transmission of infections and communicable...

  15. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... investigation of infectious and communicable diseases that— (1) Is an integral part of the hospice's quality... infectious and communicable disease problems; and (ii) A plan for implementing the appropriate actions that... personnel by preventing and controlling infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Prevention....

  16. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  17. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  18. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  19. The hippocampus participates in the control of locomotion speed.

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, J R; Osuna Carrasco, L P; López Valenzuela, C L; Franco Rodríguez, N E; de la Torre Valdovinos, B; Jiménez Estrada, I; Dueñas Jiménez, J M; Dueñas Jiménez, S H

    2015-12-17

    The hippocampus role in sensory-motor integration remains unclear. In these experiments we study its function in the locomotor control. To establish the connection between the hippocampus and the locomotor system, electrical stimulation in the CA1 region was applied and EMG recordings were obtained. We also evaluated the hindlimbs and forelimbs kinematic patterns in rats with a penetrating injury (PI) in the hippocampus as well as in a cortex-injured group (CI), which served as control. After the PI, tamoxifen a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been described as a neuroprotector and antiinflammatory drug, or vehicle was administered. Electrical stimulation in the hippocampus produces muscle contractions in the contralateral triceps, when 6 Hz or 8 Hz pulse trains were applied. The penetrating injury in the hippocampus reduced the EMG amplitude after the electrical stimulation. At 7 DPI (days post-injury) we observed an increase in the strides speed in all four limbs of the non-treated group, decreasing the correlation percentage of the studied joints. After 15 DPI the strides speed in the non-treated returned to normal. These changes did not occur in the tamoxifen group nor in cortex-injured group. After 30 days, the nontreated group presented a reduction in the number of pyramidal cell layer neurons at the injury site, in comparison to the tam-treated group. The loss of neurons, may cause the interruption of the trisynaptic circuit and changes in the locomotion speed. Tamoxifen preserves the pyramidal neurons after the injury, probably resulting in the strides speed recovery.

  20. The hippocampus participates in the control of locomotion speed.

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, J R; Osuna Carrasco, L P; López Valenzuela, C L; Franco Rodríguez, N E; de la Torre Valdovinos, B; Jiménez Estrada, I; Dueñas Jiménez, J M; Dueñas Jiménez, S H

    2015-12-17

    The hippocampus role in sensory-motor integration remains unclear. In these experiments we study its function in the locomotor control. To establish the connection between the hippocampus and the locomotor system, electrical stimulation in the CA1 region was applied and EMG recordings were obtained. We also evaluated the hindlimbs and forelimbs kinematic patterns in rats with a penetrating injury (PI) in the hippocampus as well as in a cortex-injured group (CI), which served as control. After the PI, tamoxifen a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been described as a neuroprotector and antiinflammatory drug, or vehicle was administered. Electrical stimulation in the hippocampus produces muscle contractions in the contralateral triceps, when 6 Hz or 8 Hz pulse trains were applied. The penetrating injury in the hippocampus reduced the EMG amplitude after the electrical stimulation. At 7 DPI (days post-injury) we observed an increase in the strides speed in all four limbs of the non-treated group, decreasing the correlation percentage of the studied joints. After 15 DPI the strides speed in the non-treated returned to normal. These changes did not occur in the tamoxifen group nor in cortex-injured group. After 30 days, the nontreated group presented a reduction in the number of pyramidal cell layer neurons at the injury site, in comparison to the tam-treated group. The loss of neurons, may cause the interruption of the trisynaptic circuit and changes in the locomotion speed. Tamoxifen preserves the pyramidal neurons after the injury, probably resulting in the strides speed recovery. PMID:26597762

  1. The Counterfactual Self-Estimation of Program Participants: Impact Assessment without Control Groups or Pretests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Christoph Emanuel; Gaus, Hansjoerg; Rech, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative approach to estimating the counterfactual without the necessity of generating information from either a control group or a before-measure. Building on the idea that program participants are capable of estimating the hypothetical state they would be in had they not participated, the basics of the Roy-Rubin model…

  2. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  3. Community participation in malaria control strategy of intersect oral collaboration in Ghana: Myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background For many years, malaria has been one of the main health concerns of the government of Ghana. The government has recently implemented a control strategy which will ensure the inclusion of the community members who were previously excluded from the process. Until now, however, scientific study on this strategy has been scanty. Objectives The objectives were to investigate the level at which communities have been allowed to participate and to understand whether the idea of community participation in malaria control strategy is a myth or a reality. Methods Data were collected in the rural district of Ahafo-Ano South in the Ashanti region of Ghana. An exploratory qualitative approach was employed in order to ascertain the opinions of the local health officials and community members. The level of participation was measured using the framework of Arnstein's ‘ladder’ of participation, as developed in 1969. Results Evidence showed that the level of community participation was only tokenistic. Communities were only informed and/or consulted after decisions had been made, but the real engagement and negotiations were absent. Communities thus had limited opportunities to air their views in the planning process. Conclusion This article has revealed that the government's vision of ensuring community participation in the malaria control policy-making process can be said to be a myth rather than a reality. PMID:26245403

  4. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  5. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  6. Selection of intervention components in an internet stop smoking participant preference trial: beyond randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Schueller, Stephen M; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-01-30

    To address health problems that have a major impact on global health requires research designs that go beyond randomized controlled trials. One such design, the participant preference trial, provides additional information in an ecologically valid manner, once intervention efficacy has been demonstrated. The current study presents illustrative data from a participant preference trial of an internet-based smoking cessation intervention. Participants (N=7763) from 124 countries accessed the intervention and were allowed to choose from nine different site components to aid their quit attempt. Of consenting participants, 36.7% completed at least one follow-up assessment. Individuals with depression were more likely to choose a mood management module and participants who smoked a higher number of cigarettes were more likely to choose a cigarette counter and a nicotine replacement therapy guide. Furthermore, depressed participants selecting the mood management component were more likely to report at least one successful 7 day quit (37.2% vs. 22.2%) in the 12 months following the intervention. Thus, participants with depressive symptoms appear to make choices on the basis of their needs and to benefit from these decisions. This suggests that providing the ability to customize previously validated resources may be a successful way to widely disseminate interventions.

  7. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant? 124.106 Section 124.106 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a)...

  8. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ownership, although both may reside in the same person. SBA regards control as including both the strategic policy setting exercised by boards of directors and the day-to-day management and administration of business operations. An applicant or Participant's management and daily business operations must...

  9. People Participation Towards Opisthorchis viverrini Prevention and Control in Chaiyaphum Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phongsiripapat, Rutjirapat; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Rujirakul, Ratana; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Keawpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive and qualitative study was aimed to study the people participation and their approaches toward the human carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, prevention and control in Ban Chaun sub-district administrative organization (BCSAO) and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (BNSM), Bamnet Narong district, Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand between June 2013 and February 2014. Participants were purposive selected, included chiefs of sub-district administrative organizations, sub-district municipalities, sub-district health promotion hospitals (SHPHs), heads of village, and a further sample was selected with a multi- stage random sampling for public health volunteers, and villagers. The pre-designed questionnaire contained items for individualized status and the participatory steps of sharing ideas, decision-making, and planning, procession, evaluation, and mutual benefit, for the project O. viverrini prevention and control (POPC). In-depth interviews were used for collection of need approaches to POPC. With 375 participants who completed the questionnaire, it was found that people had a high level regarding to participate in the POPC, particularly in the process stage (X_ =3.78, S.D. = 0.56), but the lowest level was found in sharing ideas, decision making, and planning step (X_ =3.65, S.D. = 0.63). By comparison, participant status and organization did not significantly differ with people participation. In each step, Ban Chaun sub-district had a high level of participation in the step of sharing ideas, decision making, and planning toward POPC, more than Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (t=2.20, p=0.028). Approaches for POPC in Ban Chaun sub-district and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality included requirements for budget support, annual campaigns for liver fluke prevention and control, campaign promotion, risk group observation, home visiting, community rules regarding reducing raw fish consumption in their

  10. Reporting of participant compliance in randomized controlled trials of nutrition supplements during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Chheda, Purvi S; Sahariah, Sirazul A; Baird, Janis; Fall, Caroline H D

    2009-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are widely considered to be the gold standard for demonstrating intervention effects. Adequacy of reporting of participant compliance in RCTs affects the interpretation of study results. Our aims were two-fold: first, to assess the adequacy of reporting of participant compliance in RCTs investigating the effect of maternal nutritional supplements on infant outcomes; and second, to examine authors' adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines on participant flow. Papers reporting trials of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy, and published after revision of the CONSORT recommendations, were identified using a search of medical databases. Two researchers systematically reviewed the papers to assess the reporting of participant compliance according to specified criteria, and the presentation of participant flow data recommended in the CONSORT guidelines. The literature search identified 58 papers. Almost a third (n = 18) did not describe how participant compliance was assessed. Nearly half of the papers (n = 27) failed to report participant compliance numerically (absolute numbers or percentage) and differences in compliance data between treatment arms were not reported in 52% of papers (n = 28). The majority (83%) gave no information on whether the study protocol included any researcher input aimed at maximizing compliance. In addition to inadequate reporting of compliance, two of the CONSORT requirements (eligibility criteria and numbers discontinuing the intervention) were inadequately reported in 69% and 60% of papers, respectively. We conclude that participant compliance in nutrition trials is frequently inadequately reported. 'False negative' results from RCTs with poor compliance could wrongly influence policy and inhibit further research concerned with nutritional supplementation for women of child-bearing age. We suggest that changes to the CONSORT guidelines may improve RCT

  11. Community participation in the prevention and control of dengue: the patio limpio strategy in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Méndez-Galván, Jorge; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Community participation is vital to prevent and control the spread of dengue in Latin America. Initiatives such as the integrated management strategy for dengue prevention and control (IMS-Dengue) and integrated vector management (IVM) incorporate social mobilisation and behavioural change at the community level as part of a wider strategy to control dengue. These strategies aim to improve the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, environmental impact and sustainability of vector control strategies. Community empowerment is a key aspect of the strategy as it allows the local population to drive eradication of the disease in their environment. Through the patio limpio campaign, the concept of community participation has been employed in Mexico to raise awareness of the consequences of dengue. Patio limpio consists of training local people to identify, eliminate, monitor and evaluate vector breeding sites systematically in households under their supervision. A community participation programme in Guerrero State found that approximately 54% were clean and free of breeding sites. Households that were not visited and assessed had a 2·4-times higher risk of developing dengue than those that were. However, after a year, only 30% of trained households had a clean backyard. This emphasises the need for a sustainable process to encourage individuals to maintain efforts in keeping their environment free of dengue. PMID:22668443

  12. Delay discounting, self-control, and substance use among adult drug court participants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Craig G A; Fearnley, Helen; Panagiotopoulos, Barbara; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between two measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use among a sample of participants on an Australian drug court (n=80). Participants completed a computer-based delay discounting task, a paper-based delay discounting task, and a questionnaire-based measure of self-control. The delay discounting tasks measured individual differences in the value attributed to distal outcomes, which is one aspect of impulsive behavior that has been found to be over-represented among illicit drug users. The relationship between the measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use was assessed by fitting longitudinal panel regression models with adjustment for informative treatment dropout. Consistent with previous research, drug court participants were found to have higher discount rates (i.e. were more impulsive) than a noncriminal population of university students (n=101). Drug court participants also discounted delayed gains more than delayed losses. Delay discounting was not significantly associated with the odds of substance use on the drug court program. There was a positive relationship between the survey-based measure of impulsivity and the mean substance use frequency. The authors conclude that impulsivity is correlated with substance use among drug court participants but not when measuring impulsivity using a delay discounting paradigm.

  13. The architecture and effect of participation: a systematic review of community participation for communicable disease control and elimination. Implications for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community engagement and participation has played a critical role in successful disease control and elimination campaigns in many countries. Despite this, its benefits for malaria control and elimination are yet to be fully realized. This may be due to a limited understanding of the influences on participation in developing countries as well as inadequate investment in infrastructure and resources to support sustainable community participation. This paper reports the findings of an atypical systematic review of 60 years of literature in order to arrive at a more comprehensive awareness of the constructs of participation for communicable disease control and elimination and provide guidance for the current malaria elimination campaign. Methods Evidence derived from quantitative research was considered both independently and collectively with qualitative research papers and case reports. All papers included in the review were systematically coded using a pre-determined qualitative coding matrix that identified influences on community participation at the individual, household, community and government/civil society levels. Colour coding was also carried out to reflect the key primary health care period in which community participation programmes originated. These processes allowed exhaustive content analysis and synthesis of data in an attempt to realize conceptual development beyond that able to be achieved by individual empirical studies or case reports. Results Of the 60 papers meeting the selection criteria, only four studies attempted to determine the effect of community participation on disease transmission. Due to inherent differences in their design, interventions and outcome measures, results could not be compared. However, these studies showed statistically significant reductions in disease incidence or prevalence using various forms of community participation. The use of locally selected volunteers provided with adequate training, supervision and

  14. Participation of African social scientists in malaria control: identifying enabling and constraining factors

    PubMed Central

    Ngalame, Paulyne M; Williams, Holly Ann; Jones, Caroline; Nyamongo, Isaac; Diop, Samba; Gaspar, Felisbela

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine the enabling and constraining factors that influence African social scientists involvement in malaria control. Methods Convenience and snowball sampling was used to identify participants. Data collection was conducted in two phases: a mailed survey was followed by in-depth phone interviews with selected individuals chosen from the survey. Findings Most participants did not necessarily seek malaria as a career path. Having a mentor who provided research and training opportunities, and developing strong technical skills in malaria control and grant or proposal writing facilitated career opportunities in malaria. A paucity of jobs and funding and inadequate technical skills in malaria limited the type and number of opportunities available to social scientists in malaria control. Conclusion Understanding the factors that influence job satisfaction, recruitment and retention in malaria control is necessary for better integration of social scientists into malaria control. However, given the wide array of skills that social scientists have and the variety of deadly diseases competing for attention in Sub Saharan Africa, it might be more cost effective to employ social scientists to work broadly on issues common to communicable diseases in general rather than solely on malaria. PMID:15579214

  15. COMPETITIVE ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION, THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH, AND BONE DENSITY IN ELITE SENIOR ATHLETES AND CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L.; Salacinski, Amanda J.; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (72.6±6.4yrs, 168.7±8.6cm, 72.6±13.5kg, 57M:47F) and 79 healthy controls (75.4±5.6yrs, 170.8±25.5cm, 79.5± 11.7kg, 46M:33F) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with DXA. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in four steps (α=0.10) to examine the contribution of (1) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake (2) group (elite senior athlete, control), (3) knee extension peak torque and (4) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p=0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all of the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors. PMID:23442279

  16. Experimental control of Triatoma infestans in poor rural villages of Bolivia through community participation

    PubMed Central

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Depickère, Stéphanie; Aliaga, Claudia; Chavez, Tamara; Zambrana, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Methods Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestans were identified, and an eco-health intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. Results The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Conclusions Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. PMID:25604766

  17. Injury risk in runners using standard or motion control shoes: a randomised controlled trial with participant and assessor blinding

    PubMed Central

    Malisoux, Laurent; Chambon, Nicolas; Delattre, Nicolas; Gueguen, Nils; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim This randomised controlled trial investigated if the usage of running shoes with a motion control system modifies injury risk in regular leisure-time runners compared to standard shoes, and if this influence depends on foot morphology. Methods Recreational runners (n=372) were given either the motion control or the standard version of a regular running shoe model and were followed up for 6 months regarding running activity and injury. Foot morphology was analysed using the Foot Posture Index method. Cox regression analyses were used to compare injury risk between the two groups, based on HRs and their 95% CIs, controlling for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of motion control system in runners with supinated, neutral and pronated feet. Results The overall injury risk was lower among the participants who had received motion control shoes (HR=0.55; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.85) compared to those receiving standard shoes. This positive effect was only observed in the stratum of runners with pronated feet (n=94; HR=0.34; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84); there was no difference in runners with neutral (n=218; HR=0.78; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.37) or supinated feet (n=60; HR=0.59; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.73). Runners with pronated feet using standard shoes had a higher injury risk compared to those with neutral feet (HR=1.80; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.22). Conclusions The overall injury risk was lower in participants who had received motion control shoes. Based on secondary analysis, those with pronated feet may benefit most from this shoe type. PMID:26746907

  18. Non-participation in a randomized controlled trial: the effect on clinical and non-clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Loveren, C; Poorterman, J H G; Hoogstraten, J

    2011-01-01

    Studies reporting clinical and non-clinical parameters of participants and non-participants of clinical trials are scarce. In the available studies non-participants were likely to show less favourable outcomes than participants on both socioeconomic parameters as well as on caries experience. However, the impact of non-participation on the total sample of the research population is not established. In the present study, as part of baseline data collection for a randomized controlled trial on caries-preventive strategies, 346 parents of children 6.0 years (± 3 months) of age were approached to let their child participate. Sixty parents refused, but 56 of them were willing to fill out the same set of questionnaires and to allow their child to be clinically examined once. Parents from participating children had higher socioeconomic status, were more often of autochthonous origin and scored better on knowledge questions than parents of non-participating children. Furthermore, parents of participating children reported a higher willingness to invest, were more likely to hold on to regular meals and their child had lower levels of plaque compared to non-participating children. Surprisingly, the participating children had higher dmfs scores than the non-participating children. Their care index (fs/ds + fs) was higher than that of non-participating children. Based on the findings of this study, the presumption that non-participating children will show less favourable clinical outcomes cannot be supported. Although participants differed from non-participants, they did not differ from the total population. It is suggested that the external validity of a randomized controlled trial on caries-preventive strategies is not necessarily affected by non-participation bias. PMID:21576959

  19. Identification of the origin of odour episodes through social participation, chemical control and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, E.; Soriano, C.; Roca, F. X.; Perales, J. F.; Alarcón, M.; Guardino, X.

    Odour episodes and environmental air quality are topics of worldwide concern, mainly due to the fact that industrial facilities are often located very close to inhabited areas. Several atmospheric pollutants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are responsible for odour episodes of varying degrees of annoyance. A methodology based on the simultaneous application of social participation (by building databases of odour episodes and acquiring air samples), chemical control and the computation of back trajectories allows us to identify the origin of odour episodes. A validated analytical method, based on thermal desorption (TD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS), is used to identify and determine a wide range of VOCs that cause odour nuisance and affect air quality in outdoor air. Back-trajectory modelling is used to track the origin of the air mass responsible for the discomfort backwards in time, mainly to find possible VOC sources outside the urban area. The procedure combines, on one hand, an analytical approach based on the acquisition of samples, which requires the participation of the affected population (which means that social participation is used as a scientific tool), and on the other hand, a modelling approach. Three examples are described to illustrate the methodology.

  20. Competitive athletic participation, thigh muscle strength, and bone density in elite senior athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (age: 72.6 ± 6.4 years, height: 168.7 ± 8.6 cm, mass: 72.6 ± 13.5 kg, 57 male:47 female) and 79 healthy controls (age: 75.4 ± 5.6 years, height: 170.8 ± 25.5 cm, mass: 79.5 ± 11.7 kg, 46 male:33 female) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque were measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in 4 steps (α = 0.10) to examine the contribution of (a) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake; (b) group (elite senior athlete, control); (c) knee extension peak torque; and (d) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p = 0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors.

  1. Factors affecting management changes on farms participating in a Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2015-11-01

    Modern Johne's disease programs aim to control Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection through implementation of management practices that reduce the probability of MAP introduction and within-herd transmission on dairy farms. Success of these programs depends on whether weaknesses in management are corrected through implementation of management improvements. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to (1) assess whether scores in risk-assessment (RA) questions predicted suggestions for management changes for the upcoming year; and (2) determine factors as assessed in an RA that motivated producers to make management improvements and assess whether management improvements were influenced by previously received test results. The RA determining on-farm management related to MAP introduction and transmission were conducted annually by herd veterinarians on 370 dairy farms participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. A maximum of 3 management changes that the farmer and the veterinarian agreed upon were recorded in a management plan. The MAP infection status of the herds was assessed through culture of 6 environmental samples. Whereas a management change was proposed for only 4% of questions with scores 1 or 2 (low risk), a change was proposed for 19% of questions with scores >2 [high risk; odds ratio (OR)=11.4]. Improvement in RA question scores was more likely between the first and second annual RA than between the second and third RA (OR=1.6). Farms with >3 culture-positive environmental samples collected in the previous year were more likely to improve their management than environmental sample culture-negative farms (OR=1.3). In conclusion, proposed management changes were oriented toward previously identified weaknesses in management practices, suggesting that the RA was properly used to design targeted management suggestions. Furthermore, improvements in management were not randomly distributed among farms participating in the

  2. The role of participation and control in the effects of computer monitoring on fairness perceptions, task satisfaction, and performance.

    PubMed

    Douthitt, E A; Aiello, J R

    2001-10-01

    Procedural justice and social facilitation theories were used to investigate effects of 2 kinds of process control on fairness perceptions, task satisfaction and performance of complex, computer-monitored tasks. A laboratory study manipulated participation (high or low voice) and monitoring approach (monitoring, control over monitoring, or no monitoring). High-voice participants perceived higher justice. Monitored participants reported higher satisfaction with high voice and lower satisfaction with low voice. Task performance was poorer for monitored participants unless they had control over monitoring. Among those with control, performance was not impaired for higher baseline performers. The 2 kinds of process control had different effects on the outcome variables. Results suggest the value of considering variations in the kinds of control provided and the justice principles that may apply in predicting effects of monitoring procedures. PMID:11596803

  3. The Sexunzipped Trial: Young People’s Views of Participating in an Online Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Angela; Stevenson, Fiona; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young people in the United Kingdom is increasing. The Internet can be a suitable medium for delivery of sexual health information and sexual health promotion, given its high usage among young people, its potential for creating a sense of anonymity, and ease of access. Online randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly being used to evaluate online interventions, but while there are many advantages to online methodologies, they can be associated with a number of problems, including poor engagement with online interventions, poor trial retention, and concerns about the validity of data collected through self-report online. We conducted an online feasibility trial that tested the effects of the Sexunzipped website for sexual health compared to an information-only website. This study reports on a qualitative evaluation of the trial procedures, describing participants’ experiences and views of the Sexunzipped online trial including methods of recruitment, incentives, methods of contact, and sexual health outcome measurement. Objective Our goal was to determine participants’ views of the acceptability and validity of the online trial methodology used in the pilot RCT of the Sexunzipped intervention. Methods We used three qualitative data sources to assess the acceptability and validity of the online pilot RCT methodology: (1) individual interviews with 22 participants from the pilot RCT, (2) 133 emails received by the trial coordinator from trial participants, and (3) 217 free-text comments from the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative, thematic analysis of all three data sources was conducted to identify common themes related to the acceptability and feasibility of the online trial methodology. Results Interview participants found the trial design, including online recruitment via Facebook, online registration, email

  4. MCHergic projections to the nucleus pontis oralis participate in the control of active (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-05-01

    Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as a neuromodulator are located in the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area and project diffusely throughout the central nervous system, including areas that participate in the generation and maintenance of sleep and wakefulness. Recent studies have shown that hypothalamic MCHergic neurons are active during active sleep (AS), and that intraventricular microinjections of MCH induce AS sleep; however, there are no data available regarding the manner in which MCHergic neurons participate in the control of this behavioral state. Utilizing immunohistochemical and retrograde tracing techniques, we examined, in the cat, projections from MCHergic neurons to the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is considered to be the executive area that is responsible for the generation and maintenance of AS. In addition, we explored the effects on sleep and waking states produced by the microinjection of MCH into the NPO. We first determined that MCHergic fibers and terminals are present in the NPO. We also found that when a retrograde tracer (cholera toxin subunit B) was placed in the NPO MCHergic neurons of the hypothalamus were labeled. When MCH was microinjected into the NPO, there was a significant increase in the amount of AS (19.8+/-1.4% versus 11.9+/-0.2%, P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the latency to AS (10.4+/-4.2 versus 26.6+/-2.3 min, P<0.05). The preceding anatomical and functional data support our hypothesis that the MCHergic system participates in the regulation of AS by modulating neuronal activity in the NPO. PMID:19269278

  5. MCHergic projections to the nucleus pontis oralis participate in the control of active (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-05-01

    Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as a neuromodulator are located in the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area and project diffusely throughout the central nervous system, including areas that participate in the generation and maintenance of sleep and wakefulness. Recent studies have shown that hypothalamic MCHergic neurons are active during active sleep (AS), and that intraventricular microinjections of MCH induce AS sleep; however, there are no data available regarding the manner in which MCHergic neurons participate in the control of this behavioral state. Utilizing immunohistochemical and retrograde tracing techniques, we examined, in the cat, projections from MCHergic neurons to the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is considered to be the executive area that is responsible for the generation and maintenance of AS. In addition, we explored the effects on sleep and waking states produced by the microinjection of MCH into the NPO. We first determined that MCHergic fibers and terminals are present in the NPO. We also found that when a retrograde tracer (cholera toxin subunit B) was placed in the NPO MCHergic neurons of the hypothalamus were labeled. When MCH was microinjected into the NPO, there was a significant increase in the amount of AS (19.8+/-1.4% versus 11.9+/-0.2%, P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the latency to AS (10.4+/-4.2 versus 26.6+/-2.3 min, P<0.05). The preceding anatomical and functional data support our hypothesis that the MCHergic system participates in the regulation of AS by modulating neuronal activity in the NPO.

  6. [Control locus, stress resistance and personal growth of the participants in experiment Mars-500].

    PubMed

    Solcova, I; Vinokhodova, A G

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with positive personal transformations in a simulated space mission. The investigation was focused on the aspects of control locus, stamina, proactive behavior to overcome challenges, and stress-related personal growth. Besides, ingenious psychophysiological techniques designed to select Russian cosmonauts were used for assessing stress-resistance and ability to control own emotions voluntarily. Experiment Mars-500 simulated the basic features of a mission to Mars. The crew consisted of 6 males 27 to 38 years of age who volunteered to spend 520 days in isolation and confinement in the IBMP experimental facility (Moscow). To detect personality changes, the volunteers were tested before the experiment and after its completion. According to the test results, the participants commonly demonstrated the ability to see the bright side of the Mars-500 adversities, which most often was caused by their social growth. Positive changes were particularly pronounced in the crewmembers who possessed a better ability to control own emotions. The simulated challenges were also beneficial for personal growth of the volunteers.

  7. [Control locus, stress resistance and personal growth of the participants in experiment Mars-500].

