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  1. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  2. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  3. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  4. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  5. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  6. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  7. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  8. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  9. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  10. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  11. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  12. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  13. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  14. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  15. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of human hippocampal tissues from Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control brains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting people over 65 years of age. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular deposits known as amyloid β plaques and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, both of which are the principal players involved in synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. Tau protein and Aβ fragment 1–42 have been investigated so far in cerebrospinal fluid as a potential AD biomarkers. However, an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers which will capture disease in the early stages and with better specificity remains. High-throughput proteomic and pathway analysis of hippocampal tissue provides a valuable source of disease-related proteins and biomarker candidates, since it represents one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Results In this study 2954 proteins were identified (with at least 2 peptides for 1203 proteins) from both control and AD brain tissues. Overall, 204 proteins were exclusively detected in AD and 600 proteins in control samples. Comparing AD and control exclusive proteins with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) literature-based proteome, 40 out of 204 AD related proteins and 106 out of 600 control related proteins were also present in CSF. As most of these proteins were extracellular/secretory origin, we consider them as a potential source of candidate biomarkers that need to be further studied and verified in CSF samples. Conclusions Our semiquantitative proteomic analysis provides one of the largest human hippocampal proteome databases. The lists of AD and control related proteins represent a panel of proteins potentially involved in AD pathogenesis and could also serve as prospective AD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:23635041

  16. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  17. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  18. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  19. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  20. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  1. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  2. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  3. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  4. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  5. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  6. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  7. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  8. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  9. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  10. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  11. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  12. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  13. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  14. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  15. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  16. Selected results for LDEF thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    Several different thermal control coatings were analyzed as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Special Investigation Group activity and as part of the Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials Experiment M0003. A brief discussion of the results obtained for these materials is presented.

  17. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  18. Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) Experiment Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Laura A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Campion, Scott D.; Faust, Jessica A.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Hayden, William L.; Lowman, Andrew E.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Petrone, Peter P., III

    2004-01-01

    The Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) was created to develop and test wavefront sensing and control algorithms and software for the segmented James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Last year, we changed the system configuration from three sparse aperture segments to a filled aperture with three pie shaped segments. With this upgrade we have performed experiments on fine phasing with line-of-sight and segment-to-segment jitter, dispersed fringe visibility and grism angle;. high dynamic range tilt sensing; coarse phasing with large aberrations, and sampled sub-aperture testing. This paper reviews the results of these experiments.

  19. 2010 Uniform biological control trials - preliminary results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because substantially reducing Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat has proven to be difficult using any one control measure, integrated control approaches are seen as the best opportunity to consistently reduce the disease. Biological control agents (BCAs), applied as a tank mix with fungicides at ...

  20. Results of 2009 uniform biological control Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the difficulty of substantially reducing Fusarium head blight of wheat with any one control measure, integrated control approaches are seen as the best opportunity to consistently reduce the disease. Biological control agents (BCA’s), applied as a part of a tank mix with fungicides at flower...

  1. Integrated restructurable flight control system demonstration results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jerold L.; Hsu, John Y.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the complementary capabilities of several restructurable flight control system (RFCS) concepts through the integration of these technologies into a complete system. Performance issues were addressed through a re-examination of RFCS functional requirements, and through a qualitative analysis of the design issues that, if properly addressed during integration, will lead to the highest possible degree of fault-tolerant performance. Software developed under previous phases of this contract and under NAS1-18004 was modified and integrated into a complete RFCS subroutine for NASA's B-737 simulation. The integration of these modules involved the development of methods for dealing with the mismatch between the outputs of the failure detection module and the input requirements of the automatic control system redesign module. The performance of this demonstration system was examined through extensive simulation trials.

  2. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  3. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic control module being developed in the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperative Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at the Stanford University Aerospace Robotics Laboratory is described. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to the strategic controller. Experimental results for a dual two-link arm robotic system are presented to verify the controllers performance, for both free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  4. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic control module of the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperating Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to higher level strategic control modules. Experimental results from a dual two-link-arm robotic system are used to compare the object impedance controller with other strategies, both for free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  5. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  6. Wastewater neutralization control based in fuzzy logic: Simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Garrido, R.; Adroer, M.; Poch, M.

    1997-05-01

    Neutralization is a technique widely used as a part of wastewater treatment processes. Due to the importance of this technique, extensive study has been devoted to its control. However, industrial wastewater neutralization control is a procedure with a lot of problems--nonlinearity of the titration curve, variable buffering, changes in loading--and despite the efforts devoted to this subject, the problem has not been totally solved. in this paper, the authors present the development of a controller based in fuzzy logic (FLC). In order to study its effectiveness, it has been compared, by simulation, with other advanced controllers (using identification techniques and adaptive control algorithms using reference models) when faced with various types of wastewater with different buffer capacity or when changes in the concentration of the acid present in the wastewater take place. Results obtained show that FLC could be considered as a powerful alternative for wastewater neutralization processes.

  7. Preliminary results on reflectance feedback control of photocoagulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jerath, M R; Chundru, R; Barrett, S F; Rylander, H G; Welch, A J

    1994-02-01

    The size of therapeutic laser-induced retinal lesions is critical for effective treatment and minimal complications. Due to tissue variability, the size of a lesion that results from a given set of laser irradiation parameters cannot be predicted. Real time feedback control of lesion size is implemented based on two-dimensional reflectance images acquired during irradiation. Preliminary results of feedback controlled lesions formed in pigmented rabbits demonstrate an ability to produce uniform lesions despite variations in tissue absorption or changes in laser power.

  8. High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.; Kerr, Laura J.; Kielb, Robert P.; Welsh, Mark G.; DeLaat, John C.; Orme, John S.

    1998-01-01

    The High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Program, managed and funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center, is a cooperative effort between NASA and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). The program objective is to develop and flight demonstrate an advanced high stability integrated engine control system that uses real-time, measurement-based estimation of inlet pressure distortion to enhance engine stability. Flight testing was performed using the NASA Advanced Controls Technologies for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The flight test configuration, details of the research objectives, and the flight test matrix to achieve those objectives are presented. Flight test results are discussed that show the design approach can accurately estimate distortion and perform real-time control actions for engine accommodation.

  9. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  10. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  11. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD.

  12. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study.

    PubMed

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  13. Acceleration and torque feedback for robotic control - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclnroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Gross motion control of robotic manipulators typically requires significant on-line computations to compensate for nonlinear dynamics due to gravity, Coriolis, centripetal, and friction nonlinearities. One controller proposed by Luo and Saridis avoids these computations by feeding back joint acceleration and torque. This study implements the controller on a Puma 600 robotic manipulator. Joint acceleration measurement is obtained by measuring linear accelerations of each joint, and deriving a computationally efficient transformation from the linear measurements to the angular accelerations. Torque feedback is obtained by using the previous torque sent to the joints. The implementation has stability problems on the Puma 600 due to the extremely high gains inherent in the feedback structure. Since these high gains excite frequency modes in the Puma 600, the algorithm is modified to decrease the gain inherent in the feedback structure. The resulting compensator is stable and insensitive to high frequency unmodeled dynamics. Moreover, a second compensator is proposed which uses acceleration and torque feedback, but still allows nonlinear terms to be fed forward. Thus, by feeding the increment in the easily calculated gravity terms forward, improved responses are obtained. Both proposed compensators are implemented, and the real time results are compared to those obtained with the computed torque algorithm.

  14. Results of the examination of LDEF polyurethane thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the condition of polyurethane thermal control coatings subjected to 69 months of low earth orbit (LEO) exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. Specimens representing all environmental aspects obtainable by LDEF were analyzed. Widely varying changes in the thermo-optical and mechanical properties of these materials were observed, depending on atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation fluences. High atomic oxygen fluences, regardless of ultraviolet radiation exposure levels, resulted in near original optical properties for these coatings but with a degradation in their mechanical condition. A trend in solar absorptance increase with ultraviolet radiation fluence was observed. Contamination, though observed, exhibited minimal effects.

  15. Results of telerobotic hand controller study using force information and rate control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, Kelli F.; Harrison, F. W.; Hogge, Edward F.; Williams, Robert L.; Soloway, Donald

    1992-01-01

    To increase quantified information about the effectiveness and subjective workload of force information relayed through manipulator input control devices, a space related task was performed by eight subjects with kinesthetic force feedback and/or local force accommodation through three different input control devices (i.e., hand controllers) operating in rate control mode. Task completion time, manipulator work, and subjective responses were measured. Results indicated a difference among the hand controllers. For the Honeywell six degree-of-freedom hand controller, the overall task completion times were shortest, the amount of work exerted was the least, and was the most preferred by test subjects. Neither force accommodation with or without reflection resulted in shorter task completion times or reduced work although those conditions were better than no force information for some aspects. Comparisons of results from previous studies are discussed.

  16. High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC): Flight Demonstration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, John C.; Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.; Orme, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Future aircraft turbine engines, both commercial and military, must be able to accommodate expected increased levels of steady-state and dynamic engine-face distortion. The current approach of incorporating sufficient design stall margin to tolerate these increased levels of distortion would significantly reduce performance. The High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) program has developed technologies for an advanced, integrated engine control system that uses measurement- based estimates of distortion to enhance engine stability. The resulting distortion tolerant control reduces the required design stall margin, with a corresponding increase in performance and/or decrease in fuel burn. The HISTEC concept was successfully flight demonstrated on the F-15 ACTIVE aircraft during the summer of 1997. The flight demonstration was planned and carried out in two parts, the first to show distortion estimation, and the second to show distortion accommodation. Post-flight analysis shows that the HISTEC technologies are able to successfully estimate and accommodate distortion, transiently setting the stall margin requirement on-line and in real-time. Flight demonstration of the HISTEC technologies has significantly reduced the risk of transitioning the technology to tactical and commercial engines.

  17. Melanoma and occupation: results of a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, L; Siemiatycki, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations between occupational exposures and the occurrence of cutaneous melanoma were examined as part of a large population based case-control study of 19 cancer sites. METHODS: Cases were men aged 35 to 70 years old, resident in Montreal, Canada, with a new histologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma (n = 103). There were two control groups, a randomly selected population control group (n = 533), and a cancer control group (n = 533) randomly selected from among subjects with other types of cancer in the large study. Odds ratios for the occurrence of melanoma were calculated for each exposure circumstance for which there were more than four exposed cases (85 substances, 13 occupations, and 20 industries) adjusting for age, ethnicity, and number of years of schooling. RESULTS: Significantly increased risk of melanoma was found for exposure to four substances (fabric dust, plastic dust, trichloroethylene, and a group containing paints used on surfaces other than metal and varnishes used on surfaces other than wood), three occupations (warehouse clerks, salesmen, and miners and quarrymen), and two industries (clothing and non-metallic mineral products). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the occupational circumstances examined were not associated with melanoma, nor is there any strong evidence from previous research that any of those are risk factors. For the few occupational circumstances which were associated in our data with melanoma, the statistical evidence was weak, and there is little or no supporting evidence in the scientific literature. On the whole, there is no persuasive evidence of occupational risk factors for melanoma, but the studies have been too small or have involved too much misclassification of exposure for this conclusion to be definitive. PMID:8704857

  18. Kinematics, controls, and path planning results for a redundant manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gretz, Bruce; Tilley, Scott W.

    1989-01-01

    The inverse kinematics solution, a modal position control algorithm, and path planning results for a 7 degree of freedom manipulator are presented. The redundant arm consists of two links with shoulder and elbow joints and a spherical wrist. The inverse kinematics problem for tip position is solved and the redundant joint is identified. It is also shown that a locus of tip positions exists in which there are kinematic limitations on self-motion. A computationally simple modal position control algorithm has been developed which guarantees a nearly constant closed-loop dynamic response throughout the workspace. If all closed-loop poles are assigned to the same location, the algorithm can be implemented with very little computation. To further reduce the required computation, the modal gains are updated only at discrete time intervals. Criteria are developed for the frequency of these updates. For commanding manipulator movements, a 5th-order spline which minimizes jerk provides a smooth tip-space path. Schemes for deriving a corresponding joint-space trajectory are discussed. Modifying the trajectory to avoid joint torque saturation when a tip payload is added is also considered. Simulation results are presented.

  19. A fuzzy logic based spacecraft controller for six degree of freedom control and performance results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Hoblit, Jeffrey; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    The development philosophy of the fuzzy logic controller is explained, details of the rules and membership functions used are given, and the early results of testing of the control system for a representative range of scenarios are reported. The fuzzy attitude controller was found capable of performing all rotational maneuvers, including rate hold and rate maneuvers. It handles all orbital perturbations very efficiently and is very responsive in correcting errors.

  20. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  1. Development of ADOCS controllers and control laws. Volume 3: Simulation results and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Kenneth H.; Glusman, Steven I.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Controls/Advanced Flight Control System (ACC/AFCS) study was conducted by the Boeing Vertol Company as part of the Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) program. Specifically, the ACC/AFCS investigation was aimed at developing the flight control laws for the ADOCS demonstator aircraft which will provide satisfactory handling qualities for an attack helicopter mission. The three major elements of design considered are as follows: Pilot's integrated Side-Stick Controller (SSC) -- Number of axes controlled; force/displacement characteristics; ergonomic design. Stability and Control Augmentation System (SCAS)--Digital flight control laws for the various mission phases; SCAS mode switching logic. Pilot's Displays--For night/adverse weather conditions, the dynamics of the superimposed symbology presented to the pilot in a format similar to the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) Pilot Night Vision System (PNVS) for each mission phase is a function of SCAS characteristics; display mode switching logic. Results of the five piloted simulations conducted at the Boeing Vertol and NASA-Ames simulation facilities are presented in Volume 3. Conclusions drawn from analysis of pilot rating data and commentary were used to formulate recommendations for the ADOCS demonstrator flight control system design. The ACC/AFCS simulation data also provide an extensive data base to aid the development of advanced flight control system design for future V/STOL aircraft.

  2. Adaptive environmental control for optimal results during plant microgravity experiments.

    PubMed

    Kostov, P; Ivanova, T; Dandolov, I; Sapunova, S; Ilieva, I

    2002-01-01

    The SVET Space Greenhouse (SG)--the first and the only automated plant growth facility onboard the MIR Space Station in the period 1990-2000 was developed on a Russian-Bulgarian Project in the 80s. The aim was to study plant growth under microgravity in order to include plants as a link of future Biological Life Support Systems for the long-term manned space missions. An American developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS) was added to the existing SVET SG equipment in 1995 to monitor more environmental and physiological parameters. A lot of long-duration plant flight experiments were carried out in the SVET+GEMS. They led to significant results in the Fundamental Gravitational Biology field--second-generation wheat seeds were produced in the conditions of microgravity. The new International Space Station (ISS) will provide a perfect opportunity for conducting full life cycle plant experiments in microgravity, including measurement of more vital plant parameters, during the next 15-20 years. Nowadays plant growth facilities for scientific research based on the SVET SG functional principles are developed for the ISS by different countries (Russia, USA, Italy, Japan, etc.). A new Concept for an advanced SVET-3 Space Greenhouse for the ISS, based on the Bulgarian experience and "know-how" is described. The absolute and differential plant chamber air parameters and some plant physiological parameters are measured and processed in real time. Using the transpiration and photosynthesis measurement data the Control Unit evaluates the plant status and performs adaptive environmental control in order to provide the most favorable conditions for plant growth at every stage of plant development in experiments. A conceptual block-diagram of the SVET-3 SG is presented.

  3. Two Mechanisms to Avoid Control Conflicts Resulting from Uncoordinated Intent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Wagner, David A.; Bennett, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a real-time access control protocol that is intended to make all connected users aware of the presence of other connected users, and which of them is currently in control of the system. Here, "in control" means that a single user is authorized and enabled to issue instructions to the system. The software The software also implements a goal scheduling mechanism that can detect situations where plans for the operation of a target system proposed by different users overlap and interact in conflicting ways. In such situations, the system can either simply report the conflict (rejecting one goal or the entire plan), or reschedule the goals in a way that does not conflict. The access control mechanism (and associated control protocol) is unique. Other access control mechanisms are generally intended to authenticate users, or exclude unauthorized access. This software does neither, and would likely depend on having some other mechanism to support those requirements.

  4. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATIN CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. This energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft re...

  5. Construction of a WMR for trajectory tracking control: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ortigoza, R; Márquez-Sánchez, C; Marcelino-Aranda, M; Marciano-Melchor, M; Silva-Ortigoza, G; Bautista-Quintero, R; Ramos-Silvestre, E R; Rivera-Díaz, J C; Muñoz-Carrillo, D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x∗, y∗) and orientation (φ∗). Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI) approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1) time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2) smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points {(x₁∗, y₁∗),..., (x(n)∗, y(n)∗)}. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software. PMID:23997679

  6. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Márquez-Sánchez, C.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Bautista-Quintero, R.; Ramos-Silvestre, E. R.; Rivera-Díaz, J. C.; Muñoz-Carrillo, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x∗, y∗) and orientation (φ∗). Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI) approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1) time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2) smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points {(x1∗, y1∗),..., (xn∗, yn∗)}. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software. PMID:23997679

  7. Wastewater neutralization control based on fuzzy logic: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Adroer, M.; Alsina, A.; Aumatell, J.; Poch, M.

    1999-07-01

    Many industrial wastes contain acidic or alkaline materials that require neutralization of previous discharge into receiving waters or to chemical and biological treatment plants. The control of the wastewater neutralization process is subjected to several difficulties, such as the highly nonlinear titration curve (with special sensitivity around neutrality), the unknown water composition, the variable buffering capacity of the system, and the changes in input loading. To deal with these problems, this study proposes a fixed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) structure coupled with a tuning factor. The versatility and robustness of this controller has been proved when faced with solutions of variable buffering capacity, with acids that cover a wide pK range and with switches between acids throughout the course of a test. Laboratory experiments and simulation runs using the proposed controller were successful in a wide operational range.

  8. JAUS Operator Control Unit (OCU) interoperability experiment: preparation and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Sarah A.; Harrison, Joseph F.; Smith, Brian G.

    2004-09-01

    The Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) Operator Control Units and Payloads Committee (OPC) will be conducting a series of experiments to expedite the production of cost-effective interoperable unmanned systems, user control interfaces, payloads, et cetera. The objective of the initial experiment will be to demonstrate teleoperation of heterogeneous unmanned systems. The experiment will test Level 1 compliance between multiple JAUS subsystems and will include unmanned air, ground, and surface vehicles developed by vendors in the government and commercial sectors. Insight gained from participants initial planning, development, and integration phases will help identify areas of the JAUS standard which can be improved to better facilitate interoperability between Operator Control Units (OCU) and unmanned systems. The process of preparing Mobius, an OCU developed by Autonomous Solutions, Inc., for JAUS Level 1 compliance is discussed.

  9. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  10. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  11. Dietary determinants of lung-cancer risk: results from a case-control study in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Swanson, C A; Mao, B L; Li, J Y; Lubin, J H; Yao, S X; Wang, J Z; Cai, S K; Hou, Y; Luo, Q S; Blot, W J

    1992-04-01

    The relation between diet and lung cancer was studied among male residents of a mining community in Yunnan Province. After obtaining food frequency data from subjects or proxies, we compared diets of 428 cases, aged 35-74 years, and 1,011 age-matched controls. Cases tended to consume slightly more rice, but less protein-rich foods (i.e., bean curd, meat, eggs) and vegetables than did controls. The relative risks of lung cancer across increasing quartiles of meat (i.e., pork) consumption, for example, were 1.00, 0.67, 0.72 and 0.46 (p for trend less than 0.01). The relative risks of lung cancer across increasing quartiles of consumption of dark-green, leafy vegetables were 1.00, 0.62, 0.52 and 0.41 (p for trend less than 0.01). Although specific dietary constituent(s) responsible for the protective effect of vegetable consumption could not be identified, carotenoids other than beta-carotene, or compounds in cruciferous or Allium vegetables, are possibilities.

  12. Alternative splicing of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    König, G; Salbaum, J M; Wiestler, O; Lang, W; Schmitt, H P; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1991-02-01

    An S1 nuclease protection assay was designed to study the splicing pattern of the alternatively spliced beta A4 amyloid gene (APP gene) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the splicing pattern of the APP gene in fetal, adult, aged adult and AD human cortex. The results suggest that alternative splicing of the APP gene in AD is not significantly different from age-matched controls, but distinct from the developing fetal brain.

  13. Marine Controlled Source EM Methods: Equipment, Methodology, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, S.; Behrens, J.; Key, K.

    2005-12-01

    The marine CSEM method has become an important tool for academia and the petroleum industry. Commercially viable seafloor receivers were developed for marine MT exploration over the last decade, but progress in CSEM transmitter design is still at an early stage. We have developed 200~A and 500~A transmitters (Scripps Undersea Electromagnetic Source Instrument, or SUESI-200/500) which operate within the 30~kVA power limitations of academic tow cables. This is done by careful control of antenna impedance (resistance and inductance) and power efficiency. Electrode impedance is largely a function of length, rather than surface area or diameter. The antenna can be made neutrally buoyant by balancing the weight of an aluminum conductor with a thick plastic jacket. Telemetry for control, navigation, and monitoring is overlaid on high voltage power transmission down coaxial tow cables, as an alternative to fiber optic telemetry, allowing use with winches and cables of opportunity. The CSEM noise floor determines the source--receiver ranges, and thus the investigation depths, that can be achieved, and depends on frequency, dipole moment, receiver noise, magnetotelluric interference, and stack time. For typical values, this is 10-15~VA-1m-2. We present examples of data from a sub-salt hydrocarbon prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, and an academic project over the magma chambers of the East Pacific Rise.

  14. HealthLinks randomized controlled trial: Design and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Allen, Claire L; Parrish, Amanda T; Chan, K Gary; Kohn, Marlana J; Teague, Sara; Beresford, Shirley A A; Helfrich, Christian D; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Small employers, especially those in low-wage industries, frequently lack the capacity and resources to implement evidence-based health promotion interventions without support and assistance. The purpose of this paper is to (a) describe the intervention design and study protocol of the HealthLinks Trial and (b) report baseline findings. This study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial testing the impact of the HealthLinks intervention on worksites' adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. Group 1 will receive HealthLinks, Group 2 will receive HealthLinks plus wellness committees, and Group 3 will be a delayed control group. Seventy-eight employers are participating in the study; and 3302 employees across the worksites participated in the baseline data collection. Employers and employees will participate in follow-up surveys at one and two years after baseline to measure implementation (one year) and maintenance (two years) of HealthLinks interventions. Study outcomes will determine whether HealthLinks is an effective approach to increasing evidence-based health promotion in small, low-wage worksites and whether wellness committees are a capacity-building tool that increases HealthLinks' effectiveness. PMID:26946121

  15. Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wing test (see chapter 8E) provides data for the validation of aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and active aeroelastic control simulation codes. These data provide a rich database for development and validation of computational aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic methods. In this vein, high-level viscous CFD analyses of the BACT wing have been performed for a subset of the test conditions available in the dataset. The computations presented in this section investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the rigid clean wing configuration as well as simulations of the wing with a static and oscillating aileron and spoiler deflection. Two computational aeroelasticity codes extensively used at NASA Langley Research Center are implemented in this simulation. They are the ENS3DAE and CFL3DAE computational aeroelasticity programs. Both of these methods solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for both rigid and flexible vehicles, but they use significantly different approaches to the solution 6f the aerodynamic equations of motion. Detailed descriptions of both methods are presented in the following section.

  16. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  17. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  18. Preliminary structural control results from the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Saarmaa, Erik; Jacques, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of on-going closed-loop ground experiments on the MACE test article, the objective of which is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero gravity can be predicted, as well as to examine orbit system identification and control reconfiguration. The MACE hardware consists of three torque wheels, a two-axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors, and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this is to represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. When linear quadratic Gaussian control is used, payload pointing accuracy is improved by an order of magnitude when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The successes and failures of the design and implementation process are discussed.

  19. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Control of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease: results of a control programme in Satipo Province, Peru.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Arlt, Doris; Garcia, Luis Miguel Leon; Rosales, Milena; de Jesus Sanchez, Juan; Alvarez, Eugenia; Lonlas, Sylvaine; Conte, Mado; Bertoletti, Guillermo; Fournier, Christophe; Huari, Roberto; Torreele, Els; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2005-09-01

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is an important health problem in many rural areas of Latin America, but there are few data on the results of programmatic approaches to control the disease. We report the results of a control programme in San Martin de Pangoa District, which reports one of the highest prevalences of MCL in Peru. For 2 years (2001--2002), the technicians at the health post were trained in patient case management, received medical support and were supplied with antimonials. An evaluation after 2 years showed the following main achievements: better diagnosis of patients, who were confirmed by microscopy in 34% (82/240) of the cases in 2001 and 60% of the cases (153/254) in 2002; improved follow-up during treatment: 237 of 263 (90%) patients who initiated an antimonial therapy ended the full treatment course; improved follow-up after treatment: 143 of 237 (60%) patients who ended their full treatment were correctly monitored during the required period of 6 (cutaneous cases) or 12 (mucosal cases) months after the end of treatment. These achievements were largely due to the human and logistical resources made available, the constant availability of medications and the close collaboration between the Ministry of Health, a national research institute and an international non-governmental organization. At the end of this period, the health authorities decided to register a generic brand of sodium stibogluconate, which is now in use. This should allow the treatment of a significant number of additional patients, while saving money to invest in other facets of the case management. PMID:16135192

  1. A digital computer propulsion control facility: Description of capabilities and summary of experimental program results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Arpasi, D. J.; Lehtinen, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight weight digital computers are being used today to carry out many of the propulsion system control functions previously delegated exclusively to hydromechanical controllers. An operational digital computer facility for propulsion control mode studies has been used successfully in several experimental programs. This paper describes the system and some of the results concerned with engine control, inlet control, and inlet engine integrated control. Analytical designs for the digital propulsion control modes include both classical and modern/optimal techniques.

  2. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  3. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program, 2007].

    PubMed

    Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2008-11-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons drawn from the 2007 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2007 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. A few deviations were observed in some controls, calling for critical reflection. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to complement internal with external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program.

  4. Physical control oriented model of large scale refrigerators to synthesize advanced control schemes. Design, validation, and first control results

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, a physical method to obtain control-oriented dynamical models of large scale cryogenic refrigerators is proposed, in order to synthesize model-based advanced control schemes. These schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in the cryogenic cooling systems of future fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT-60SA). Advanced control schemes lead to a better perturbation immunity and rejection, to offer a safer utilization of cryoplants. The paper gives details on how basic components used in the field of large scale helium refrigeration (especially those present on the 400W @1.8K helium test facility at CEA-Grenoble) are modeled and assembled to obtain the complete dynamic description of controllable subsystems of the refrigerator (controllable subsystems are namely the Joule-Thompson Cycle, the Brayton Cycle, the Liquid Nitrogen Precooling Unit and the Warm Compression Station). The complete 400W @1.8K (in the 400W @4.4K configuration) helium test facility model is then validated against experimental data and the optimal control of both the Joule-Thompson valve and the turbine valve is proposed, to stabilize the plant under highly variable thermals loads. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  5. Physical control oriented model of large scale refrigerators to synthesize advanced control schemes. Design, validation, and first control results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Bonnay, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a physical method to obtain control-oriented dynamical models of large scale cryogenic refrigerators is proposed, in order to synthesize model-based advanced control schemes. These schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in the cryogenic cooling systems of future fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT-60SA). Advanced control schemes lead to a better perturbation immunity and rejection, to offer a safer utilization of cryoplants. The paper gives details on how basic components used in the field of large scale helium refrigeration (especially those present on the 400W @1.8K helium test facility at CEA-Grenoble) are modeled and assembled to obtain the complete dynamic description of controllable subsystems of the refrigerator (controllable subsystems are namely the Joule-Thompson Cycle, the Brayton Cycle, the Liquid Nitrogen Precooling Unit and the Warm Compression Station). The complete 400W @1.8K (in the 400W @4.4K configuration) helium test facility model is then validated against experimental data and the optimal control of both the Joule-Thompson valve and the turbine valve is proposed, to stabilize the plant under highly variable thermals loads. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  6. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2014-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2012 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2012 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  7. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  8. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2009].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2011-03-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. In this article, the most important conclusions and lessons from the 2009 controls are presented. As a whole, the results obtained in 2009 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests.

  9. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:27474240

  10. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  11. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  12. Preliminary Experimental Results on Controlled Cardiac Computed Tomography: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Cai, Zhijun; Wang, Ge; Zhao, Jun; Bai, Er-Wei

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary experimental results on controlled cardiac computed tomography (CT), which aims to reduce the motion artifacts by means of controlling the x-ray source rotation speed. An innovative cardiac phantom enables us to perform this experiment without modifying the scanner. It is the first experiment on the cardiac CT with speed controlled x-ray source. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully separates the phantom images at different phases (improve the temporal resolution) though controlling the x-ray speed. PMID:19696470

  13. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  14. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:26320989

  15. Results of an integrated structure-control law design sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Next generation air and space vehicle designs are driven by increased performance requirements, demanding a high level of design integration between traditionally separate design disciplines. Interdisciplinary analysis capabilities have been developed, for aeroservoelastic aircraft and large flexible spacecraft control for instance, but the requisite integrated design methods are only beginning to be developed. One integrated design method which has received attention is based on hierarchal problem decompositions, optimization, and design sensitivity analyses. This paper highlights a design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changess in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient that finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.

  16. An Effect of Knowledge of Results on Performance with Goal Setting Controlled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark S.; Freedman, Steven

    Locke has concluded that motivational knowledge of results (KR) has no effect on performance if goal is controlled. Previous studies, however, always afforded to No KR groups some KR. In the present study a 2x2 factorial design (KR-No KR; low-high goal) was used. Stringent controls were instituted to eliminate all KR, in the No KR conditions. The…

  17. Control of vibrations for a parallel manipulator with flexible links — concepts and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlock, M.; Burkhardt, M.; Seifried, R.

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive control approach is presented to reduce the vibrations of a parallel manipulator with a kinematic loop and two flexible links whereof the longer one can show significant oscillations. The control objectives are end-effector trajectory tracking and active vibration control. The system is modeled as a flexible multibody system and exact feedforward control based on the full dynamic flexible multibody system is applied to improve the end-effector trajectory tracking performance. Furthermore, the effect of different position control concepts for the two linear drives, such as gain scheduling for the utilized cascade control and a model based friction compensation, on the movers themselves as well as on the end-effector are discussed, which can be conflicting. Experimental results are presented illustrating the achievable accuracy of the end-effector tracking for different trajectories while showing significant error reductions for a feedforward control based on an elastic model in contrast to a rigid one. Finally, a model based curvature controller is utilized which actively controls the occurring oscillations of the parallel manipulator. Here, a proportional controller as well as a linear-quadratic regulator are applied and the impact of an additional curvature control on the end-effector tracking performance is investigated.

  18. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: EVALUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD FOR BUILDING DEMOLITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the evaluations of the alternative asbestos control method for demolishing buildings containing asbestos, and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and presentation are based, at ...

  19. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  20. Controls-structures interaction guest investigator program: Overview and phase 1 experimental results and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith-Taylor, Rudeen; Tanner, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator program is described in terms of its support of the development of CSI technologies. The program is based on the introduction of CSI researchers from industry and academia to available test facilities for experimental validation of technologies and methods. Phase 1 experimental results are reviewed with attention given to their use of the Mini-MAST test facility and the facility for the Advance Control Evaluation of Structures. Experiments were conducted regarding the following topics: collocated/noncollocated controllers, nonlinear math modeling, controller design, passive/active suspension systems design, and system identification and fault isolation. The results demonstrate that significantly enhanced performance from the control techniques can be achieved by integrating knowledge of the structural dynamics under consideration into the approaches.

  1. Results of an integrated structure/control law design sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    A design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations is discussed. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changes in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient than finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.

  2. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests.

  3. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  4. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  5. Control of Schistosoma mekongi in Cambodia: results of eight years of control activities in the two endemic provinces.