    PubMed

    Solcova, I; Vinokhodova, A G

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with positive personal transformations in a simulated space mission. The investigation was focused on the aspects of control locus, stamina, proactive behavior to overcome challenges, and stress-related personal growth. Besides, ingenious psychophysiological techniques designed to select Russian cosmonauts were used for assessing stress-resistance and ability to control own emotions voluntarily. Experiment Mars-500 simulated the basic features of a mission to Mars. The crew consisted of 6 males 27 to 38 years of age who volunteered to spend 520 days in isolation and confinement in the IBMP experimental facility (Moscow). To detect personality changes, the volunteers were tested before the experiment and after its completion. According to the test results, the participants commonly demonstrated the ability to see the bright side of the Mars-500 adversities, which most often was caused by their social growth. Positive changes were particularly pronounced in the crewmembers who possessed a better ability to control own emotions. The simulated challenges were also beneficial for personal growth of the volunteers. PMID:24032161

  8. Countering the negative effects of job insecurity through participative decision making: lessons from the demand-control model.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of increased organizational participative decision making in attenuating the negative consequences of job insecurity. Data were collected from 807 employees in 6 different companies. Analyses suggest that job insecurity is related to lower coworker, work, and supervisor satisfaction and higher turnover intentions and work withdrawal behaviors. However, employees with greater participative decision-making opportunities reported fewer negative consequences of job insecurity compared with employees with fewer participative decision-making opportunities. Results are interpreted using the demand-control model and suggest that organizations that allow greater employee participative decision making may experience fewer negative side effects from today's rising levels of employee job insecurity. PMID:16248683

  9. T regulatory cells participate in the control of germinal centre reactions

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Carla-Maria; Tygrett, Lorraine T; Boyden, Alexander W; Wolniak, Kristy L; Legge, Kevin L; Waldschmidt, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centre (GC) reactions are central features of T-cell-driven B-cell responses, and the site where antibody-producing cells and memory B cells are generated. Within GCs, a range of complex cellular and molecular events occur which are critical for the generation of high affinity antibodies. These processes require exquisite regulation not only to ensure the production of desired antibodies, but to minimize unwanted autoreactive or low affinity antibodies. To assess whether T regulatory (Treg) cells participate in the control of GC responses, immunized mice were treated with an anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) to disrupt Treg-cell activity. In anti-GITR-treated mice, the GC B-cell pool was significantly larger compared with control-treated animals, with switched GC B cells composing an abnormally high proportion of the response. Dysregulated GCs were also observed regardless of strain, T helper type 1 or 2 polarizing antigens, and were also seen after anti-CD25 mAb treatment. Within the spleens of immunized mice, CXCR5+ and CCR7− Treg cells were documented by flow cytometry and Foxp3+ cells were found within GCs using immunohistology. Final studies demonstrated administration of either anti-transforming growth factor-β or anti-interleukin-10 receptor blocking mAb to likewise result in dysregulated GCs, suggesting that generation of inducible Treg cells is important in controlling the GC response. Taken together, these findings indicate that Treg cells contribute to the overall size and quality of the humoral response by controlling homeostasis within GCs. PMID:21635248

  10. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  11. Does a Falls Prevention Program Impact Perceived Participation in Everyday Occupations? A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Erika; Dahlberg, Raymond; Jonsson, Hans; Patomella, Ann-Helen

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary, client-centered, fall prevention program on the experiences of participation and autonomy in everyday occupations among community-dwelling older adults. In total, 131 older adults (65+) were included and randomly allocated into two groups. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results of this pilot study showed that the program had a limited effect on the subjective experiences of participation and autonomy in everyday occupations among the participants. However, a trend of increased perceived participation and a decrease in the experience of perceived problems with participation among the participants in the intervention group was shown. Perceived participation and autonomy seem to be subjective experiences, and they seem to vary depending on the individual. To properly understand the impact of fall prevention interventions on participation and autonomy, measurements that capture both subjective and objective experiences are essential to use. PMID:27505900

  12. 24 CFR 200.226 - Determination by the Participation Control Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements Previous Participation Review and Clearance Procedure § 200.226 Determination by the Participation... review of the previous participation certificate and other available information reveals that there are..., respectively; (2) Disapprove a principal who; (i) is suspended or debarred or otherwise restricted under 2...

  13. Telephone Peer Counseling of Breastfeeding Among WIC Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Sibley, Kelly; Arnold, Diane; Altindag, Onur

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The US Surgeon General has recommended that peer counseling to support breastfeeding become a core service of the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). As of 2008, 50% of WIC clients received services from local WIC agencies that offered peer counseling. Little is known about the effectiveness of these peer counseling programs. Randomized controlled trials of peer counseling interventions among low-income women in the United States showed increases in breastfeeding initiation and duration, but it is doubtful that the level of support provided could be scaled up to service WIC participants nationally. We tested whether a telephone peer counseling program among WIC participants could increase breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1948 WIC clients recruited during pregnancy who intended to breastfeed or were considering breastfeeding to 3 study arms: no peer counseling, 4 telephone contacts, or 8 telephone contacts. RESULTS: We combined 2 treatment arms because there was no difference in the distribution of peer contacts. Nonexclusive breastfeeding duration was greater at 3 months postpartum for all women in the treatment group (adjusted relative risk: 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.34) but greater at 6 months for Spanish-speaking clients only (adjusted relative risk: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10–1.51). The likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding cessation was less among Spanish-speaking clients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.89). CONCLUSIONS: A telephone peer counseling program achieved gains in nonexclusive breastfeeding but modest improvements in exclusive breastfeeding were limited to Spanish- speaking women. PMID:25092936

  14. Mental health and social participation skills of wheelchair basketball players: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between competitive wheelchair basketball participants and those non-participants. Forty-six wheelchair participants, 24 Basketball players (aged 35.60 ± 7.56) and 22 non-players (aged 36.20 ± 6.23), completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale [PWBS] and Symptom Checklist 90 R [SCL-90-R]. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score, evaluated by PS, was significantly higher in the non-basketball participants (p=0.00001) than the basketball participants. The PWB Scale showed significant differences in all 6 dimensions: positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life and self-acceptance (p<0.01), and autonomy (p<0.05), with better scores in the basketball participants. The SCL-90-R scores were significantly lower for the basketball group in the following 6 symptomatic dimensions: depression, phobic anxiety, and sleep disorder (p<0.01), somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism (with p<0.05). It was concluded that competitive wheelchair basketball participants showed better psychological well-being and social skills than those non-participants. PMID:24012595

  15. Mental health and social participation skills of wheelchair basketball players: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between competitive wheelchair basketball participants and those non-participants. Forty-six wheelchair participants, 24 Basketball players (aged 35.60 ± 7.56) and 22 non-players (aged 36.20 ± 6.23), completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale [PWBS] and Symptom Checklist 90 R [SCL-90-R]. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score, evaluated by PS, was significantly higher in the non-basketball participants (p=0.00001) than the basketball participants. The PWB Scale showed significant differences in all 6 dimensions: positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life and self-acceptance (p<0.01), and autonomy (p<0.05), with better scores in the basketball participants. The SCL-90-R scores were significantly lower for the basketball group in the following 6 symptomatic dimensions: depression, phobic anxiety, and sleep disorder (p<0.01), somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism (with p<0.05). It was concluded that competitive wheelchair basketball participants showed better psychological well-being and social skills than those non-participants.

  16. Factors associated with participation of Alberta dairy farmers in a voluntary, management-based Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Kwong, G P S; Wolf, R; Pickel, C; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Mason, S; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Jansen, J; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2015-11-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a voluntary, management-based prevention and control program for Johne's disease (JD), a wasting disease in ruminants that causes substantial economic losses to the cattle industry. Despite extensive communication about the program's benefits and low cost to participating producers, approximately 35% of Alberta dairy farmers have not enrolled in the AJDI. Therefore, the objective was to identify differences between AJDI nonparticipants and participants that may influence enrollment. Standardized questionnaires were conducted in person on 163 farms not participating and 61 farms participating in the AJDI. Data collected included demographic characteristics, internal factors (e.g., attitudes and beliefs of the farmer toward JD and the AJDI), external factors (e.g., farmers' JD knowledge and on-farm goals and constraints), as well as farmers' use and influence of various information sources. Nonparticipants and participants differed in at least some aspects of all studied categories. Based on logistic regression, participating farms had larger herds, higher self-assessed knowledge of JD, better understanding of AJDI details before participation, and used their veterinarian more often to get information about new management practices and technologies when compared with nonparticipants. In contrast, nonparticipants indicated that time was a major on-farm constraint and that participation in the AJDI would take too much time. They also indicated that they preferred to wait and see how the program worked on other farms before they participated. PMID:26342983

  17. Identifying constituents to participate in a project to control pesticide exposure in children of farmworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, B; Coronado, G; Puschel, K; Allen, E

    2001-01-01

    Farmers in Washington State use pesticides to control harmful pests that might interfere with the quality of their products. Farmworkers, who are primarily responsible for thinning, harvesting, and other agricultural work, are often exposed to these pesticides and take home pesticide residues on their clothing, shoes, and skin, potentially exposing children in the household to pesticides. We designed a project to reduce children's exposure by using a community organization model. To better understand the community views regarding pesticide exposure, we conducted a qualitative community analysis. Two methods of data gathering were used to collect information. Individual interviews were conducted with some respondents, and small group discussions were held with others. Analysis indicated wide disparity among involved groups in their views on pesticides; however, a number of themes common to the majority of the constituents were identified and discussed with a community planning group. Because of the contention around pesticides, the group recommended every constituent participate in decision making. The group noted it was important to emphasize that the research project could provide scientific information on pesticide exposure to everyone in the Lower Yakima Valley. Our study demonstrates both the widely varying views of different constituents around the issue of pesticide exposure and common themes that can form the basis for collaboration and consensus on approaching the issue. PMID:11427394

  18. Generalized anxiety disorder versus panic disorder: participation in controlled efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Mavissakalian, M R; Zamar, N

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-one patients with panic disorder (PD) and 46 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were studied in relation to their behavior before, during, and after participation in two contemporaneous and procedurally similar double-blind drug efficacy trials. The two groups were administered a battery of assessments aimed at comparing them on the nature and intensity of various symptom domains, social and work-related disability, personality, life events, and previous treatments. The results yielded few significant differences that were not due to definitional factors, most notably a more prevalent history of depression and treatment for depression in the GAD group and a higher rate of pharmacological treatment in the PD group. On the other hand, the two groups behaved in a comparable way in the screening, experimental, and postexperimental phases of the trials. The findings are in support of more similarities than differences between the groups. In addition, the comparable behavior of the two groups throughout the three phases of the trial suggests that differential pretreatment attrition and compliance with placebo-controlled trials may not present major confounding problems in comparative treatment effectiveness studies between GAD and PD diagnostic groups.

  19. Variables Associated with Participation and Outcome in a Worksite Smoking Control Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Russell E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated variables potentially related to participation and success in worksite smoking modification program. Found that older subjects who were heavy smokers were most likely to participate in program. Strength of habit and age were inversely associated with success at quitting smoking at posttreatment and with smoking reduction among…

  20. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  1. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  2. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  3. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD.

  4. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study.

    PubMed

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  5. [The federal politics of basic sanitation and the initiatives of participation, mobilization, social control, health and environmental education].

    PubMed

    Moisés, Márcia; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Monteiro, Sandra Conceição Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to accomplish a critical analysis of two governmental important programs in health and environmental education - Health Education and Social Mobilization Program (PESMS) and Environmental Education and Sanitation Social Mobilization Program (PEAMSS), aiming at stimulate participative educational actions and social mobilization in sanitation projects. The methodology was based on reading and analysis of documents and observation in Workshops, Meetings, Seminars, Conventions, Congresses and Interviews. The authors describe the process of Program creation - PESMS and PEAMSS. They promoted a reflection and thought about Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education. They also made considerations about the difficulties, facilities, advances and challenges in the implantation and implementation of PESMS and PEAMSS in the fundament for the realization of the public services of basic sanitation. They conclude that the creation of conditions by means of initiatives of Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education become necessary for the development of Federal Policies of Basic Sanitation.

  6. [The federal politics of basic sanitation and the initiatives of participation, mobilization, social control, health and environmental education].

    PubMed

    Moisés, Márcia; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Monteiro, Sandra Conceição Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to accomplish a critical analysis of two governmental important programs in health and environmental education - Health Education and Social Mobilization Program (PESMS) and Environmental Education and Sanitation Social Mobilization Program (PEAMSS), aiming at stimulate participative educational actions and social mobilization in sanitation projects. The methodology was based on reading and analysis of documents and observation in Workshops, Meetings, Seminars, Conventions, Congresses and Interviews. The authors describe the process of Program creation - PESMS and PEAMSS. They promoted a reflection and thought about Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education. They also made considerations about the difficulties, facilities, advances and challenges in the implantation and implementation of PESMS and PEAMSS in the fundament for the realization of the public services of basic sanitation. They conclude that the creation of conditions by means of initiatives of Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education become necessary for the development of Federal Policies of Basic Sanitation. PMID:20802890

  7. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  8. Evaluation of the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum: Participant-Control Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruchow, Harvey William; Brown, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although males are often the initiators of teen sexual activity, pregnancy prevention programs generally target females. To address this deficiency, the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum was developed to be delivered to adolescent males in weekly classroom sessions. Methods: Seventh grade participants (n = 124) in the Wise Guys…

  9. Participation in mass gatherings can benefit well-being: longitudinal and control data from a North Indian Hindu pilgrimage event.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events - a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  10. Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  11. The Influence of Two Different Invitation Letters on Chlamydia Testing Participation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoebe, Christian JPA; van Bergen, Jan EAM; Brouwers, Elfi EHG; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, screening for chlamydia (the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide) is a relatively simple and free procedure. Via an invitation letter sent by the public health services (PHS), people are asked to visit a website to request a test kit. They can then do a chlamydia test at home, send it anonymously to a laboratory, and, within two weeks, they can review their test results online and be treated by their general practitioner or the PHS. Unfortunately, the participation rates are low and the process is believed to be not (cost-) effective. Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether the low participation rate of screening for chlamydia at home, via an invitation letter asking to visit a website and request a test kit, could be improved by optimizing the invitation letter through systematically applied behavior change theories and evidence. Methods The original letter and a revised letter were randomly sent out to 13,551 citizens, 16 to 29 years old, in a Dutch municipality. Using behavior change theories, the revised letter sought to increase motivation to conduct chlamydia screening tests. The revised letter was tailored to beliefs that were found in earlier studies: risk perception, advantages and disadvantages (attitude), moral norm, social influence, and response- and self-efficacy. Revisions to the new letter also sought to avoid possible unwanted resistance caused when people feel pressured, and included prompts to trigger the desired behavior. Results No significant differences in test package requests were found between the two letters. There were also no differences between the original and revised letters in the rates of returned tests (11.80%, 581/4922 vs 11.07%, 549/4961) or positive test results (4.8%, 23/484 vs 4.1%, 19/460). It is evident that the new letter did not improve participation compared to the original letter. Conclusions It is clear that the approach of inviting the target

  12. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss.

  13. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  14. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  15. The Influence of Task Difficulty and Participant Age on Balance Control in ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sarah A.; Abbott, Angela E.; Nair, Aarti; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Goble, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in sensorimotor integration are reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Poor control of balance in challenging balance tasks is one suggested manifestation of these impairments, and is potentially related to ASD symptom severity. Reported balance and symptom severity relationships disregard age as a potential covariate, however,…

  16. Adopting the primary health care approach in malaria control in Malaysia: lessons in community participation.

    PubMed

    Riji, H M

    1992-01-01

    The Primary Health Care approach in Malaysia was first tried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia in 1982. In 1984, the Vector Borne Disease Control Program, Kelantan decided to adopt the Primary Health Care approach as an additional strategy in its effort to control malaria in the state, which then experienced an increase in malaria cases. Much effort was directed at creating the awareness and stimulating the interest of health staff and communities to adopt the strategy. Kelantan was made the model state. The paper gives an outline of the process involved and some characteristics of PHC workers. A study was carried out among health workers, community members and health staff on their knowledge and involvement in PHC in three states, including Kelantan. In view of the overall success of this approach, and the weaknesses which have been identified possible solutions have been suggested and should be acted upon.

  17. Community participation and appropriate technologies for dengue vector control at transmission foci in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Chansang, Uruyakorn; Chansang, Chitti; Bhumiratana, Amaret

    2006-09-01

    A community-based dengue vector control trial was conducted at transmission foci in Plaeng Yao District, Chachoengsao Province, eastern Thailand. Implementation was done by the local community in collaboration with local administration, public health, and school authorities. Our cost-effective approaches combined a source reduction campaign with appropriate vector control technologies applied within the foci (within 100 m around the foci) and also within schools attended by children from the treated areas. Vector management measures by local government included cleanup campaigns before the rainy season followed by a routine garbage pickup during the rainy season. Locally made screen covers for water jars, a combination of local Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (copepod), and locally made lethal ovitraps were appropriate technologies used by the community in this campaign. The success of our intervention was evidenced by the significant reduction of dengue vectors and dengue hemorrhagic fever cases in treated areas compared with untreated areas.

  18. Mannosidase IA is in Quality Control Vesicles and Participates in Glycoprotein Targeting to ERAD.

    PubMed

    Ogen-Shtern, Navit; Avezov, Edward; Shenkman, Marina; Benyair, Ron; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2016-08-14

    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) of a misfolded glycoprotein in mammalian cells requires the removal of 3-4 alpha 1,2 linked mannose residues from its N-glycans. The trimming and recognition processes are ascribed to ER Mannosidase I, the ER-degradation enhancing mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs), and the lectins OS-9 and XTP3-B, all residing in the ER, the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), or quality control vesicles (QCVs). Folded glycoproteins with untrimmed glycans are transported from the ER to the Golgi complex, where they are substrates of other alpha 1,2 mannosidases, IA, IB, and IC. The apparent redundancy of these enzymes has been puzzling for many years. We have now determined that, surprisingly, mannosidase IA is not located in the Golgi but resides in QCVs. We had recently described this type of vesicles, which carry ER α1,2 mannosidase I (ERManI). We show that the overexpression of alpha class I α1,2 mannosidase IA (ManIA) significantly enhances the degradation of ERAD substrates and its knockdown stabilizes it. Our results indicate that ManIA trims mannose residues from Man9GlcNAc2 down to Man5GlcNAc2, acting in parallel with ERManI and the EDEMs, and targeting misfolded glycoproteins to ERAD.

  19. Intra- and Inter-session Reliability of Static and Dynamic Postural Control in Participants with and without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akhbari, Behnam; Salavati, Mahyar; Mohammadi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the intra- and inter-session reliability of balance performance in people with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and matched controls. Methods: In this methodological study, single-leg-stance performance of 15 participants with unilateral PFPS and 15 healthy matched controls was assessed using the Biodex Balance System (BBS) under 4 task difficulty levels (static and dynamic, with and without visual feedback). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement, and coefficients of variation were calculated for the overall stability index, anterior–posterior stability index, and medial–lateral stability index. Results: Static and dynamic postural performance during single-leg stance showed moderate to very high reliability in the PFPS group (ICCs=0.53–0.96) and in healthy control participants (ICCs=0.51–0.91). Both measures were more reliable with eyes closed than with eyes open. Conclusion: BBS stability indices appear to have acceptable reliability in people with PFPS, particularly in more challenging conditions, and may be incorporated into the evaluation and rehabilitation of this patient group. PMID:26839452

  20. A new approach to community participation in tsetse control in the Busoga sleeping sickness focus, Uganda. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Okoth, J O; Kirumira, E K; Kapaata, R

    1991-06-01

    A process is described by which trapping technology is being taught to a rural community which has been affected continuously by an epidemic of sleeping sickness for over a decade. Through a systematic health education programme, people are actively involved in making and setting traps and in learning about the general characteristics of the tsetse fly and the disease. A mono-screen trap has been developed for community use and is being used to trap flies. This is the first time that this kind of community participation has been attempted in tsetse control--and this approach is discussed in relation to other approaches.

  1. The Challenges of Conducting a Nurse-Led Intervention in a Randomized Controlled Trial with Vulnerable Participants

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tanya; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges encountered by researchers while conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the efficacy of a healthy lifestyle educational and exercise intervention for people with serious mental illness. RCTs, even though considered the “gold standard” of research designs, are still prone to risks of potential bias and threats to their validity. Based on researcher reflexivity, the combination of reflection and action, during the conduct of the study, this paper outlines a number of challenges faced by the researchers. These included managing the need of participants to tell their story and be heard, reluctance of participants to remain in allocated groups, participant literacy, dual role of the nurse nurse-researcher, and reporting the benefits of nonstatistical results of a quantitative research project. Recommendations for conducting future behaviour intervention studies of this type include the incorporation of a reflexive component for the nurse nurse-researcher, highlighting the importance of taking a reflexive stance in both qualitative and quantitative research designs. PMID:24876952

  2. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  3. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems. PMID:27195976

  4. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M

    2016-05-19

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems.

  5. The Importance of Long-Term Social Research in Enabling Participation and Developing Engagement Strategies for New Dengue Control Technologies

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, new strategies aimed at reducing the capacity of mosquito vectors to transmit dengue fever have emerged. As with earlier control methods, they will have to be employed in a diverse range of communities across the globe and into the main settings for disease transmission, the homes, businesses and public buildings of residents in dengue-affected areas. However, these strategies are notably different from previous methods and draw on technologies that are not without controversy. Public engagement and authorization are critical to the future success of these programs. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper reports on an Australian case study where long-term social research was used to enable participation and the design of an engagement strategy tailored specifically to the sociopolitical setting of a potential trial release site of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegytpi mosquitoes. Central themes of the social research, methods used and conclusions drawn are briefly described. Results indicate that different communities are likely to have divergent expectations, concerns and cultural sensibilities with regard to participation, engagement and authorization. Conclusions/Significance The findings show that a range of issues need to be understood and taken into account to enable sensitive, ethical and effective engagement when seeking public support for new dengue control methods. PMID:22953011

  6. Auditory serial position effects in story retelling for non-brain-injured participants and persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Martin B; McNeil, Malcolm R; Doyle, Patrick J; Fossett, Tepanata R D; Timm, Neil H; Park, Grace H

    2003-10-01

    Using story retelling as an index of language ability, it is difficult to disambiguate comprehension and memory deficits. Collecting data on the serial position effect (SPE), however, illuminates the memory component. This study examined the SPE of the percentage of information units (%IU) produced in the connected speech samples of adults with aphasia and age-matched, non-brain-injured (NBI) participants. The NBI participants produced significantly more direct and alternate IUs than participants with aphasia. Significant age and gender differences were found in subsamples of the NBI controls, with younger and female participants generating significantly more direct IUs than male and older NBI participants. Alternate IU productions did not generate an SPE from any group. There was a significant linear increase from the initial (primacy) to the final (recency) portion of the recalled alternate IUs for both the NBI group and the group of participants with aphasia. Results provide evidence that individuals with aphasia recall discourse length information using similar memory functions as the nonimpaired population, though at a reduced level of efficiency or quantity. A quadratic model is suggested for the recall of information directly recalled from discourse-length language material.

  7. The role of public participation in public health initiatives: an analysis of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Montini, T; George, A; Martin-Mollard, M; Bero, L A

    2010-01-01

    This is a content analysis of 489 written documents and 142 hearing testimonies, submitted to the World Health Organisation (WHO), regarding the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) during the comment period of 2000. Our aim was to consider the benefits and limitations of inviting public participation. We found that, overall, those who offered commentary were in support of the FCTC and any ensuing treaty, especially if it protected children. The minority who opposed the treaty argued that restrictions on tobacco trade would further damage the economies of poor nations that are financially dependent upon tobacco. The FCTC that was adopted at the World Health Assembly in May 2003 addressed many of the concerns raised by the public in written commentary and hearing testimony: children and youth; advertising and sponsorship; tobacco product labelling; second-hand smoke; taxes; smuggling; liability; tobacco product regulation; and the involvement of non-government organisations (NGOs). We conclude that the benefits of public participation in public health policy formation are numerous, including levelling the playing field for public health activists and NGOs, building the expertise of advocates that can be generalised to other public health efforts, giving the political process legitimacy and credibility, as well as coalition building and grassroots momentum. PMID:19326277

  8. A new strategy for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control with community participation using a new fumigant formulation.

    PubMed

    Harburguer, Laura; Beltrán, Gaston; Goldberg, Lucila; Goldberg, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Héctor

    2011-05-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to avoid epidemics. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new smoke-generating formulation containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin in Puerto Libertad, Misiones, Argentina. A fumigant tablet (FT) was applied inside the houses by the community members and compared with a professional application. A treatment combining the application of fumigant tablets indoors and ultralow volume fumigation outdoors was also assessed. The community perceptions and practices about dengue disease and the acceptance of this new nonprofessional FT were evaluated through surveys. Results show >90% adult emergence inhibition and 100% adult mortality with these treatments. More than 80% of the residents applied the FT and preferred participating in a vector control program by using a nonprofessional mosquito control tool, instead of attending meetings and workshops promoting cultural changes.

  9. Options in Education, Transcript for November 17, 1975: School Desegregation, School Bus Drivers, and Parental Participation in the Control of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript of the show contains discussions of civil rights and school desegregation, learning to drive a school bus, and parental participation in the control of schools. Participants in this part of the program are John Merrow and Wendy…

  10. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis

  11. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  12. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  13. Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The

  14. Early maladaptive schema factors, chronic pain and depressiveness: a study with 271 chronic pain patients and 331 control participants.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain and depression are coexisting entities with high simultaneous prevalence. Both are linked with early adversities. Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) can be seen as a reflection of these adversities. EMSs extensively indicate underlying psychic patterns and provide a good opportunity to detect covert processes and psychic shapes (latent factors), which create the basis of how people rate their schemas. The purpose of this study was to explore these latent, higher order schema factors (SF) and to find out how they are associated with pain intensity or depression in chronic pain patients and a control sample. The study subjects consisted of 271 first-visit pain patients and 331 control participants. Sociodemographic and pain data were gathered by questionnaire; 18 EMSs were measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form) and depressiveness was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, Version II. Exploratory factor and regression analyses were used. The chronic pain patient group showed two SFs. The first SF showed a shameful, defective, socially isolated, failure, emotionally inhibited, deprived, submissive and resigned pattern. The second SF showed a demanding, approval seeking, self-sacrificing and punitive pattern. SF1 predicted more than half of the depressiveness in the pain patient sample. A three-factor structure was found in the control sample, and SFs 1 and 3 together predicted almost one-third of depressiveness. The pain patient and the control groups had a different, higher order factor structure. We assume that SF1 in the pain patients reflected a rather serious, undefined early psychic trauma and was also associated with their depressiveness. PMID:21210495

  15. Ustilago maydis Rho1 and 14-3-3 homologues participate in pathways controlling cell separation and cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cau D; Yu, Zhanyang; Sandrock, Björn; Bölker, Michael; Gold, Scott E; Perlin, Michael H

    2009-07-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 and Rho-GTPase families are functionally conserved eukaryotic proteins that participate in many important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, malignant transformation, stress response, and apoptosis. However, the exact role(s) of these proteins in these processes is not entirely understood. Using the fungal maize pathogen, Ustilago maydis, we were able to demonstrate a functional connection between Pdc1 and Rho1, the U. maydis homologues of 14-3-3epsilon and Rho1, respectively. Our experiments suggest that Pdc1 regulates viability, cytokinesis, chromosome condensation, and vacuole formation. Similarly, U. maydis Rho1 is also involved in these three essential processes and exerts an additional function during mating and filamentation. Intriguingly, yeast two-hybrid and epistasis experiments suggest that both Pdc1 and Rho1 could be constituents of the same regulatory cascade(s) controlling cell growth and filamentation in U. maydis. Overexpression of rho1 ameliorated the defects of cells depleted for Pdc1. Furthermore, we found that another small G protein, Rac1, was a suppressor of lethality for both Pdc1 and Rho1. In addition, deletion of cla4, encoding a Rac1 effector kinase, could also rescue cells with Pdc1 depleted. Inferring from these data, we propose a model for Rho1 and Pdc1 functions in U. maydis.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Donna M; Halperin, Beth A; Langley, Joanne M; McNeil, Shelly A; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%-94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%-45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women approached to participate in a Tdap maternal immunization randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna M.; Halperin, Beth A.; Langley, Joanne M.; McNeil, Shelly A.; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%–94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%–45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women. PMID:27176822

  18. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  19. Psychological Well-Being and Social Participation Assessment in Visually Impaired Subjects Playing Torball: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Cagno, A.; Iuliano, E.; Aquino, G.; Fiorilli, G.; Battaglia, C.; Giombini, A.; Calcagno, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27 plus or minus 3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80 plus or minus 2.53), and…

  20. Short communication: Herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is not associated with participation in a voluntary Alberta Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Wolf, R; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Pickel, C; Mason, S; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2016-03-01

    Johne's disease (JD) control programs for dairy farms have the general objective of reducing both cow- and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). An important aspect of many programs is herd testing for MAP to determine the infection status of participating farms. However, it is uncertain whether MAP herd-level prevalence on farms voluntarily participating in a JD control program is different from that on nonparticipating farms. Therefore, the aim was to compare MAP infection status of participants and nonparticipants in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI), a voluntary JD control program initiated in 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Between September 2012 and August 2013, environmental fecal samples were collected from 93 randomly selected farms not enrolled in the AJDI. Additionally, 81 farms that initially enrolled in the AJDI during the same time interval were also sampled. Samples were collected from 6 defined locations on each farm and cultured for MAP. Results were confirmed using conventional IS900 PCR and F 0285 quantitative PCR. Overall, 51% of participating and 51% of nonparticipating farms were identified as being MAP-infected. Furthermore, based on multivariable logistic regression, the number of MAP-positive samples was not associated with AJDI participation (taking herd size into account as a potentially modifying or confounding variable). In conclusion, there was no indication that voluntary participation in the AJDI was associated with herd-level MAP prevalence.

  1. Short communication: Herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is not associated with participation in a voluntary Alberta Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Wolf, R; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Pickel, C; Mason, S; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2016-03-01

    Johne's disease (JD) control programs for dairy farms have the general objective of reducing both cow- and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). An important aspect of many programs is herd testing for MAP to determine the infection status of participating farms. However, it is uncertain whether MAP herd-level prevalence on farms voluntarily participating in a JD control program is different from that on nonparticipating farms. Therefore, the aim was to compare MAP infection status of participants and nonparticipants in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI), a voluntary JD control program initiated in 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Between September 2012 and August 2013, environmental fecal samples were collected from 93 randomly selected farms not enrolled in the AJDI. Additionally, 81 farms that initially enrolled in the AJDI during the same time interval were also sampled. Samples were collected from 6 defined locations on each farm and cultured for MAP. Results were confirmed using conventional IS900 PCR and F 0285 quantitative PCR. Overall, 51% of participating and 51% of nonparticipating farms were identified as being MAP-infected. Furthermore, based on multivariable logistic regression, the number of MAP-positive samples was not associated with AJDI participation (taking herd size into account as a potentially modifying or confounding variable). In conclusion, there was no indication that voluntary participation in the AJDI was associated with herd-level MAP prevalence. PMID:26778309

  2. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Souverein, Olga W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Freese, Riitta; Watzl, Bernhard; Bub, Achim; Miller, Edgar R; Castenmiller, Jacqueline J M; Pasman, Wilrike J; van Het Hof, Karin; Chopra, Mridula; Karlsen, Anette; Dragsted, Lars O; Winkels, Renate; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Brazionis, Laima; O'Dea, Kerin; van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; van der Voet, Hilko; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2015-05-14

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable intake (including and excluding fruit and vegetable juices). The study population in the present individual participant data meta-analysis consisted of 526 men and women. Carotenoid, folate and vitamin C concentrations showed a positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake. Measures of performance for the prediction model were calculated using cross-validation. For the prediction model of fruit, vegetable and juice intake, the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 258.0 g, the correlation between observed and predicted intake was 0.78 and the mean difference between observed and predicted intake was - 1.7 g (limits of agreement: - 466.3, 462.8 g). For the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake (excluding juices), the RMSE was 201.1 g, the correlation was 0.65 and the mean bias was 2.4 g (limits of agreement: -368.2, 373.0 g). The prediction models which include the biomarkers and subject characteristics may be used to estimate average intake at the group level and to investigate the ranking of individuals with regard to their intake of fruit and vegetables when validating questionnaires that measure intake.

  3. Body size perceptions among Pakistani women in Norway participating in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Bjørge, Benedikte; Hjellset, Victoria T; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-06-01

    South Asians are prone to diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases, which can be prevented by a diet leading to weight reduction. Body size perceptions may influence compliance to dietary advice. The objective was to study body size perceptions among Pakistani immigrant women in Norway, enrolled in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance by focussing on diet and physical activity. Participants (n=198) were 25-62 years of age, 79.8% had BMI > 25 and mean BMI was 29.6. Data were collected by questionnaire interviews with Punjabi/Urdu speaking interviewers, and body weight and height were measured. This article is based on baseline data. Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale was used. The scale consists of nine figures, representing women with different body shapes, from very thin (1-2) to very obese (6-9). The women were asked which body size they thought would connote health and wealth. A significantly smaller body size was related to health (mean 2.9) than to wealth (mean 3.3), p<0.01, and both were smaller than their self-rated own body size (mean 5.7), p<0.01. The women perceived that Pakistanis in Norway prefer women to have a smaller body size (mean 3.4) than people in Pakistan (mean 4.5), but larger than Norwegians (mean 2.5). A discrepancy score was calculated between self-rated own body size and perceived body size preference among Pakistanis in Norway. BMI was positively associated, and level of education negatively associated, with the discrepancy score. The women related body size numbers to BMI similarly to what has been described for US women. In conclusion, body size preferences among Pakistani women in this study were within the range of normal weight. However, there was a large discrepancy between own self-rated body size and the perceived ideal for Pakistanis in Norway. PMID:20379892

  4. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Souverein, Olga W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Freese, Riitta; Watzl, Bernhard; Bub, Achim; Miller, Edgar R; Castenmiller, Jacqueline J M; Pasman, Wilrike J; van Het Hof, Karin; Chopra, Mridula; Karlsen, Anette; Dragsted, Lars O; Winkels, Renate; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Brazionis, Laima; O'Dea, Kerin; van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; van der Voet, Hilko; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2015-05-14

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable intake (including and excluding fruit and vegetable juices). The study population in the present individual participant data meta-analysis consisted of 526 men and women. Carotenoid, folate and vitamin C concentrations showed a positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake. Measures of performance for the prediction model were calculated using cross-validation. For the prediction model of fruit, vegetable and juice intake, the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 258.0 g, the correlation between observed and predicted intake was 0.78 and the mean difference between observed and predicted intake was - 1.7 g (limits of agreement: - 466.3, 462.8 g). For the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake (excluding juices), the RMSE was 201.1 g, the correlation was 0.65 and the mean bias was 2.4 g (limits of agreement: -368.2, 373.0 g). The prediction models which include the biomarkers and subject characteristics may be used to estimate average intake at the group level and to investigate the ranking of individuals with regard to their intake of fruit and vegetables when validating questionnaires that measure intake. PMID:25850683

  5. The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study analyses the effect of active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social networks on the development of lung cancer in patients who smoke. Our hypothesis is that study participants who lack social networks and do not actively participate in a sports club are at a greater risk for lung cancer than those who do. Methods Data for the study were taken from the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS), a retrospective case-control study examining potential psychosocial risk factors for the development of lung cancer. Our sample consisted of n = 158 participants who had suffered lung cancer (diagnosis in the patient document) and n = 144 control group participants. Both groups had a history of smoking. Data on social networks were collected by asking participants whether they participated in a sports club and about the number of friends and relatives in their social environment. In addition, sociodemographic data (gender, age, education, marital status, residence and religion), physical activity and data on pack years (the cumulative number of cigarettes smoked by an individual, calculated by multiplying the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked divided by 20) were collected to control for potential confounders. Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results The results reveal that participants who are physically active are at a lower risk of lung cancer than those who are not (adjusted OR = 0.53*; CI = 0.29-0.97). Older age and lower education seem also to be risk factors for the development of lung cancer. The extent of smoking, furthermore, measured by pack years is statistically significant. Active participation in a sports club, number of friends and relatives had no statistically significant influence on the development of the cancer. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that there is a lower risk for physically active participants to develop lung cancer. In the

  6. Factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research for urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in rural villages of Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Jacinta Wairimu; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W; Njenga, Sammy Michugu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction helminthic infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomes are among the most prevalent afflictions of humans who live in areas of poverty. An operational research was undertaken in 5 villages of Kwale County during a pilot control programme which included both the adults and school going children. Willingness of community members to participate in the treatment as well as in the research is critical. A cross sectional study sought to determine factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research and assess the treatment coverage for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms in rural villages of Kwale County. Methods cross-sectional survey utilized quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 220 households were recruited and household heads interviewed. Bivariate analysis was used to test association between different independent and dependent factors. Multivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression to control for confounders and effect modification. Qualitative data was transcribed, coded and analyzed thematically. Results religion and levels of income were significantly (P =0.04 and P = 0.026 respectively) associated with participation in the research and control programme, history of ever suffering from schistosomiasis and intestinal worms was found to be significantly (P = 0.008) associated with participation in the research. The study established that 82% (178) of the respondents received treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms and 67% (146) of the respondents had participated in the research. Conclusion this information will be useful in promoting health, enhancing learning and behaviour changes which will lead to increased community participation in similar disease control. PMID:27642474

  7. Motivations for, and perceptions and experiences of participating in, a cluster randomised controlled trial of a HIV-behavioural intervention in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa Jama; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on ethical issues in HIV-prevention and gender-based violence research, critical for honing ethical and safety guidelines, is limited. In this paper we describe South African young people's motivations for participating in randomised controlled trial, the prevalence of negative occurrences, participation regrets and associated factors. This trial partly followed, but also deviated from, the WHO safety guidelines for research on violence against women. A total of 1085 women and 985 men provided information two years after the trial start. Most participated for HIV testing and to help their community. Fewer reported motivation by the financial incentive. Minor adverse events included upset from questions on childhood experiences and arguments at home with siblings. Just under 1 in 10 (8.1% women, 9.8% men) regretted participation. Factors were associated with this were keeping some questions secret from their partners, feeling sad about questions on childhood, quarrelling at home and, for women, being motivated by the incentive. Men who had been physically violent to a partner were twice as likely to regret participation. There were no recorded adverse effects from the deviations from the ethical guidelines. Participation regrets mostly stemmed from problems in participants' families preceding the research. There was no evidence that the research had been unsafe. PMID:22973819

  8. Effects of krill oil on endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in participants with type 2 diabetes, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lobraico, Jessika M; DiLello, Lauren C; Butler, Amber D; Cordisco, Marie Elena; Petrini, Joann R; Ahmadi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of krill oil supplementation, a source of ω-3 fatty acids, on cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood glucose control among participants with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods A randomized, double-blind controlled cross-over trial was employed. Outcomes assessed were: endothelial function, blood lipids, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum antioxidant level, C peptide, and calculated Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) scores. Participants were randomized to either krill oil or olive oil supplementation for 4 weeks, underwent a 2-week washout period, and then crossed to the other supplementation for 4 weeks. All participants were then offered an additional 17 weeks of krill supplementation. Testing occurred at 3 time points: baseline, after first supplementation, and after second supplementation. Testing also occurred after an optional 17 weeks of krill oil supplementation. Difference scores were calculated for each participant in both sequences (ie, differences in outcome measures in the first and second period of the sequence). The mean and SD of the scores in the 2 sequence groups were used to test for differences between treatment effects at a significance level of p<0.05. Results A total of 47 participants were included in the initial cross-over study. Participants who received krill oil for 4 weeks had an improvement in their endothelial function and a reduction in blood C peptide levels and HOMA scores as compared with the olive oil. A total of 34 participants completed the additional 17-week supplementation period. When compared with their respective baseline measures, these participants had a statistically significant improvement in endothelial function and blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Conclusions Krill oil may lead to moderate improvement of cardiovascular risks, specifically endothelial dysfunction and HDL in patients with type 2

  9. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  10. Medical participation in control of certain open-panel medical prepayment plans: Federal Trade Commission. Request for comment and advance notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1980-03-17

    This Notice requests comments on two staff reports dealing with medical participation in control of Blue Shield and certain other open-panel medical prepayment plans and on alternative courses of action that the Commission might take to deal with this subject, one of which might be rulemaking.

  11. Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

  12. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-02-24

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  13. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain. PMID:26927141

  14. Event related potentials study of aberrations in voice control mechanisms in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Tapaskar, Natalie; Pflieger, Mark E.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Lodhavia, Anjli; Patel, Sona; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study was designed to test for neural signs of impulsivity related to voice motor control in young adults with ADHD and healthy control young adults using EEG recordings in a voice pitch perturbation paradigm. Methods Two age-matched groups of young adults were presented with brief pitch shifts of auditory feedback during vocalization. Compensatory behavioral and corresponding bioelectrical brain responses were elicited by the pitch-shifted voice feedback. Results The analysis of bioelectrical responses showed that the ADHD group had shorter peak and onset latency of motor-related bioelectrical brain responses as compared to the controls. Conclusions These results were interpreted to suggest differences in executive functions between ADHD and control participants. Significance We hypothesize that more rapid motor-related bioelectrical responses found in the present study may be a manifestation of impulsiveness in adults with ADHD at the involuntary level of voice control. PMID:25308310

  15. Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323

  16. Counselee participation in follow-up breast cancer genetic counselling visits and associations with achievement of the preferred role, cognitive outcomes, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control.

    PubMed

    Albada, Akke; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the counselee participation in the follow-up visits, compared to the first visits, for breast cancer genetic counselling and to explore associations with counselees' achievement of their preferred role in decision making, information recall, knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control. First and follow-up visits for breast cancer genetic counselling of 96 counselees of a Dutch genetics center were videotaped (2008-2010). Counselees completed questionnaires before counselling (T1), after the follow-up visit (T2) and one year after the follow-up visit (T3). Consultations were rated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Counselee participation was measured as the percentage of counselee utterances, the percentage of counselee questions and the interactivity (number of turns per minute). Follow-up visits had higher levels of counselee participation than first visits as assessed by the percentage of counselee talk, the interactivity and counselee questions. More counselee talk in the follow-up visit was related to higher achievement of the preferred role (T2) and higher perceived personal control (T3). Higher interactivity in the follow-up visit was related to lower achievement of the preferred role in decision making and lower information recall (T2). There were no significant associations with the percentage of questions asked and none of the participation measures was related to knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control (T2). In line with the interviewing admonishment 'talk less and listen more', the only assessment of counselee participation associated to better outcomes is the percentage of counselee talk. High interactivity might be associated with lower recall in breast cancer genetic counselees who are generally highly educated. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and a heterogeneous group of counselees. Research is needed on the interactions

  17. Strategies to retain participants in a long-term HIV prevention randomized controlled trial: Lessons from the MINTS-II study

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Keith J.; Nygaard, Kate; Danilenko, Gene P.; Goknur, Sinan; Oakes, J. Michael; Rosser, B.R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Achieving satisfactory retention in online HIV prevention trials typically have proved difficult, particularly over extended timeframes. The overall aim of this study was to assess factors associated with retention in the Men’s INTernet Study II (MINTS-II), a randomized controlled trial of a sexual risk reduction intervention for men who have sex with men. Participants were recruited via e-mails and banner advertisements in December, 2007 to participate in the MINTS-II Sexpulse intervention and followed over a 12-month period. Retention across the treatment and control arms was 85.2% at 12 months. Factors associated with higher retention included: randomization to the control arm, previous participation in a study by the research team, e-mail and telephone reminders to complete a survey once it was available to take, and fewer e-mail contacts between surveys. The results provide evidence that achieving satisfactory retention is possible in online HIV prevention trials, and suggest best practices for maximizing retention. PMID:21538084

  18. Allowing Physicians to Choose the Value of Compensation for Participation in a Web-Based Survey: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    Background Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. Objective To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. Methods A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. Results The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Conclusions Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion. PMID:26223821

  19. Using virtual reality to support multi-participant human-centered design processes for control room design

    SciTech Connect

    Louka, M. N.; Gustavsen, M. A.; Edvardsen, S. T.

    2006-07-01

    We present an overview of a method of applying interactive 3D visualization techniques to support control room design activities, and summarize studies that supports it. In particular, we describe the software tools that we have developed and how these support a human-centered design (HCD) work-flow. We present some lessons learnt from using our tools in control room design projects, and outline our plans for extending the scope of our approach to support concurrent design and later phases of a plant's life-cycle. (authors)

  20. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor

  1. Beyond Binary: Using Propensity Scores to Account for Varying Levels of Program Participation in Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Warkentien, Siri; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current project is to explore the use of propensity scores to estimate the effects of interventions within randomized control trials, accounting for varying levels of implementation or fidelity. This work extends that of Jo and Stuart (2009) to settings with multiple or continuous measures of implementation. Rather than focus…

  2. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)-a randomized controlled lifestyle trial.

    PubMed

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-09-10

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60-77 years, the dementia risk score ≥ 6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  3. Positive impact of Tai Chi Chuan participation on biopsychosocial quality of life compared to exercise and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Alex; J P Francis, Andrew

    2013-05-24

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a traditional Chinese medicine practice and martial art with biopsychosocial aspects. This study aimed to examine the impact of participation in TCC on multiple domains of Quality of Life (QoL) and to assess the involvement of the psychological factors of self-efficacy, Locus of Control (LoC) and Hope in these effects. A total of 68 participants from the general community (13 males and 55 females) aged between 18 and 68 (M=43.55 years) and not currently suffering from a mental or physical illness took part in the study. It was found that TCC participants, as a group, scored significantly better than those in sedentary (book club) and active (gym exercise) control conditions on Psychological and Physical QoL, and that the Physical QoL benefits of TCC continue to accrue with years of practice. The three psychological factors were shown to variously mediate (self-efficacy) and moderate (internal LoC and Hope) this latter relationship. Whilst the results bear limitations (in particular small sample sizes), it is hoped that these findings will encourage further research into TCC, and consideration of TCC as part of the range of treatment options available in community-based mental and physical health management.

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in participants of foot-and-mouth disease epidemic control in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010

    PubMed Central

    HIBI, Juri; KUROSAWA, Aiko; WATANABE, Takuto; KADOWAKI, Hazumu; WATARI, Michiko; MAKITA, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010, and 290,000 animals were culled. This paper describes the mental distress of the volunteers who had been dispatched to Miyazaki for disease control two years after the epidemic. It also assesses risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A participatory appraisal and self-administered questionnaire survey were conducted in 2012 for those who were dispatched to Miyazaki in 2010. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used as an indicator of PTSD, and univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 875 respondents, 1.3% had higher IES-R scores than the cut-off point (25), which is suggestive of PTSD. Mental stresses during and soon after FMD control and after two years were described. Four risk factors associated with high IES-R scores were found: transporting culled animals (P<0.01), stress during FMD control (P<0.01) and at the time of the survey (P<0.01), and lack of someone to talk to about FMD-associated stress at the time of the survey (P<0.01). Veterinarians, livestock technicians and clerical officers involved in FMD control still suffer from mental stress two years later. Public services should provide an opportunity for them to consult with mental health specialists. These findings should be used to better prepare workers who deal with infectious diseases of animals, especially when they must be culled. The establishment of a collaborative framework between veterinary and mental health services is recommended. PMID:25843114

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder in participants of foot-and-mouth disease epidemic control in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Juri; Kurosawa, Aiko; Watanabe, Takuto; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Watari, Michiko; Makita, Kohei

    2015-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Miyazaki, Japan, in 2010, and 290,000 animals were culled. This paper describes the mental distress of the volunteers who had been dispatched to Miyazaki for disease control two years after the epidemic. It also assesses risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A participatory appraisal and self-administered questionnaire survey were conducted in 2012 for those who were dispatched to Miyazaki in 2010. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used as an indicator of PTSD, and univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 875 respondents, 1.3% had higher IES-R scores than the cut-off point (25), which is suggestive of PTSD. Mental stresses during and soon after FMD control and after two years were described. Four risk factors associated with high IES-R scores were found: transporting culled animals (P<0.01), stress during FMD control (P<0.01) and at the time of the survey (P<0.01), and lack of someone to talk to about FMD-associated stress at the time of the survey (P<0.01). Veterinarians, livestock technicians and clerical officers involved in FMD control still suffer from mental stress two years later. Public services should provide an opportunity for them to consult with mental health specialists. These findings should be used to better prepare workers who deal with infectious diseases of animals, especially when they must be culled. The establishment of a collaborative framework between veterinary and mental health services is recommended.

  6. Effect of health education on community participation in control of dengue hemorrhagic fever in an urban area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, W; Chaovakiratipong, C; Nguntra, P; Koonchote, S; Khumklam, P; Lerdlukanavonge, P

    1992-06-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, remains a serious public health problem in Thailand. This paper describes the effect of health education efforts on a community-based DHF vector control program in the municipality of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand, from 1988 through 1990. In 1988, public health education on DHF and larval control through mass media, lectures and discussions reduced the Aedes Breteau index from 241 in March to 126 in June 1988. In 1989 and 1990, twice a year house-to-house visits by trained health workers were added to the health education campaigns. Aedes larval indices were decreased far more in the epidemic year of 1990 than in 1989. During this 3-year period, water-storage containers for drinking, washing, bathing and ant-traps were the primary sources of larval habitats, accounting for about 90% of the total breeding places. Reduction of Aedes larvae in these sources was due to various larval control measures. By August 1990 water containers for non-drinking purposes were the remaining important breeding places. The introduction of larvivorous fish may be an effective method of larval control for these containers. Most houses were supplied by public piped water system; however, a shortage of piped water for a period of time resulted in a significant increase in the number of water containers. An adequate water supply to the community should be provided continuously to prevent creation of new breeding places. Modifying behavioral practices to reduce domestic man-made water containers should be encouraged.

  7. Bone mass and geometry of the tibia and the radius of master sprinters, middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and sedentary control participants: a pQCT study.

    PubMed

    Wilks, D C; Winwood, K; Gilliver, S F; Kwiet, A; Chatfield, M; Michaelis, I; Sun, L W; Ferretti, J L; Sargeant, A J; Felsenberg, D; Rittweger, J

    2009-07-01

    Mechanical loading is thought to be a determinant of bone mass and geometry. Both ground reaction forces and tibial strains increase with running speed. This study investigates the hypothesis that surrogates of bone strength in male and female master sprinters, middle and long distance runners and race-walkers vary according to discipline-specific mechanical loading from sedentary controls. Bone scans were obtained by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) from the tibia and from the radius in 106 sprinters, 52 middle distance runners, 93 long distance runners and 49 race-walkers who were competing at master championships, and who were aged between 35 and 94 years. Seventy-five age-matched, sedentary people served as control group. Most athletes of this study had started to practice their athletic discipline after the age of 20, but the current training regime had typically been maintained for more than a decade. As hypothesised, tibia diaphyseal bone mineral content (vBMC), cortical area and polar moment of resistance were largest in sprinters, followed in descending order by middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and controls. When compared to control people, the differences in these measures were always >13% in male and >23% in female sprinters (p<0.001). Similarly, the periosteal circumference in the tibia shaft was larger in male and female sprinters by 4% and 8%, respectively, compared to controls (p<0.001). Epiphyseal group differences were predominantly found for trabecular vBMC in both male and female sprinters, who had 15% and 18% larger values, respectively, than controls (p<0.001). In contrast, a reverse pattern was found for cortical vBMD in the tibia, and only few group differences of lower magnitude were found between athletes and control people for the radius. In conclusion, tibial bone strength indicators seemed to be related to exercise-specific peak forces, whilst cortical density was inversely related to running distance

  8. An investigation of the psychometric properties of the Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS) and structure of cognitive symptoms in participants with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F; Sarver, Nina Wong

    2014-04-01

    Despite the recent increase of measures developed to assess the cognitive symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SOC), their validation is still largely preliminary. Thus, the present studies sought to replicate and extend the psychometric evaluation of the Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS). Study 1 involved both participants with SOC (n=206) and healthy controls (n=222) that completed the STABS and other related measures of anxiety. In Study 2, participants with SOC (n=66) completed exposure-based psychotherapy for SOC with the STABS used to track symptom changes. Together, the two studies provided additional support for the validity and reliability of the STABS as a measure of the cognitive symptoms of SOC. However, contrary to previous research with two subscales, a single total scale was suggested as the best interpretation of the STABS, as well as the possible general presentation of the cognitive symptoms of SOC.

  9. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational Paradigms: An…

  10. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling in mouse NO-synthesizing neurons participates in the hypothalamic control of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Parkash, Jyoti; Bellefontaine, Nicole; Mazur, Danièle; Colledge, William H; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Prevot, Vincent

    2012-01-18

    Reproduction is controlled in the brain by a neural network that drives the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Various permissive homeostatic signals must be integrated to achieve ovulation in mammals. However, the neural events controlling the timely activation of GnRH neurons are not completely understood. Here we show that kisspeptin, a potent activator of GnRH neuronal activity, directly communicates with neurons that synthesize the gaseous transmitter nitric oxide (NO) in the preoptic region to coordinate the progression of the ovarian cycle. Using a transgenic Gpr54-null IRES-LacZ knock-in mouse model, we demonstrate that neurons containing neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), which are morphologically associated with kisspeptin fibers, express the kisspeptin receptor GPR54 in the preoptic region, but not in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus. The activation of kisspeptin signaling in preoptic neurons promotes the activation of nNOS through its phosphorylation on serine 1412 via the AKT pathway and mimics the positive feedback effects of estrogens. Finally, we show that while NO release restrains the reproductive axis at stages of the ovarian cycle during which estrogens exert their inhibitory feedback, it is required for the kisspeptin-dependent preovulatory activation of GnRH neurons. Thus, interactions between kisspeptin and nNOS neurons may play a central role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in vivo.

  11. Prospective Preference Assessment of Patients' Willingness to Participate in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anand; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Paly, Jonathan J.; Halpern, Scott D.; Bruner, Deborah W.; Christodouleas, John P.; Coen, John J.; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate patients' willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients' stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Results: Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients' WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either 'definitely' or 'probably' participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would 'definitely not' or 'probably not' enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.