    PubMed

    Sinuon, M; Tsuyuoka, R; Socheat, D; Odermatt, P; Ohmae, H; Matsuda, H; Montresor, A; Palmer, K

    2007-01-01

    In Cambodia, schistosomiasis is transmitted in the provinces of Kratie and Stung Treng where approximately 80000 individuals are estimated to be at risk of infection. The baseline prevalence of infection was estimated to be between 73% and 88%, and cases of severe morbidity (hepatosplenomegaly, puberty retardation) and mortality were very common. In 1994, the Ministry of Health of Cambodia started schistosomiasis control applying universal chemotherapy with praziquantel (40mg/kg). The coverage of the programme was between 62% and 86% for 8 years. This simple control measure resulted in the control of the disease: no cases were reported in 2004 and only three cases were reported in 2005. In addition, there are no longer reports of cases of severe morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Since the beginning of the control programme, a single dose of mebendazole (500mg) has been combined with praziquantel during the mass chemotherapy; as a result the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms dropped from 74.5% to 10% and from 86% to 40% respectively. The experience in Cambodia demonstrates that, with political commitment, control of parasitic diseases is achievable even in a situation of minimal resources. The programme represents a successful model for other developing countries.

  6. First performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Appelshäuser, H.; Bratrud, L.; Castro, A.; Costa, F.; David, E.; Gunji, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kiss, T.; Langøy, R.; Lien, J.; Lippmann, C.; Oskarsson, A.; Rehman, A. Ur; Røed, K.; Röhrich, D.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Stuart, M.; Ullaland, K.; Velure, A.; Yang, S.; Österman, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2). With the upgraded hardware typology and the new readout scheme in FPGA design, the RCU2 is designed to achieve twice the readout speed of the present Readout Control Unit. Design choices such as using the flash-based Microsemi Smartfusion2 FPGA and applying mitigation techniques in interfaces and FPGA design ensure a high degree of radiation tolerance. This paper presents the system level irradiation test results as well as the first commissioning results of the RCU2. Furthermore, it will be concluded with a discussion of the planned updates in firmware.

  7. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  8. F/A-18 and F-16 forebody vortex control, static and rotary-balance results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Brian; Smith, Brooke

    1994-01-01

    The results from research on forebody vortex control on both the F/A-18 and the F-16 aircraft will be shown. Several methods of forebody vortex control, including mechanical and pneumatic schemes, will be discussed. The wind tunnel data includes both static and rotary balance data for forebody vortex control. Time lags between activation or deactivation of the pneumatic control and when the aircraft experiences the resultant forces are also discussed. The static (non-rotating) forces and pressures are then compared to similar configurations tested in the NASA Langley and DTRC Wind Tunnel, the NASA Ames 80'x120' Wind Tunnel, and in flight on the High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV).

  9. Analysis of an electrohydraulic aircraft control surface servo and comparison with test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of an electrohydraulic aircraft control-surface system is made in which the system is modeled as a lumped, two-mass, spring-coupled system controlled by a servo valve. Both linear and nonlinear models are developed, and the effects of hinge-moment loading are included. Transfer functions of the system and approximate literal factors of the transfer functions for several cases are presented. The damping action of dynamic pressure feedback is analyzed. Comparisons of the model responses with results from tests made on a highly resonant rudder control-surface servo indicate the adequacy of the model. The effects of variations in hinge-moment loading are illustrated.

  10. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  11. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design Using Classical and Optimal Techniques with Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  12. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  13. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using classical, and minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the minimax approach, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  14. Results From F-18B Stability and Control Parameter Estimation Flight Tests at High Dynamic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique has been used to obtain stability and control derivatives for the NASA F-18B Systems Research Aircraft. This work has been performed to support flight testing of the active aeroelastic wing (AAW) F-18A project. The goal of this research is to obtain baseline F-18 stability and control derivatives that will form the foundation of the aerodynamic model for the AAW aircraft configuration. Flight data have been obtained at Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and at dynamic pressures ranging between 600 and 1500 lbf/sq ft. At each test condition, longitudinal and lateral-directional doublets have been performed using an automated onboard excitation system. The doublet maneuver consists of a series of single-surface inputs so that individual control-surface motions cannot be correlated with other control-surface motions. Flight test results have shown that several stability and control derivatives are significantly different than prescribed by the F-18B aerodynamic model. This report defines the parameter estimation technique used, presents stability and control derivative results, compares the results with predictions based on the current F-18B aerodynamic model, and shows improvements to the nonlinear simulation using updated derivatives from this research.

  15. Propulsion system performance resulting from an Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Garg, Sanjay

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion system specific results are presented from the application of the Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control (IMPAC) design approach to Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight. The IMPAC method is briefly discussed and the propulsion system specifications for the integrated control design are examined. The structure of a linear engine controller that results from partitioning a linear centralized controller is discussed. The details of a nonlinear propulsion control system are presented, including a scheme to protect the engine operational limits: the fan surge margin and the acceleration/deceleration schedule which limits the fuel flow. Also, a simple but effective multivariable integrator windup protection scheme is investigated. Nonlinear closed-loop simulation results are presented for two typical pilot commands for transition flight: acceleration while maintaining flight path angle and a change in flight path angle while maintaining airspeed. The simulation nonlinearities include the airframe/engine coupling, the actuator and sensor dynamics and limits, the protection scheme for the engine operational limits, and the integrator windup protection. Satisfactory performance of the total airframe plus engine system for transition flight, as defined by the specifications, is maintained during the limit operation of the closed-loop engine subsystem.

  16. Propulsion system performance resulting from an integrated flight/propulsion control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Garg, Sanjay

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion-system-specific results are presented from the application of the integrated methodology for propulsion and airframe control (IMPAC) design approach to integrated flight/propulsion control design for a 'short takeoff and vertical landing' (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight. The IMPAC method is briefly discussed and the propulsion system specifications for the integrated control design are examined. The structure of a linear engine controller that results from partitioning a linear centralized controller is discussed. The details of a nonlinear propulsion control system are presented, including a scheme to protect the engine operational limits: the fan surge margin and the acceleration/deceleration schedule that limits the fuel flow. Also, a simple but effective multivariable integrator windup protection scheme is examined. Nonlinear closed-loop simulation results are presented for two typical pilot commands for transition flight: acceleration while maintaining flightpath angle and a change in flightpath angle while maintaining airspeed. The simulation nonlinearities include the airframe/engine coupling, the actuator and sensor dynamics and limits, the protection scheme for the engine operational limits, and the integrator windup protection. Satisfactory performance of the total airframe plus engine system for transition flight, as defined by the specifications, was maintained during the limit operation of the closed-loop engine subsystem.

  17. Modeling, Fabrication and Test Results of a MOS Controlled Thyristor — MCT - with high controllable current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyavskiy, Evgeny; Popov, Vladimir; Vermeire, Bert

    2005-06-01

    A simple 2D static model for the evaluation of the maximum controllable current density in a MOS Controlled Thyristor (MCT) will be presented. It is shown that a 2D model of a P-I-N diode with a cathode PMOS transistor is appropriate for simulating the carrier distribution in an MCT. The maximum controllable current density can be modeled accurately using a static model of the free electron and acceptor concentrations. The simple physics rationale for this is discussed. MCT test results validate this simplified modeling approach. Punchthrough technology (PT) for high voltage application was used to manufacture an MCT with breakdown voltage of 2500 V and a maximum controllable current of 33 A with active area 0.33 cm2. The total number of N-type cathode emitter cells is 144,042. For optimization, transient power dissipation electron irradiation with 2 MeV energy was used. This increased the maximum controllable current to 50 A. To our knowledge, our current density values of 100 A/cm2 for non irradiated and 150 A/cm2 for irradiated MCTs are the highest that have been reported for large area devices.

  18. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team is to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions as well as stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to the baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This set of open-loop flight tests was performed in preparation for a future phase of flights in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed a pitch frequency sweep and an automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. An examination of flight data shows that addition of the flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved the pitch handling qualities of the aircraft.

  19. Preparing individuals to communicate genetic test results to their relatives: report of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Susan V; Barsevick, Andrea M; Egleston, Brian L; Bingler, Ruth; Ruth, Karen; Miller, Suzanne M; Malick, John; Cescon, Terrence P; Daly, Mary B

    2013-09-01

    This study reports a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of an intervention to prepare individuals to communicate BRCA1/BRCA2 results to family members. Women aged 18 years and older, who had genetic testing, and who had adult first-degree relatives, were randomly assigned to a communication skills-building intervention or a wellness control session. Primary outcomes were the percentage of probands sharing test results, and the level of distress associated with sharing. The ability of the theory of planned behavior variables to predict the outcomes was explored. Four hundred twenty-two women were enrolled in the study, 219 (intervention) and 203 (control). Data from 137 in the intervention group and 112 in the control group were analyzed. Two hundred forty-nine probands shared test results with 838 relatives (80.1 %). There were no significant differences between study groups in the primary outcomes. Combining data from both arms revealed that perceived control and specific social influence were associated with sharing. Probands were more likely to share genetic test results with their children, female relatives and relatives who they perceived had a favorable opinion about learning the results. The communication skills intervention did not impact sharing of test results. The proband's perception of her relative's opinion of genetic testing and her sense of control in relaying this information influenced sharing. Communication of test results is selective, with male relatives and parents less likely to be informed. Prevalent psychosocial factors play a role in the communication of genetic test results within families.

  20. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 amperes. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-ampere pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.

  1. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  2. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; David-Wang, Aileen; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ho, James Chung-Man; Jeong, Jae-Won; Liam, Chong-Kin; Lin, Jiangtao; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Tan, Tze-Lee; Yunus, Faisal; Neira, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients’ perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and sources of asthma information. Results Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4) years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7) years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients’ trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. PMID:26445555

  3. Further results on iterative learning control with convergence conditions for linear time-variant discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Ho, John K. L.

    2011-06-01

    This article is concerned with some further results on iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms with convergence conditions for linear time-variant discrete systems. By converting two-Dimensional (2-D) ILC process of the linear time-variant discrete systems into 1-D linear time-invariant discrete systems, this article presents convergent ILC algorithms with necessary and sufficient conditions for two classes of linear time-variant discrete systems. Main results in (Li, X.-D., Ho, J.K.L., and Chow, T.W.S. (2005), 'Iterative Learning Control for Linear Time-variant Discrete Systems Based on 2-D System Theory', IEE Proceedings, Control Theory and Applications, 152, 13-18 and Huang, S.N., Tan, K.K., and Lee, T.H. (2002), 'Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Convergence of Iterative Learning Algorithm', Automatica 38, 1257-1260) are extended and generalised.

  4. Flight evaluation results for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Walsh, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system on an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane was evaluated in flight. Thirty flights were flown in a four-phase program from June 1981 to February 1983. Significant improvements in the operability and performance of the F100 engine were developed as a result of the flight evaluation: the augmentor envelope was increased by 15,000 ft, the airstart envelope was improved by 75 knots, and the need to periodically trim the engine was eliminated. The hydromechanical backup control performance was evaluated and was found to be satisfactory. Two system failures were encountered in the test program; both were detected and accommodated successfully. No transfers to the backup control system were required, and no automatic transfers occurred. As a result of the successful DEEC flight evaluation, the DEEC system has entered the full-scale development phase.

  5. Experimental results on the design for the APS PID global orbit control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J. A.

    1997-12-05

    The Advanced Photon Source third generation synchrotrons light source needs a stabilized particle beam position to produce high brightness and low emittance radiation. Global orbit correction control is introduced and is utilized to satisfy the demanding needs of the accelerator. This paper presents the experimental results for determining an effective and optimal controller to meet the global orbit correction requirements. These requirements include frequency/time domain demands consisting of vibrational noise attenuation, limiting of controller gains for stability and improving the system time response. Experiments were conducted with a digital signal processor implementing various PID sets to make comparisons between simulations and experiments. Measurements at these PID sets supported the results of software simulation.

  6. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  7. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  8. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer; Munyendo, David; Zuurmond, Maria; Frison, Severine; Mwenda, Victoria; Otieno, David; Kisia, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group) and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type. Two controls without disabilities were selected per case: A sibling control (sibling nearest in age) and a neighbourhood control (nearest neighbour within one year of age). The caregiver completed a questionnaire on behalf of the child (e.g. information on feeding, poverty, illness, education), and anthropometric measures were taken. We undertook multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to estimate the relationship between disability and malnutrition. Results The study included 311 cases with disabilities, 196 sibling controls and 300 neighbour controls. Children with disabilities were more likely to report a range of feeding difficulties. They were 1.6–2.9 times more likely to have malnutrition in comparison to neighbour controls or family controls, including general malnutrition (low weight for age), stunting (low height for age), low body mass index (BMI) or low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) for age. Children with disabilities were almost twice as likely to have wasting (low weight for height) in comparison to neighbour controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2), but this difference was not apparent compared with siblings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8–2.7). Children with disabilities also faced other exclusions. For instance those aged 5+ were much more likely not to attend school than neighbour controls (OR = 8.5, 95% CI 4.3–16.9). Conclusions Children

  9. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clarissa B.; Medeiros, Ítalo R. T.; Greters, Mario G.; Frota, Norberto A. F.; Tavares Lucato, Leandro; Scaff, Milberto; Conforto, Adriana B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Impairments in balance can be a consequence of changes in the motor, sensory, and integrative aspects of motor control. Abnormal sensory reweighting, i.e., the ability to select the most appropriate sensory information to achieve postural stability, may contribute to balance impairment. The Sensory Organization Test is a component of Computerized Dynamic Posturography that evaluates the impact of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs, as well as sensory reweighting, under conditions of sensory conflict. The aim of this study is to compare balance control in hemiparetic patients during the first year post-stroke and in age-matched neurologically normal subjects using the Berg Balance Scale and Computerized Dynamic Posturography. METHODS: We compared the Berg Balance Scale and Sensory Organization Test scores in 21 patients with hemiparesis after first-ever ischemic stroke and in 21 age-matched, neurologically normal subjects. An equilibrium score was defined for each Sensory Organization Test condition. RESULTS: Berg Balance Scale scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects. Equilibrium scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects for those Sensory Organization Test conditions that did not provide appropriate somatosensory information and under conditions of sensory conflict. A history of falls was more frequent in patients with lower equilibrium scores. CONCLUSION: During the first year after a stroke, defective sensory reweighting significantly impacts balance control in hemiparetic patients. These results are important for the planning of effective rehabilitation interventions. PMID:22189728

  10. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  11. Preliminary Results: MR Guided Volumetric HIFU Ablation of Uterine Fibroids with Binary Feedback Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enholm, Julia; Mougenot, Charles; Soini, Jouko; Köhler, Max O.; Trillaud, Hervé

    2010-03-01

    This work presents the first clinical results of the treatment of uterine fibroids using a new volumetric high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation strategy. This treatment technique combines volumetric ablations using concentric circle trajectories with a binary feedback control algorithm. 13 patients have been treated so far with the proposed method with good results. The use of volumetric ablation increased the efficiency and speed of the treatment, while the binary feedback control ensured a reproducible thermal lesions size without prior knowledge of tissue specific parameters. The algorithm uses a simple and robust feedback control method that relies on rapid MR thermometry to control the HIFU exposure during the heating. The algorithm automatically modified the durations of the ablations to compensate for differences in the local ultrasound absorption and heat diffusion. This approach successfully produced consistent treated volumes with small deviations in the resulting lesion diameters. Four different trajectory sizes were used with diameters of 4 mm, 8 mm, 12 mm and 16 mm.

  12. Low-g fluid mixing - Further results from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, M. D.; Knoll, R. H.; Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) made its first space flight on STS-43 in 1991. Its objective was to test the effectiveness of low-energy axial jet mixing at controlling pressures in low gravity. The experiment used refrigerant 113 at near-saturation conditions, at an 83 percent fill level, to simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of cryogenic fluids in future space applications. Results from this flight were reported previously. TPCE was again flown in space on STS-52 in 1992, this time primarily to study boiling and related thermal phenomena which will be reported elsewhere. However additional mixing and pressure control data were obtained from the reflight that supplement the data from the first flight.

  13. A PARENT–ADOLESCENT INTERVENTION TO INCREASE SEXUAL RISK COMMUNICATION: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent–adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HTV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6– and 12–month follow–ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent–adolescent communication related to general and sex–specific communication. PMID:18956979

  14. Lessons Learned and Flight Results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the lessons learned and flight results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project is shown. The topics include: 1) F-15 IFCS Project Goals; 2) Motivation; 3) IFCS Approach; 4) NASA F-15 #837 Aircraft Description; 5) Flight Envelope; 6) Limited Authority System; 7) NN Floating Limiter; 8) Flight Experiment; 9) Adaptation Goals; 10) Handling Qualities Performance Metric; 11) Project Phases; 12) Indirect Adaptive Control Architecture; 13) Indirect Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; 14) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 15) Current Status; 16) Effect of Canard Multiplier; 17) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop; 18) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop Freq. Resp.; 19) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop with Adaptation; 20) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop with Adaptation; 21) Gen 2 NN Wts from Simulation; 22) Direct Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; and 23) Conclusions

  15. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.