  12. Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Driezen, Pete; Wilson, Nick; Hammond, David; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Mons, Ute; Willemsen, Marc C.; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aims To describe some of the variability across the world in levels of quit smoking attempts and use of various forms of cessation support. Design Use of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys of smokers, using the 2007 survey wave (or later, where necessary). Settings Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, UK, Uruguay and USA. Measures Self-report on use of cessation aids and on visits to health professionals and provision of cessation advice during the visits. Findings Prevalence of quit attempts in the last year varied from under 20% to over 50% across countries. Similarly, smokers varied greatly in reporting of visiting health professionals in the last year (< 20% to over 70%), and among those who did, provision of advice to quit also varied greatly. There was also marked variability in the levels and types of help reported. Use of medication was generally more common than use of behavioural support, except where medications are not readily available. Conclusions There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance with higher overall use of medication than behavioural support. There is also wide variation in the provision of brief advice to stop by health professionals. PMID:21883605

  13. RD20, a stress-inducible caleosin, participates in stomatal control, transpiration and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Yann; Vile, Denis; Pervent, Marjorie; Aldon, Didier; Ranty, Benoit; Simonneau, Thierry; Vavasseur, Alain; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Plants overcome water deficit conditions by combining molecular, biochemical and morphological changes. At the molecular level, many stress-responsive genes have been isolated, but knowledge of their physiological functions remains fragmentary. Here, we report data for RD20, a stress-inducible Arabidopsis gene that belongs to the caleosin family. As for other caleosins, we showed that RD20 localized to oil bodies. Although caleosins are thought to play a role in the degradation of lipids during seed germination, induction of RD20 by dehydration, salt stress and ABA suggests that RD20 might be involved in processes other than germination. Using plants carrying the promoter RD20::uidA construct, we show that RD20 is expressed in leaves, guard cells and flowers, but not in root or in mature seeds. Water deficit triggers a transient increase in RD20 expression in leaves that appeared predominantly dependent on ABA signaling. To assess the biological significance of these data, a functional analysis using rd20 knock-out and overexpressing complemented lines cultivated either in standard or in water deficit conditions was performed. The rd20 knock-out plants present a higher transpiration rate that correlates with enhanced stomatal opening and a reduced tolerance to drought as compared with the wild type. These results support a role for RD20 in drought tolerance through stomatal control under water deficit conditions. PMID:20952421

  14. An Online Health Prevention Intervention for Youth with Addicted or Mentally Ill Parents: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants and Providers from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bindels, Jill APM; Evers, Silvia MAA; Paulus, Aggie TG; van Asselt, Antoinette DI; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. Objective The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. Methods A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Results Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. Conclusions This study provides valuable insight into participants’ and

  15. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Calgranulin C Participates in Control of Helicobacter pylori Growth and Regulation of Virulence.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kathryn P; Delgado, Alberto G; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Mortensen, Brittany L; Correa, Pelayo; Damo, Steven M; Chazin, Walter J; Skaar, Eric P; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2015-07-01

    During infectious processes, antimicrobial proteins are produced by both epithelial cells and innate immune cells. Some of these antimicrobial molecules function by targeting transition metals and sequestering these metals in a process referred to as "nutritional immunity." This chelation strategy ultimately starves invading pathogens, limiting their growth within the vertebrate host. Recent evidence suggests that these metal-binding antimicrobial molecules have the capacity to affect bacterial virulence, including toxin secretion systems. Our previous work showed that the S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer (calprotectin, or calgranulin A/B) binds zinc and represses the elaboration of the H. pylori cag type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, there are several other S100 proteins that are produced in response to infection. We hypothesized that the zinc-binding protein S100A12 (calgranulin C) is induced in response to H. pylori infection and also plays a role in controlling H. pylori growth and virulence. To test this, we analyzed gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori-positive and -negative patients for S100A12 expression. These assays showed that S100A12 is induced in response to H. pylori infection and inhibits bacterial growth and viability in vitro by binding nutrient zinc. Furthermore, the data establish that the zinc-binding activity of the S100A12 protein represses the activity of the cag T4SS, as evidenced by the gastric cell "hummingbird" phenotype, interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion, and CagA translocation assays. In addition, high-resolution field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to demonstrate that S100A12 represses biogenesis of the cag T4SS. Together with our previous work, these data reveal that multiple S100 proteins can repress the elaboration of an oncogenic bacterial surface organelle. PMID:25964473

  16. Use of Economic Compensation to Increase Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Kenya: Qualitative Interviews With Male Participants in a Randomized Controlled Trial and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Michele; Murray, Kate; Rao, Samwel; Agot, Kawango; Omanga, Eunice; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventions to increase demand for medical male circumcision are urgently needed in eastern and southern Africa. Following promising evidence that providing economic compensation can increase male circumcision uptake in Kenya, there is a need to understand the role of this intervention in individuals' decision-making regarding circumcision and explore perceptions of the intervention and concerns such as coercion. Methods: As part of a randomized controlled trial in Kenya that found compensation in the form of food vouchers worth US $8.75–US $15.00 to be effective in increasing male circumcision uptake, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 45 circumcised and uncircumcised male participants and 19 female partners to explore how compensation provision influenced the decision to get circumcised. Interview transcripts were coded and an inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify patterns in decision-making. Results: Interviews revealed that compensation promoted circumcision uptake by addressing a major barrier to male circumcision uptake: lost wages during and after the circumcision procedure. Participants who did not get circumcised perceived the compensation amounts to be insufficient for offsetting their costs associated with getting circumcised or reported having nonfinancial barriers that were not addressed by the intervention, such as fear of pain. Participants also reported that they did not feel compelled to get circumcised for financial gain. Female partners of circumcised participants felt that the intervention helped to motivate their partners to get circumcised. Conclusions: The results suggest that the provision of economic compensation is an acceptable intervention that can address an important barrier to male circumcision uptake. Providing compensation to circumcision clients in the form of food vouchers warrants further consideration in voluntary medical male circumcision demand creation efforts. PMID:27404013

  17. Characterizing workers participating in a worksite wellness health screening program using blood pressure control, self-monitoring, medication adherence, depression, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya Lynn; Whitt, Lauren; Griffin, Russell L; Shropshire, Angele Trenese; Calhoun, David A

    2014-07-01

    Blood pressure control remains a serious public health issue because hypertension is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective management of hypertension often requires lifestyle modification and medication adherence. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of blood pressure control, medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood pressure, depression, and exercise among workers with access to health resources. Faculty and staff (N = 484) from a university and health care institution in the southeastern United States participated in biometric and questionnaire screening. The researchers used initial screening data from this worksite wellness program to describe baseline blood pressure control (< 140/90 mm Hg), self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, depression, and exercise. Overall, 63% of the workers' blood pressure was controlled; however, 23% of the sample had been prescribed antihypertensive medication to control their blood pressure. Thirty percent of the sample reported practicing blood pressure self-monitoring, 72.2% reported that they exercised, and 22% reported feeling down and depressed. More than half (64.9%) who used prescribed antihypertensive medication reported adherence to these medications. PMID:25000548

  18. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2). EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait. PMID:20128894

  19. Effectiveness of 6 Months of Tailored Text Message Reminders for Obese Male Participants in a Worksite Weight Loss Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Steinhubl, Steven; Kim, Sohye; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Mi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions are important to help overweight and obese employees lose weight, but costs and insufficient sustained motivation prevent the majority of these programs from succeeding. Tailored text messaging in aiding weight management has been effective in several studies, but no studies have evaluated the effect of a tailored text message service on weight loss in a worksite health promotion program. Objective We studied the efficacy of a tailored text-messaging intervention for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program of 6 months duration. Methods The study was an unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were recruited from the Korea District Heating Corporation, the Korea Expressway Corporation, and the Korea Gas Corporation. The participants were identified by nurse managers. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 2 groups for 24 weeks: (1) intervention group, which received tailored text message reminders every other day plus 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses for weight control over 6 months and (2) control group, which received the 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses about weight control over 6 months. The primary outcome was the difference in weight loss at 6 months. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention group’s weight loss compared with the control group. Results A total of 205 obese men were randomized into either the intervention (n=104) or the control group (n=101). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group (n=63) had lost 1.71 kg (95% CI –2.53 to –0.88) and the control group (n=59) had lost 1.56 kg (95% CI –2.45 to –0.66); the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (mean difference –0.15, 95% CI –1.36 to 1.07). At the end of

  20. Examining Participant Engagement in an Information Technology-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Men: The Manup Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Dixon, Marcus W; Rosenkranz, Richard; Caperchione, Cristina; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Kolt, Gregory S; Maeder, Anthony; Ding, Hang; Taylor, Pennie; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-01-01

    Background Males experience a shorter life expectancy and higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their female counterparts. To improve health outcomes among males, interventions specifically developed for males that target their health behaviors are needed. Information technology (IT)-based interventions may be a promising intervention approach in this population group, however, little is known about how to maximize engagement and retention in Web-based programs. Objective The current study sought to explore attributes hypothesized to influence user engagement among a subsample of participants from the ManUp study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an interactive Web-based intervention for promoting physical activity and nutrition among middle-aged males. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted and audiotaped with 20 of the ManUp participants. Interview questions were based on a conceptual model of engagement and centered on why participants took part in the study, what they liked and did not like about the intervention they received, and how they think the intervention could be improved. Interview recordings were transcribed and coded into themes. Results There were five themes that were identified in the study. These themes were: (1) users’ motives, (2) users’ desired outcomes, (3) users’ positive experiences, (4) users’ negative emotions, and (5) attributes desired by user. Conclusions There is little research in the field that has explored user experiences in human-computer interactions and how such experiences may relate to engagement, especially among males. Although not conclusive, the current study provides some insight into what personal attributes of middle-aged males (such as their key motives and goals for participating) and attributes of the intervention materials (such as usability, control, and interactivity) may impact on user engagement in this group. These findings will be helpful for informing the design

  1. SHIP2 controls plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 thereby participating in the control of cell migration in 1321 N1 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Elong Edimo, William's; Ghosh, Somadri; Derua, Rita; Janssens, Veerle; Waelkens, Etienne; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Robe, Pierre; Erneux, Christophe

    2016-03-15

    Phosphoinositides, particularly phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], are recognized by SHIP2 (also known as INPPL1) a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. SHIP2 dephosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P3 to form PI(3,4)P2; the latter interacts with specific target proteins (e.g. lamellipodin). Although the preferred SHIP2 substrate is PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 can also be dephosphorylated by this enzyme to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). Through depletion of SHIP2 in the glioblastoma cell line 1321 N1, we show that SHIP2 inhibits cell migration. In different glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures, SHIP2 staining at the plasma membrane partly overlaps with PI(4,5)P2 immunoreactivity. PI(4,5)P2 was upregulated in SHIP2-deficient N1 cells as compared to control cells; in contrast, PI4P was very much decreased in SHIP2-deficient cells. Therefore, SHIP2 controls both PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(4,5)P2 levels in intact cells. In 1321 N1 cells, the PI(4,5)P2-binding protein myosin-1c was identified as a new interactor of SHIP2. Regulation of PI(4,5)P2 and PI4P content by SHIP2 controls 1321 N1 cell migration through the organization of focal adhesions. Thus, our results reveal a new role of SHIP2 in the control of PI(4,5)P2, PI4P and cell migration in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma 1321 N1 cells.

  2. Nigella sativa Improves Glycemic Control and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Placebo Controlled Participant Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaatabi, Huda; Bamosa, Abdullah Omar; Badar, Ahmed; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen; Abou-Hozaifa, Bodour; Lebda, Fatma; Al-Khadra, Akram; Al-Almaie, Sameeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Our previous study has shown glucose lowering effect produced by 3 months supplementation of Nigella sativa (NS) in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs among type 2 diabetics. This study explored the long term glucose lowering effect (over one year) of NS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to study its effect on redox status of such patients. Methods 114 type 2 diabetic patients on standard oral hypoglycemic drugs were assigned into 2 groups by convenience. The control group (n = 57) received activated charcoal as placebo and NS group (n = 57) received 2g NS, daily, for one year in addition to their standard medications. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C- peptide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at the baseline, and every 3 months thereafter were determined. Insulin resistance and β-cell activity were calculated using HOMA 2 calculator. Results Comparison between the two groups showed a significant drop in FBG (from 180±5.75 to 180±5.59 in control Vs from 195±6.57 to 172 ±5.83 in NS group), HbA1c (from 8.2±0.12 to 8.5±0.14 in control VS from 8.6±0.13 to 8.2±0.14 in NS group), and TBARS (from 48.3±6.89 to 52.9 ±5.82 in control VS from 54.1±4.64 to 41.9 ±3.16 in NS group), in addition to a significant elevation in TAC, SOD and glutathione in NS patients compared to controls. In NS group, insulin resistance was significantly lower, while β-cell activity was significantly higher than the baseline values during the whole treatment period. Conclusion Long term supplementation with Nigella sativa improves glucose homeostasis and enhances antioxidant defense system in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs. Trial Registration

  3. Public Participation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to describe the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plan for involving the public in the decision-making process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The plan describes how the DOE will meet the public participation requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, as amended, and of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. It includes the UMTRA Project Office plans for complying with DOE Order 5440.1D and for implementing the DOE`s Public Participation Policy for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1992) and Public Participation Guidance for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1993).

  4. Ball catching in children with developmental coordination disorder: control of degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Utley, Andrea; Steenbergen, Bert; Astill, Sarah Louise

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated two-handed catching in eight children (four males, four females) aged 7 to 8 years (mean 7y 4mo [SD 3mo]) with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and their age-matched controls (AMCs). Kinematic data were collected to examine Bernstein's (1967) notion of freezing and releasing degrees of freedom (DF). Participants were asked to catch a ball 30 times, delivered in three blocks of 10 trials. Video analysis showed that children with DCD caught significantly fewer balls than their AMCs (p< or =0.001) counterparts. Kinematic analyses showed that children with DCD exhibited smaller ranges of motion and less variable angular excursions of the elbow joints than their AMCs, and that their elbows are more rigidly coupled (p< or =0.001). These data suggest that children with DCD rigidly fix and couple their limbs to reduce the number of DF actively involved in the task.

  5. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Method Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9–12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. Results The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Conclusions Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types. PMID:26262428

  6. A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration may be prevented if the mechanical stress transmitted to the plantar tissues is reduced. Insole therapy is one practical method commonly used to reduce plantar loads and ulceration risk. The type of insole best suited to achieve this is unknown. This trial compared custom-made functional insoles with prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for ulceration of neuropathic diabetic feet. Method A participant-blinded randomised controlled trial recruited 119 neuropathic participants with diabetes who were randomly allocated to custom-made functional or prefabricated insoles. Data were collected at issue and six month follow-up using the F-scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Primary outcomes were: peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area, forefoot rate of load, duration of load as a percentage of stance. Secondary outcomes were patient perceived foot health (Bristol Foot Score), quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life). We also assessed cost of supply and fitting. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results There were no differences between insoles in peak pressure, or three of the other four kinetic measures. The custom-made functional insole was slightly more effective than the prefabricated insole in reducing forefoot pressure time integral at issue (27% vs. 22%), remained more effective at six month follow-up (30% vs. 24%, p=0.001), but was more expensive (UK £656 vs. £554, p<0.001). Full compliance (minimum wear 7 hours a day 7 days per week) was reported by 40% of participants and 76% of participants reported a minimum wear of 5 hours a day 5 days per week. There was no difference in patient perception between insoles. Conclusion The custom-made insoles are more expensive than prefabricated insoles evaluated in this trial and no better in reducing peak pressure. We recommend that where clinically appropriate, the more cost effective prefabricated insole

  7. The influence of ankle dorsiflexion and self-reported patient outcomes on dynamic postural control in participants with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masafumi; Harkey, Matthew S; Wells, Ashley M; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DF-ROM) and self-reported patient outcomes on dynamic postural control assessed with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Twenty-nine participants with self-reported CAI volunteered. The primary outcome measurements were categorized into clinician-and patient-generated. Clinician-generated outcome measurements included anterior (SEBT-A), posteriormedial (SEBT-PM) and posteriorlateral (SEBT-PL) reach distances (cm) normalized by leg length (cm) of the SEBT, maximum weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) (cm), and open-chain DF-ROM (°). Self-reported patient-generated outcome measures included the foot and ankle ability measure and the level of perceived pain, stiffness, stability, and function of their involved ankle on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Pearson product moment correlations were used to examine the relationship of the SEBT performances with DF-ROM and self-reported patient outcome measures. A multiple linear regression was performed to determine the influence of patient- and clinician-generated measures on the SEBT. SEBT-A performance was significantly and fairly correlated with WB-DF (r=0.410, p=0.014), perceived ankle stiffness (r=0.477, p=0.014), and open-chain DF-ROM (r=0.404, p=0.015). The strongest predictor of the variance in SEBT-A was the combination of the variance in WB-DF and VAS-stiffness (R2=0.348, p=0.004). There were no significant correlations with the SEBT-PM and SEBT-PL. WB-DF and VAS-stiffness may represent targets for intervention that need to be addressed to produce the best outcome in participants with CAI when altered dynamic postural control is detected on the SEBT-A. PMID:24768526

  8. Utilizing qualitative methods in survey design: examining Texas cattle producers' intent to participate in foot-and-mouth disease detection and control.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan

    2012-02-01

    The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies.

  9. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  10. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  11. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  12. Analysis of operator participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarakovskiy, G. M.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of providing a psychological conception of the analysis of operator participation in a form that will allow the qualitative approach to be combined with the quantitative approach is examined. This conception is based on an understanding of the essence of human endeavor in automated control systems that now determine the development of society's productive forces and that are the main object of ergonomic research. Two main types of operator participation were examined; information retrieval with immediate service and information retrieval with delayed service.

  13. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control. PMID:24975848

  14. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control.

  15. Adherence to Internet-Based Mobile-Supported Stress Management: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Three Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Dirk; Berking, Matthias; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to treatment is a prevalent issue in Internet interventions. Guidance from health care professionals has been found to increase treatment adherence rates in Internet interventions for a range of physical and mental disorders. Evaluating different guidance formats of varying intensity is important, particularly with respect to improvement of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Identifying predictors of nonadherence allows for the opportunity to better adapt Internet interventions to the needs of participants especially at risk for discontinuing treatment. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of different guidance formats (content-focused guidance, adherence-focused guidance, and administrative guidance) on adherence and to identify predictors of nonadherence in an Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (ie, GET.ON Stress) for employees. Methods The data from the groups who received the intervention were pooled from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of the same Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (N=395). The RCTs only differed in terms of the guidance format (content-focused guidance vs waitlist control, adherence-focused guidance vs waitlist control, administrative guidance vs waitlist control). Adherence was defined by the number of completed treatment modules (0-7). An ANOVA was performed to compare the adherence rates from the different guidance formats. Multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of nonadherence, which included gender, age, education, symptom-related factors, and hope for improvement. Results In all, 70.5% (93/132) of the content-focused guidance sample, 68.9% (91/132) of the adherence-focused guidance sample, and 42.0% (55/131) of the participants in the administrative guidance sample completed all treatment modules. Guidance had a significant effect on treatment

  16. Endogenous opioids participate in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-luteinizing hormone axis and testosterone's negative feedback control of luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Cicero, T J; Schainker, B A; Meyer, E R

    1979-05-01

    Two narcotic antagonists, naloxone and naltrexone, significantly elevated serum LH levels in male rats within minutes after their sc injection. The peak increase in serum LH occurred 20 min after the injection. Naloxone increased LH levels up to a dose of 1 mg/kg, after which no further increases were found. A dose of 0.35 mg/kg produced a half-maximal response. The exogenous opioid morphine blocked the increase in LH produced by naloxone in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting that the specific receptor-blocking effects of the antagonist could account for its enhancement of serum LH levels. The locus of action of naloxone within the hypothalamic-pituitary-LH axis appeared to be at the level of the hypothalamus since the drug had no effect on LHRH-stimulated release of LH by the anterior pituitary and did not block dihydrotestosterone's suppression of pituitary LH release in vitro. Naloxone also prevented testosterone's negative feedback inhibition of serum LH in the castrated male rat. The results of these studies suggest that endogenous opioids exist in brain tissue which normally inhibit activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-LH axis and participate in the androgen-dependent feedback control of LH elaboration by this axis. PMID:374068

  17. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  18. Epilepsy and sports participation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gregory M; Radloff, Monika; Sevier, Thomas L

    2004-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting both young and old. Unfortunately, epileptics have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and epileptics continue to be less active than the general population. This results in increased body mass index, decreased aerobic endurance, poorer self-esteem, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychologic health. The majority of sports are safe for epileptics to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family, coaches, or trainers. Contact sports including football, hockey, and soccer have not been shown to induce seizures, and epileptics should not be precluded from participation. Water sports and swimming are felt to be safe if seizures are well controlled and direct supervision is present. Additional care must be taken in sports involving heights such as gymnastics, harnessed rock climbing, or horseback riding. Sports such as hang-gliding, scuba diving, or free climbing are not recommended, given the risk of severe injury or death, if a seizure were to occur during the activity. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in epileptics, discusses sports in which epileptics may participate, and addresses how to decrease possible risks for injury.

  19. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  20. Aims, design and methods of a case-control study for the assessment of the role of dietary habits, eating behaviors and environmental factors, on the development of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Papavagelis, Christos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Samantas, Epaminondas; Filopoulos, Evangelos; Manousou, Aikaterini; Plytzanopoulou, Petrini; Vassilakou, Tonia; Malamos, Nikolaos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-01-01

    In this work the aims, methodology and procedures of a case-control study that was developed for assessing the role of dietary habits, eating behaviors and environmental factors on the development of breast cancer, is presented. During 2010-2012, 250 consecutive women patients, newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 250 population-based, healthy subjects (controls) age-matched to the cases, were enrolled. Socio-demographic, dietary, psychological, lifestyle as well as environmental characteristics (i.e., exposure to pollution, pesticides, electromagnetic fields and radon) were recorded through face-to-face interviews with the participants. Dietary habits and eating behaviors were evaluated with a special questionnaire that had been developed for the study, and was found relatively valid and reliable.

  1. Recruitment and retention of minority participants in the DASH controlled feeding trial. DASH Collaborative Research Group. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, W M; Svetkey, L P; Appel, L J; Obarzanek, E; Reams, P; Kennedy, B; Aicher, K; Charleston, J; Conlin, P R; Evans, M; Harsha, D; Hertert, S

    1998-01-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute multicenter trial that compared the impact of three dietary patterns on blood pressure (BP) among adults with high normal blood pressure or mild (Stage I) hypertension. DASH's high minority representation (two-thirds of the 459 randomized participants came from minority populations, and 60% of the cohort were African American) offered a valuable opportunity to assess factors affecting minority enrollment and retention in clinical trials of lifestyle modification. Recruitment strategies included targeted mailings to specific groups, mass mailings, community and worksite screenings, and mass media advertising; the four DASH clinical centers also reimbursed participants from $150 to $160. The most productive recruitment strategies tended to be mass mailings directed at a broad audience that was weighted toward, but not limited to, minority participants. DASH's African-American participants overwhelmingly (89%) cited health and dietary factors, such as learning more about blood pressure and healthy eating habits, as their primary reason for participating, while only six percent listed the financial incentives as their primary reason for participating. Eighty-eight percent of African-American respondents reported they would participate again in a similar study. The insights from DASH should help inform future efforts to recruit minority participants.

  2. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI) is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5%) was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p < 0.001) and DuraNet® (69.8%, p < 0.001). The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6). LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3) and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5) were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  3. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  4. The Influence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy on Local Postural Muscle and Central Sensory Feedback Balance Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  5. Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18 months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18 months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a

  6. Seventy-year-old habitual volleyball players have larger tibial cross-sectional area and may be differentiated from their age-matched peers by the osteogenic index in dynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Linnamo, V; Komi, P V; Selänne, H; Heinonen, A

    2010-07-01

    The osteogenicity of a given exercise may be estimated by calculating an osteogenic index (OI) consisting of magnitude and rate of strain. Volleyball involves repetitive jumping and requires high power output and thus may be expected to be beneficial to bone and performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine if habitual volleyball playing is reflected in OI. Ten elderly habitual volleyball players [age 69.9 (SD 4.4) years] and ten matched controls volunteered [age 69.7 (4.2) years] as subjects. Distal tibia (d), tibial mid-shaft (50) and femoral neck (FN) bone characteristics were measured using pQCT and DXA. To estimate skeletal rigidity, cross-sectional area (ToA(50)), and compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (SSImax(50)) were calculated. Maximal performance was assessed with eccentric ankle plantar flexion, isometric leg press and countermovement jump (CMJ). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was calculated from the acceleration of the center of mass during the CMJ. Maximal acceleration (MAG) and mean magnitude frequency (MMF) were selected to represent the constituents of OI. OI was calculated as the sum of the products of magnitudes and corresponding frequencies. Volleyball players had 7% larger ToA(50) and 37% higher power in CMJ, 15% higher MAG and 36% higher OI (P controls. No difference was observed in leg press, plantar flexion or the MMF (P >or= 0.646). In conclusion, habitual volleyball players may be differentiated from their matched peers by their dynamic jumping performance, and the differences are reflected in the magnitude but not rate of loading.

  7. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  8. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings.

  9. Eating disorders and oral health: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to compare the oral health status of patients with eating disorders (EDs), with sex- and age-matched controls, with a view to identify self-reported and clinical parameters that might alert the dental healthcare professional to the possibility of EDs. All patients who entered outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of 65 ED patients who started psychiatric/medical treatment, 54 agreed to participate. Eating disorder patients and controls answered a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations. Multivariate analysis identified significantly higher ORs for ED patients to present dental problems (OR = 4.1), burning tongue (OR = 14.2), dry/cracked lips (OR = 9.6), dental erosion (OR = 8.5), and less gingival bleeding (OR = 1.1) compared with healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity for the correct classification of ED patients and controls using the five variables was 83% and 79%, respectively. The ED patients with vomiting/binge eating behaviors reported worse perceived oral health (OR = 6.0) and had more dental erosion (OR = 5.5) than those without such behavior. In ED patients with longer duration of the disease, dental erosion was significantly more common. In conclusion, oral health problems frequently affect ED patients, and this needs to be considered in patient assessment and treatment decisions.

  10. Community participation and belonging among formerly homeless adults with mental illness after 12 months of Housing First in Vancouver, British Columbia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-07-01

    This study examines community integration among homeless adults with mental illness 6 and 12 months after random assignment to Housing First (independent apartments or congregate residence) with support services or to treatment as usual (TAU). Residence in independent apartments was associated with increased 'psychological integration' for participants with less severe needs; however, no significant improvement in 'physical integration' was observed among any of the intervention groups. Analysis of individual items on the Psychological Integration subscale revealed that, compared to TAU, participants assigned to independent apartments were more likely to endorse statements related to the emotional components of community but not statements related to neighboring. Participants assigned to the congregate residence were more likely to endorse knowing their neighbors, but not interacting with neighbors or the emotional components of community. Findings are discussed in terms of housing program as well as broader contextual factors.

  11. An Analysis of Citizen Participation Programs Relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500): Case Studies of the Washington County Project; State of Wisconsin; and Dane County, Wisconsin Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Elizabeth E.

    The thesis, which presents an analysis of three Wisconsin citizen participation programs relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), has identified the adult education role in teaching and applying skills, promoting growth in governmental understanding, assisting in public planning and…

  12. The Influence of a Series of Workshops Related to Citizen Participation in Civic Affairs on Anomia, Life Satisfaction, & Locus of Control Among the Aged Population in the Piedmont Region of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Curtis; And Others

    The effect of participation in a series of workshops about citizen involvement in civic affairs on locus of control, life satisfaction and anomia among the aged population in the Piedmont region of North Carolina was investigated, as well as the extent to which certain personal and situational characteristics of respondents were associated with…

  13. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    PubMed

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Parent Reflections of Experiences of Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Intervention for Infants at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freuler, Ashley C.; Baranek, Grace T.; Tashjian, Christene; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the mounting evidence of efficacy of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders, there is little research that considers the various perceptions and resources with which parents respond to the pressures and opportunities associated with participation in early intervention. Research is particularly lacking…

  15. 13 CFR 124.515 - Can a Participant change its ownership or control and continue to perform an 8(a) contract, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... firm? 124.515 Section 124.515 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Can a Participant change...

  16. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  17. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors and exercise performance in healthy participants: a randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.; Munir, Nimrah; Iniesta, Raquel Revuelta

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Evidence suggests associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension and excessive cortisol levels. Also, vitamin D levels may impact exercise performance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D intake on cardiovascular risk factors, free urinary cortisol and exercise performance. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded parallel trial was conducted in healthy participants (n = 15). They received 2000 IU (50 µg) vitamin D3 per day (n = 9) or placebo (lactose) (n = 6) for 14 days. Body composition, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and arterial elasticity (as measured by pulse wave velocity, PWV) were recorded at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of intervention. A total of two 24-hour urine samples were collected to estimate free cortisol and cortisone levels. Exercise performance was assessed at the baseline and day 14 of the intervention using a bike ergometer in which BP and PWV were measured before and after exercise. The distance cycled in 20 minutes and the Borg Scale rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results: In the intervention arm, at day 14, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced SBP and DBP from 115.8 ± 17.1 and 75.4 ± 10.3 at baseline to 106.3 ± 10.9 (p = 0.022) and 68.5 ± 10.1 mmHg (p = 0.012) respectively. Also arterial stiffness was markedly reduced in the vitamin D group (from 7.45 ± 1.55 to 6.11 ± 1.89, p = 0.049). Urinary free cortisol levels and cortisol/cortisone ratio were significantly reduced from 162.65 ± 58.9 nmol/day and 2.22 ± 0.7 to 96.4 ± 37.2 (p = 0.029) and 1.04 ± 0.4 (p = 0.017) respectively. Exercise-induced SBP and DBP were significantly reduced post vitamin D intake from 130.7 ± 12.2 to 116.1 ± 8.1 (p = 0.012) and from 76.2 ± 8.4 to 70.5 ± 7.7 mmHg (p = 0.042) respectively. The distance cycled in 20 minutes significantly increased from 4.98 ± 2.65 to 6

  18. Participants, Usage, and Use Patterns of a Web-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Depression Within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Web-based interventions have been shown to be effective, they are not widely implemented in regular care. Nonadherence (ie, participants not following the intervention protocol) is an issue. By studying the way Web-based interventions are used and whether there are differences between adherers (ie, participants that started all 9 lessons) and nonadherers, more insight can be gained into the process of adherence. Objective The aims of this study were to (1) describe the characteristics of participants and investigate their relationship with adherence, (2) investigate the utilization of the different features of the intervention and possible differences between adherers and nonadherers, and (3) identify what use patterns emerge and whether there are differences between adherers and nonadherers. Methods Data were used from 206 participants that used the Web-based intervention Living to the full, a Web-based intervention for the prevention of depression employing both a fully automated and human-supported format. Demographic and baseline characteristics of participants were collected by using an online survey. Log data were collected within the Web-based intervention itself. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Results In all, 118 participants fully adhered to the intervention (ie, started all 9 lessons). Participants with an ethnicity other than Dutch were more often adherers (χ2 1=5.5, P=.02), and nonadherers used the Internet more hours per day on average (F1,203=3.918, P=.049). A logistic regression showed that being female (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.04; P=.046) and having a higher need for cognition (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; P=.02) increased the odds of adhering to the intervention. Overall, participants logged in an average of 4 times per lesson, but adherers logged in significantly more times per lesson than nonadherers (F1,204=20.710; P<.001). For use patterns, we saw that early nonadherers seemed to use fewer sessions

  19. Endometriosis is associated with central sensitization: a psychophysical controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Prem; Bajaj, Priti; Madsen, Hans; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2003-09-01

    Endometriosis is a pain syndrome representing a major cause of pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that persistent nociceptive input from endometriotic tissues leads to central sensitization manifested by somatic hyperalgesia and increased referred pain areas to experimental saline-induced muscle pain in patients with endometriosis, compared to healthy control subjects. Ten women with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and 10 healthy, age-matched women participated in the study. Hypertonic saline (0.5 mL, 5.8%) was injected intramuscularly, in random succession, into 1 site of menstrual pain referral (the multifidus muscle at the low back) and into 1 non-pain control site (first dorsal interosseous muscle [FDI] of the hand). The post-saline pain intensity and pain areas at the FDI were significantly greater in patients with endometriosis than in control subjects (P <.05) but were not different between the groups for the back. An absence of enhancement of post-saline pain responses at the back in the endometriosis group suggests that saline-induced pain at the back appears to activate segmental inhibitory systems in patients with endometriosis. Manifestation of central sensitization in women with endometriosis is demonstrated by increased muscle nociceptor input in the form of increased post-saline pain intensity, pain areas at the FDI, and hypersensitivity to pressure stimulation. These findings provide new insights into the complex pain mechanisms associated with endometriosis.

  20. Handwriting performance in the absence of visual control in writer's cramp patients: Initial observations

    PubMed Central

    Chakarov, Vihren; Hummel, Sibylla; Losch, Florian; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2006-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed at investigating the writing parameters of writer's cramp patients and control subjects during handwriting of a test sentence in the absence of visual control. Methods Eight right-handed patients with writer's cramp and eight healthy volunteers as age-matched control subjects participated in the study. The experimental task consisted in writing a test sentence repeatedly for fifty times on a pressure-sensitive digital board. The subject did not have visual control on his handwriting. The writing performance was stored on a PC and analyzed off-line. Results During handwriting all patients developed a typical dystonic limb posture and reported an increase in muscular tension along the experimental session. The patients were significantly slower than the controls, with lower mean vertical pressure of the pen tip on the paper and they could not reach the endmost letter of the sentence in the given time window. No other handwriting parameter differences were found between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that during writing in the absence of visual feedback writer's cramp patients are slower and could not reach the endmost letter of the test sentence, but their level of automatization is not impaired and writer's cramp handwriting parameters are similar to those of the controls except for even lower vertical pressure of the pen tip on the paper, which is probably due to a changed strategy in such experimental conditions. PMID:16594993

  1. Cognitive control under distressing emotional stimulation in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Euler, Felix; Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has been linked to deficient processing of emotional stimulation and recent studies indicate that in aggressive juveniles executive functions are impaired when distressing emotional stimulation is being processed. This study examines the interrelation of distressing emotional stimulation and cognitive control in aggressive adolescents and healthy controls. We combined a color-word Stroop test with pictures from the International Affective Picture System with either neutral or distressing emotional content to assess Stroop interference under neutral and distressing emotional stimulation in 20 male reactive aggressive patients with conduct disorder (CD) and 20 age-matched male control participants. We found impaired Stroop performance under distressing emotional stimulation in patients compared to healthy controls. No difference was present under neutral emotional stimulation. Our results indicate that cognitive control under distressing emotional stimulation was affected in adolescents with CD but not in healthy controls. We conclude that executive functions in reactive aggressive CD patients are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of distressing emotional stimulation. The results provide a possible explanation for pathologic impulsive-aggressive behavior under emotional distress in CD patients.

  2. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  3. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  4. Overcoming recruitment barriers revealed high readiness to participate and low dropout rate among people with schizophrenia in a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of a Guided Self-Determination intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment is one of the most serious challenges in performing randomized controlled trials. Often clinical trials with participants diagnosed with schizophrenia are terminated prematurely because of recruitment challenges resulting in a considerable waste of resources in the form of time, funding, and the participants’ efforts. Dropout rates in schizophrenia trials are also high. Recruitment challenges are often due to patients not wanting to participate in research but can also be due to clinicians’ concerns regarding individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia as participants in research. This paper reports how overcoming recruitment challenges not related to patients revealed high readiness to take part and low dropout rates in a one year long randomized controlled trial testing Guided Self-Determination (GSD) among outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment in Assertive Outreach Teams in the northern part of Denmark. Methods GSD is a shared decision-making and mutual problem-solving method using reflection sheets, which was developed in diabetes care and adjusted for this study and utilized by patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive data on strategies to overcome recruitment challenges were derived from notes and observations made during the randomized controlled trial testing of GSD in six outpatient teams. Results Three types of recruitment challenges not related to patients were identified and met during the trial: 1) organizational challenges, 2) challenges with finding eligible participants and 3) challenges with having professionals invite patients to participate. These challenges were overcome through: 1) extension of time, 2) expansion of the clinical recruitment area and 3) encouragement of professionals to invite patients to the study. Through overcoming these challenges, we identified a remarkably high patient-readiness to take part (101 of 120 asked accepted) and a low dropout rate (8%). Conclusion Distinction between

  5. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  6. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  7. The Effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial Intervention on Dietary Patterns in Obese Pregnant Women Participating in a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Angela C.; Schneeberger, Caroline; Seed, Paul T.; Barr, Suzanne; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) behavioral intervention on dietary patterns in obese pregnant women. METHODS Dietary patterns were derived from Food Frequency Questionnaires using principal component analysis in 183 UPBEAT pilot study participants. RESULTS Two unhealthy dietary patterns, processed and traditional, predominantly characterized by foods high in sugar and fat, improved [processed −0.54 (−0.92 to −0.16), P = 0.006 and traditional −0.83 (−1.20 to −0.45), P < 0.001] following the intervention, while a cultural pattern that was found to be associated with the Black African/Caribbean participants did not change [−0.10 (−0.46 to 0.26), P = 0.589]. CONCLUSION Unhealthy dietary patterns are evident in obese pregnant women. The UPBEAT intervention was effective in improving maternal dietary patterns; however, obese pregnant women from minority ethnic groups may be less receptive to intervention. PMID:27385914

  8. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  9. Haptic feedback from manual contact improves balance control in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Ely; Chen, Jason; Muratori, Lisa; DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Joanne; Werner, William G

    2013-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) degrades balance control. Haptic (touch and proprioception) feedback from light contact with a stationary surface inadequate to mechanically stabilize balance improves balance control in healthy people. In this study we tested whether PD impairs use of haptic cues independent of mechanical support to control balance. We measured postural sway in thirteen individuals with PD (H&Y 1-3, median=2, Q1=2, Q3=2) and thirteen age-matched controls balancing in a widened, sharpened Romberg stance in four conditions: eyes-closed, no manual contact; eyes-closed light-touch contact (<1N), eyes-closed, unrestricted contact; and eyes-open, no contact. To determine whether PD-severity affects any of these balance strategies, PD participants were tested on- and off-medication, and using the more- and less-affected body side in the stance and manual contact. Individuals with PD simultaneously maintained non-supportive fingertip contact and balance in this task without practice. PD participants swayed more than control participants (ML CP p=0.010; shoulder p<0.001), but manual contact reduced sway. Non-supportive manual contact stabilized balance more than vision (p<0.05). PD-severity factors had no significant effect (p>0.05). We conclude the effect of PD on balance is not specific to vision or haptic feedback. Nevertheless, haptic cues from manual contact, independent of mechanical support, improve balance control in individuals with PD. We discuss the implication that PD or associated dopaminergic pathways do not directly affect haptic feedback balance control mechanisms, including arm/posture coordination and proprioceptive integration.

  10. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  11. Federal participation in LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2004-11-10

    The federal government has been an active participant in the development and use of USGBC's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (LEED). This paper presents a review of this participation and some expectations for ongoing partnership.

  12. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  13. School Lunch Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchino, Lori; Ranney, Christine K.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in participation in National School Lunch Program in 1981-82 are of concern to hunger groups and legislators. Extent to which Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA) of 1980-81 contributes to participation decline was measured by simulation model in New York State. Results suggest that OBRA increased participation; declining…

  14. Effects of praying and a working memory task in participants trained in meditation and controls on the occurrence of spontaneous thoughts.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Muzur, A; Bellen, R; Calacione, R; Bava, A

    1999-06-01

    So-called "intrusive thoughts" appear independently from external stimuli and are the cause of severe disturbances in depressed patients. Following Baddeley's 1986 discoveries regarding "articulatory suppression," we investigated the influence of praying and of a working memory task on the number of spontaneous thoughts reported by 20 subjects compared to the control (quiet) state. Two groups of subjects were tested: those trained in meditation and controls. Significant reduction in simultaneous thought arousal was obtained during both the working memory task and the recitation of prayer. In all three experimental conditions, meditation practitioners reported significantly fewer spontaneous thoughts.

  15. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The Assistant... College....

  16. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The Assistant... College....

  17. Investigation of Color Constancy in 4.5-Month-Old Infants under a Strict Control of Luminance Contrast for Individual Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined color constancy in infants using a familiarization paradigm. We first obtained isoluminance in each infant as defined by the minimum motion paradigm and used these data to control the luminance of stimuli in the main experiments. In the familiarization phase of the main experiment, two identical smiling face patterns…

  18. Psychodrama Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Peter Felix

    1987-01-01

    Administered questionnaire to 40 psychodrama participants and 42 controls with no psychotherapy experience to assess which specific events they would find helpful in psychotherapy. Psychodrama participants perceived emotional abreaction and cognitive insight most helpful while controls considered nonspecific healing aids most helpful. Suggests…

  19. Baseline Socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported diet and physical activity shifts among recent immigrants participating in the randomized controlled lifestyle intervention: "Live Well".

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Metayer, Nesly; Hyatt, Raymond R; Chui, Kenneth; Pirie, Alex; Luongo, Christina Kamis; Economos, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics of Live Well (intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mother-child dyads from Brazil, Haiti, and Latin America) participants, and to explore self-reported changes in diet and physical activity post-immigration. Baseline data from 383 mothers were used for this study. Dyads attended a measurement day where they completed self-administered surveys collecting information about socio-demographics, diet, physical activity, other psychosocial variables, and height and weight. Haitian mothers' socio-demographic profile differed significantly from that of Brazilians' and Latinas': they have been in the US for a shorter period of time, have higher rates of unemployment, are less likely to be married, more likely to have ≥3 children, more likely to be obese, and have immigrated for family or other reasons. In multivariate models, self-reported changes in diet and physical activity since migrating to the US were significantly associated with BMI with non-linear relationships identified. Future research is needed to understand how diet and physical activity change while acculturating to the US and explore the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy dietary changes.

  20. Baseline Socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported diet and physical activity shifts among recent immigrants participating in the randomized controlled lifestyle intervention: "Live Well".

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Metayer, Nesly; Hyatt, Raymond R; Chui, Kenneth; Pirie, Alex; Luongo, Christina Kamis; Economos, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics of Live Well (intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mother-child dyads from Brazil, Haiti, and Latin America) participants, and to explore self-reported changes in diet and physical activity post-immigration. Baseline data from 383 mothers were used for this study. Dyads attended a measurement day where they completed self-administered surveys collecting information about socio-demographics, diet, physical activity, other psychosocial variables, and height and weight. Haitian mothers' socio-demographic profile differed significantly from that of Brazilians' and Latinas': they have been in the US for a shorter period of time, have higher rates of unemployment, are less likely to be married, more likely to have ≥3 children, more likely to be obese, and have immigrated for family or other reasons. In multivariate models, self-reported changes in diet and physical activity since migrating to the US were significantly associated with BMI with non-linear relationships identified. Future research is needed to understand how diet and physical activity change while acculturating to the US and explore the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy dietary changes. PMID:23334749

  1. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  2. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  3. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  4. Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, Amanda; Anderson, Alice L.; Kelley, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%), and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning. PMID:19742152

  5. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  6. Participation in leisure activities among boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a neural developmental disorder expressed in various life settings. Yet, previous studies have focused mainly on children's function in school and academic achievement. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to examine participation patterns in outside formal school activities among boys with ADHD compared to typical boys. Participants included 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. All participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Several aspects of participation were examined: diversity, intensity, enjoyment, place, and partners in 49 extra curricular activities. The findings indicate that boys with ADHD reported significant lower intensity rates of participation in most activity domains. Furthermore, boys with ADHD also reported higher diversity scores and lower enjoyment in 'formal' activities. Yet, no significant differences were found with regard to activity place and partners. These findings enhance the importance of providing therapy that refers to after school activities. Accordingly, CAPE can be useful for assessing boys with ADHD and planning appropriate intervention programs. PMID:20705424

  7. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  8. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population.

  9. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  10. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants12

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. Design: A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. Conclusion: The structural integrity of wheat

  11. Patterns of public participation.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies. PMID:27468773

  12. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (1) priority areas for ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was created to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. Its main strategy is community directed treatment with ivermectin. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. The present article reports the mapping of high risk areas where onchocerciasis was a public health problem. The companion article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods REMO consists of three stages: exclusion of areas that are unsuitable for the vector, selection of sample villages to be surveyed in each river basin, and examination of 30 to 50 adults for the presence of palpable onchocercal nodules in each selected village. The survey results and other relevant information were processed in a geographical information system. A panel of experts interpreted the data taking the river-based sampling into account and delineated high risk areas where the prevalence of nodules is greater than 20%. Results Unsuitable areas were identified in eight countries. In the remaining areas surveys were done in a total of 14,473 sample villages in which more than half a million people were examined. High-risk areas were identified in 18 APOC countries, ranging from small isolated foci to a vast contiguous endemic area of 2 million km2 running across seven countries. In five countries the high risk area covered more than 48% of the total surface area, and 31% to 48% of the population. It is estimated that 86 million people live in high risk areas in the APOC countries. Conclusions The REMO maps have played a significant role in onchocerciasis control in the 20 APOC countries. All high-risk areas where onchocerciasis used to be a serious public

  13. Assessing sex-differences and the effect of timing of vaccination on immunogenicity, reactogenicity and efficacy of vaccines in young children: study protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Voysey, Merryn; Pollard, Andrew J; Perera, Rafael; Fanshawe, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Disease incidence differs between males and females for some infectious or inflammatory diseases. Sex-differences in immune responses to some vaccines have also been observed, mostly to viral vaccines in adults. Little evidence is available on whether sex-differences occur in response to immunisation in infancy even though this is the age group in which most vaccines are administered. Factors other than sex, such as timing or coadministration of other vaccines, can also influence the immune response to vaccination. Methods and analysis Individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vaccines in healthy infants and young children will be conducted. Fully anonymised data from ∼170 randomised controlled trials of vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, Bordetella pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B, hepatitis B, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and rotavirus will be combined for analysis. Outcomes include measures of immunogenicity (immunoglobulins), reactogenicity, safety and disease-specific clinical efficacy. Data from trials of vaccines containing similar components will be combined in hierarchical models and the effect of sex and timing of vaccinations estimated for each outcome separately. Ethics and dissemination Systematic reviews of published estimates of sex-differences cannot adequately answer questions in this field since such comparisons are never the main purpose of a clinical trial, thus a large degree of reporting bias exists in the published literature. Recent improvements in the widespread availability of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials makes it feasible to conduct extensive individual participant data meta-analyses which were previously impossible, thereby reducing the effect of publication or reporting bias on the understanding of the infant immune response. Preliminary results will be available in 2016 with final

  14. A block randomized controlled trial of a brief smoking cessation counselling and advice through short message service on participants who joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Wong, David C. N.; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received eight text messages through mobile phone and (iii) The CONTROL group (n = 330) did not receive the above interventions. Participants with biochemically verified abstinence at 6-month follow-up could receive cash incentive. The primary outcome was the self-reported 7-day point prevalence (PP) of tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The abstinence rate in the TEL, SMS and CONTROL group was 22.2, 20.6 and 20.3%, respectively (P for TEL versus CONTROL = 0.32; P for SMS versus CONTROL = 0.40). When abstinence at 2-, 6- and 12-month follow-up was modelled simultaneously, the TEL group had a higher abstinence than the CONTROL group (Adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01–1.88, P = 0 .04). In the Quit to Win Contest, the brief telephone counselling might have increased abstinence, but the text messages had no significant effect. Further studies on intensive intervention and interactive messaging services are warranted. PMID:26116584

  15. Experimental renewal in human participants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Sanjuan, María del Carmen; Vadillo-Ruiz, Sandra; Pérez, Joana; León, Samuel P

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments with human participants are presented that differentiate renewal from other behavioral effects that can produce a response after extinction. Participants played a video game and learned to suppress their behavior when sensor stimuli predicted an attack. Contexts (A, B, & C) were provided by fictitious galaxies where the game play took place. In Experiment 1, participants who received conditioning in A, extinction in B, and testing in A showed some context specificity of conditioning during extinction and a recovery of suppression on test. Experiment 2 demonstrated recovery of extinguished responding when participants were conditioned in A, extinguished in B, and tested in C, a third, neutral context. The experiment also demonstrated that the context of extinction did not control performance by becoming inhibitory. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms that can produce a response recovery after extinction. The experiments demonstrated a renewal effect: a response recovery that was not attributable to the contexts acting as simple conditioned stimuli and is the first work with human participants to conclusively do so.

  16. Maximizing immunization coverage through home visits: a controlled trial in an urban area of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Brugha, R F; Kevany, J P

    1996-01-01

    A strategy of home visits to maximize children's immunization coverage was implemented in three towns in Ghana. The strategy was tested in town 1 in a controlled trial where clusters of children were allocated to the intervention and control groups. A total of 200 mothers in the intervention group were visited at home by non-health workers and their children were referred to a routine under-fives' clinic. Subsequent home visits targeted at those who failed to complete immunization schedules were made by nurses. After 6 months, coverage had risen from 60% to 85%, which was 20% higher than in the town 1 control group of 219 age-matched children (P < 0.005). A similar home-visiting strategy in a neighbouring town resulted in a rise in coverage from 38% to 91% (n = 55), mainly through home immunizations. Children were more likely to complete the schedule if their fathers were interviewed and participated in the decision to send them to the clinic. Countries with national service programmes can use a home-visiting strategy to supplement and strengthen their routine immunization programmes. A wide range of other community-based primary health care interventions could also be tested and implemented using this methodology.

  17. Control of angular momentum during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Kaat, Desloovere; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Children with hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (CP) walk with marked asymmetries. For instance, we have recently shown that they have less arm swing on the affected side, and more arm swing at the unaffected side. Such an increase in arm swing at the unaffected side may be aimed at controlling total body angular momentum about the vertical axis, although it was never investigated in this respect. In the current study, we thus investigated if participants with hemiparetic CP control angular momentum by compensatory movements of the unaffected arm. We measured gait kinematics of 11 CP children, and 24 age matched typically developing (TD) children, walking at both self-selected and fast walking speeds, and calculated angular momenta. We found that children with hemiparetic CP did not have a reduced angular momentum of the affected arm. However, they showed substantial increases in angular momentum generated by the legs, which were compensated by increased angular momentum of the unaffected arm. As a result, there were no differences in total body angular momentum between TD and CP children. Moreover, walking speed had no effect on total body angular momentum in both groups. These findings support the idea that angular momentum during walking is a controlled variable, even in children with hemiplegic CP.

  18. Children's Participation in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article…

  19. The DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 Associates with Export Messenger Ribonucleoproteins as well asTip-associated Protein and Participates in Translational Control

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Lee, Yan-Hwa Wu

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear export of mRNA is tightly linked to transcription, nuclear mRNA processing, and subsequent maturation in the cytoplasm. Tip-associated protein (TAP) is the major nuclear mRNA export receptor, and it acts coordinately with various factors involved in mRNA expression. We screened for protein factors that associate with TAP and identified several candidates, including RNA helicase DDX3. We demonstrate that DDX3 directly interacts with TAP and that its association with TAP as well as mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes may occur in the nucleus. Depletion of TAP resulted in nuclear accumulation of DDX3, suggesting that DDX3 is, at least in part, exported along with messenger ribonucleoproteins to the cytoplasm via the TAP-mediated pathway. Moreover, the observation that DDX3 localizes transiently in cytoplasmic stress granules under cell stress conditions suggests a role for DDX3 in translational control. Indeed, DDX3 associates with translation initiation complexes. However, DDX3 is probably not critical for general mRNA translation but may instead promote efficient translation of mRNAs containing a long or structured 5′ untranslated region. Given that the DDX3 RNA helicase activity is essential for its involvement in translation, we suggest that DDX3 facilitates translation by resolving secondary structures of the 5′-untranslated region in mRNAs during ribosome scanning. PMID:18596238

  20. Effect of a Wheelie Training Method With the Front Wheels on a Ramp in Novice Able-Bodied Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Sheng; Koontz, Alicia M; Chen, Chyi-Rong; Fang, Wei-Chien; Chang, Jyh-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if wheelie training that begins with learning how to balance with the front wheels on a ramp would increase the success rate, reduce the training time, and improve retention rates. A randomized controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of wheelie training on a ramp setting (ramp group, n = 26) and conventional training (conventional group, n = 26). The main outcome measures were success rates in achieving wheelie competence, training time, and the retention rate in 7 and 30 days respectively. The results showed that the success rate for each training group both reached 100%. The mean training times for the conventional group and the ramp group were 86.0 ± 35.7 and 76.0 ± 25.8 minutes. Training time was not significantly affected by the training method (p = 0.23), but it was affected by gender, with women requiring an average of 92.0 ± 31.4 minutes in comparison with 70.0 ± 27.5 minutes for men (p = 0.01). The skill retention rate after 7 and 30 days was 100% for both groups. Neither success rate nor training time for wheelie skill acquisition by learners were improved by learning wheelie balance on a ramp. However, a high retention rate of wheelie skills for both training groups was found, which implies that success can be achieved by training on a ramp used in this study.

  1. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  2. Network, cluster and risk factor analyses for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome using data from swine sites participating in a disease control program.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Poljak, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe networks of Ontario swine sites and their service providers (including trucking, feed, semen, gilt and boar companies); to categorize swine sites into clusters based on site-level centrality measures, and to investigate risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) using information gathered from the above-mentioned analyses. All 816 sites included in the current study were enrolled in the PRRS area regional control and elimination projects in Ontario. Demographics, biosecurity and network data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and PRRS status was determined on the basis of available diagnostic tests and assessment by site veterinarians. Two-mode networks were transformed into one-mode dichotomized networks. Cluster and risk factor analyses were conducted separately for breeding and growing pig sites. In addition to the clusters obtained from cluster analyses, other explanatory variables of interest included: production type, type of animal flow, use of a shower facility, and number of neighboring swine sites within 3km. Unadjusted univariable analyses were followed by two types of adjusted models (adjusted for production systems): a generalizing estimation equation model (GEE) and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results showed that the gilt network was the most fragmented network, followed by the boar and truck networks. Considering all networks simultaneously, approximately 94% of all swine sites were indirectly connected. Unadjusted risk factor analyses showed significant associations between almost all predictors of interest and PRRS positivity, but these disappeared once production system was taken into consideration. Finally, the vast majority of the variation on PRRS status was explained by production system according to GLMM, which shows the highly correlated nature of the data, and raises the point that interventions at this level could potentially have high

  3. Impact of different privacy conditions and incentives on survey response rate, participant representativeness, and disclosure of sensitive information: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anonymous survey methods appear to promote greater disclosure of sensitive or stigmatizing information compared to non-anonymous methods. Higher disclosure rates have traditionally been interpreted as being more accurate than lower rates. We examined the impact of 3 increasingly private mailed survey conditions—ranging from potentially identifiable to completely anonymous—on survey response and on respondents’ representativeness of the underlying sampling frame, completeness in answering sensitive survey items, and disclosure of sensitive information. We also examined the impact of 2 incentives ($10 versus $20) on these outcomes. Methods A 3X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial of 324 representatively selected, male Gulf War I era veterans who had applied for United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Men were asked about past sexual assault experiences, childhood abuse, combat, other traumas, mental health symptoms, and sexual orientation. We used a novel technique, the pre-merged questionnaire, to link anonymous responses to administrative data. Results Response rates ranged from 56.0% to 63.3% across privacy conditions (p = 0.49) and from 52.8% to 68.1% across incentives (p = 0.007). Respondents’ characteristics differed by privacy and by incentive assignments, with completely anonymous respondents and $20 respondents appearing least different from their non-respondent counterparts. Survey completeness did not differ by privacy or by incentive. No clear pattern of disclosing sensitive information by privacy condition or by incentive emerged. For example, although all respondents came from the same sampling frame, estimates of sexual abuse ranged from 13.6% to 33.3% across privacy conditions, with the highest estimate coming from the intermediate privacy condition (p = 0.007). Conclusion Greater privacy and larger incentives do not necessarily result in higher disclosure rates of sensitive information

  4. A homolog of the cell cycle control protein p34cdc2 participates in the division cycle of Chlamydomonas, and a similar protein is detectable in higher plants and remote taxa.

    PubMed Central

    John, P C; Sek, F J; Lee, M G

    1989-01-01

    We investigated plant cell division by testing for the presence and involvement in progress through the division cycle of the protein p34cdc2, a key participant in division control in other eukaryotes. A protein of the same m(r) 34,000 has structural similarity indicated by its reaction with three sorts of antibody raised against (1) cell division-specific regions within a 16-amino acid internal sequence that is perfectly conserved in p34cdc2 from all known sources, (2) the carboxy-terminal 127 amino acids of human p34cdc2 linked to beta-galactosidase, and (3) whole p34cdc2 of fission yeast. Participation of p34 in the division cycle of the green plant Chlamydomonas is indicated by phosphorylation of the protein only in proliferating cells. There is a consistent fivefold increase relative to other proteins when cells become committed to division and a maximum of phosphorylation at the time of nuclear division under conditions that alter by twofold the time of these events. A p34 protein is detectable in oats and Arabidopsis and in remote taxa, including red and brown algae. We conclude that the plant kingdom shares a division control involving p34cdc2 that was probably established in the common ancestral eukaryote prior to divergence of any of the major eukaryote taxa. PMID:2535538

  5. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies. PMID:26583121

  6. Participating in Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical ... to treat or cure a disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based ...

  7. Understanding Participation in Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    Adherence to program planning principles does not guarantee participation. Attention must be paid to characteristics that make a program responsive: target audience, promotion and marketing, competition, and logistics. (SK)

  8. Clinical Trials - Participants

    MedlinePlus

    ... participating in was reviewed by an IRB. Further Reading For more information about research protections, see: Office ... data and decide whether the results have medical importance. Results from clinical trials are often published in ...

  9. Learning through Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeb, David; Prentiss, William C.

    1970-01-01

    An experimental program at Valencia Junior College (Florida) allows every student to actively participate in all phases of the political science course. A variety of multimedia materials, which the students help to develop and evaluate, are used. (BB)

  10. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Sonya L.; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F.; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E.; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S.; Kwa, Suefen

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Median age was 38 years, median pre-ART HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156 PMID

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  12. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT JUNKYARD CONTROL... Interstate and primary highways, the FHWA may approve Federal participation in the costs of applying...

  13. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT JUNKYARD CONTROL... Interstate and primary highways, the FHWA may approve Federal participation in the costs of applying...

  14. Levels of Audience Involvement in Participation Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes levels of audience involvement in participation theater: (1) instruction, (2) direct contact, (3) independent creative, (4) contribution of ideas, (5) representative involvement, (6) decision making, (7) story control, and (8) spontaneous involvement. Contends that participation plays help a child develop into a responsive adult audience…

  15. The Effect of Task-Irrelevant Fearful-Face Distractor on Working Memory Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment versus Healthy Controls: An Exploratory fMRI Study in Female Participants

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Chung, Jun Ku; Arena, Amanda; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Mitchell, Derek G. V.