  16. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  17. Preventive home visits postpone mortality – a controlled trial with time-limited results

    PubMed Central

    Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Dahlgren, Lars; Hellner, Britt Mari; Stenlund, Hans; Lindholm, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background There is a debate on whether preventive home visits to older people have any impact. This study was undertaken to investigate whether preventive home visits by professional health workers to older persons can postpone mortality in a Swedish context. Method A controlled trial in a small community in the north of Sweden. Participants are healthy pensioners aged 75 years and over. 196 pensioners were selected as the intervention group and 346 as the control group. The intervention, two visits per year, lasted two years. Results During the intervention, mortality was 27 per 1000 in the intervention group and 48 per 1000 in the control group. The incidence rate ratio for the control group IR2000–2001 was 1,79 (95%CI = 0,94–3,40). Analysing the data with an "on treatment approach" gave a significant result, 2,31 (95%CI = 1,07–5,02) After the trial the difference between the groups disappeared. Conclusion Preventive home visits in a healthy older population can postpone mortality in a Swedish context if they are carried out by professional health-workers in a structured way. When the home visit programme ended the effect on mortality disappeared. These findings are dependent on contextual factors that make it difficult to form general policy recommendations. PMID:16945128

  18. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  19. Experimental results of the control of a vortical flow by tangential blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, N. J.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test to investigate the controlling effects of tangential, leading edge blowing on the vortical flow over a delta wing are given. Blowing is used to directly control the crossflow separation points at the rounded leading edge and hence, the trajectory of the feeding sheet and the location of the vortex. Experiments were conducted for both co-flowing and counter-flowing configurations over a range of angles of attack from 0 to 90 degrees. Results in the form of pressure distributions, overall force coefficients and flow mappings were obtained. The emphasis is on data presentation rather than detailed analysis. The initial results indicate that the co-flowing configuration was capable of extending the regime of stable, controlled vortical flow over the upper surface by approximately 30 degrees angle of attack for modest blowing requirements. Increases in maximum normal force coefficient of approximately 30% were achieved and significant rolling moments produced at angles of attack from 30 to 60 degrees. The counter-flowing configuration indicated only minor lift augmentation with the exception of an isolated occurrence at 20 degrees angle of attack. At that condition, with very weak blowing, a lift augmentation of approximately 20 was measured.

  20. Preventing obesity in infants and toddlers in child care: Results from a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Taveras, Elsie M; Østbye, Truls; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few interventions have focused on very young children for obesity prevention. This study evaluated a pilot intervention to improve the nutrition and physical activity environments of child care centers serving infants and toddlers. Methods This randomized controlled trial took place in 32 centers in Boston, Massachusetts. The intervention aimed to improve policies and practices related to nutrition and physical activity within the center. For the outcome, observers assessed center environments using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument (range 0-320 points) at baseline and the six-month follow-up. We fit linear regression models with change in EPAO score from baseline to follow-up, controlling for potential confounders for total score, nutrition sub-score, and physical activity sub-score. Results Intervention centers had a mean (SD) of 98.2 (144.8) children enrolled, while control centers had 59.2 (34.5). In intervention centers, 47.5% of children were white, compared to 46.2% in controls. Fewer intervention centers had outdoor play areas on site (75% vs. 100%) but more had indoor play space (67% vs. 25%). At baseline, intervention centers had a mean (SD) EPAO score of 134.5 (7.0) points and controls had 146.8 (4.8) points. Compared with controls, intervention centers improved their EPAO scores at follow-up by 18.5 points (95% CI 0.1, 37.0; p=0.049), chiefly through greater improvement in physical activity (12.2; 95% CI -1.6, 26.0; p=0.075) and not nutrition (6.4; 95% CI -7.1, 19.8; p=0.385). Conclusions The pilot showed promise as an intervention to improve center environments, but future studies should include child-level outcomes. PMID:24065371

  1. Flight test results of the fuzzy logic adaptive controller-helicopter (FLAC-H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Walker, Gregory W.

    1996-05-01

    The fuzzy logic adaptive controller for helicopters (FLAC-H) demonstration is a cooperative effort between the US Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), the US Army Aviation and Troop Command, and the US Army Missile Command to demonstrate a low-cost drone control system for both full-scale and sub-scale helicopters. FLAC-H was demonstrated on one of STRICOM's fleet of full-scale rotary-winged target drones. FLAC-H exploits fuzzy logic in its flight control system to provide a robust solution to the control of the helicopter's dynamic, nonlinear system. Straight forward, common sense fuzzy rules governing helicopter flight are processed instead of complex mathematical models. This has resulted in a simplified solution to the complexities of helicopter flight. Incorporation of fuzzy logic reduced the cost of development and should also reduce the cost of maintenance of the system. An adaptive algorithm allows the FLAC-H to 'learn' how to fly the helicopter, enabling the control system to adjust to varying helicopter configurations. The adaptive algorithm, based on genetic algorithms, alters the fuzzy rules and their related sets to improve the performance characteristics of the system. This learning allows FLAC-H to automatically be integrated into a new airframe, reducing the development costs associated with altering a control system for a new or heavily modified aircraft. Successful flight tests of the FLAC-H on a UH-1H target drone were completed in September 1994 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper discuses the objective of the system, its design, and performance.

  2. MSFC Sortie Laboratory Environmental Control System (ECS) phase B design study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatonis, A. J.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    Phase B effort of the Sortie Lab program has concluded. Results of that effort are presented which pertain to the definitions of the environmental control system (ECS). Numerous design studies were performed in Phase B to investigate system feasibility, complexity, weight, and cost. The results and methods employed for these design studies are included. An autonomous Sortie Lab ECS was developed which utilizes a deployed space radiator. Total system weight was projected to be 1814.4 kg including the radiator and fluids. ECS power requirements were estimated at 950 watts.

  3. Flight Stability and Control and Performance Results from the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Conners, Timothy R.; Iliff, Kenneth W.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) is presently being conducted to test a 20-percent-scale version of the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This rocket engine has been chosen to power the X-33 Single Stage to Orbit Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The rocket engine was integrated into a lifting body configuration and mounted to the upper surface of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper presents stability and control results and performance results from the envelope expansion flight tests of the LASRE configuration up to Mach 1.8 and compares the results with wind tunnel predictions. Longitudinal stability and elevator control effectiveness were well-predicted from wind tunnel tests. Zero-lift pitching moment was mispredicted transonically. Directional stability, dihedral stability, and rudder effectiveness were overpredicted. The SR-71 handling qualities were never significantly impacted as a result of the missed predictions. Performance results confirmed the large amount of wind-tunnel-predicted transonic drag for the LASRE configuration. This drag increase made the performance of the vehicle so poor that acceleration through transonic Mach numbers could not be achieved on a hot day without depleting the available fuel.

  4. Control of manganese dioxide particles resulting from in situ chemical oxidation using permanganate.

    PubMed

    Crimi, Michelle; Ko, Saebom

    2009-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate is an approach to organic contaminant site remediation. Manganese dioxide particles are products of permanganate reactions. These particles have the potential to deposit in the subsurface and impact the flow-regime in/around permanganate injection, including the well screen, filter pack, and the surrounding subsurface formation. Control of these particles can allow for improved oxidant injection and transport and contact between the oxidant and contaminants of concern. The goals of this research were to determine if MnO(2) can be stabilized/controlled in an aqueous phase, and to determine the dependence of particle stabilization on groundwater characteristics. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to study the ability of four stabilization aids (sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP), Dowfax 8390, xanthan gum, and gum arabic) in maintaining particles suspended in solution under varied reaction conditions and time. Variations included particle and stabilization aid concentrations, ionic content, and pH. HMP demonstrated the most promising results, as compared to xanthan gum, gum arabic, and Dowfax 8390 based on results of spectrophotometric studies of particle behavior, particle filtration, and optical measurements of particle size and zeta potential. HMP inhibited particle settling, provided for greater particle stability, and resulted in particles of a smaller average size over the range of experimental conditions evaluated compared to results for systems that did not include HMP. Additionally, HMP did not react unfavorably with permanganate. These results indicate that the inclusion of HMP in a permanganate oxidation system improves conditions that may facilitate particle transport.

  5. Results of Dose Control and Measurement Plans Appliedfor SPEAR3 Commissioning Year (FY04)

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Liu, James; Prinz, Alyssa; Allan, Jim; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Dose control and measurement plans for the SPEAR3 Booster and storage ring have taken place during the SPEAR3 commissioning. The initial commissioning period (SPEAR3 start-up) covered the time period from the beginning of November 2003 to the early part of March 2004. The period from the beginning of March to the beginning of August 2004 has been mostly dedicated to the scientific program. The initial commissioning period was characterized with frequent injection and significantly higher losses. In comparison, the scientific program period was characterized with more stable beam operation with limited number of injections per day and lower beam losses. Three types of dose measurements, passive, active and special measurements, were implemented around the SPEAR3 Booster and storage ring. Based on the expected radiation hazards, several dose control measures were adopted at several stages of the commissioning. In the early stages of commissioning, areas within 4.5 m from the walls of the Booster and storage ring were designated as Radiation Areas (RA). Areas outside RA were classified as Radiologically Controlled Area (RCA). Access to these areas required less training than the radiation areas. A monthly review of the accelerator operation conditions and radiation measurement results were used to determine the changes needed for the RA classification status and associated dose control measures.

  6. Stability and Control Estimation Flight Test Results for the SR-71 Aircraft With Externally Mounted Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Iliff, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique is used to obtain stability and control derivatives for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center SR-71A airplane and for configurations that include experiments externally mounted to the top of the fuselage. This research is being done as part of the envelope clearance for the new experiment configurations. Flight data are obtained at speeds ranging from Mach 0.4 to Mach 3.0, with an extensive amount of test points at approximately Mach 1.0. Pilot-input pitch and yaw-roll doublets are used to obtain the data. This report defines the parameter estimation technique used, presents stability and control derivative results, and compares the derivatives for the three configurations tested. The experimental configurations studied generally show acceptable stability, control, trim, and handling qualities throughout the Mach regimes tested. The reduction of directional stability for the experimental configurations is the most significant aerodynamic effect measured and identified as a design constraint for future experimental configurations. This report also shows the significant effects of aircraft flexibility on the stability and control derivatives.

  7. Field Test Results from Lidar Measured Yaw Control for Improved Yaw Alignment with the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Slinger, C.; Medley, J.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes field tests of a light detection and ranging (lidar) device placed forward looking on the nacelle of a wind turbine and used as a wind direction measurement to directly control the yaw position of a wind turbine. Conventionally, a wind turbine controls its yaw direction using a nacelle-mounted wind vane. If there is a bias in the measurement from the nacelle-mounted wind vane, a reduction in power production will be observed. This bias could be caused by a number of issues such as: poor calibration, electromagnetic interference, rotor wake, or other effects. With a lidar mounted on the nacelle, a measurement of the wind could be made upstream of the wind turbine where the wind is not being influenced by the rotor's wake or induction zone. Field tests were conducted with the lidar measured yaw system and the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system. Results show that a lidar can be used to effectively measure the yaw error of the wind turbine, and for this experiment, they also showed an improvement in power capture because of reduced yaw misalignment when compared to the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system.

  8. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field. PMID:26248094

  9. The effectiveness of Doppler controlled hemorrhoidal artery ligation based on preliminaries results

    PubMed Central

    Yamoul, Rajae; Attolou, Gilles; Njoumi, Noureddine; Alkandry, Siffedine; Tahiri, Moulay El Hassane

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the effectiveness of the hemorrhoidal artery ligation under control Doppler as a new technique for the treatment of hemorrhoids. We report the results of patients with hemorrhoids we have followed over a period of one year who were treated with HAL Doppler. The intra-and postoperative complications were monitored. Patient follow-up was established on the immediate postoperative period, after one month, six months and one year of evolution. Monitoring parameters were both objective (prolapse) and subjective (pain, discomfort, bleeding, satisfaction). 120 patients, all stages combined, were treated with HAL Doppler. The pain is easily controlled with painkillers. Residual rectal bleeding was noted in 3% of the cases. In addition, there was one case of recurrent prolapse which underwent reoperation. After one month, 86,5% patients were satisfied. The hemorrhoidal artery ligation under control Doppler is an easy technique, well accepted by patients who are increasingly demanding it. It is less invasive, less painful and gives fewer complications. It is not only effective for stage III and IV hemorrhoids for which the effect is spectacular but also for stages I and II symptoms, which can expand its indications. PMID:24396565

  10. Decreased profilaggrin expression in ichthyosis vulgaris is a result of selectively impaired posttranscriptional control.

    PubMed

    Nirunsuksiri, W; Presland, R B; Brumbaugh, S G; Dale, B A; Fleckman, P

    1995-01-13

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is an autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization characterized by mild hyperkeratosis and reduced or absent keratohyalin granules in the epidermis. Profilaggrin, a major component of keratohyalin granules, is reduced or absent from the skin of individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris. In this report, we have further characterized the molecular basis of low profilaggrin expression, which occurs in this disease. In situ hybridization revealed little profilaggrin mRNA in ichthyosis vulgaris-affected epidermis. In keratinocytes cultured from the epidermis of affected individuals, the abundance of profilaggrin was reduced to less than 10% of normal controls, while the mRNA level was decreased to 30-60% of controls. Expression of K1 and loricrin, other markers of epidermal differentiation, were not affected. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that the decrease in mRNA levels was not caused by aberrant transcription. Nucleotide sequencing of 5'-upstream, 3'-non-coding, and flanking regions of the profilaggrin gene from ichthyosis vulgaris-affected individuals revealed only minor changes, probably due to genetic polymorphisms. Our results indicate that defective profilaggrin expression in ichthyosis vulgaris is a result of selectively impaired posttranscriptional control.

  11. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  12. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  13. Results from field applications of controlled release bactericides on toxic mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorn, M.A.; Sobek, A.A.; Rastogi, V.

    1985-12-09

    Controlled release system employing batericides inhibitory to iron oxidizing bacteria (acidophilic Thiobacillus) can reduce acid generation in toxic mine waste for prolonged period of time. Designing systems to remain active for a number of years can allow the development of beneficial heterotrophic bacteria, enzymes, and mycorrhizae to establish a natural cycle mitigating acid generation. Field sites have been installed in Ohio and West Virginia using controlled release systems as part of reclamation. Refuse water quality, bacterial enumerations, and vegetation have been continuously monitored to establish time spans necessary for a natural cycle to take over. Described are the methods used and results obtained so far on the two oldest sites. Comparisons of various bactericides and their site-specific character are presented for use in reclamation projects and active mining operations. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results From a Multisite Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Block, Carolyn; Campbell, Doris; Curry, Mary Ann; Gary, Faye; Glass, Nancy; McFarlane, Judith; Sachs, Carolyn; Sharps, Phyllis; Ulrich, Yvonne; Wilt, Susan A.; Manganello, Jennifer; Xu, Xiao; Schollenberger, Janet; Frye, Victoria; Laughon, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This 11-city study sought to identify risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships. Methods. Proxies of 220 intimate partner femicide victims identified from police or medical examiner records were interviewed, along with 343 abused control women. Results. Preincident risk factors associated in multivariate analyses with increased risk of intimate partner femicide included perpetrator’s access to a gun and previous threat with a weapon, perpetrator’s stepchild in the home, and estrangement, especially from a controlling partner. Never living together and prior domestic violence arrest were associated with lowered risks. Significant incident factors included the victim having left for another partner and the perpetrator’s use of a gun. Other significant bivariate-level risks included stalking, forced sex, and abuse during pregnancy. Conclusions. There are identifiable risk factors for intimate partner femicides. PMID:12835191

  15. Jet mixing in low gravity - Results of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, M. D.; Meserole, J. S.; Knoll, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) is discussed with attention given to the results for controlling storage-tank pressures by forced-convective mixing in microgravitational environments. The fluid dynamics of cryogenic fluids in space is simulated with freon-113 during axial-jet-induced mixing. The experimental flow-pattern data are found to confirm previous data as well as existing mixing correlations. Thermal nonuniformities and tank pressure can be reduced by employing low-energy mixing jets which are useful for enhancing heat/mass transfer between phases. It is found that space cryogenic systems based on the principle of active mixing can be more reliable and predictable than other methods, and continuous or periodic mixing can be accomplished with only minor energy addition to the fluid.