    2016-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk state for Alzheimer's disease, patients have objective cognitive deficits with relatively preserved functioning. fMRI studies have identified anomalies during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with MCI. The effect of task-irrelevant emotional face distractor on WM processing in MCI remains unclear. We aim to explore the impact of fearful-face task-irrelevant distractor on WM processing in MCI using fMRI. Hypothesis. Compared to healthy controls (HC), MCI patients will show significantly higher BOLD signal in a priori identified regions of interest (ROIs) during a WM task with a task-irrelevant emotional face distractor. Methods. 9 right-handed female participants with MCI and 12 matched HC performed a WM task with standardized task-irrelevant fearful versus neutral face distractors randomized and counterbalanced across WM trials. MRI images were acquired during the WM task and BOLD signal was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to identify signal patterns during the task response phase. Results. Task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor resulted in higher activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and frontal areas, in MCI participants compared to HC. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests altered WM processing as a result of fearful-face distractor in MCI. PMID:26949290

  16. Gait control and executive dysfunction in early schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lallart, Elise; Jouvent, Roland; Herrmann, François R; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Lallart, Xavier; Beauchet, Olivier; Allali, Gilles

    2014-04-01

    Dysexecutive functioning, which is described as an enduring core feature of schizophrenia, has been associated with gait disorders. However, few studies have reported gait disorders in schizophrenia patients. The objective of this study was to examine the association between executive dysfunction and gait performance in recent-onset schizophrenia patients using the dual task paradigm. Thirty-two subjects participated to the study: 17 with recent-onset schizophrenia and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Executive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery, Stroop and Trail-Making tests. Mean values and coefficients of variation (CV) of the temporal gait parameters while single tasking (just walking) and while dual tasking (walking and forward counting, walking and backward counting, walking and verbal fluency) were measured using the SMTEC(®)-footswitch system. We focused on the CV of stride time as this measure has been shown to be the most representative parameter of higher gait control. A strong effect of the stride time was found in the group factor for the verbal fluency dual-task when compared to controls (Cohen's d mean = 1.28 and CV = 1.05). The effect was lower in the other dual tasks, and insignificant in the single task of walking. This study shows that patients exhibit higher stride-to-stride variability while dual tasking than controls. It also shows a stronger impact of verbal fluency on gait regularity compared to the other dual tasks revealing a relationship between the executive dysfunction and gait modification. Those results are in line with the idea that schizophrenia implies not only cognitive but also motor functioning and coordination impairment. PMID:24201834

  17. Participation during First Social Encounters in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G. T.; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are socially excluded. The aim of this study was to investigate how patients participate in first encounters with unfamiliar healthy participants, who are unaware of their diagnosis. Methods Patterns of participation were investigated during interactions involving three-people. Three conversation roles were analysed: (i) speaker, (ii) primary recipient- focus of the speaker’s attention and (iii) secondary recipient- unaddressed individual. Twenty patient interactions (1 patient, 2 healthy controls) and 20 control interactions (3 healthy participants) were recorded and motion captured in 3D. The participation of patients and their partners, in each conversation role, was compared with controls at the start, middle and end of the interaction. The relationship between patients’ participation, their symptoms and the rapport others experienced with them was also explored. Results At the start of the interaction patients spoke less (ß = −.639, p = .02) and spent more time as secondary recipient (ß = .349, p = .02). Patients’ participation at the middle and end of the interaction did not differ from controls. Patients’ partners experienced poorer rapport with patients who spent more time as a primary recipient at the start of the interaction (Rho(11) = −.755, p<.01). Patients’ participation was not associated with symptoms. Conclusion Despite their increased participation over time, patients’ initial participation appears to be associated with others’ experience of rapport with them. Thus, the opening moments of patients’ first encounters appear to be interpersonally significant. Further investigation of patient and others’ behaviour during these critical moments is warranted in order to understand, and possibly develop interventions to address, the difficulties schizophrenia patients experience here. PMID:24465363

  18. Low bone mineral density is two to three times more prevalent in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes: a comprehensive controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Wark, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare bone mineral density (BMD), investigate factors associated with BMD, and examine the prevalence of low BMD in athletes and non-athletic controls. Methods: The study included a questionnaire (part I), measurement of BMD (part II), and a clinical interview (part III). All Norwegian female athletes on national teams (n = 938) and an aged matched random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 900) were invited to participate. The questionnaire was completed by 88% of athletes and 70% of controls. A random sample of these athletes (n = 300) and controls (n = 300) was invited to participate in parts II and III. All parts were completed by 186 athletes (62%) and 145 controls (48%). Results: Mean (standard deviation) total body (TB) BMD was higher (p<0.001) in athletes (1.21 (0.09) g/cm2) than in controls (1.18 (0.08) g/cm2), and higher (p<0.001) in high impact (HI) sports athletes than in medium impact (MI) and low impact (LI) sports athletes. In athletes, body weight and impact loading sports were positively associated, and percent body fat and eating disorders were negatively associated with TB BMD. Body weight and weight bearing activities were positively associated and menstrual dysfunction was negatively associated with TB BMD in controls. A higher percentage of controls (28.3%) than athletes (10.7%) had low BMD (p<0.001). Conclusion: Female elite athletes have 3–20% higher BMD than non-athletic controls and HI sports athletes have 3–22% higher BMD compared with MI and LI sports athletes. Low BMD is two to three times more common in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes. PMID:15849292

  19. Katimavik Participant Information Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The guide provides prospective participants with an overview of Katimavik, a 9-month community volunteer service and learning program for 17- to 21-year-olds sponsored since 1977 by the Canadian Government. The guide describes the application process and computerized random selection procedures; work projects, which may range from building…

  20. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  1. Participative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 6 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter makes a case for the use of participative decision-making (PDM) at the school-site level, outlines guidelines for its implementation, and describes the experiences of some schools with PDM systems. It begins by citing research indicating the advantages of PDM, including better decisions,…

  2. Participative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 7 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter advocates the use of participative decision-making (PDM) at the school site level, outlines implementation guidelines, and describes the experiences of some schools with PDM systems. A cornerstone of a reform movement to make organizational operations more democratic and less…

  3. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  4. Canada's Participation in TIMSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Tom

    1998-01-01

    In the grade 12 portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Canadian students performed better than other participating G-8 countries. In fact, Canada scored consistently above the international mean for all three age groups tested. However, some educators and reformers have expressed dissatisfaction with these results. (MLH)

  5. Racial disparities in participation in biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Kressin, N. R.; Meterko, M.; Wilson, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether minority patients were less likely to participate in biomedical research, perceive positive benefits from such participation, or to recommend research participation to other patients, an observational study was conducted. Sociodemographic and survey data were collected from 5436 users of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Ambulatory Care, which included questions about veterans' research participation and related attitudes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if there were racial differences in the outcomes of interest, controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that there were no racial differences in self-reported research participation, but minority veterans were more likely to perceive a positive effect of research and less likely to recommend research to other veterans. However, subgroup analyses indicated that, of those veterans having negative attitudes about research, minority and less educated veterans were disproportionately represented. In the VA system, racial differences in research participation may dissipate because many sociodemographic factors are controlled. Although we did not observe consistent racial differences in research participation or attitudes, the fact that minority veterans were disproportionately represented among the group with the most negative attitudes about research suggests that further research is necessary to fully understand the racial dynamics of research participation in the VA. PMID:10800293

  6. 9 CFR 54.21 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation. 54.21 Section 54.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF SCRAPIE Scrapie...

  7. 9 CFR 54.21 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 54.21 Section 54.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF SCRAPIE Scrapie...

  8. 25 CFR 41.6 - HHS participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.6 HHS participation. The Assistant... Education, Department of Health and Human Services, and to revise such agreement as necessary, to assist...

  9. Community-Academic Partnership Participation.

    PubMed

    Meza, Rosemary; Drahota, Amy; Spurgeon, Emily

    2016-10-01

    Community-academic partnerships (CAPs) improve the research process, outcomes, and yield benefits for the community and researchers. This exploratory study examined factors important in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community stakeholders, previously contacted to participate in a CAP (n = 18), completed the 15-item Decision to Participate Questionnaire (DPQ). The DPQ assessed reasons for participating or declining participation in the ASD CAP. CAP participants rated networking with other providers, fit of collaboration with agency philosophy, and opportunity for future training/consultations as factors more important in their decision to participate in the ASD CAP than nonparticipants. Nonparticipants reported the number of requests to participate in research as more important in their decision to decline participation than participants. Findings reveal important factors in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs that may provide guidance on increasing community engagement in CAPs and help close the science-to-service gap.

  10. [Women's participation in science].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men.

  11. Baseline characteristics of participants in the JUPITER trial, a randomized placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among individuals with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Ridker, Paul M; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M; Kastelein, John J P; Khurmi, Nardev S; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T; Glynn, Robert J

    2007-12-01

    The Justification for the Use of statins in Primary prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among persons with average to low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol who are at increased cardiovascular risk due to elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). A total of 17,802 persons with LDL cholesterol<130 mg/dl (3.36 mmol/L) and hs-CRP>or=2 mg/L were recruited from 26 countries and randomly allocated to 20 mg/day rosuvastatin or placebo. In contrast to previous studies of statin therapy in primary prevention, JUPITER is evaluating a group with modest plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol (median 108 mg/dl, interquartile range 94 to 119). Further, the trial includes 6,801 women (38.2%) and 5,577 participants with metabolic syndrome (32.1%). Thus, in addition to broadening our understanding of statin therapy and inflammation, the JUPITER trial will provide important and clinically relevant information on primary prevention among patients who do not currently qualify for lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, as 20 mg of rosuvastatin can reduce LDL cholesterol by up to 50%, JUPITER will also provide crucial safety data for several thousand patients who should achieve LDL cholesterol levels<50 mg/dl on a long-term basis.

  12. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents.

  13. Yough, literacy and participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Arthur

    1985-12-01

    The number of illiterates in the world continues to grow. Simultaneously, there are few if any literacy efforts in the world today that do not depend upon the energies and skills (and sometimes ideas) of young people. Youth's participation in the provision of literacy, in some industrialized as well as in many developing countries, is classified according to three patterns: the project pattern, the programme pattern, and the campaign pattern. The project pattern is not seen to hold out the prospect of enabling youth to make serious inroads into growing illiteracy. Conversely, the campaign pattern seemed largely exceptional. Suggestions are made to draw on elements of both the project and the campaign patterns to show ways of enrichting, systematizing and generalizing the programme pattern.

  14. Researching participant recruitment times.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Rachel; Black, Polly

    2015-11-01

    Conducting research in emergency departments is relatively new, and there are a number of ethical and practical challenges to recruiting patients in these settings. In 2008, the Emergency Medicine Research Group Edinburgh (EMERGE) was set up at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh emergency department to support researchers and encourage the growth of research in emergency medicine. As part of a review of their working methods, the group's clinical nurse researchers undertook a small study to identify participant recruitment times. The results showed a significant difference between perceived and actual recruitment times, which has implications for planning staff numbers and budgets. This article describes the evaluation process and methods of data collection, and discusses the results. PMID:26542924

  15. Public Participation Plan. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to describe the Department of Energy's plan for involving the public in the decision-making process required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, PL95-604. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the cleanup of designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites and associated vicinity properties, which are located in ten western states and in Pennsylvania. The Act was amended in 1982 to also include vicinity properties contaminated with residual radioactive material in Edgemont, South Dakota.

  16. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P < 0.05). In this study, vapor of perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  17. A case control study of a deprivation triangle: teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Terry; Cupples, Margaret E; Irvine, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been linked with poor health, poor educational attainment, poor employment prospects and socio-economic deprivation. Much of the evidence has come from large surveys and the nature of these inter-relationships remains unclear. A case-control study was designed to compare the educational and employment experiences of teenage mothers with those of an age matched sample of peers from a similar social background and to test the feasibility of carrying out this type of research within primary care. Participants were identified from records in 36 GP practices in the Greater Belfast area. First time teenage mothers with one child aged 9-15 months at the time of interview were selected. Teenage mothers were matched with a control group of nulliparous teenagers in respect of age and postcode and registered with the same practice. Questionnaires were administered in their home or at their health centre. Data were analysed using SPSS for Windows Version 6. Teenage mothers were less likely than controls to have gained passes in school leaving examinations. None of the mothers was in full time education compared with 35% of the controls. Excluding those in education or training, more of the control group were employed at the time of study (82% v 11%). It is concluded that teenage mothers with one child report poorer educational attainment and employment status than their nulliparous peers from a similar social background with similar educational opportunities. Attention must be paid to these findings when planning policy to help teenage mothers and avoid perpetuation of a cycle of socio-economic deprivation.

  18. Public Participation in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    In the past several years The Planetary Society has created several innovative opportunities for general public participation in the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life. The conduct of such exploration has traditionally been the province of a few thousand, at most, of professionally involved scientists and engineers. Yet the rationale for spending resources required by broad and far-reaching exploration involves a greater societal interest - it frequently being noted that the rationale cannot rely on science alone. This paper reports on the more notable of the opportunities for general public participation, in particular: 1) Visions of Mars: a CD containing the works of science fiction about Mars, designed to be placed on Mars as the first library to be found by eventual human explorers; 2) MAPEX: a Microelectronics And Photonics Experiment, measuring the radiation environment for future human explorers of Mars, and containing a electron beam lithograph of names of all the members of The Planetary Society at a particular time; 3) Naming of spacecraft: Involvement in the naming of spacecraft: Magellan, Sojourner; 4) The Mars Microphone: the first privately funded instrument to be sent to another world; 5) Red Rover Goes to Mars: the first commercial-education partnership on a planetary mission; 6) Student designed nanoexperiments: to fly on a Mars lander; and 7) SETI@home: a tool permitting millions to contribute to research and data processing in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A brief description of each of the projects will be given, and the opportunity it provided for public participation described. The evolving complexity of these projects suggest that more opportunities will be found, and that the role of public participation can increase at the same time as making substantive contributions to the flight missions. It will be suggested that these projects presage the day that planetary exploration will be truly

  19. Balance, Falls-Related Self-Efficacy, and Psychological Factors amongst Older Women with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Annick; Prince, François; Bouffard, Vicky; Lafond, Danik

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate balance functions in older women and evaluate the association of the fear-avoidance beliefs model (FABM) factors with balance and mobility performance. Participants. Fifteen older women with CLBP was compared with age-matched pain-free controls (n = 15). Main Outcome Measures. Pain intensity, falls-related self-efficacy and intrinsic constructs in the FABM were evaluated. Postural steadiness (centre of pressure (COP)) and mobility functions were assessed. Linear relationships of FABM variables with COP and mobility score were estimated. Results. CLBP showed lower mobility score compared to controls. CLBP presented lower falls-related self-efficacy and it was associated with reduced mobility scores. FABM variables and falls-related self-efficacy were correlated with postural steadiness. Physical activity was reduced in CLBP, but no between-group difference was evident for knee extensor strength. No systematic linkages were observed between FABM variables with mobility score or postural steadiness. Conclusions. Back pain status affects balance and mobility functions in older women. Falls-related self-efficacy is lower in CLBP and is associated with reduced mobility. Disuse syndrome in CLBP elderly is partly supported by the results of this preliminary study. PMID:22937276

  20. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing.

    PubMed

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel "freezing" analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19-32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at ("freezing") individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts' bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance.

  1. Extracurricular participation among adolescents from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Daisy E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Participation in organized after-school activities could be especially beneficial for youth from immigrant backgrounds, whose families often have little knowledge of American school systems. The role of extracurricular involvement in the achievement and motivation of students from immigrant families was examined among 468 eleventh grade (52.4% female) students from Asian American (44.4%), European American (19.0%) and Latino (36.5%) backgrounds who varied in generational status (first: 25%; second: 52.4%, third: 22.6%) and attended high school in the Los Angeles area. Participants completed questionnaires regarding their extracurricular activities, school belonging, and intrinsic motivation. Students' grade point average (GPA) was obtained from official school records. Controls included parental education, ethnicity, generational status, gender, school, and the outcome variables in tenth grade. First generation students were less likely to participate in academic activities than their third generation peers but, overall, there were few generational differences in participation. Participation predicted achievement and engagement after accounting for tenth grade levels of educational adjustment. Most notably, although all students benefitted from participation, the gain in GPA as a function of participation was greater for first generation than third generation students. Results suggest that organized after-school activities are particularly important for students in immigrant families, providing them with additional experiences that contribute to academic achievement.

  2. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  3. Will Being Involved in Calculating Their Own Participation Points Make Middle School Learners Better Class Participants in My Spanish Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Middle schoolers are developing skills for learning. Part of those skills is learning how to be an active participant in class and take control over their classroom behavior. Students who are not actively listening or participating are not internally motivated to learn the material. It was my hope that by reflecting upon their participation each…

  4. Participative management: a contingency approach.

    PubMed

    Callahan, C B; Wall, L L

    1987-09-01

    The participative management trend has been misinterpreted by staff to mean that they make all the decisions. To decrease the discrepancy between the management philosophy of participation and the subordinate interpretation of the system, the selection of appropriate decision participation procedures is essential. When the leaders communicate the degree of influence that subordinates will have, the staff learn to trust and support the participative management system. PMID:3655932

  5. Children's Participation Rights in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mary Ann; Smith, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores children's participation in research, from the perspectives of researchers who have conducted research with children. Researchers' reports, gained using an email interviewing method, suggest that children's participation rights are particularly compromised when the potential child participants are considered vulnerable and…

  6. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT JUNKYARD CONTROL... studies for particular projects, and the employment of fee landscape architects and other...

  7. 23 CFR 751.17 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal participation. 751.17 Section 751.17 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT JUNKYARD CONTROL... studies for particular projects, and the employment of fee landscape architects and other...

  8. Antecedents of Attachment among Education Center Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Sanders-Reio, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    In a study of self-reports from 111 adults enrolled in education classes at seven adult education centers, peer relations, positive and negative affect, and curiosity and perception of learning improvement each uniquely predicted secure attachment among the participants. After controlling for age, sex, and income, the hierarchical logistical…

  9. Blue Shield Plan Physician Participation

    PubMed Central

    Yett, Donald E.; Der, William; Ernst, Richard L.; Hay, Joel W.

    1981-01-01

    Many Blue Shield Plans offer participation agreements to physicians that are structurally similar to the participation provisions of Medicaid programs. This paper examines physicians' participation decisions in two such Blue Shield Plans where the participation agreements were on an all-or-nothing basis. The major results show that increases in the Plans' reasonable fees or fee schedules significantly raise the probability of participation, and that physicians with characteristics associated with “low quality” are significantly more likely to participate than are physicians with characteristics associated with “high quality.” In this sense the results highlight the tradeoff that must be faced in administering governmental health insurance policy. On the one hand, restricting reasonable and scheduled fees is the principal current tool for containing expenditures on physicians' services. Yet these restrictions tend to depress physicians' willingness to participate in government programs, thereby reducing access to high quality care by the populations those programs were designed to serve. PMID:10309468

  10. Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…

  11. A post-trial survey to assess the impact of dissemination of results and unmasking on participants in a 13-year randomised controlled trial on age-related cataract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract was designed to assess the impact of a multivitamin-mineral supplement on age-related cataract. Trial results showed evidence of a beneficial effect of the supplement on all types of cataract combined, opposite effects on two of the three types of cataract (beneficial for nuclear opacities and harmful for posterior sub-capsular opacities) and no statistically significant effect on cortical opacities. No treatment recommendations were made. A post-trial survey was conducted on 817 surviving elderly participants to assess their satisfaction, their understanding of treatment assignment to supplement or placebo and the success of masking. Methods Trial results were communicated by letter and the level of satisfaction and of understanding of the results was assessed by a questionnaire. Participants were offered the option of being unmasked: a second questionnaire was administered to this subset to assess their understanding of the randomisation process and the success of masking. Results 610 participants (74.7%) responded to the survey: 94.6% thought the description of the results was "very clear" or "quite clear", 5.4% "not clear" or "do not know"; 89.8% considered the results "very interesting" or "quite interesting", 10.2% "not interesting" or "do not know"; 60.3% expressed "satisfaction", 17.2% "both satisfaction and concern", 2.6% "concern", 19.9% "indifference" or "do not know". 480 participants (78.7%) accepted the offer to be unmasked to their treatment assignment: 395 (82.3%) recalled/understood the possibility of assignment to vitamins or placebo, 85 (17.7%) did not. 68 participants (17.2%) thought they had taken vitamins (79.4% were correct; p = 0.0006), 47 (11.9%) thought they had taken placebo (59.6% were correct; p = 0.46) and 280 (70.9%) declared they did not know. Conclusions The results were made difficult to explain to study participants by the

  12. Alternative splicing of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    König, G; Salbaum, J M; Wiestler, O; Lang, W; Schmitt, H P; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1991-02-01

    An S1 nuclease protection assay was designed to study the splicing pattern of the alternatively spliced beta A4 amyloid gene (APP gene) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the splicing pattern of the APP gene in fetal, adult, aged adult and AD human cortex. The results suggest that alternative splicing of the APP gene in AD is not significantly different from age-matched controls, but distinct from the developing fetal brain.

  13. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  14. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems-an indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions.

  15. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems-an indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions. PMID:16806313

  16. Participation-Based Services: Promoting Children's Participation in Natural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    When children are young, the activities and routines in which they participate are influenced by family decisions as well as by opportunities for participation. Families report that finding community opportunities for their young children with disabilities can be difficult. Furthermore, ensuring their children's success in these settings requires…

  17. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

  18. Race, Segregation, and Physicians' Participation in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Jessica; Blustein, Jan; Weitzman, Beth C

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have explored the extent to which physicians' characteristics and Medicaid program factors influence physicians' decisions to accept Medicaid patients. In this article, we turn to patient race/ethnicity and residential segregation as potential influences. Using the 2000/2001 Community Tracking Study and other sources we show that physicians are significantly less likely to participate in Medicaid in areas where the poor are nonwhite and in areas that are racially segregated. Surprisingly—and contrary to the prevailing Medicaid participation theory—we find no link between poverty segregation and Medicaid participation when controlling for these racial factors. Accordingly, this study contributes to an accumulating body of circumstantial evidence that patient race influences physicians' choices, which in turn may contribute to racial disparities in access to health care. PMID:16771818

  19. Predictors of severe H1N1 infection in children presenting within Pediatric Emergency Research Networks (PERN): retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John MD; Macias, Charles G; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Johnson, David W; Waisman, Yehezkel; Cheng, Nicholas; Acworth, Jason; Chamberlain, James M; Osmond, Martin H; Plint, Amy; Valerio, Paolo; Black, Karen JL; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Newton, Amanda S; Kuppermann, Nathan; Klassen, Terry P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify historical and clinical findings at emergency department presentation associated with severe H1N1 outcome in children presenting with influenza-like illness. Design Multicentre retrospective case-control study. Setting 79 emergency departments of hospitals associated with the Pediatric Emergency Research Networks in 12 countries. Participants 265 children (<16 years), presenting between 16 April and 31 December 2009, who fulfilled Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for influenza-like illness and developed severe outcomes from laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection. For each case, two controls presenting with influenza-like illness but without severe outcomes were included: one random control and one age matched control. Main outcome measures Severe outcomes included death or admission to intensive care for assisted ventilation, inotropic support, or both. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls, with effect sizes measured as adjusted odds ratios. Results 151 (57%) of the 265 cases were male, the median age was 6 (interquartile range 2.3-10.0) years, and 27 (10%) died. Six factors were associated with severe outcomes in children presenting with influenza-like illness: history of chronic lung disease (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 69.8), history of cerebral palsy/developmental delay (10.2, 2.0 to 51.4), signs of chest retractions (9.6, 3.2 to 29.0), signs of dehydration (8.8, 1.6 to 49.3), requirement for oxygen (5.8, 2.0 to 16.2), and tachycardia relative to age). Conclusion These independent risk factors may alert clinicians to children at risk of severe outcomes when presenting with influenza-like illness during future pandemics. PMID:23940290

  20. Correlates of Senior Center Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Anne M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent to which multiservice centers serve the varied needs of the senior population, this study examined users of a Senior Center and three groups of nonusers: persons only attending a nutrition site, former center participants, and persons who never participated. Differences were found in life styles. (Author)

  1. Fiscal Management Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document is the participant's guide for fiscal management training for administrators managing an institution's Title IV program funds. The workshop is designed to prepare participants to understand an institution's responsibilities with regard to Title IV. It describes the recordkeeping requirements of the Title IV program and the accounting…

  2. Pupil Participation and Curriculum Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadas, Jayashree; Kulkarni, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated relationship between lesson content and participation of pupils in rural India primary schools. Spontaneous participation in teacher-directed classrooms (N=136) was shown to be correlated with time spent by teachers in relating textbook content to pupils' natural experience. Experiments and teaching aids were also useful in drawing…

  3. Who Benefits from Participative Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to explore the moderating role of teachers' personality traits from the Big Five typology on the relationship between participative management and teacher outcomes with respect to performance, satisfaction and strain. The study suggests that participative management may produce different results depending on teachers'…

  4. Moving the Participation Agenda Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Davis, John; Prout, Alan; Tisdall, Kay

    2004-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the other papers in this Special Issue on children's and young people's participation, by outlining the nature of the ESRC Seminar Series from which all are derived and by developing the main themes discussed at the seminars. The focus of this Issue is participation by children and young people as this relates to…

  5. [Sports participation and fair play].

    PubMed

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González-Mesa, Carmen González; Méndez, Javier Montero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether the participation in intermediate contact sports affects the opinions about the behaviors and attitudes of fair play in the sports context and whether these effects are influenced by ego orientation. The participants were high level sportsmen from university and professional basketball and football players (N = 131). They filled in questionnaires to assess their participation in sports, their goal orientations, and their fair play attitudes and behaviors. The analyses of the structural equation model indicated that participation in intermediate contact sports predicted ego orientation; these analyses consecutively predicted low levels of fair play. The direct effects of sports participation in fair play decreased significantly in the presence of ego orientation, indicating that the last construct partially mediates the relation between the first two variables. These discoveries help us to better understand the processes that operate in contact sports. Finally, their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike behaviors are discussed.

  6. Overcoming Addictions, a Web-Based Application, and SMART Recovery, an Online and In-Person Mutual Help Group for Problem Drinkers, Part 2: Six-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Feedback From Participants

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Reid K; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Delaney, Harold D

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite empirical evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for problem drinking, much remains unknown about factors that influence their effectiveness. Objective We evaluated the performance of 2 resources for people who want to achieve and maintain abstinence: SMART Recovery (SR) and Overcoming Addictions (OA). OA is a Web application based on SR. We also examined participant and intervention-related factors hypothesized to impact clinical outcomes of Web-based interventions. Methods We recruited 189 heavy drinkers through SR’s website and in-person meetings throughout the United States. We began by randomly assigning participants to (1) SR meetings alone, (2) OA alone, and (3) OA and SR (OA+SR). Recruitment challenges compelled us to assign participants only to SR (n=86) or OA+SR (n=102). The experimental hypotheses were as follows: (1) Both groups will reduce their drinking and alcohol-related consequences at follow-up compared with their baseline levels, and (2) The OA+SR condition will reduce their drinking and alcohol or drug-related consequences more than the SR only condition. Additionally, we derived 3 groups empirically (SR, OA, and OA+SR) based on the participants’ actual use of each intervention and conducted analyses by comparing them. Primary outcome measures included percent days abstinent (PDA), mean drinks per drinking day (DDD), and alcohol or drug-related consequences. Postbaseline assessments were conducted by phone at 3 and 6 months. Secondary analyses explored whether clinical issues (eg, severity of alcohol problems, level of distress, readiness to change) or intervention-related factors (eg, Internet fluency, satisfaction with site) affected outcomes. Results Both intent-to-treat analyses and the actual-use analyses showed highly significant improvement from baseline to follow-ups for all 3 groups. Mean within-subject effect sizes were large (d>0.8) overall. There was no significant difference between groups in

  7. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  8. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  9. Incentives and participation in a medical survey.

    PubMed

    Gjøstein, Dagrun Kyte; Huitfeldt, Anders; Løberg, Magnus; Adami, Hans-Olov; Garborg, Kjetil; Kalager, Mette; Bretthauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND Questionnaire surveys are important for surveying the health and disease behaviour of the population, but recent years have seen a fall in participation. Our study tested whether incentives can increase participation in these surveys.MATERIAL AND METHOD We sent a questionnaire on risk factors for colorectal cancer (height, weight, smoking, self-reported diagnoses, family medical history) to non-screened participants in a randomised colonoscopy screening study for colorectal cancer: participants who were invited but did not attend for colonoscopy examination (screening-invited) and persons who were not offered colonoscopy (control group). The persons were randomised to three groups: no financial incentive, lottery scratch cards included with the form, or a prize draw for a tablet computer when they responded to the form. We followed up all the incentive groups with telephone reminder calls, and before the prize draw for the tablet computer.RESULTS Altogether 3 705 of 6 795 persons (54.5  %) responded to the questionnaire; 43.5  % of those invited for screening and 65.6  % of the control group (p < 0.001). The proportion that answered was not influenced by incentives, either among those invited for screening (42.4  % in the non-prize group, 45.5  % in the lottery scratch card group and 42.6  % in the prize draw group; p = 0.24), or in the control group (65.6  % in the non-prize group, 66.4  % in the lottery scratch card group and 64.7  % in the prize draw group; p = 0.69). Prior to reminder calls, 39.2  % responded. A further 15.3  % responded following telephone reminder calls (14.1  % of the screening-invited and 16.5  % of the control group; p < 0.001).INTERPRETATION Incentives did not increase participation in this medical questionnaire survey. Use of telephone reminder calls and telephone interviews increased participation, but whether this is more effective than other methods requires further study

  10. Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice. PMID:24421638

  11. An Experience in Participant Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bettie S.

    1975-01-01

    The conflict in participant observation is between the nurse as observer and the nurse as care provider. For nursing, the gains are descriptive, theory-generating data; for the nurse researcher, a heightened awareness of the human condition. (Author)

  12. [ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PLACEMENT AND ACCOMMODATION OF PARTICIPANTS ATTENDANTS AND GUESTS OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES OF 2014 IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI].