  16. Preemptive Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether the initiation of treatment (preemptive treatment) before the symptoms of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) versus when the symptoms begin can improve the outcome in patients at a high risk for recurrence of severe NVP. Study Design. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Results. Preemptive therapy conferred a significant reduction in HG as compared to the previous pregnancy (P = 0.047). In the preemptive arm, there were 2.5-fold fewer cases of moderate-severe cases of NVP than those in the control group (15.4% versus 39.13%) in the first 3 weeks of NVP (P = 0.05). In the preemptive group, significantly more women had their NVP resolved before giving birth (78.2% versus 50%) (P < 0.002). Conclusions. Preemptive treatment with antiemetics is superior to the treatment that starts only when the symptoms have already occurred in decreasing the risk of severe forms of NVP. PMID:23476657

  17. Exploring the Earth's crust: history and results of controlled-source seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prodehl, Claus; Mooney, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive, worldwide history of seismological studies of the Earth’s crust using controlled sources from 1850 to 2005. Essentially all major seismic projects on land and the most important oceanic projects are covered. The time period 1850 to 1939 is presented as a general synthesis, and from 1940 onward the history and results are presented in separate chapters for each decade, with the material organized by geographical region. Each chapter highlights the major advances achieved during that decade in terms of data acquisition, processing technology, and interpretation methods. For all major seismic projects, the authors provide specific details on field observations, interpreted crustal cross sections, and key references. They conclude with global and continental-scale maps of all field measurements and interpreted Moho contours. An accompanying DVD contains important out-of-print publications and an extensive collection of controlled-source data, location maps, and crustal cross sections.

  18. Results from Testing Crew-Controlled Surface Telerobotics on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria; Schreckenghost, Debra; Pacis, Estrellina; Fong, Terrence; Kalar, Donald; Beutter, Brent

    2014-01-01

    During Summer 2013, the Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center conducted a series of tests to examine how astronauts in the International Space Station (ISS) can remotely operate a planetary rover. The tests simulated portions of a proposed lunar mission, in which an astronaut in lunar orbit would remotely operate a planetary rover to deploy a radio telescope on the lunar far side. Over the course of Expedition 36, three ISS astronauts remotely operated the NASA "K10" planetary rover in an analogue lunar terrain located at the NASA Ames Research Center in California. The astronauts used a "Space Station Computer" (crew laptop), a combination of supervisory control (command sequencing) and manual control (discrete commanding), and Ku-band data communications to command and monitor K10 for 11 hours. In this paper, we present and analyze test results, summarize user feedback, and describe directions for future research.

  19. Effect of bandwidth knowledge of results on the learning of a grip force control task.

    PubMed

    Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Ugrinowitsch, Alessandra Aguilar Coca; Benda, Rodolfo Novellino; Tertuliano, Ivan Wallan

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the persistence of the effect of "bandwidth knowledge of results (KR)" manipulated during the learning phase of performing a manual force-control task. The experiment consisted of two phases, an acquisition phase with the goal of maintaining 60% maximum force in 30 trials, and a second phase with the objective of maintaining 40% of maximum force in 20 further trials. There were four bandwidths of KR: when performance error exceeded 5, 10, or 15% of the target, and a control group (0% bandwidth). Analysis showed that 5, 10, and 15% bandwidth led to better performance than 0% bandwidth KR at the beginning of the second phase and persisted during the extended trials.

  20. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  1. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  2. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  3. Effects of acid deposition on paints and metals: Results of a controlled field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edney, E. O.; Cheek, S. F.; Stiles, D. C.; Corse, E. W.; Wheeler, M. L.; Spence, J. W.; Haynie, F. H.; Wilson, W. E.

    A controlled field study was conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC to determine the impact of acid deposition on paints and metals. A computer-controlled system was designed so that test panels of galvanized steel, five exterior paints and Teflon could be exposed under the following conditions: (1) dry deposition only; (2) dry plus ambient wet deposition; and (3) dry deposition plus deionized water. A 78-day, 11-rain-event exposure experiment was conducted in which ambient and DI run-off samples were collected from each material on a rain-event basis and chemically analyzed. The run-off results show that the dry and wet deposition of acidic species accelerates the dissolution rates of galvanized-steel corrosion products and alkaline compounds in exterior paints. CaCO 3 and ZnO in latex paints and Al in aluminum flake paint react with acids either directly deposited or produced in thin films of moisture covering the surfaces. The results indicate that the uptake of SO 2 into moisture is strongly influenced by the reactivity of the material towards H +. Galvanized steel was found to have the highest SO 2 deposition velocity, whereas an oil-based paint, containing no known alkaline compounds, had the smallest value. Run-off results also suggest that Zn corrosion products were dissolved in ambient precipitation by acids produced by dissolved CO 2.

  4. First irradiation tests results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Røed, K.; Alme, J.; Costa, F.; Lippmann, C.; Rehman, A. Ur; Nikolai Torsvik, I.; Kiss, T.; David, E.; Velure, A.; Bratrud, L.; Torgersen, C.; Röhrich, D.; Ullaland, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present the first results from irradiation tests performed on the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2). The RCU2 is developed in order to double the readout speed with respect to the present RCU1, which then will fulfil the requirements for LHC RUN2. While the present RCU1 is based on an SRAM based FPGA, whose configuration memory has shown to be sensitive to single event upsets, the newly released Flash-based Smartfusion2 FPGA from Microsemi has been chosen for the RCU2.

  5. Center for Disease Control Diagnostic Immunology Proficiency Testing Program results for 1978.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R N; Fulford, K M; Przybyszewski, V A; Pope, V

    1979-01-01

    Data from about 1,000 laboratories participating in the Diagnostic Immunology portion of the 1978 Center for Disease Control Proficiency Testing Program provided information dealing with laboratory performance and trends in testing protocols. Ninety specimens were distributed in scheduled quarterly and semiannual shipments, and five additional specimens were provided in a special survey. The specimens offered both qualitative and quantitative challenges for a wide variety of analytes which included syphilis serology, rheumatoid factor, bacterial agglutinins, hepatitis B surface antigen, immunoglobulins and other serum proteins, infectious mononucleosis, rubella, toxoplasma, antinuclear antibodies, and streptococcal exoenzymes. This paper summarizes the results of the 1978 program. PMID:230201

  6. Controlling decremental and inflationary effects in reliability estimation resulting from violations of assumptions.

    PubMed

    Becker, G

    2001-10-01

    Two assumptions in classical test theory, essential tau-equivalence and independence of measurement errors, when violated may produce attenuated or inflated estimates of reliability, respectively. Inflation stemming from correlated errors can be controlled by a procedure in which systematically created equivalent halves of a given measuring instrument are administered across two occasions. When poor approximations to equivalent halves are constructed for this purpose, however, distortion in the opposite direction may result, being sometimes quite large when measuring instruments are not essentially tau-equivalent (or, at the practical level, unidimensional). The nature of these decrements are discussed and illustrated, and a number of procedures for eliminating them introduced. PMID:11783569

  7. Results of solar electric thrust vector control system design, development and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector control system TVCS for a solar-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of solar electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a solar electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved solar electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by control computer software, a significant advantage in control capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.

  8. Flight Test Results for the F-16XL With a Digital Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowiak, Susan J.; Bosworth, John T.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1980s, two F-16 airplanes were modified to extend the fuselage length and incorporate a large area delta wing planform. These two airplanes, designated the F-16XL, were designed by the General Dynamics Corporation (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems) (Fort Worth, Texas) and were prototypes for a derivative fighter evaluation program conducted by the United States Air Force. Although the concept was never put into production, the F-16XL prototypes provided a unique planform for testing concepts in support of future high-speed supersonic transport aircraft. To extend the capabilities of this testbed vehicle the F-16XL ship 1 aircraft was upgraded with a digital flight control system. The added flexibility of a digital flight control system increases the versatility of this airplane as a testbed for aerodynamic research and investigation of advanced technologies. This report presents the handling qualities flight test results covering the envelope expansion of the F-16XL with the digital flight control system.

  9. Orion Guidance and Control Ascent Abort Algorithm Design and Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proud, Ryan W.; Bendle, John R.; Tedesco, Mark B.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    During the ascent flight phase of NASA s Constellation Program, the Ares launch vehicle propels the Orion crew vehicle to an agreed to insertion target. If a failure occurs at any point in time during ascent then a system must be in place to abort the mission and return the crew to a safe landing with a high probability of success. To achieve continuous abort coverage one of two sets of effectors is used. Either the Launch Abort System (LAS), consisting of the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) and the Abort Motor (AM), or the Service Module (SM), consisting of SM Orion Main Engine (OME), Auxiliary (Aux) Jets, and Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, is used. The LAS effectors are used for aborts from liftoff through the first 30 seconds of second stage flight. The SM effectors are used from that point through Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). There are two distinct sets of Guidance and Control (G&C) algorithms that are designed to maximize the performance of these abort effectors. This paper will outline the necessary inputs to the G&C subsystem, the preliminary design of the G&C algorithms, the ability of the algorithms to predict what abort modes are achievable, and the resulting success of the abort system. Abort success will be measured against the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) abort performance metrics and overall performance will be reported. Finally, potential improvements to the G&C design will be discussed.

  10. DOE Advanced Controls R&D Planning Workshop, June 11, 2003, Washington DC: Workshop Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    On June 11, 2003, representatives from universities, federal and state government agencies, Department of Energy national laboratories, and the private sector attended a one-day workshop in Washington, DC. The objective of the workshop was to review and provide input into DOE's assessment of the market for advanced sensors and controls technology and potential R&D pathways to enhance their success in the buildings market place. The workshop consisted of two sessions. During the morning session, participants were given an overview on the following topics: market assessment, current applications and strategies for new applications, sensors and controls, networking, security, and protocols and standards, and automated diagnostics, performance measurement, commissioning and optimal control and tools. In the sessions, workshop participants were asked to review the potential R&D pathways, identify high priority activities, and outline a five year path for each of these activities. Priorities were as follows: largest and quickest impact; best use of finite resources; greatest likelihood for market penetration; and ability to replicate results. The participants identified several promising R&D opportunities.

  11. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Three year results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Flanagan, David T.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Carr, Sandra E.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Huls, M. H.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    Two simulated spacecraft water systems are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of iodine for controlling microbial contamination within such systems. An iodine concentration of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained in one system by passing ultrapure water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Stainless steel coupons with electropolished and mechanically-polished sides are being used to monitor biofilm formation. Results after three years of operation show a single episode of significant bacterial growth in the iodinated system when the iodine level dropped to 1.9 mg/L. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin, thereby increasing the iodine level. The second batch of resin has remained effective in controlling microbial growth down to an iodine level of 1.0 mg/L. SEM indicates that the iodine has impeded but may have not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm. Metals analyses reveal some corrosion in the iodinated system after 3 years of continuous exposure. Significant microbial contamination has been present continuously in a parallel noniodinated system since the third week of operation.

  12. Worksite characteristics and changes in worksite tobacco-control initiatives. Results from the COMMIT study.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, G; Glasgow, R E; Topor, M; Corbett, K

    1997-06-01

    Few studies have prospectively examined the characteristics associated with worksite adoption of tobacco-control initiatives. Data were collected as part of the Community Intervention Trial (COMMIT) for Smoking Cessation, which conducted interventions in 11 communities. This smoking cessation intervention was based on community organization principles and delivered through multiple community channels, including worksites, health care providers, the media, and cessation resources. This article reports results from telephone interviews of intervention community worksites having 50 or more employees, conducted at baseline and the end of the intervention period. Among worksites that responded to both baseline and final surveys, 83% had not adopted a smoke-free policy at baseline, and 61% did not offer any cessation aid or quitting resources at baseline. By the final survey, 34% of those with no smoking ban at baseline had become smoke-free, and 36% of those offering no cessation assistance at baseline were offering cessation resources at the follow-up. The prevalence of policy adoption was higher among worksites employing more female employees and offering other health-promotion activities; manufacturing businesses were significantly less likely than businesses other than service and wholesale/retail businesses to adopt policies. Adoption of cessation programs was significantly more likely among worksites employing 100 to 249 workers, compared with those employing 50 to 99 workers; those predominantly employing men; those offering other types of health-promotion activities; and those with a higher rate of turnover. These results provide important information about the characteristics of worksites likely to engage in tobacco-control efforts. Health educators and others may choose to target those worksites most ready for adoption of tobacco control policies and programs, as indicated by these findings.

  13. Software Design Aspects and First Test Results of VLT Survey Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, M.; Schipani, P.; Marty, L.; Capaccioli, M.

    2006-08-01

    The 2.6 m VLT Survey Telescope (VST) is going to be installed at Cerro Paranal (Chile) as a powerful survey instrument for the ESO VLT. The tightest requirements to be respected for such a telescope, (large field of view of 1°x1°, pixel scale of 0.21 arcsec/pixel, and hosted in a one of the best worldwide astronomical sites), are basically very high performances of active optics and autoguiding systems and an excellent axes control, in order to obtain the best overall image quality of the telescope. The VST active optics software must basically provide the analysis of the image coming from the 10x10 subpupils Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor and the calculation of primary mirror forces and secondary mirror displacements to correct the intrinsic aberrations of the optical system and the ones originated for thermal or gravity reasons. The algorithm to select the guide star depends on the specific geometry of the adapter system. The adapter of the VST hosts many devices handled by the overall telescope control software: a probe system to select the guide star realized with motions in polar coordinates, a pickup mirror to fold the light to the image analysis and guiding cameras, a selectable reference light system and a focusing device. All these devices deeply interface with autoguiding, active optics and field rotation compensation systems. A reverse engineering approach mixed to the integration of new specific solutions has been fundamental to match the ESO commitments in terms of software re-use, in order to smoothen the integration of a new telescope designed and built by an external institute in the ESO environment. The control software architecture, the simulation code to validate the results and the status of work are here described. This paper includes also first results of preliminary tracking tests performed at the VST integration site for azimuth, altitude and rotator axes, that already match system quality requirements.

  14. Utilizing the pediatric emergency department to deliver tailored safety messages: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Wendy; McDonald, Eileen; McKenzie, Lara; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Walker, Allen R.; Gielen, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a computer kiosk intervention on parents’ self-reported safety knowledge and observed child safety seat, smoke alarm use and safe poison storage. To compare self-reported vs. observed behaviors. PATIENTS AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial with n=720 parents of young children (4mos–5yrs) was conducted in the pediatric emergency department (PED) of a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Enrolled parents received tailored safety information (intervention) or generic information (control) from a computer kiosk after completing a safety assessment. Parents were telephoned 4–6 months after the intervention to assess self-reported safety knowledge and behaviors; in-home observations were made one week after the phone interview for a subset of n=100 randomly selected participants. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) were compared between the intervention and control groups. RESULTS The intervention group had significantly higher smoke alarm (82% vs. 78%) and poison storage (83% vs. 78%) knowledge scores. The intervention group was more likely to report correct child safety seat use (OR=1.36; 95% CI=1.05, 1.77 p=.02). Observed safety behaviors were lower than self-reported use for both groups. No differences were found between groups for PPVs or NPVs. CONCLUSIONS These results add to the limited literature on the impact of computer tailoring home safety information. Knowledge gains were evident four months post intervention. Discrepancies between observed and self-reported behavior are concerning, as the quality of a tailored intervention depends on the accuracy of participant self-reporting. Improved measures should be developed to encourage accurate reporting of safety behaviors. PMID:23603653

  15. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  16. Productivity of Pair Programming in a Distributed Environment - Results from Two Controlled Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietinen, Sami; Tenhunen, Vesa; Tukiainen, Markku

    Several methods and techniques have surfaced to address the ongoing concerns of quality and productivity of software development. Among these is the Pair Programming (PP) method, which has gained a lot off attention through being an essential part of an agile software development methodology called the eXtreme Programming (XP). In this paper, we present the results of two controlled case studies that investigate the possible productivity improvement through the incorporation of PP over solo programming. The main focus is on implementation task, more specifically in programming, although PP is suitable for other tasks too. Our results show that very high level of PP use might be difficult to achieve in a very tightly scheduled software development project, but some of the benefits can be seen to come true even with proportional use of PP. In our case, PP added the additional effort of 13% over solo programming.