    PubMed

    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V

    2015-01-01

    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers. PMID:26155635

  13. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Participation by civil agencies. 631.8 Section 631.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  14. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation (FFP). (a) Rate of FFP. Subject to the...

  15. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation (FFP... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19... of fraud; (2) Efforts to identify situations in which a question of fraud may exist, including...

  16. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation (FFP). (a) Rate of FFP. Subject to the...

  17. 42 CFR 1007.19 - Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.19 Federal financial participation (FFP... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal financial participation (FFP). 1007.19... of fraud; (2) Routine verification with beneficiaries of whether services billed by providers...

  18. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  19. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  20. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  1. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  2. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  3. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  4. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  5. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  6. Critical Consciousness Development and Political Participation among Marginalized Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Given associations between critical consciousness and positive developmental outcomes, and given racial, socioeconomic, and generational disparities in political participation, this article examined contextual antecedents of critical consciousness (composed of sociopolitical control and social action) and its consequences for 665 marginalized…

  7. Sport participation by physically and cognitively challenged young athletes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Greydanus, Donald E

    2010-06-01

    Many physically and cognitively challenged athletes participate in organized and recreational sports. Health benefits of sport participation by athletes with disabilities have been well recognized. A careful preparticipation evaluation and proper classification of athletes ensures safe sports participation by athletes with disabilities. Some conditions in these athletes, such as problems with thermoregulation, autonomic control, neurogenic bladder and bowel, latex allergy, and many associated and secondary complications deserve special consideration. This article reviews common medical issues that relate to sport participation by athletes with physical and cognitive disabilities. PMID:20538157

  8. To Participate or Not to Participate: That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Stone, Margaret R.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in issues pertaining to how a young person chooses to participate (or not) in youth programs, both school based (for example, sports, drama, yearbook) and community based (for example, Boys and Girls Clubs, Scouts, 4-H, sports, faith-based programs). Scholars, youth workers, policymakers, national organizations,…

  9. Developing Informed Research Participants in an Introductory Psychology Participant Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael P.; Lashley, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    This activity offers a way to use the informed consent procedure to help students better understand the responsibilities of research participants. During a class activity, students completed a brief study. The study included presentation of consent forms and questionnaires before a surprise quiz over material from the consent form and a discussion…

  10. Research participation as a contract.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Craig

    1995-01-01

    In this article, I present a contractualist conception of human-participant research ethics, arguing that the most appropriate source of the rights and responsibilities of researcher and participant is the contractual understanding between them. This conception appears to explain many of the more fundamental ethical incidents of human-participant research. I argue that a system of contractual rights and responsibilities would allow a great deal of research that has often been felt to be ethically problematic, such as research involving deception, concealed research, and research on dependent populations. However, in defining the conditions under which such research should be permissible, my contractualist theory also makes it clear that there are limits -- and explains what those limits are -- to the propriety of such research.

  11. Consumer participation and social accountability.

    PubMed

    Metsch, J M; Veney, J E

    1976-04-01

    Consumer participation in the planning and management of health care programs is prescribed as a method for increasing provider responsiveness to the goals and needs of users of services. However, issues related to the nature of mandates to implement consumer participation has not had the impact on policy development proposed for it. While structural changes can be identified which might enhance the consumer role in decision making, it will also be necessary for the consumer sector to develop a strategy which will prompt major rather than incremental movement. PMID:1263625

  12. A Block Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Smoking Cessation Counselling and Advice through Short Message Service on Participants Who Joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Wong, David C. N.; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received…

  13. A randomized controlled trial investigating the neurocognitive effects of Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-rich milk protein concentrate, in elderly participants with age-associated memory impairment: the Phospholipid Intervention for Cognitive Ageing Reversal (PLICAR): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) is of major societal concern in an ageing population, with the development of dietary supplements providing a promising avenue for amelioration of associated deficits. Despite initial interest in the use of phospholipids (PLs) for ARCD, in recent years there has been a hiatus in such research. Because of safety concerns regarding PLs derived from bovine cortex, and the equivocal efficacy of soybean-derived PLs, there is an important need for the development of new PL alternatives. Phospholipids derived from milk proteins represent one potential candidate treatment. Methods In order to reduce the effects of age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) the Phospholipid Intervention for Cognitive Ageing Reversal (PLICAR) was developed to test the efficacy of a milk protein concentrate rich in natural, non-synthetic milk phospholipids (Lacprodan® PL-20). PLICAR is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-groups study where 150 (N = 50/group) AAMI participants aged > 55 years will be randomized to receive a daily supplement of Lacprodan® PL-20 or one of two placebos (phospholipid-free milk protein concentrate or inert rice starch) over a 6-month (180-day) period. Participants will undergo testing at baseline, 90 days and 180 days. The primary outcome is a composite memory score from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Secondary outcomes include cognitive (verbal learning, working memory, prospective and retrospective memory, processing speed and attention), mood (depression, anxiety, stress and visual analogue scales), cardiovascular (blood pressure, blood velocity and pulse wave pressure), gastrointestinal microbiota and biochemical measures (oxidative stress, inflammation, B vitamins and Homocysteine, glucoregulation and serum choline). Allelic differences in the Apolipoprotein E and (APOE) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene will be included for subgroup analysis. A subset (N

  14. Public Participation in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups with 62 Alberta adults identified health learning needs; results were used by a community-university partnership to develop health education sessions in local settings. The initiative focused on community needs and participation rather than the dominant revenue-generation model, which has questionable ethical standing in…

  15. Prevention Program Management. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This training package, which centers on effective management and the operation of valid prevention programs, presents a five-day training experience designed to help managers of substance-abuse prevention programs. In this participant manual, the introduction includes a list of program goals and objectives and a summary of the ten individual…

  16. Citizen Participation: Antagonists or Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.

    1976-01-01

    If participation does not include an openness to the issues that are of real concern to the community and an opportunity to influence policy relating to those issues, it becomes an empty public relations gesture fostering apathy, disinterest, resistance, or counter-organization. (MB)

  17. Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Archon

    2006-01-01

    Every month in every neighborhood in Chicago, residents, teachers, school principals, and police officers gather to deliberate about how to improve their schools and make their streets safer. Residents of poor neighborhoods participate as much or more as those from wealthy ones. All voices are heard. Since the meetings began more than a dozen…

  18. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  19. A Rationale for Participant Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boody, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    There are many different models or approaches to doing program evaluation. Fitzpatrick, Sanders, and Worthen classify them into five general approaches: (a) objectives oriented, (b) management oriented, (c) consumer oriented, (d) expertise oriented, and (e) participant oriented. Within each of these general categories, of course, reside many…

  20. Fostering Participation and Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaiswal, Preeti

    2006-01-01

    Schools play a very significant role in fostering participation and leadership skills and in promoting the way forward to a better future. This article offers a number of strategies which can pave developmental pathways to student leadership. In addition, it analyses the beneficial aspects of such activities in enhancing the competency of students…

  1. Training of Trainers: Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This manual is designed to be used by individuals being trained to deliver courses developed within the National Training System of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The guide provides resources essential to understanding course content, and provides materials to enable participants to be actively involved in the learning exercises. The…

  2. Training Alcoholism Trainers. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook is to be used in conjunction with the Trainer Manual entitled Training Alcoholism Trainers. The program was developed to upgrade training design and delivery skills of inservice trainers in the field of alcoholism. The workbook contains all the handout sheets necessary for participant sessions. (Author/BMW)

  3. Information Technology and Citizen Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    This paper explores the claims of technology's ability to enhance citizen participation, with particular attention focused on the Internet. The claims are grounded within the larger context of political theory, specifically the tension between representative and direct forms of democracy. Sections of the paper are: Introduction; "What's Wrong with…

  4. Motivation and frustration in cardiology trial participation: The patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Meneguin, Silmara; César, Luiz Antônio Machado

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The participation of humans in clinical cardiology trials remains essential, but little is known regarding participant perceptions of such studies. We examined the factors that motivated participation in such studies, as well as those that led to participant frustration. METHODS: Patients who had participated in hypertension and coronary arterial disease (phases II, III, and IV) clinical trials were invited to answer a questionnaire. They were divided into two groups: Group I, which included participants in placebo-controlled clinical trials after randomization, and Group II, which included participants in clinical trials in which the tested treatment was compared to another drug after randomization and in which a placebo was used in the washout period. RESULTS: Eighty patients (47 patients in Group I and 33 patients in Group II) with different socio-demographic characteristics were interviewed. Approximately 60% of the patients were motivated to participate in the trial with the expectation of personal benefit. Nine participants (11.2%) expressed the desire to withdraw, which was due to their perception of risk during the testing in the clinical trial (Group I) and to the necessity of repeated returns to the institution (Group II). However, the patients did not withdraw due to fear of termination of hospital treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study had a small patient sample, the possibility of receiving a benefit from the new tested treatment was consistently reported as a motivation to participate in the trials. PMID:22760899

  5. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  6. Testicular function and glycemic control in diabetic men. A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M; Yue, D K; Turtle, J R

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated testicular function in 28 insulin-dependent diabetic men under the age of 50 years and 119 age-matched controls. Diabetics had reduced testicular volume, semen volume, total and total motile sperm output while plasma LH and FSH levels were elevated. Reduction in semen volume and impotence were more common in long-standing complicated diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) levels were positively correlated with plasma LH levels (r = 0.46, p less than 0.02) but there was no direct correlation of glycemic control and spermatogenesis. The differences in testicular function were due to decreased spermatogenesis and could not be explained by other forms of testicular pathology or the presence of diabetic neurovascular complications. We conclude that the function of the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis is impaired in diabetic men, that this impairment is at least partly related to the degree of preceding glycemic control and that multiple levels of the axis may be dysfunctional.

  7. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632

  8. Community participation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, C P

    1983-04-01

    The advantages of a community participation approach in primary health care (PHC) are as follows: a community participation approach is a cost effective way to extend a health care system to the geographical and social periphery of a country; communities that begin to understand their health status objectively rather than fatalistically may be moved to take a series of preventive measures; communities that invest labor, time, money, and materials in health promoting activities are more committed to the use and maintenance of the things they produce, such as water supplies; health education is most effective in the context of village activities; and community health workers, if they are well chosen, have the confidence of the people. An error made in early efforts at community participation was to assume that villages were uniformly free from internal exploitation. Some are cohesive moral communities, but in other there is grievous exploitation of landless laborers by landowners and shopkeepers. Villages may be divided by caste or ethnic origin. Political organization of villages may be democratic or they may be governed in an authoritarian manner. In politically unstable countries where the central government has a rather tenuous control over the rural periphery, genuine community initiatives may be viewed as threatening and may not receive official encouragement. Social groups within communities may be tremendous assets. In planning the community participation aspects of primary health care, the collaboration of an anthropologist or rural sociologist with field experience is recommended. Promoting community participation is a skill which must be taught to community health workers, and backed up with support services. The genuine commitment of medical staff to community self help is crucial to the motivation process. Motivation within the community quickly breaks down if materials, expertise, and salaries fail to arrive when promised. Community activities are most

  9. 48 CFR 752.7019 - Participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participant training. 752... Participant training. For use in any USAID direct contract involving training of USAID participants. Participant Training (JAN 1999) (a) Definitions. (1) Participant training is the training of any...

  10. Time-Action Analysis (TAA) of the Surgical Technique Implanting the Collum Femoris Preserving (CFP) Hip Arthroplasty. TAASTIC trial Identifying pitfalls during the learning curve of surgeons participating in a subsequent randomized controlled trial (An observational study)

    PubMed Central

    van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Schafroth, Matthias U; Bhandari, Mohit; Runne, Wouter C; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2008-01-01

    Background Two types of methods are used to assess learning curves: outcome assessment and process assessment. Outcome measures are usually dichotomous rare events like complication rates and survival or require an extensive follow-up and are therefore often inadequate to monitor individual learning curves. Time-action analysis (TAA) is a tool to objectively determine the level of efficiency of individual steps of a surgical procedure. Methods/Design We are currently using TAA to determine the number of cases needed for surgeons to reach proficiency with a new innovative hip implant prior to initiating a multicentre RCT. By analysing the unedited video recordings of the first 20 procedures of each surgeon the number and duration of the actions needed for a surgeon to achieve his goal and the efficiency of these actions is measured. We constructed a taxonomy or list of actions which together describe the complete surgical procedure. In the taxonomy we categorised the procedure in 5 different Goal Oriented Phases (GOP): 1. the incision phase 2. the femoral phase 3. the acetabulum phase 4. the stem phase 5. the closure pase Each GOP was subdivided in Goal Oriented Actions (GOA) and each GOA is subdivided in Separate Actions (SA) thereby defining all the necessary actions to complete the procedure. We grouped the SAs into GOAs since it would not be feasible to measure each SA. Using the video recordings, the duration of each GOA was recorded as well as the amount of delay. Delay consists of repetitions, waiting and additional actions. The nett GOA time is the total GOA time – delay and is a representation of the level of difficulty of each procedure. Efficiency is the percentage of nett GOA time during each procedure. Discussion This allows the construction of individual learning curves, assessment of the final skill level for each surgeon and comparison of different surgeons prior to participation in an RCT. We believe an objective and comparable assessment of skill

  11. NITARP: Effects on Student Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Odden, Caroline; Hall, Garrison; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    NITARP (NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program) is a teacher mentorship program designed to give educators experiences in authentic research in the area of astronomy. While the main focus of the program is aimed at giving educators experience working with and publishing scientific research, teachers are encouraged to involve students with the experience. NITARP funds up to two students to travel along with the educator while allowing an additional two students to attend but with no additional financial assistance. Teachers are welcome to have more student participants but no more than 4 may travel with the teacher to Caltech and the AAS meeting. Given that the focus of the NITARP program is on the educators, little is known about the effects of the program on the student participants other than anecdotal evidence. In order to better understand the impact on the students, we have designed a survey to be administered to past student participants. The survey was constructed with a goal to determine if the NITARP experience had an impact on students' views of science and influenced their educational paths. While the NITARP project has assembled some evidence of the impact on students, this is the first formal attempt to capture that impact. This poster will present the results of that survey.

  12. No association between level of vitamin D and chronic low back pain in Swedish primary care: a cross-sectional case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Thörneby, Andreas; Nordeman, Lena Margareta; Johanson, Else Hellebö

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assessment of vitamin D levels and deficiency status in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) in a Swedish general population, compared with controls matched for sex and age. Design Cross-sectional case-control study. Setting Primary care, southern Sweden. Subjects Participants (n = 44) with self-reported low back pain for at least 3 months and individually sex- and age-matched controls without a chronic pain condition (n = 44), recruited from the general population by random letter of invitation. Main outcome measure Association between vitamin D level and CLBP when adjusting for possible confounders in a multivariate forward conditional logistic regression model. Results Mean S-25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 81 and 80 nmol/L in the CLBP and control group, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low and similar in the CLBP group and the control group. Vitamin D level was not associated with CLBP when potential confounders were taken into account. Conclusions No difference in vitamin D levels between participants with CLBP and matched controls could be demonstrated in the present sample. Assessment of vitamin D level and deficiency status may be of questionable value in the management of CLBP in primary care settings at similar latitudes, unless there are additional risk factors for deficiency or specific indicators of osteomalacia. Key pointsVitamin D deficiency is common and reported in many chronic pain conditions, including chronic low back pain (CLBP), but evidence for an association and causality is insufficient.• The present study found no association between vitamin D levels and CLBP in a case-control sample of 44 + 44 individuals from the Swedish general population.• Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low and comparable in individuals with CLBP and controls without chronic pain, matched for sex and age.• Assessment of vitamin D status, for the purpose of finding and treating an underlying

  13. 40 CFR 280.210 - Participation in management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the unexercised right to control UST or UST system operations. A holder is participating in the management of the UST or UST system only if the holder either: (i) Exercises decisionmaking control over the... access to the UST, UST system, UST facility, and property on which the UST or UST system is...

  14. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies. (a) Civil agencies or individuals may be invited to board meetings as observers, witnesses or to...

  15. 40 CFR 280.210 - Participation in management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., operations manager, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer. Financial or administrative aspects..., 1995, the holder is engaging in decisionmaking control of, or activities related to, operation of the... participation by the holder in the management or control of decisionmaking related to the operation of an UST...

  16. 40 CFR 280.210 - Participation in management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., operations manager, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer. Financial or administrative aspects..., 1995, the holder is engaging in decisionmaking control of, or activities related to, operation of the... participation by the holder in the management or control of decisionmaking related to the operation of an UST...

  17. 40 CFR 280.210 - Participation in management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., operations manager, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer. Financial or administrative aspects..., 1995, the holder is engaging in decisionmaking control of, or activities related to, operation of the... participation by the holder in the management or control of decisionmaking related to the operation of an UST...

  18. 40 CFR 280.210 - Participation in management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., operations manager, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer. Financial or administrative aspects..., 1995, the holder is engaging in decisionmaking control of, or activities related to, operation of the... participation by the holder in the management or control of decisionmaking related to the operation of an UST...

  19. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.2 Program participation. A producer's initial enrollment and continued participation in the Trichinae Certification Program...

  20. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.2 Program participation. A producer's initial enrollment and continued participation in the Trichinae Certification Program...

  1. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.2 Program participation. A producer's initial enrollment and continued participation in the Trichinae Certification Program...

  2. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.2 Program participation. A producer's initial enrollment and continued participation in the Trichinae Certification Program...

  3. The Effect of Intensive Glycemic Treatment on Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetic Participants of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Genuth, Saul; Wong, Nathan D.; Detrano, Robert; Backlund, Jye-Yu C.; Zinman, Bernard; Jacobson, Alan; Sun, Wanjie; Lachin, John M.; Nathan, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, an observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) type 1 diabetes cohort, measured coronary artery calcification (CAC), an index of atherosclerosis, with computed tomography (CT) in 1,205 EDIC patients at ~7–9 years after the end of the DCCT. We examined the influence of the 6.5 years of prior conventional versus intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT, as well as the effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors, on CAC. The prevalences of CAC >0 and >200 Agatston units were 31.0 and 8.5%, respectively. Compared with the conventional treatment group, the intensive group had significantly lower geometric mean CAC scores and a lower prevalence of CAC >0 in the primary retinopathy prevention cohort, but not in the secondary intervention cohort, and a lower prevalence of CAC >200 in the combined cohorts. Waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, before or at the time of CT, were significantly associated with CAC in univariate and multivariate analyses. CAC was associated with mean HbA1c (A1C) levels before enrollment, during the DCCT, and during the EDIC study. Prior intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT was associated with less atherosclerosis, largely because of reduced levels of A1C during the DCCT. PMID:17130504

  4. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  5. Public participation in environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pilot, J.

    1998-12-31

    The need for public participation in environmental issues has grown in the past five years. The Responsible Care{reg_sign} Program, developed by the chemical industry, as well as government requirements for citizens` input into regulatory review have initiated public committees for environmental management issues. This paper will discuss three programs that have been implemented in Ontario to assist in public participation in environmental issues covering the following: 1. Great Waste Management Debate held in co-operation with Government, Boards of Trade, Industry, and Youth; 2. Public Liaison committee for Ontario`s Resource Recovery -- Waste to Energy Facility operating in the Region of Peel, the role they have played in its operation with the community; and 3. Brampton Environmental Community Advisory Panel, initiated by the Brampton Chemical Association`s need under Responsible Care for a public program to address concern related to company`s environmental issues in the community. As Chair of all three Committees, the paper will cover the benefits of the committees for public input and review of environmental issues related to environmental management.

  6. Male participation in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Robey, B; Drennan, M

    1998-01-01

    Family planning programs (FPPs) have traditionally viewed women as their main clients because it is women who become pregnant, most contraceptive methods are designed for women, and reproductive health services can be conveniently offered as part of maternal and child health services. Some FPPs have avoided serving men because they believe that women need privacy and autonomy in reproductive health matters. However, this assumption that men are not interested in taking responsibility for family planning has become a self-fulfilling prophecy. FPPs have made little effort to consider men's reproductive health needs or to reach out to men. As such, men have few contacts with the reproductive health care system. Recent survey and study findings instead suggest that many men are highly interested in family planning and other reproductive health issues, and would participate in family planning if given the chance. While some family planning programs have been interested in involving men for more than a decade, men's participation has only recently become the focus of considerable attention. One reason for this newly directed focus is growing concern over the rapid spread of HIV and the targeting of HIV prevention programs upon both men and women to an almost equal extent.

  7. APS Initiatives for Broadening Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, Theodore

    2013-03-01

    Women currently earn only about 20% of physics degrees, while African Americans and Hispanic Americans combined - representing 34% of the US population in their 20's - earn only 9% and 5-6% of the Bachelor and Doctoral degrees respectively. To address these disparities, and improve conditions for everyone who studies physics, the APS devotes significant resources to addressing these concerns and to enabling individuals and groups to work with the APS to advance these goals. In this presentation, I will outline several of our most significant programs, give data that informs decisions to adopt programs, and describe current plans. Included in this is the new APS Bridge Program (www.APSBridgeProgram.org) for increasing underrepresented minority participation at the PhD level, the APS Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics (go.aps.org/cuwip), and the APS Minority Scholars Program (www.MinoritiesInPhysics.org). Please bring your ideas and concerns for how we might improve participation for all.

  8. Participation in European water policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

    This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need a high level of participation. In this interactive approach, visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions to perceived problems of different societal actors can be identified and incorporated into the decision-making process. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and associations of house owners, but also individual citizens often have various and differing ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well-organised interaction has two main potential advantages: The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of people involved and their different views are taken into consideration. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. By means of two examples of water related policy issues in Europe, i.e. economic approaches in the water framework directive and Integrated Product Policy, various opportunities for pluralistic as well as corporatist types of participation in modern water management are presented and discussed.

  9. [Participative health diagnosis in Cotacachi].

    PubMed

    Buitron, M; Velasco, N

    1997-09-01

    Social participation may be understood as a process in which the population itself assumes responsibility for identifying, carrying out, and evaluating actions necessary for solving problems. The Ecuadorian canton of Cotacachi, under the guidance of the mayor, created mechanisms for identifying and resolving problems through collective work. Assemblies were held in September and October 1996 in the canton and zone to discuss problems. Health problems identified by participants included toxic effects of pesticides used by flower plantations, absence of environmental protection, lack of health education, and poor medical attention. The community proposed a series of solutions: educational programs, potable water and sewage services, municipal ordinances, and an inter-institutional committee. The Intersectorial Health Committee of Cotacachi was formed in December 1996 and immediately formed a Diagnostic Commission consisting of representatives of the health and educational sectors, the local peasant syndicate, and other organizations, with technical assistance from Cepar. The representatives made available the information on Cotacachi from their organizations, but the Commission concluded that existing information was incomplete and failed to reflect the viewpoints of the local community. A survey was planned to fill in the gaps. Community members were trained as interviewers for the survey, which was based on the problems identified by community members. The organizations provided logistical assistance and conducted a campaign to explain the survey to the population and request cooperation. The results will serve as the basis for proposing solutions once data processing is complete.

  10. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  11. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  12. 7 CFR 1940.954 - State participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State participation. 1940.954 Section 1940.954....954 State participation. (a) Application. If a State desires to participate in this pilot program, the... 424.1: (1) A narrative signed by the Governor including reasons for State participation in...

  13. A case control study of environmental and occupational exposures associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in patients admitted to a rural tertiary care hospital in a high density swine region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distinct strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been identified on livestock and livestock workers. Industrial food animal production may be an important environmental reservoir for human carriage of these pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate environmental and occupational exposures associated with nasal carriage of MRSA in patients hospitalized at Vidant Medical Center, a tertiary hospital serving a region with intensive livestock production in eastern North Carolina. Methods MRSA nasal carriage was identified via nasal swabs collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. MRSA carriers (cases) were gender and age matched to non-carriers (controls). Participants were interviewed about recent environmental and occupational exposures. Home addresses were geocoded and publicly available data were used to estimate the density of swine in residential census block groups of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Presence of the scn gene in MRSA isolates was assessed. In addition, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates was performed, and the Diversilab® system was used to match the isolates to USA pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. Results From July - December 2011, 117 cases and 119 controls were enrolled. A higher proportion of controls than cases were current workforce members (41.2% vs. 31.6%) Cases had a higher odds of living in census block groups with medium densities of swine (OR: 4.76, 95% CI: 1.36-16.69) and of reporting the ability to smell odor from a farm with animals when they were home (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80-2.86). Of 49 culture positive MRSA isolates, all were scn positive. Twenty-two isolates belonged to clonal complex 5. Conclusions Absence of livestock workers in this study precluded evaluation of occupational exposures. Higher odds of MRSA in medium swine density

  14. Predicting scientists' participation in public life.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities.

  15. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  16. Disentangling Public Participation In Science and Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article provides a framework for disentangling the concept of participation, with emphasis on participation in genomic medicine. We have derived seven ‘dimensions’ of participation that are most frequently invoked in the extensive, heterogeneous literature on participation. To exemplify these dimensions, we use material from a database of 102 contemporary cases of participation, and focus here on cases specific to science and medicine. We describe the stakes of public participation in biomedical research, with a focus on genomic medicine and lay out the seven dimensions. Discussion We single out five cases of participation that have particular relevance to the field of genomic medicine, we apply the seven dimensions to show how we can differentiate among forms of participation within this domain. Summary We conclude with some provocations to researchers and some recommendations for taking variation in participation more seriously. PMID:24479693

  17. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  18. 77 FR 50757 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Visitor Program Participant Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Visitor Program Participant Survey--Summer Work... Collection: Exchange Visitor Program Participant Survey--Summer Work Travel Program. OMB Control Number: None.... Form Number: SV 2012-0004. Respondents: Exchange Visitor Program participants in the Summer Work...

  19. 78 FR 13141 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Visitor Program Participant Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Visitor Program Participant Survey--Summer Work... Participant Survey--Summer Work Travel Program. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection...: Exchange Visitor Program participants in the Summer Work Travel category. Estimated Number of...

  20. Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W F

    2001-05-01

    A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process.

  1. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  2. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  3. Research Participation Among Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among older adults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others. PMID:19692549

  4. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    PubMed

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  5. 34 CFR 200.65 - Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... families of participating private school children. 200.65 Section 200.65 Education Regulations of the... Determining equitable participation of teachers and families of participating private school children. (a)(1... LEA shall ensure that teachers and families of participating private school children participate on...

  6. 42 CFR 425.306 - Participation agreement and exclusivity of ACO participant TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participant TINs. 425.306 Section 425.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... participant TINs. (a) For purposes of the Shared Savings Program, each ACO participant TIN is required to commit to a participation agreement with CMS. (b) Each ACO participant TIN upon which...

  7. 42 CFR 425.306 - Participation agreement and exclusivity of ACO participant TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participant TINs. 425.306 Section 425.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... participant TINs. (a) For purposes of the Shared Savings Program, each ACO participant TIN is required to commit to a participation agreement with CMS. (b) Each ACO participant TIN upon which...

  8. 42 CFR 425.306 - Participation agreement and exclusivity of ACO participant TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participant TINs. 425.306 Section 425.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... participant TINs. (a) For purposes of the Shared Savings Program, each ACO participant TIN is required to commit to a participation agreement with CMS. (b) Each ACO participant TIN upon which...

  9. 22 CFR 513.510 - Participants' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... principals. In addition, each participant may, but is not required to, check the Nonprocurement List for its... principals. In addition, a participant may, but is not required to, check the Nonprocurement List for...

  10. 49 CFR 1012.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the public will be admitted as observers only. Active participation, as by asking questions or... 49 CFR part 1116. ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 1012.4 Section...

  11. 32 CFR 37.1320 - Participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1320 Participant. A consortium...-profit participant may be a firm or a segment of a firm (e.g., a division or other business unit)....

  12. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer flocks... of subpart B of this part. (b) Commercial table-egg laying premises with fewer than 75,000 birds...