  17. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  18. Mercury emissions control by wet FGD systems: EPRI pilot-scale results

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Seeger, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents results from pilot-scale tests that investigated mercury removal across wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The program was conducted at EPRIs Environmental Control Technology Center, located in Barker, NY. The test results showed that mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) was efficiently removed across the FGD system, while elemental mercury was not collected. The practical implication of this study is that although FGD systems efficiently remove some forms of mercury from flue gas, the overall mercury removal efficiency, and therefore the total mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant equipped with an FGD system, will depend on the chemical form of the mercury in the flue gas. Unfortunately, no validated gas sampling method is available for speciating the different forms of mercury in flue gas. It is, therefore, difficult to predict mercury removal across FGD systems and to interpret any mercury removal data that have been collected.

  19. Child pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: results of community surveillance and a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, J. F.; Hooten, E. G.; Brown, K. A.; Peek-Asa, C.; Heye, C.; McArthur, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the dimensions of childhood pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in Long Beach, California, and to identify risk factors for these injuries. POPULATION: Long Beach residents aged 0-14 years who were involved in an auto versus pedestrian or bicyclist incident that resulted in a hospital visit and/or police response, between 1 September 1988 and 31 August 1990. METHODS: Cases were identified retrospectively using hospital charts, police records, and coroner's reports; demographic, clinical, and situational information were abstracted from the same. A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the street environments where children were injured, and to identify environmental risk factors at these case sites. RESULTS: 288 children comprised the sample population. Midblock dart-outs emerged as the single most common type of incident. Most incidents happened on residential streets, but the risk of injury was greatest on larger boulevards, and tended to cluster by region within the city. Adjusted odds ratios show that case sites had a larger proportion of traffic exceeding posted speed limits, and were also four times more likely to be near a convenience store, gas station, or fast food store than control sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest three possible routes for the prevention of childhood pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: education, law enforcement, and environmental modification. PMID:9346093

  20. Preliminary Results of Stability and Control Investigation of the Bell X-5 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Thomas W; Briggs, Donald W

    1953-01-01

    During the acceptance tests of the Bell X-5 airplane, measurements of the static stability and control characteristics and horizontal-tail loads were obtained by the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station. The results of the stability and control measurements are presented in this paper. A change in sweep angle between 20 deg and 59 deg had a minor effect on the longitudinal trim, with a maximum change of about 2.5 deg in elevator deflection being required at a Mach number near 0.85; however, sweeping the wings produced a total stick-force change of about 40 pounds. At low Mach numbers there was a rapid increase in stability at high normal-force coefficients for both 20 0 and 1100 sweepback, whereas a condition of neutral stability existed for 58 0 sweepback at high normal-force coefficients. At Mach numbers near 0.8 there was an instability at normal-force coefficients above 0.5 for all sweep angles tested. In the low normal-force-coefficient range a high degree of stability resulted in high stick forces which limited the maximum load factors attainable in the demonstration flights to values under 5g for all sweep angles at a Mach number near 0.8 and an altitude of 12,000 feet. The aileron effectiveness at 200 sweepback was found to be low over the Mach number range tested.

  1. Transport of fluorobenzoate tracers in a vegetated hydrologic control volume: 1. Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, Pierre; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carraro, Luca; Botter, Gianluca; Miglietta, Franco; Rao, P. S. C.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports about the experimental evidence collected on the transport of five fluorobenzoate tracers injected under controlled conditions in a vegetated hydrologic volume, a large lysimeter (fitted with load cells, sampling ports, and an underground chamber) where two willows prompting large evapotranspiration fluxes had been grown. The relevance of the study lies in the direct and indirect measures of the ways in which hydrologic fluxes, in this case, evapotranspiration from the upper surface and discharge from the bottom drainage, sample water and solutes in storage at different times under variable hydrologic forcings. Methods involve the accurate control of hydrologic inputs and outputs and a large number of suitable chemical analyses of water samples in discharge waters. Mass extraction from biomass has also been performed ex post. The results of the 2 year long experiment established that our initial premises on the tracers' behavior, known to be sorption-free under saturated conditions which we verified in column leaching tests, were unsuitable as large differences in mass recovery appeared. Issues on reactivity thus arose and were addressed in the paper, in this case attributed to microbial degradation and solute plant uptake. Our results suggest previously unknown features of fluorobenzoate compounds as hydrologic tracers, potentially interesting for catchment studies owing to their suitability for distinguishable multiple injections, and an outlook on direct experimental closures of mass balance in hydrologic transport volumes involving fluxes that are likely to sample differently stored water and solutes.

  2. [Correction of pronounced plagiocephaly with orthosis : results of a prospective follow-up control].

    PubMed

    Yacoub, A; von Salis-Soglio, G; Heyde, C-E

    2013-11-01

    For the treatment of pronounced deformational plagiocephaly in infants different therapeutic options are under discussion in the literature. This article presents a prospective observational study of 45 infants enrolled with distinct plagiocephaly and treated with a custom-made helmet orthosis. Treatment with the helmet orthosis was indicated by a difference in the skull diagonals of more than 0.5 cm or a cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) index > 3.5. The follow-up results were controlled with the help of a mobile spatial laser scanner and the CVA index and the skull deformity were measured. The average duration of treatment was 131 days. The CVA index improved from 9.95 to a normal value of 3.35 (median) and the skull deformity improved from 1.3 cm to 0.5 cm (median). The only side effects observed were easily treatable pressure marks. The results of this study reveal that pronounced deformational plagiocephaly can be successfully treated with a custom-made helmet orthosis and closely controlled monitoring.

  3. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits.

  4. Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Levis, Alexander W.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7). Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases. Conclusions The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice. PMID:27058355

  5. Event related potentials study of aberrations in voice control mechanisms in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Tapaskar, Natalie; Pflieger, Mark E.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Lodhavia, Anjli; Patel, Sona; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study was designed to test for neural signs of impulsivity related to voice motor control in young adults with ADHD and healthy control young adults using EEG recordings in a voice pitch perturbation paradigm. Methods Two age-matched groups of young adults were presented with brief pitch shifts of auditory feedback during vocalization. Compensatory behavioral and corresponding bioelectrical brain responses were elicited by the pitch-shifted voice feedback. Results The analysis of bioelectrical responses showed that the ADHD group had shorter peak and onset latency of motor-related bioelectrical brain responses as compared to the controls. Conclusions These results were interpreted to suggest differences in executive functions between ADHD and control participants. Significance We hypothesize that more rapid motor-related bioelectrical responses found in the present study may be a manifestation of impulsiveness in adults with ADHD at the involuntary level of voice control. PMID:25308310

  6. Control of rapid hypothermia induction by total liquid ventilation: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Walti, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) consists in cooling the body temperature of a patient to between 32 and 34 °C. This technique helps to preserve tissues and neurological functions in multi-organ failure by preventing ischemic injury. Total liquid ventilation (TLV) ensures gas exchange in the lungs with a liquid, typically perfluorocarbon (PFC). A liquid ventilator is responsible for ensuring cyclic renewal of tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Hence, TLV using the lung as a heat exchanger and PFC as a heat carrier allows ultra fast cooling of the whole body which can help improve outcome after ischemic injuries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the control performance and safety of automated ultrarapid MTH induction by TLV. Experimentation was conducted using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator equipped with a PFC treatment unit that allows PFC cooling and heating from the flow of energy carrier water inside a double wall installed on an oxygenator. A water circulating bath is used to manage water temperature. A feedback controller was developed to modulate inspired PFC temperature and control body temperature. Such a controller is important since, with MTH induction, heart temperature should not reach 28 °C because of a high risk of fibrillation. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on a male newborn lamb of 4.7 kg which, after anesthetization, was submitted to conventional gas ventilation and instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, oesophagus, right ear drum and rectum. After stabilization, TLV was initiated with fast automated MTH induction to 33.5 °C until stabilization of all temperatures. MTH could be reached safely in 3 minutes at the femoral artery, in 3.6 minutes at the esophagus, in 7.7 minutes at the eardrum and in 15 minutes at the rectum. All temperatures were stable at 33.5 ± 0.5 °C within 15 minutes. The present results reveal that ultra-fast MTH induction by TLV with Inolivent-5

  7. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K.

    1996-03-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study.

  8. An improvement in IMRT QA results and beam matching in linacs using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Gagneur, Justin D; Ezzell, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of statistical process control (SPC) in the context of patient specific intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA to set clinic-specific action limits and evaluate the impact of changes to the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibrations on IMRT QA results. Ten months of IMRT QA data with 247 patient QAs collected on three beam-matched linacs were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on the gamma pass rate (GPR) and the average ratio between the measured and planned doses. Initial control charts and action limits were calculated. Based on this data, changes were made to the leaf gap parameter for the MLCs to improve the consistency between linacs. This leaf gap parameter is tested monthly using a MLC sweep test. A follow-up dataset with 424 unique QAs were used to evaluate the impact of the leaf gap parameter change. The initial data average GPR was 98.6% with an SPC action limit of 93.7%. The average ratio of doses was 1.003, with an upper action limit of 1.017 and a lower action limit of 0.989. The sweep test results for the linacs were -1.8%, 0%, and +1.2% from nominal. After the adjustment of the leaf gap parameter, all sweep test results were within 0.4% of nominal. Subsequently, the average GPR was 99.4% with an SPC action limit of 97.3%. The average ratio of doses was 0.997 with an upper action limit of 1.011 and a lower action limit of 0.981. Applying the principles of SPC to IMRT QA allowed small differences between closely matched linacs to be identified and reduced. Ongoing analysis will monitor the process and be used to refine the clinical action limits for IMRT QA. PMID:25207579

  9. Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

  10. Results from an evaluation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, PinPin; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla; Kegler, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale international events such as World Expos and Olympic Games have the potential to strengthen smoke-free norms globally. The Shanghai 2010 World Expo was one of the first large-scale events to implement and evaluate the adoption of strict tobacco control policies. Objective To evaluate implementation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China. Methods This mixed methods evaluation was conducted from July to October 2010. Observations were conducted in all 155 pavilions and outdoor queuing areas, all 45 souvenir shops, a random sample of restaurants (51 of 119) and selected outdoor non-smoking areas in all sections of the Expo. In addition, intercept surveys were completed with 3022 visitors over a 4-month period. Results All pavilions and souvenir shops were smoke-free. Restaurants were smoke-free, with only 0.1% of customers observed smoking. Smoking was more common in outdoor non-smoking areas, but still relatively rare overall with only 4.5% of visitors observed smoking. Tobacco products were not sold or marketed in any public settings except for three pavilions that had special exemptions from the policy. Overall, 80.3% of visitors were aware of the smoke-free policy at the World Expo, 92.5% of visitors supported the policy and 97.1% of visitors were satisfied with the smoke-free environment. Conclusions Tobacco control policies at the World Expo sites were generally well-enforced and accepted although compliance was not 100%, particularly in outdoor non-smoking areas. PMID:23708269

  11. Inhibition control and working memory capacity in children with SLI

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Kelmenson, Lyudmyla; Pinkhasova, Milana

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the “inefficient inhibition hypothesis” (IIH; Bjorklund & Harnishfeger, 1990; Wilson & Kipp, 1998) in three groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), age-matched and language-matched controls. The IIH suggests that individuals with efficient inhibition skills perform better on working memory tasks because they are able to keep out irrelevant information from working memory. Children with SLI show processing capacity limitations. This study examined whether the working memory limitations are impacted by inhibition problems in this population. Working memory capacity was measured with a listening span task and children’s inhibition errors were categorized. These errors reflected either immediate or delayed inhibition problems and they indicated either contextual distractions or perseverations. Children with SLI produced more inhibition errors than their peers in most categories. The results show an association between inhibition control and working memory capacity, but the direction of causality is not clear. PMID:18545677

  12. [Preliminary results of testing The WHO Guidelines for Tuberculosis Control in the Republic of Chuvashia].

    PubMed

    Voziakova, T R; Afanas'eva, L V; Steblovskaia, O E; Pikusova, M I; Kocherova, I V

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the first results of introduction of the WHO recommendations for tuberculosis control in the Republic of Chuvashia. The total number of studies performed in the general therapeutic network and in tuberculosis facilities has increased by 1.3 and 1.5 times, respectively. The microscopic diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum has improved, increasing the detection rate of tuberculosis from the smear, particularly in the general network, from 2.2% to 24.2%, but at the same time leading to higher morbidity in the republic. There has been improvement of the efficiency of treatment in patients by the generally accepted statistical indicators: abacillation by 19.7%, decay cavity closure by 11.3%, and being taken off the book of bacterial isolates by 15%. On completion of intensive-phase treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, negative sputum tests have been 84.7% in the tuberculosis facilities and 91.7% in the Federal Services penitentiaries. The interaction has become better between the penitentiary system and the tuberculosis-controlling service. PMID:16850916

  13. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

  14. Melanoma and occupation: results of a case-control study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, P J; Scholte, R; Groenendal, H; Kiemeney, L A; Rampen, F H; Ruiter, D J; Verbeek, A L

    1993-07-01

    Several studies have reported excesses of risk of melanoma in specific industries. Data from a case-control study in The Netherlands, including 140 cases with a cutaneous melanoma and 181 controls with other types of malignancy, were used to evaluate whether the reported associations with these specific industries could be reproduced. Adjustment for characteristics of pigmentation and exposure to sunlight was made. Increased risks of cutaneous melanoma were found for subjects who had ever worked in the electronics industry (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.63-6.62), in the metal industry (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 0.96-7.10), and in the transport and communication branch (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 0.84-4.35). These ORs were adjusted for age, sex, education, hair colour, tendency to burn, freckling, and exposure to sunlight. No increased risks were seen for workers in the chemical industry, the textile industry, and among health care workers. Analyses according to duration and latency of exposure did not give consistent results, but existing patterns may be obscured by the imprecision of the estimates. PMID:8343426

  15. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Acarturk, Ceren; Konuk, Emre; Cetinkaya, Mustafa; Senay, Ibrahim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cuijpers, Pim; Aker, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Background The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15) or wait-list control (n=14). The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64). The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92). Conclusion The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost-) effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed. PMID:25989952

  16. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis.

  17. Updated Results of Deterministic Reconfigurable Control Design for the X-33 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotting, M. Christopher; Burken, John J.

    1999-01-01

    In the event of a control surface failure, the purpose of a reconfigurable control system is to redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces such that satisfactory stability and performance are retained. An Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization approach was used for the reconfigurable X-33 control design method. Three examples of failure are shown using a high fidelity 6 DOF simulation (case 1: ascent with a left body flap jammed at 25 deg.; case 2: entry with a right inboard elevon jam at 25 deg. and case 3: landing (TAEM) (Terminal Area Energy Management) with a left rudder jam at -30 deg.) Failure comparisons between responses with the nominal controller and reconfigurable controllers show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single jam aerosurface failures were considered, and failure detection and identification is considered accomplished in the actuator controller. The X-33 flight control system will incorporate reconfigurable flight control in the baseline system.

  18. Integrated CO2, Humidity and Thermal Control by Membrane Gas Absorption, Results of Breadboard Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel, C.; Eckhard, F.; Feron, P. H. M.; Savage, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    evaporation and the CO2 desorption rate can be controlled by a throttle valve in the venting duct to the vacuum side. In the presentation, the results of tests with a breadboard model will be presented.

  19. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L.; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. Trial Design Randomized controlled trial. Methods We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100) or standard of care (control group, n = 100). Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups. Results Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0–50.0); 94 (47%) were females, 106 (53%) were males, and 49 (24.5%) were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7–65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2–32.5%, in the control group, p <0.0001), an increase in volume of specimen defined as a volume ≥3ml (78%, 95% CI 68.6–85.7%, versus 45%, 95% CI 35.0–55.3%, p <0.0001), and specimens less likely to be salivary (14%, 95% CI 7.9–22.4%, versus 39%, 95% CI 29.4–49.3%, p = 0.0001). Older age, but not the HIV status or sex, modified the effectiveness of the intervention by improving it positively. When asked how well the video instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%). Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%). Conclusions Sputum submission instructional videos increased

  20. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: Results in gel phantoms

    PubMed Central

    N’Djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. Methods: The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm3) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm−2. Results: Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm−2 reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm3 min−1. A dual-frequency 4.6/14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. Conclusions: This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat

  1. Results and Insights on the Impact of Smoke on Digital Instrumentation and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T. J.; Nowlen, S. P.

    2001-01-31

    Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital instrumentation and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The major effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents (through circuit bridging across contacts and leads) and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This report summarizes two previous reports and presents new results from conformal coating, memory chip, and hard drive tests. The report describes practices for mitigation of smoke damage through digital system design, fire barriers, ventilation, fire suppressants, and post fire procedures.

  2. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember s health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, realtime EVA.

  3. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember's health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, real-time EVA.

  4. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Two-year results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Carr, Sandra E.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Svoboda, Judy V.; Huls, M. H.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of iodine to maintain microbial water quality in a simulated spacecraft water system is being studied. An iodine level of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained by passing ultrapure influent water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Six liters are withdrawn daily and the chemical and microbial quality of the water is monitored regularly. Stainless steel coupons used to monitor biofilm formation are being analyzed by culture methods, epifluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results from the first two years of operation show a single episode of high bacterial colony counts in the iodinated system. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has limited but not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm during the first two years of operation. Significant microbial contamination has been present continuously in a parallel noniodinated system since the third week of operation.

  5. Plasma potential control: initial results from tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, E.B. Jr.

    1984-02-28

    Initial plasma potential control experiments used plates in the end fan, insulated from the end walls of TMX-U, which mapped along field lines to the plasma core (r/sub c/ less than or equal to 12.9 cm). Measurements in which these plates are shorted to ground during plugging demonstrate that floating the plates increases the buildup rate of the central cell plasma, steepens the core density profile, and affects the plasma throughout the entire cross section. Floating the plates decreases the ion radial transport rate in the core by a factor of at least 1.5. Because of these encouraging results, in the next series of experiments more plates will be added, extending to a larger radius (r/sub c/ less than or equal to 19.4 cm).

  6. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

  7. Using Engine Thrust for Emergency Flight Control: MD-11 and B-747 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Bull, John

    1998-01-01

    With modern digital control systems, using engine thrust for emergency flight control to supplement or replace failed aircraft normal flight controls has become a practical consideration. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control. An F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight control surfaces. Preliminary studies have also been conducted that show that engines on only one wing can provide some flight control capability if the lateral center of gravity can be shifted toward the side of the airplane that has the operating engine(s). Simulator tests of several airplanes with no flight control surfaces operating and all engines out on the left wing have all shown positive control capability within the available range of lateral center-of-gravity offset. Propulsion-controlled aircraft systems that can operate without modifications to engine control systems, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at low cost, are also desirable. Further studies have examined simplified 'PCA Lite' and 'PCA Ultralite' concepts in which thrust control is provided by existing systems such as auto-throttles or a combination of existing systems and manual pilot control.

  8. Peak Seeking Control for Reduced Fuel Consumption with Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation project seeks to accomplish the simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise, and emissions. A project at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is contributing to ERAs goals by exploring the practical application of real-time trim configuration optimization for enhanced performance and reduced fuel consumption. This peak-seeking control approach is based on Newton-Raphson algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of the performance function. In real-time operation, deflection of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of a modified F-18 are directly optimized, and the horizontal stabilators and angle of attack are indirectly optimized. Preliminary results from three research flights are presented herein. The optimization system found a trim configuration that required approximately 3.5% less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the given flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These preliminary results show the algorithm has good performance and is expected to show similar results at other flight conditions and aircraft configurations.

  9. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  10. Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer and occupation: results of a case control-study.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Leclerc, A; Luce, D; Morcet, J F; Brugère, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain whether certain occupations are associated with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. METHODS: A hospital based case-control study was carried out in 15 hospitals in France. It included 528 male cases diagnosed between January 1989 and April 1991, and 305 male controls with various other types of cancer. Interviews were carried out to obtain lifetime job histories and information on potential confounders. Logistic regression was used to compute the odds ratios (OR) for each of about 80 occupations and industries. RESULTS: There was an excess risk of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer among service workers (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 3.9), agricultural and animal husbandry workers (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.8), miners and quarrymen (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.3), plumbers and pipe fitters (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 8.1), glass formers and potters (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 18) transport equipment operators (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5), and unskilled workers (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9). Analysis by industrial branch showed an excess risk for coal mining (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1), manufacture of metal products (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.3), and administration and sanitary services (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that occupational exposure might have a role in generating laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, and indicate the need for further evaluation of these findings, an for the identification of the carcinogens which might account for the excess risks found for certain occupations. PMID:9282123

  11. Preliminary Flight Results of a Fly-by-throttle Emergency Flight Control System on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies were followed by flight tests. The principles of throttles only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including actual landings with throttles-only control are discussed.

  12. Preliminary flight test results of a fly-by-throttle emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. G.; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies have been followed by flight tests. This paper discusses the principles of throttles-only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including landing approaches with throttles-only control to within 10 ft of the ground.

  13. Family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa: the results of a controlled comparison of two family interventions.

    PubMed

    Eisler, I; Dare, C; Hodes, M; Russell, G; Dodge, E; Le Grange, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomised treatment trial of two forms of outpatient family intervention for anorexia nervosa. Forty adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa were randomly assigned to "conjoint family therapy" (CFT) or to "separated family therapy" (SFT) using a stratified design controlling for levels of critical comments using the Expressed Emotion index. The design required therapists to undertake both forms of treatment and the distinctiveness of the two therapies was ensured by separate supervisors conducting live supervision of the treatments. Measures were undertaken on admission to the study, at 3 months, at 6 months and at the end of treatment. Considerable improvement in nutritional and psychological state occurred across both treatment groups. On global measure of outcome, the two forms of therapy were associated with equivalent end of treatment results. However, for those patients with high levels of maternal criticism towards the patient, the SFT was shown to be superior to the CFT. When individual status measures were explored, there were further differences between the treatments. Symptomatic change was more marked in the SFT whereas there was considerably more psychological change in the CFT group. There were significant changes in family measures of Expressed Emotion. Critical comments between parents and patient were significantly reduced and that between parents was also diminished. Warmth between parents increased.

  14. Glacier-terminus fluctuations in the Wrangell and Chugach mountains resulting from non-climate controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, M.; Hall, D.K.; Benson, C.S.; Field, W.O.

    1992-03-01

    Non-climatically controlled fluctuations of glacier termini were studied in two regions in Alaska. In the Wrangell Mountains, eight glaciers on Mt. Wrangell, an active volcano, have been monitored over the past 30 years using terrestrial surveys, aerial photogrammetry and digitally registered satellite images. Results, which are consistent between different methods of measurement, indicate that the termini of most glaciers were stationary or had retreated slightly. However, the termini of the 30-km-long Ahtna Glacier and the smaller Center and South MacKeith glaciers began to advance in the early 1960s and have advanced steadily at rates between 5 and 18 m yr-1 since then. These three glaciers flow from the summit caldera of ML Wrangell near the active North Crater, where increased volcanic heating since 1964 has melted over 7 x 107 M3 of ice. The authors suspect that volcanic meltwater has changed the basal conditions for the glaciers, resulting in their advance. In College Fjord, Prince William Sound, the terminus fluctuations of two tidewater glaciers have been monitored since 1931 by terrestrial surveying, photogrammetry, and most recently, from satellite imagery. Harvard Glacier, a 40-kmlong tidewater glacier, has been advancing steadily at nearly 20 m yr-1 since 1931, while the adjacent Yale Glacier has retreated at approximately 50 m yr-1 during the same period, though for short periods, both rates have been much higher.

  15. Factors controlling short-term soil microbial response after laboratory heating. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Jordán, Antonio; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial response after fire is controlled by numerous variables which conclude with a mosaic of results depending on organic carbon alterations or pH fire-induced changes. This fact has complicated the studies focused on post-fire microbial response, compiling high variability of opposite result in the bibliography. Soil laboratory heating cannot emulate a real wildfire effect on soil but lead us the possibility to control several variables and it is a valid tool to clarify the relative weight of different factors controlling microbial response after soil heating. In this preliminary study different heated treatments were applied to unaltered forest soil samples, obtaining 4 different heating treatments to simulate a range of fire intensities: unaltered-control (UH), and soil heated at 300, 450 and 500 °C. In order to isolate possible nutrient availability or pH heating-induced changes, different culture media were prepared using soil:water extract from each heating treatments and adding different supplements to obtain the total of 11 different culture media: unheated soil without supplements (UH-N-), unheated soil with nutrient supplement (UH-N+), soil heated at 300 °C without supplements (300-N-), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement (300-N+), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (300-N+pH); soil heated at 450 °C without supplements (450-N-), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement (450-N+), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (450-N+); soil heated at 500 °C without supplements (500-N-), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement (500-N+), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (500-N+). Each media was inoculated with different dilutions of a microbial suspension from the original unaltered soil, and the abundance of viable and cultivable microorganisms were measured by plate count method. In addition, the analysis of heating-induced soil organic

  16. Lung cancer in lifetime nonsmoking men – results of a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, M; Gerken, M; Kreienbrock, L; Wellmann, J; Wichmann, H E

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of lung cancer among nonsmoking men are few. This case–control study was conducted among lifetime nonsmoking men between 1990 and 1996 in Germany to examine lung cancer risk in relation to occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, residential radon, family history of cancer and previous lung disease. A total of 58 male cases with confirmed primary lung cancer and 803 male population controls who had never smoked more than 400 cigarettes in their lifetime were personally interviewed by a standardized questionnaire. In addition, 1-year radon measurements in the living and bedroom of the subjects' last dwelling were carried out. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Having ever worked in a job with known lung carcinogens was associated with a two-fold significantly increased lung cancer risk (OR = 2.2; Cl = 1.0–5.0), adjusted for age and region. The linear trend test for lung-cancer risk associated with radon exposure was close to statistical significance, demonstrating an excess relative risk for an increase in exposure of 100 Bq m−3 of 0.43 (P = 0.052). Nonsignificantly elevated effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in public transportation and in social settings were observed. No associations with a family history of cancer or previous lung diseases were found. Our results indicate that occupational carcinogens and indoor radon may play a role in some lung cancers in nonsmoking men. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11139328

  17. Posture and balance control in patients with acromegaly: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Silva, Débora Pedroza Guedes; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic debilitating disease that presents with multiple systemic manifestations, including changes in body composition, joint abnormalities, muscular impairment and visual disturbances. This study aimed to assess posture and body balance in acromegalic patients and to establish the correlation between these measures. Twenty-eight acromegalic patients and a similar number of control subjects matched for sex, age, weight, height and body mass index underwent postural evaluation using the photogrammetry and measurement of balance using the stabilometry in two tasks: feet apart, eyes open and feet together, eyes closed. In comparison with the control group, the acromegalic group presented postural deviations in lateral views in the vertical alignment of the trunk (P=0.001 for the right side and P=0.021 for the left), the hip angle (P=0001 for the right side and P=0.016 for the left side) and horizontal alignment of the pelvis (P=0.017 for the right and P<0.001 for the left side). Compared with healthy subjects, the acromegalic patients presented displacement of the centre of pressure in both the anterior-posterior direction and the medial-lateral direction in both evaluated tasks. We observed significant correlations between balance measures and the following posture evaluation variables: distance between the lower limbs, horizontal alignment of the head and vertical alignment of the head. Our results suggest that posture and balance need to be evaluated for acromegalic patients in clinical practice, as there are significant postural imbalances and deviations in these patients. PMID:24708904

  18. Spatio-temporal anomalous diffusion imaging: results in controlled phantoms and in excised human meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Capuani, Silvia; Palombo, Marco; Gabrielli, Andrea; Orlandi, Augusto; Maraviglia, Bruno; Pastore, Francesco S

    2013-04-01

    Recently, we measured two anomalous diffusion (AD) parameters: the spatial and the temporal AD indices, called γ and α, respectively, by using spectroscopic pulse gradient field methods. We showed that γ quantifies pseudo-superdiffusion processes, while α quantifies subdiffusion processes. Here, we propose γ and α maps obtained in a controlled heterogeneous phantom, comprised of packed micro-beads in water and in excised human meningiomas. In few words, α maps represent the multi-scale spatial distribution of the disorder degree in the system, while γ maps are influenced by local internal gradients, thus highlighting the interface between compartments characterized by different magnetic susceptibility. γ maps were already obtained by means of AD stretched exponential imaging and α-type maps have been recently achieved for fixed rat brain with the aim of highlighting the fractal dimension of specific brain regions. However, to our knowledge, the maps representative of the spatial distribution of α and γ obtained on the same controlled sample and in the same excised tissue have never been compared. Moreover, we show here, for the first time, that α maps are representative of the spatial distribution of the disorder degree of the system. In a first phase, γ and α maps of controlled phantom characterized by an ordered and a disordered rearrangement of packed micro-beads of different sizes in water and by different magnetic susceptibility (Δχ) between beads and water were obtained. In a second phase, we investigated excised human meningiomas of different consistency. Results reported here, obtained at 9.4T, show that α and γ maps are characterized by a different image contrast. Indeed, unlike γ maps, α maps are insensible to (Δχ) and they are sensible to the disorder degree of the microstructural rearrangement. These observations strongly suggest that AD indices α and γ reflect some additional microstructural information which cannot be obtained

  19. The chronic kidney disease Water Intake Trial (WIT): results from the pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Clark, William F; Sontrop, Jessica M; Huang, Shih-Han; Gallo, Kerri; Moist, Louise; House, Andrew A; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Increased water intake may benefit kidney function. Prior to initiating a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT), we examined the safety and feasibility of asking adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to increase their water intake. Design, setting, participants and measurements Beginning in October 2012, we randomly assigned 29 adults with stage 3 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria) to one of the two groups of water intake: hydration (n=18) or standard (n=11). We asked the hydration group to increase their water intake by 1.0–1.5 L/day (in addition to usual intake, depending on sex and weight) for 6 weeks, while the control group carried on with their usual intake. Participants collected a 24 h urine sample at baseline and at 2 and 6 weeks after randomisation. Our primary outcome was the between-group difference in change in 24 h urine volume from baseline to 6 weeks. Results (63%)of participants were men, 81% were Caucasians and the average age was 61 years (SD 14 years). The average baseline eGFR was 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD 11 mL/min/1.73 m2); the median albumin to creatinine ratio was 19 mg/mmol (IQR 6–74 mg/mmol). Between baseline and 6-week follow-up, the hydration group's average 24 h urine volume increased by 0.7 L/day (from 2.3 to 3.0 L/day) and the control group's 24 h urine decreased by 0.3 L/day (from 2.0 to 1.7 L/day; between-group difference in change: 0.9 L/day (95% CI 0.4 to 1.5; p=0.002)). We found no significant changes in urine, serum osmolality or electrolyte concentrations, or eGFR. No serious adverse events or changes in quality of life were reported. Conclusions A pilot RCT indicates adults with stage 3 CKD can successfully and safely increase water intake by up to 0.7 L/day in addition to usual fluid intake. Trial registration Registered with Clinical Trials—government identifier NCT01753466. PMID:24362012

  20. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS--SITE 2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; S. Miller; C. Richardson; K. Searcy

    2000-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests are being conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit is being used to test the activity of four different catalysts for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, was completed in December 1998. Testing at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, was completed in the fall of 1999, and testing at the third site, which fires a high-sulfur bituminous coal, will begin in early 2000. This technical note reports results from Site 2; results from Site 1 were reported in a previous technical note. At Site 2, catalysts were tested in several forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in more commercially viable forms such as extruded beads and coated honeycomb structures. This technical note presents results from Site 2 for both the sand bed reactors and commercial catalyst forms. Site 3 results are not yet available, but should be available late in the year 2000. Field testing is being supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and to investigate methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the

  1. Field testing results for the strategic petroleum reserve pipeline corrosion control program

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.; Maestas, L.M.; Hinkebein, T.E.

    1998-02-01

    Results of two studies conducted as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Pipeline Corrosion Control Program are reported. These studies focused on evaluation of rotary-applied concrete materials for internal pipeline protection against the erosive and corrosive effects of flowing brine. The study also included evaluation of liners applied by hand on pipe pieces that cannot be lined by rotary methods. Such pipe pieces include tees, elbows and flanged pipe sections. Results are reported from a corrosion survey of 17 different liner formulations tested at the-Big-Rill SPR Site. Testing consisted of electrochemical corrosion rate measurements made on lined pipe sections exposed, in a test manifold, to flowing SPR generated fluids. Testing also involved cumulative immersion exposure where samples were exposed to static site-generated brine for increasing periods of time. Samples were returned to the laboratory for various diagnostic analyses. Results of this study showed that standard calcium silicate concrete (API RP10E) and a rotary calcium aluminate concrete formulation were excellent performers. Hand-lined pipe pieces did not provide as much corrosion protection. The focus of the second part of the study was on further evaluation of the calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and hand-applied liners in actual SPR equipment and service. It was a further objective to assess the practicality of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for field corrosion monitoring of concrete lined pipe compared to the more well-known linear polarization technique. This study showed that concrete linings reduced the corrosion rate for bare steel from 10 to 15 mils per year to 1 mil per year or less. Again, the hand-applied liners did not provide as much corrosion protection as the rotary-applied liners. The EIS technique was found to be robust for field corrosion measurements. Mechanistic and kinetic corrosion rate data were reliably obtained.