  13. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer flocks... of subpart B of this part. (b) Commercial table-egg laying premises with fewer than 75,000 birds...

  14. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer flocks... of subpart B of this part. (b) Commercial table-egg laying premises with fewer than 75,000 birds...

  15. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer flocks... of subpart B of this part. (b) Commercial table-egg laying premises with fewer than 75,000 birds...

  16. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  17. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  18. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  19. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  20. 9 CFR 145.42 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.42 Participation. (a) Participating turkey flocks, and the eggs...

  1. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clarissa B.; Medeiros, Ítalo R. T.; Greters, Mario G.; Frota, Norberto A. F.; Tavares Lucato, Leandro; Scaff, Milberto; Conforto, Adriana B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Impairments in balance can be a consequence of changes in the motor, sensory, and integrative aspects of motor control. Abnormal sensory reweighting, i.e., the ability to select the most appropriate sensory information to achieve postural stability, may contribute to balance impairment. The Sensory Organization Test is a component of Computerized Dynamic Posturography that evaluates the impact of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs, as well as sensory reweighting, under conditions of sensory conflict. The aim of this study is to compare balance control in hemiparetic patients during the first year post-stroke and in age-matched neurologically normal subjects using the Berg Balance Scale and Computerized Dynamic Posturography. METHODS: We compared the Berg Balance Scale and Sensory Organization Test scores in 21 patients with hemiparesis after first-ever ischemic stroke and in 21 age-matched, neurologically normal subjects. An equilibrium score was defined for each Sensory Organization Test condition. RESULTS: Berg Balance Scale scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects. Equilibrium scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects for those Sensory Organization Test conditions that did not provide appropriate somatosensory information and under conditions of sensory conflict. A history of falls was more frequent in patients with lower equilibrium scores. CONCLUSION: During the first year after a stroke, defective sensory reweighting significantly impacts balance control in hemiparetic patients. These results are important for the planning of effective rehabilitation interventions. PMID:22189728

  2. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P<.01), LF (P<.01), VLF (P<.05), and TP (P<.01) and the nonlinear measure DFA (P<.05) were predictors of survival over a mean follow-up period of 1.9 years; other measures, including ApEn (P>.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  3. Child participation and positive youth development.

    PubMed

    Bruyere, Edmund Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how a child's right to participation in healthy relationships, experiences, and opportunities promotes positive youth development. The author identifies the substantive articles related to participation, identifies and explains the social anchors vital to promoting participation, highlights the importance of the 40 developmental assets for empowering children with the capacities necessary to assert their right to participation, and concludes by calling for a national family policy guided by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  4. 34 CFR 85.980 - Participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participant. 85.980 Section 85.980 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.980 Participant. Participant means any person who submits a proposal for or who enters into...

  5. 20 CFR 632.85 - Participant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.85 Participant limitations... other statutory limits, participation in work experience shall be limited to a maximum of 1,000 hours... limitation on work experience participation in JTPA set forth in paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Shall...

  6. 20 CFR 632.85 - Participant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.85 Participant limitations... other statutory limits, participation in work experience shall be limited to a maximum of 1,000 hours... limitation on work experience participation in JTPA set forth in paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Shall...

  7. Individual and Group Credit for Class Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Cora M.; Galyon, Charles E.; Forbes, Bethany E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of cooperative groups to facilitate class-wide participation, especially for initially low participants. Undergraduates from three sections of a relatively large educational psychology course recorded their class participation in all course units. Four of the five units in each section offered either…

  8. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan participations. 614.4330 Section 614.4330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation...

  9. Child Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…

  10. 49 CFR 511.17 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 511.17 Section 511.17... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Pleadings; Form; Execution; Service of Documents § 511.17 Public participation. Participant Status. Any person interested in a proceeding...

  11. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  12. Youth Participation: A Concept Paper. RFY Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, Bruce

    The document establishes the need for a nationwide youth participation program and suggest strategies and problems in implementing such programs. Youth participation provides a means for young people to be released from their isolation from the rest of society by providing the opportunity for participation in socially productive activities. The…

  13. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  14. 5 CFR 1651.8 - Participant's estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participant's estate. 1651.8 Section 1651... Participant's estate. If the account is to be paid to the duly appointed executor or administrator of the participant's estate under § 1651.2(a)(5), the following rules apply: (a) Appointment by court. The...

  15. 24 CFR 1003.604 - Citizen participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation. 1003.604... Requirements § 1003.604 Citizen participation. (a) In order to permit residents of Indian tribes and Alaska.... Meetings shall be scheduled in ways and at times that will allow participation by residents. (3)...

  16. Research would not be possible without participants.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Peters, Kath

    2016-09-01

    Research would not be possible without participants. While this may seem like an obvious statement, all too often researchers underestimate the importance of the participants in their work, and the impact that researcher relationships can have on participation and data quality. PMID:27641698

  17. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  18. Women's Participation in Academic Conferences in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Devorah

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the participation of women in academic conferences in Israel, a country in which women are under-represented in academia vertically and horizontally. Data were retrieved from announcements of academic conferences in Israel, for one academic year, covering 56 conferences that attracted 997 participants. Participation was…

  19. 34 CFR 686.4 - Institutional participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Scope, Purpose, and General Definitions § 686.4 Institutional participation. (a) A TEACH Grant-eligible institution that offers one or more TEACH Grant-eligible programs may elect to participate in the TEACH Grant program. (b) If an institution begins participation in the TEACH Grant...

  20. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan: knowledge, attitude and practice case-control survey.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, M; Elsony, A; Aro, A R

    2014-03-13

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population.

  1. Participation of ethylene in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M.; Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    In shoots of many plants, of which tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an example, ethylene production is substantially increased during gravitropism. As a first step toward elucidating the role of ethylene in gravitropism, detailed time courses of ethylene production in isolated hypocotyl segments and whole plants were measured for gravistimulated and upright tomato seedlings. In the first experiment, seedlings were set upright or laid horizontal and then, at 15 min intervals, sets of hypocotyls were excised and sealed into gas tight vials. A steady long term rise in ethylene production begins after 15 min gravistimulation. It is possible that this increase is a consequence of the accumulation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the lower tissue of the hypocotyle. In a second kind of experiment, whole seedlings were enclosed in sealed chambers and air samples were withdrawn at 5 min intervals. Stimulated seedlings produced more ethylene than controls during the first 5 min interval, but not appreciably more during the second. This suggests the possibility that the ethylene production induced during the first 5 min occurs immediately rather than after a lag, and thus much too soon to be controlled by redistribution of IAA.

  2. 38 CFR 17.605 - Selection of participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... full-time scholarship under these regulations for a period of from 1 to 4 school years and a participant of a part-time scholarship for a period of 1 to 6 school years. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 7612(c)(1)(A.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 7603(d)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  3. Student Voice: Student Choice and Participation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherif, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary students frequently disengage from participating in physical education and physical activity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 60 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity per day, as well as muscle and bone strengthening activities on three or more days a week for children (CDC, n.d.). Physical education may be…

  4. 42 CFR 482.13 - Condition of participation: Patient's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Patient's rights. 482.13 Section 482.13 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Quality Control Quality Improvement Organization. At a minimum: (i) The hospital must establish a...

  5. Conceptions of Childhood and Parent Participation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.

    The study identifies two cultural sources of motivation for parental participation in the educational lives of their children -- socio-economic sentiments and age norms. Focusing principally on the latter, the thesis is that family responsibility for socialization and social control of youth to the status of child influences the quality and…

  6. 48 CFR 919.7006 - Incentives for DOE contractor participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives for DOE....7006 Incentives for DOE contractor participation. (a) Under cost-plus-award fee contracts, approved... and small business concerns owned and controlled by service disabled veterans. DOE may evaluate...

  7. Student Participation in Rover Field Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, C. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Nelson, S. V.; Sherman, D. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    The LAPIS program was developed in 1999 as part of the Athena Science Payload education and public outreach, funded by the JPL Mars Program Office. For the past three years, the Athena Science Team has been preparing for 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission operations using the JPL prototype Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover in extended rover field trials. Students and teachers participating in LAPIS work with them each year to develop a complementary mission plan and implement an actual portion of the annual tests using FIDO and its instruments. LAPIS is designed to mirror an end-to-end mission: Small, geographically distributed groups of students form an integrated mission team, working together with Athena Science Team members and FIDO engineers to plan, implement, and archive a two-day test mission, controlling FIDO remotely over the Internet using the Web Interface for Telescience (WITS) and communicating with each other by email, the web, and teleconferences. The overarching goal of LAPIS is to get students excited about science and related fields. The program provides students with the opportunity to apply knowledge learned in school, such as geometry and geology, to a "real world" situation and to explore careers in science and engineering through continuous one-on-one interactions with teachers, Athena Science Team mentors, and FIDO engineers. A secondary goal is to help students develop improved communication skills and appreciation of teamwork, enhanced problem-solving skills, and increased self-confidence. The LAPIS program will provide a model for outreach associated with future FIDO field trials and the 2003 Mars mission operations. The base of participation will be broadened beyond the original four sites by taking advantage of the wide geographic distribution of Athena team member locations. This will provide greater numbers of students with the opportunity to actively engage in rover testing and to explore the possibilities of

  8. Inhibition control and working memory capacity in children with SLI

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Kelmenson, Lyudmyla; Pinkhasova, Milana

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the “inefficient inhibition hypothesis” (IIH; Bjorklund & Harnishfeger, 1990; Wilson & Kipp, 1998) in three groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), age-matched and language-matched controls. The IIH suggests that individuals with efficient inhibition skills perform better on working memory tasks because they are able to keep out irrelevant information from working memory. Children with SLI show processing capacity limitations. This study examined whether the working memory limitations are impacted by inhibition problems in this population. Working memory capacity was measured with a listening span task and children’s inhibition errors were categorized. These errors reflected either immediate or delayed inhibition problems and they indicated either contextual distractions or perseverations. Children with SLI produced more inhibition errors than their peers in most categories. The results show an association between inhibition control and working memory capacity, but the direction of causality is not clear. PMID:18545677

  9. Deliberative public participation and hexachlorobenzene stockpiles.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lyn

    2009-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the quality of citizen involvement in relation to the governance of industrial risks. Specifically, it explores the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) case relative to best practice public participation, which is consistent with deliberative democratic theory. The case could be judged a public participation failure given that the community committee in combination with the corporate sponsor was unable to agree on a mutually acceptable technological pathway. This stalemate might have been attributable in part to the time spent on the task of review. A diligent participation working party could have created a much more effective public participation plan, grounded in the core values of professional public participation practice. PMID:18774216

  10. The correlates of sports participation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando; Rasciute, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Eurobarometer data from 2009 (N = 26,788), this paper investigates the correlates of sports participation. In addition to examining standard socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors, the paper also focuses on the impact of motivational factors, the availability of sports infrastructure and government support, for the first time collectively at the European level. A further contribution of the paper is that it simultaneously investigates both the decision to participate in sport and the frequency of sports participation in this context. This is made possible through the application of a Zero-Inflated Ordered Probit estimator. This estimator also takes into account two types of non-participants: those who have never participated in sport and those who did not participate at the time of the survey. The results show that the decision to participate in sports and the frequency of sports participation of males and females are affected by different factors, therefore distinct government policies should be applied to attract new, and retain the existing, participants. For example, women are affected more by a need to improve self-esteem, while the men to produce social integration. The provision of sports facilities is of more importance for males, which may indicate a male-oriented nature of the sports facilities, for example, the gym. However, the number of adults and the number of children in the household reduce the probability of sports participation by females. Therefore, higher provision of childcare may be important if female participation is to be increased.

  11. Barriers to Medicaid Participation among Florida Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta L.; Catalanotto, Frank; Guo, Yi; Marks, John; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2015-01-01

    Background Finding dentists who treat Medicaid-enrolled children is a struggle for many parents. The purpose of this study was to identify non-reimbursement factors that influence the decision by dentists about whether or not to participate in the Medicaid program in Florida. Methods Data from a mailed survey was analyzed using a logistic regression model to test the association of Medicaid participation with the Perceived Barriers and Social Responsibility variables. Results General and pediatric dentists (n=882) who identified themselves as either Medicaid (14%) or Non-Medicaid (86%) participants responded. Five items emerged as significant predictors of Medicaid participation, with a final concordance index of 0.905. Two previously unreported barriers to participation in Medicaid emerged: 1) dentists’ perception of social stigma from other dentists for participating in Medicaid, and 2) the lack of specialists to whom Medicaid patients can be referred. Conclusions This study provides new information about non-reimbursement barriers to Medicaid participation. PMID:25702734

  12. Research participants' attitudes towards the confidentiality of genomic sequence information.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Leila; Sapp, Julie C; Lewis, Katie; Yanes, Tatiane; Facio, Flavia M; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2014-08-01

    Respecting the confidentiality of personal data contributed to genomic studies is an important issue for researchers using genomic sequencing in humans. Although most studies adhere to rules of confidentiality, there are different conceptions of confidentiality and why it is important. The resulting ambiguity obscures what is at stake when making tradeoffs between data protection and other goals in research, such as transparency, reciprocity, and public benefit. Few studies have examined why participants in genomic research care about how their information is used. To explore this topic, we conducted semi-structured phone interviews with 30 participants in two National Institutes of Health research protocols using genomic sequencing. Our results show that research participants value confidentiality as a form of control over information about themselves. To the individuals we interviewed, control was valued as a safeguard against discrimination in a climate of uncertainty about future uses of individual genome data. Attitudes towards data sharing were related to the goals of research and details of participants' personal lives. Expectations of confidentiality, trust in researchers, and a desire to advance science were common reasons for willingness to share identifiable data with investigators. Nearly, all participants were comfortable sharing personal data that had been de-identified. These findings suggest that views about confidentiality and data sharing are highly nuanced and are related to the perceived benefits of joining a research study.

  13. Preliminary development and validation of an Australian community participation questionnaire: types of participation and associations with distress in a coastal community.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen Louise; Rodgers, Bryan; Dear, Keith B G

    2007-04-01

    Participating in the social and civic life of communities is protectively associated with the onset and course of physical and mental disorders, and is considered important in achieving health promotion goals. Despite its importance in health research, there is no systematically developed measure of community participation. Our aim was to undertake the preliminary development of a community participation questionnaire, including validating it against an external reference, general psychological distress. Participants were 963 randomly selected community members, aged 19-97, from coastal New South Wales, Australia, who completed an anonymous postal survey. There were 14 types of community participation, most of which were characterised by personal involvement, initiative and effort. Frequency of participation varied across types and between women and men. Based on multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic factors, nine types of participation were independently and significantly associated with general psychological distress. Unexpectedly, for two of these, "expressing opinions publicly" and "political protest", higher levels of participation were associated with higher levels of distress. The other seven were: contact with immediate household, extended family, friends, and neighbours; participating in organised community activities; taking an active interest in current affairs; and religious observance. We called these the "Big 7". Higher levels of participation in the Big 7 were associated with lower levels of distress. Participating in an increasing number of the Big 7 types of participation was strongly associated in linear fashion with decreasing distress. PMID:17241727

  14. Lighting Needs and Lighting Comfort During Reading with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosse, Per; Valberg, Arne

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of changes in luminance on the oral reading speeds of 13 participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a control group of six age-matched persons with typical vision. For the AMD participants, self-reports of light preferences were also recorded. In the AMD group, reading rates depended on light…

  15. Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., "carrot-parrot") and cohort (e.g., "beaker-beetle") competitors. Broca's aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A re-analysis of previously reported data (Yee,…

  16. Assessing the Utility of a Virtual Environment for Enhancing Facial Affect Recognition in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekele, Esubalew; Crittendon, Julie; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched controls participated in a dynamic facial affect recognition task within a virtual reality (VR) environment. Participants identified the emotion of a facial expression displayed at varied levels of intensity by a computer generated avatar. The system assessed performance (i.e.,…

  17. Community size and sport participation across 22 countries.

    PubMed

    Balish, S M; Rainham, D; Blanchard, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine, across 22 countries, the association between community size and individual sport, team sport, and exercise participation. Hierarchal non-linear Bernoulli modeling is used to examine the association between community size (100,000-10,000; <10,000) and (a) individual sport, (b) team sport, and (c) exercise participation. After controlling for country-level clustering and demographic variables, those residing a community with between 100,000 and 10,000 residents are more likely to participate in individual sport [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.23] while residing in a community with less than 10,000 residents is unrelated (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.96-1.19). Those residing in communities with between 100,000 and 10,000 residents were more likely to participate in team sport (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.01-1.45) while residing in a community with less than 10,000 residents is unrelated (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.88-1.18). Residing in a community with between 100,000 and 10,000 residents is unrelated to exercise participation (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.89-1.7), while residing in a community with less than 10,000 residents is negatively related to exercise participation (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.93). These findings provide novel evidence that communities between 100,000 and 10,000 residents are related to increased sport participation, particularly team sport participation. PMID:25487738

  18. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  19. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  20. Community size and sport participation across 22 countries.

    PubMed

    Balish, S M; Rainham, D; Blanchard, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine, across 22 countries, the association between community size and individual sport, team sport, and exercise participation. Hierarchal non-linear Bernoulli modeling is used to examine the association between community size (100,000-10,000; <10,000) and (a) individual sport, (b) team sport, and (c) exercise participation. After controlling for country-level clustering and demographic variables, those residing a community with between 100,000 and 10,000 residents are more likely to participate in individual sport [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.23] while residing in a community with less than 10,000 residents is unrelated (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.96-1.19). Those residing in communities with between 100,000 and 10,000 residents were more likely to participate in team sport (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.01-1.45) while residing in a community with less than 10,000 residents is unrelated (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.88-1.18). Residing in a community with between 100,000 and 10,000 residents is unrelated to exercise participation (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.89-1.7), while residing in a community with less than 10,000 residents is negatively related to exercise participation (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.93). These findings provide novel evidence that communities between 100,000 and 10,000 residents are related to increased sport participation, particularly team sport participation.

  1. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  2. Critical consciousness development and political participation among marginalized youth.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Matthew A; Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Given associations between critical consciousness and positive developmental outcomes, and given racial, socioeconomic, and generational disparities in political participation, this article examined contextual antecedents of critical consciousness (composed of sociopolitical control and social action) and its consequences for 665 marginalized youth's (ages 15-25) voting behavior. A multiple indicator and multiple causes (MIMIC) model examined racial, ethnic, and age differences in the measurement and means of latent constructs. The structural model suggested that parental and peer sociopolitical support predicts sociopolitical control and social action, which in turn predicts voting behavior, while controlling for civic and political knowledge, race/ethnicity, and age. This illuminates how micro-level actors foster critical consciousness and how the perceived capacity to effect social change and social action participation may redress voting disparities. PMID:21954896

  3. 20 CFR 416.2204 - Participation by State VR agencies or alternate participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... In order to participate in the payment program under this subpart through its VR agency(ies), a State...) Participation by States. (1) The opportunity to participate through its VR agency(ies) with respect to disabled... participation of its VR agency(ies) must notify us in advance under paragraph (e)(1) of this section of...

  4. 20 CFR 404.2104 - Participation by State VR agencies or alternate participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... In order to participate in the payment program under this subpart through its VR agency(ies), a State...) Participation by States. (1) The opportunity to participate through its VR agency(ies) with respect to... participation of its VR agency(ies) must notify us in advance under paragraph (e)(1) of this section of...

  5. 20 CFR 404.2104 - Participation by State VR agencies or alternate participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... In order to participate in the payment program under this subpart through its VR agency(ies), a State...) Participation by States. (1) The opportunity to participate through its VR agency(ies) with respect to... participation of its VR agency(ies) must notify us in advance under paragraph (e)(1) of this section of...

  6. 20 CFR 404.2104 - Participation by State VR agencies or alternate participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... In order to participate in the payment program under this subpart through its VR agency(ies), a State...) Participation by States. (1) The opportunity to participate through its VR agency(ies) with respect to... participation of its VR agency(ies) must notify us in advance under paragraph (e)(1) of this section of...

  7. 20 CFR 416.2204 - Participation by State VR agencies or alternate participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... In order to participate in the payment program under this subpart through its VR agency(ies), a State...) Participation by States. (1) The opportunity to participate through its VR agency(ies) with respect to disabled... participation of its VR agency(ies) must notify us in advance under paragraph (e)(1) of this section of...

  8. 20 CFR 416.2204 - Participation by State VR agencies or alternate participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... In order to participate in the payment program under this subpart through its VR agency(ies), a State...) Participation by States. (1) The opportunity to participate through its VR agency(ies) with respect to disabled... participation of its VR agency(ies) must notify us in advance under paragraph (e)(1) of this section of...

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS) student participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladwig, A.; David, L.

    1978-01-01

    A assessment of methods which are appropriate to initiate student participation in the discussion of a satellite power system (SPS) is presented. Methods which are incorporated into the campus environment and the on-going learning experience are reported. The discussion of individual methods for student participation includes a description of the technique, followed by comments on its enhancing and limiting factors, references to situations where the method has been demonstrated, and a brief consideration of cost factors. The two categories of recommendations presented are: an outline of fourteen recommendations addressing specific activities related to student participation in the discussion of SPS, and three recommendations pertaining to student participation activities in general.

  10. Productivity enhancement planning using participative management concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. E.; Kukla, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A productivity enhancement project which used participative management for both planning and implementation is described. The process and results associated with using participative management to plan and implement a computer terminal upgrade project where the computer terminals are used by research and development (R&D) personnel are reported. The upgrade improved the productivity of R&D personnel substantially, and their commitment of the implementation is high. Successful utilization of participative management for this project has laid a foundation for continued style shift toward participation within the organization.

  11. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency...

  12. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency...

  13. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency...

  14. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency...

  15. The correlates of sports participation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando; Rasciute, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Eurobarometer data from 2009 (N = 26,788), this paper investigates the correlates of sports participation. In addition to examining standard socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors, the paper also focuses on the impact of motivational factors, the availability of sports infrastructure and government support, for the first time collectively at the European level. A further contribution of the paper is that it simultaneously investigates both the decision to participate in sport and the frequency of sports participation in this context. This is made possible through the application of a Zero-Inflated Ordered Probit estimator. This estimator also takes into account two types of non-participants: those who have never participated in sport and those who did not participate at the time of the survey. The results show that the decision to participate in sports and the frequency of sports participation of males and females are affected by different factors, therefore distinct government policies should be applied to attract new, and retain the existing, participants. For example, women are affected more by a need to improve self-esteem, while the men to produce social integration. The provision of sports facilities is of more importance for males, which may indicate a male-oriented nature of the sports facilities, for example, the gym. However, the number of adults and the number of children in the household reduce the probability of sports participation by females. Therefore, higher provision of childcare may be important if female participation is to be increased. PMID:24498937

  16. Menopause and menarche in patients with primary blepharospasm: an exploratory case-control study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Livrea, Paolo; Giorelli, Maurizio; Masi, Gianluca; Aniello, Maria Stella; Defazio, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    We studied the relationships between blepharospasm (BSP) and menopause/menarche in female patients with primary BSP (n = 83) and age-matched healthy (n = 83) and disease controls (n = 83). BSP patients and matched controls had comparable age at menopause, and there was no correlation between age at menopause and age at BSP onset. Thus, menopause probably exerts no significant influence on the age-dependent development of BSP. BSP cases tended to have a later menarche than either group of controls. The association was independent of age, disease duration and education level. Because the higher the age at menarche, the higher the age at BSP onset, later menarche was unlikely to be a risk factor for BSP. Rather, the two conditions may share pathophysiologic mechanisms, for example minor abnormality of neurotransmitter systems controlling both the motor system and the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responsible for the onset of puberty.

  17. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  18. Citizen Participation in Collaborative Watershed Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  19. 43 CFR 3183.5 - Participating area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participating area. 3183.5 Section 3183.5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Filing and Approval of Documents § 3183.5 Participating area. Two counterparts of a...

  20. 43 CFR 3183.5 - Participating area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participating area. 3183.5 Section 3183.5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Filing and Approval of Documents § 3183.5 Participating area. Two counterparts of a...

  1. 43 CFR 3183.5 - Participating area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participating area. 3183.5 Section 3183.5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Filing and Approval of Documents § 3183.5 Participating area. Two counterparts of a...

  2. 9 CFR 146.32 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.32 Participation. (a) Participating meat-type chicken slaughter... provisions of this subpart C. (b) Meat-type chicken slaughter plants that slaughter fewer than 200,000 meat-type chickens in an operating week are exempt from the special provisions of this subpart C....

  3. 34 CFR 300.322 - Parent participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parent participation. 300.322 Section 300.322 Education... Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.322 Parent participation. (a) Public agency responsibility—general. Each public agency must take steps to ensure that one or both of the parents of a child with...

  4. Children as Citizens: Literacies for Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen, in the policy arena, a broad global push for children to be treated as active participants in society rather than as the passive recipients of adult decisions and interventions. The topic of literacy learning and teaching has, however, been absent from much of the policy and literature on children's social participation.…

  5. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  6. Frail Older People as Participants in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye M.; Wilson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experience of interviewing frail older people in a research project investigating hip fracture risk factors. Specific methodological strategies to maximize participation and data quality and to facilitate the interview process related to participant inclusion criteria, initial approach, questionnaire format, and…

  7. TANF Participation Rates: Do Community Conditions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Domenico; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Grice, Steven Michael; Taquino, Michael; Gill, Duane A.

    2003-01-01

    Single mothers' participation rates in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in rural Mississippi were influenced by community-level characteristics: educational attainment, racial composition, employment structure, civic engagement, and spatial concentration of poverty. Particularly, TANF participation rates were higher in the Delta and…

  8. 7 CFR 1485.12 - Participation eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) To participate in the MAP, an entity: (1) Shall be: (i) A nonprofit U.S agricultural trade..., at least 50 percent of the total cost of such brand promotions. (b) To participate in the EIP/MAP, an... cooperative or producer association authorized by 7 U.S.C. 291, shall be a small sized entity. (c) CCC...

  9. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  10. 9 CFR 146.22 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.22 Participation. (a) Participating commercial table-egg layer flocks... of subpart B of this part. (b) Commercial table-egg laying premises with fewer than 75,000 birds...

  11. Increasing Student Participation in Science Fair Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, 22 African American middle school students in eastern North Carolina became participants in the Reach Up program to increase the number of underrepresented students participating in science-, technology-, engineering-, and mathematics-related activities. One of the goals of the program was for these students to participate…

  12. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  13. 23 CFR 777.5 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.5 Federal participation. (a) Those measures which the FHWA... and natural habitats are eligible for Federal participation where the impacts are the result of..., monitoring, and establishment of wetlands and natural habitat mitigation projects, and acquisition of land...

  14. 23 CFR 777.5 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.5 Federal participation. (a) Those measures which the FHWA... and natural habitats are eligible for Federal participation where the impacts are the result of..., monitoring, and establishment of wetlands and natural habitat mitigation projects, and acquisition of land...

  15. 23 CFR 777.5 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.5 Federal participation. (a) Those measures which the FHWA... and natural habitats are eligible for Federal participation where the impacts are the result of..., monitoring, and establishment of wetlands and natural habitat mitigation projects, and acquisition of land...

  16. 23 CFR 777.5 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.5 Federal participation. (a) Those measures which the FHWA... and natural habitats are eligible for Federal participation where the impacts are the result of..., monitoring, and establishment of wetlands and natural habitat mitigation projects, and acquisition of land...

  17. 23 CFR 777.5 - Federal participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.5 Federal participation. (a) Those measures which the FHWA... and natural habitats are eligible for Federal participation where the impacts are the result of..., monitoring, and establishment of wetlands and natural habitat mitigation projects, and acquisition of land...

  18. Occult Participation: Its Impact on Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem among 25 clinical (alcohol or drug treatment) and 25 nonclinical adolescents. Results indicated that adolescent substance abuse and occult participation were significantly related. Found significant differences between high versus low occult groups…

  19. New York's Experiment: Participation in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragaw, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports a New York State Education Department mandated government participation course. Course requirements were to examine public policy issues and to incorporate a participatory element. Describes four programs that were implemented by school districts: Effective Participation in Government Program; The Community Service Corps; National Issues…

  20. 50 CFR 37.13 - Group participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Requirements § 37.13 Group participation. (a) To avoid unnecessary... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Group participation. 37.13 Section...