  2. The Role of Parameters Controlling Tectonically Erosive and Accretive Forearcs - Results of 2D Sandbox Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrmann, J.; Kukowski, N.; Adam, J.; Oncken, O.

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify and quantify the influence of the mechanical parameters controlling the mass transfer modes in the brittle part of tectonically erosive and accretive forearc settings. With scaled analogue sandbox experiments we studied the influence of the amount of sediment supply, the presence of mechanically weak layers as potential detachment, the properties of the subduction interface as well as the distribution of the vertical load in the wedge on both systems, the tectonically erosive and accretive. The results of the experiments without any backward material loss lead to a hierarchical control of the investigated parameters. Sediment supply is the main parameter: As soon as sediments enter the trench on top of the oceanic plate, accretive mass transfer will occur under any mechanical constraints. A non-accretive mass transfer occurs in the case of no sediment supply. Basal properties, i.e. friction and roughness of the basal subduction interface, exert a major influence on both, the accretive and the erosive systems: They determine the capability to underthrust material beneath the wedge. In non-accretive systems, significant roughness of the basal interface and therewith a high basal friction leads to tectonic erosion, whereas a smooth basal interface produces stagnant mass transfer. The presence of a weak layer has a different influence on the accretive and non-accretive mode: In an accretive system, a weak layer in the incoming sediment pile changes the mass transfer pattern from a purely frontally or dominantly basally accretive mode to contemporaneous frontal and basal accretion. In the case of tectonic erosion, the presence of a weak layer leads to higher rates of basal erosion and arcward material transport, but it does not change the general mass transfer pattern. The distribution of vertical load only influences secondary features of the forearc architecture: Topographic highs and lows in the forearc wedge, i.e. a deviation of

  3. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS--SITE 2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; S. Miller; C. Richardson; K. Searcy

    2000-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests are being conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit is being used to test the activity of four different catalysts for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, was completed in December 1998. Testing at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, was completed in the fall of 1999, and testing at the third site, which fires a high-sulfur bituminous coal, will begin in 2000. This technical note reports results from Site 2; results from Site 1 were reported in a previous technical note. At Site 2, catalysts were tested in several forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in commercial forms such as extruded beads and coated honeycomb structures. This technical note presents results from Site 2 for both the sand bed reactors and commercial catalyst forms. Field testing is being supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and to investigate methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 2 field effort are also included and discussed in this technical note. Preliminary economics, based

  4. Interference with Judgments of Control and Attentional Shift as a Result of Prior Exposure to Controllable and Uncontrollable Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Antonova, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to determine whether exposure to an uncontrollable relationship between an action and its outcome during a non-aversive pretreatment phase would affect subsequent ratings of perceived control emitted by human participants. Its other aim was to investigate the effect of such pre-exposure on the attentional focus of…

  5. Divergent Evolution of CHD3 Proteins Resulted in MOM1 Refining Epigenetic Control in Vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Čaikovski, Marian; Yokthongwattana, Chotika; Habu, Yoshiki; Nishimura, Taisuke; Mathieu, Olivier; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Arabidopsis MOM1 is required for the heritable maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Unlike many other silencing factors, depletion of MOM1 evokes transcription at selected loci without major changes in DNA methylation or histone modification. These loci retain unusual, bivalent chromatin properties, intermediate to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. The structure of MOM1 previously suggested an integral nuclear membrane protein with chromatin-remodeling and actin-binding activities. Unexpected results presented here challenge these presumed MOM1 activities and demonstrate that less than 13% of MOM1 sequence is necessary and sufficient for TGS maintenance. This active sequence encompasses a novel Conserved MOM1 Motif 2 (CMM2). The high conservation suggests that CMM2 has been the subject of strong evolutionary pressure. The replacement of Arabidopsis CMM2 by a poplar motif reveals its functional conservation. Interspecies comparison suggests that MOM1 proteins emerged at the origin of vascular plants through neo-functionalization of the ubiquitous eukaryotic CHD3 chromatin remodeling factors. Interestingly, despite the divergent evolution of CHD3 and MOM1, we observed functional cooperation in epigenetic control involving unrelated protein motifs and thus probably diverse mechanisms. PMID:18725928

  6. Xyloglucan for the Treatment of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pleșea Condratovici, Cătălin; Bacarea, Vladimir; Piqué, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xyloglucan, a film-forming agent, improves intestinal mucosa resistance to pathologic damage. The efficacy, safety, and time of onset of the antidiarrheal effect of xyloglucan were assessed in children with acute gastroenteritis receiving oral rehydration solution (ORS). Methods. This randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, clinical trial included children (3 months–12 years) with acute gastroenteritis of infectious origin. Children were randomized to xyloglucan and ORS, or ORS only, for 5 days. Diarrheal symptoms, including stool number/characteristics, and safety were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 days and by fulfillment of a parent diary card. Results. Thirty-six patients (58.33% girls) were included (n = 18/group). Patients receiving xyloglucan and ORS had better symptom evolution than ORS-only recipients, with a faster onset of action. At 6 hours, xyloglucan produced a significantly greater decrease in the number of type 7 stools (0.11 versus 0.44; P = 0.027). At days 3 and 5, xyloglucan also produced a significantly greater reduction in types 6 and 7 stools compared with ORS alone. Xyloglucan plus ORS was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions. Xyloglucan is an efficacious and safe option for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children, with a rapid onset of action in reducing diarrheal symptoms. This study is registered with ISRCTN number 65893282. PMID:27212943

  7. Results of the Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program for April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2012-07-19

    A total of 58 urine samples and 10 fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year as well as four tissue samples for 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am and 241Pu. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.3% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 33% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 21 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty (Table 4).

  8. Results of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2008 through March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2010-06-01

    A total of 62 urine samples and 6 spiked fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2008 through March 31, 2009) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.3% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 34% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 21 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty. IDP concluded that GEL was performing well for all analyses tested, and concerns identified earlier were satisfactorily resolved (see section on Follow-up on Concerns During the Fourth Contract Year).

  9. Boundary-Layer Transition Results from the F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Laurie A.

    1999-01-01

    A variable-porosity suction glove has been flown on the F-16XL-2 aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Boundary-layer transition data have been obtained on the titanium glove primarily at Mach 2.0 and altitudes of 53,000-55,000 ft. The objectives of this supersonic laminar flow control flight experiment have been to achieve 50- to 60-percent-chord laminar flow on a highly swept wing at supersonic speeds and to provide data to validate codes and suction design. The most successful laminar flow results have not been obtained at the glove design point (Mach 1.9 at an altitude of 50,000 ft). At Mach 2.0 and an altitude of 53,000 ft, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of 22.7 X 10(exp 6), optimum suction levels have allowed long runs of a minimum of 46-percent-chord laminar flow to be achieved. This paper discusses research variables that directly impact the ability to obtain laminar flow and techniques to correct for these variables.

  10. Ancestral stomatal control results in a canalization of fern and lycophyte adaptation to drought.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how a predominantly passive hydraulic stomatal control in ferns and lycophytes might impact water use under stress. Ferns and lycophytes occupy a diverse array of habitats, from deserts to rainforest canopies, raising the question of whether stomatal behaviour is the same under all ecological strategies and imposes ecological or functional constraints on ferns and lycophytes. We examined the stomatal response of a diverse sample of fern and lycophyte species to both soil and atmospheric water stress, assessing the foliar level of the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) over drought and recovery and the critical leaf water potential (Ψl) at which photosynthesis in droughted leaves failed to recover. The stomata of all ferns and lycophytes showed very predictable responses to soil and atmospheric water deficit via Ψl, while stomatal closure was poorly correlated with changes in ABA. We found that all ferns closed stomata at very low levels of water stress and their survival afterwards was limited only by their capacitance and desiccation tolerance. Ferns and lycophytes have constrained stomatal responses to soil and atmospheric water deficit as a consequence of a predominantly passive stomatal regulation. This results in a monotypic strategy in ferns and lycophytes under water stress.

  11. Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 2; Validation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

    2010-01-01

    Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, Goddard Space Fight Center has conducted a Thermal Loop experiment to advance the maturity of the Thermal Loop technology from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. The thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for the TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, respectively, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. The MLHP demonstrated excellent performance during experimental tests and the analytical model predictions agreed very well with experimental data. All success criteria at various TRLs were met. Hence, the Thermal Loop technology has reached a TRL of 6. This paper presents the validation results, both experimental and analytical, of such a technology development effort.

  12. The Pan-STARRS Gigapixel Camera #1 and STARGRASP controller results and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, P.; Tonry, J. L.; Isani, S.; Lee, A.; Uyeshiro, R.; Rae, C.; Robertson, L.; Ching, G.

    2008-07-01

    The Pan-STARRS project has completed its first 1.4 gigapixel mosaic focal plane CCD camera, Gigapixel Camera #1 (GPC1). The mosaic focal plane of 60 densely packed 4k×4k MITLL CCD Orthogonal Transfer Arrays (OTAs) constitutes the World's largest CCD camera. The camera represents an extremely cost and time efficient effort with a less than 18 month production and integration phase and an approximate cost of $4 million USD (excluding NRE). The controller electronics named STARGRASP was developed to handle the 480 outputs at near 1Mpixel/sec rates with Gigabit Ethernet interfaces and can be scaled to even larger focal planes. Sophisticated functionality was developed for guide readout and on-detector tip-tilt image compensation with selectable region logic for standby or active operation, high output count, close four side buttable packaging and deep depletion construction. We will discuss the performance achieved, on-sky results, design, tools developed, shortcomings and future plans.

  13. Results of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2010 Through March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2012-07-19

    A total of 76 urine samples and 10 spiked fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011) to GEL Laboratories, LLC in South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for 14C, Sr, for 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 235U, 238U, 238U-mass and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.1% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 31% of the analyses processed by GEL during the first year of contract 112512 were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 23 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty except the slightly elevated relative bias for 243,244Cm (Table 4).

  14. Results from two workshops: Developing and amending regulations and funding state radiation control programs

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.

    1993-09-01

    The first section of this document presents the results of a technical workshop on the process of regulations development and amendment sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop focused on methods for reducing the time it takes to promulgate regulations to help those States that are having difficulty meeting the three-year deadline for adopting new NRC regulations. Workshop participants responded to six questions, reviewed the procedures used by various States for revising and adopting changes to their regulations, and reviewed the time-flow charts used by various States. This workshop was designed to provide guidance to States that are promulgating and revising regulations. The second section of this document summarizes the proceedings of a technical workshop, also sponsored by the NRC, on funding radiation control programs that emphasized fee schedules and effective strategies for the 1990s. This workshop focused on determining the true costs of running a program, on setting realistic fees for the various categories of licenses, and on the most efficient methods for sending invoices, recording receipts, depositing money received, and issuing licenses. Workshop participants responded to seven questions; reviewed the methods various States use to determine true costs; reviewed the procedure that the various States use to produce invoices and licenses; reviewed the procedures that the States are required to abide by when they receive money; and reviewed the method used by the NRC to determine the cost of its various programs.

  15. Development and Preliminary Results of CTAS on Airline Operational Control Center Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Beatty, Roger; Engelland, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Continued growth and expansion of air traffic and increased air carrier economic pressures have mandated greater flexibility and collaboration in air traffic management. The ability of airspace users to select their own routes, so called "free-flight", and to more actively manage their fleet operations for maximum economic advantage are receiving great attention. A first step toward greater airspace user and service provider collaboration is information sharing. In this work, arrival scheduling and airspace management data generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and used by the FAA service provider is shared with an airline with extensive operations within the CTAS operational domain. The design and development of a specialized airline CTAS "repeater" system is described, as well as some preliminary results of the impact and benefits of this information on the air carrier's operations. FAA controller per aircraft scheduling information, such as that provided by CTAS, has never before been shared in real-time with an airline. Expected airline benefits include improved fleet planning and arrival gate management, more informed "hold-go decisions, and avoidance of costly aircraft diversions to alternate airports when faced with uncertain airborne arrival delays.

  16. Development and Preliminary Results of CTAS on Airline Operational Control Center Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Beatty, Roger; Falcone, Richard; Engelland, Shawn; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Continued growth and expansion of air traffic and increased air carrier economic pressures have mandated greater flexibility and collaboration in air traffic management. The ability of airspace users to select their own routes, so called "free-flight", and to more actively manage their fleet operations for maximum economic advantage are receiving great attention. A first step toward greater airspace user and service provider collaboration is information sharing. In this work, arrival scheduling and airspace management data generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and used by the FAA service provider is shared with an airline with extensive operations within the CTAS operational domain. The design and development of a specialized airline CTAS "repeater" system is described, as well as some preliminary results of the impact and benefits of this information on the air carrier's operations. FAA controller per aircraft scheduling information, such as that provided by CTAS, has never before been shared in real-time with an airline. Expected airline benefits include improved fleet planning and arrival gate management, more informed "hold-go" decisions, and avoidance of costly aircraft diversions to alternate airports when faced with uncertain airborne arrival delays.

  17. Results Of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2007 Through March 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2008-12-31

    A total of 79 urine samples, 3 blank fecal and 5 spiked artificial fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2007 through March 31, 2008) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for tritium, Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.8% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 35% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 24 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty (Table 4). IDP concluded that GEL was performing well for all analyses tested, and concerns identified earlier were satisfactorily resolved.

  18. New vertebral fractures after vertebroplasty: 2 year results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Staples, MP; Howe, BM; Ringler, MD; Mitchell, P; Wriedt, CHR; Wark, JD; Ebeling, PR; Osborne, RH; Kallmes, DF; Buchbinder, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of vertebroplasty (VP) on the risk of further radiologically apparent vertebral fracture within two years of the procedure. Methods We conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of VP in people with acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to VP (n=38) or placebo (n=40). Cement volume and leakage were recorded for the VP group. Plain thoracolumbar radiographs were taken at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Two independent radiologists assessed these for new and progressed fractures at the same, adjacent and non-adjacent levels. Results At 12 and 24 months, radiographs were available for 45 (58%) and 47 (60%) participants respectively. There were no between-group differences for new or progressed fractures: 32 and 40 in the VP group after 12 and 24 months compared with 21 and 33 in the placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 3.94). Similar results were seen when considering only adjacent (HR (95% CI): 2.30 (0.57 to 9.29)), and non-adjacent (HR (95% CI): 1.45 (0.55 to 3.81) levels. In all comparisons there was a consistent trend towards higher risk of any type of fracture in the group undergoing VP. Within the VP group, fracture risk was unrelated to total (HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.71 to 1.17)) or relative (HR (95% CI): 1.31 (0.15 to 11.48)) cement volume, or cement leakage (HR (95% CI): 1.20 (0.63 to 2.31)). Conclusion For patients undergoing VP our study did not demonstrate significant increases in subsequent fracture risk beyond that experienced by those with vertebral fractures who did not undergo the procedure. However, because of the non-significant numerical increases observed, studies with adequate power are needed to draw definite conclusions about fracture risk. PMID:26272712

  19. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing re-generable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solid-amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA is the first RCA unit implementing radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or subambient atmosphere.

  20. Long range geoid control through the European GPS traverse: Final results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torge, W.; Basic, T.; Denker, H.; Doliff, J.; Wenzel, H.-G.

    1989-01-01

    The European north-south Global Positioning System (GPS)-traverse proposed by IAG SSG 3.88, should control and improve the European geoid. This traverse follows first order leveling lines, included in the United European Leveling Network. From May to August 1986 and in July 1987, the central and northern part of this traverse (approx. 3000 km) was observed using up to four TI 4100 receivers, covering Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Both traverse parts contain 71 stations with distances of about 50 km. In addition, 8 stations have been occupied for overlapping connections, and traverse links were established for connecting the fundamental stations Wettzell (VLBI and SLR) and Onsala (VLBI). Final results show a GPS observation precision of a few cm for loops of some 100 km circumference. After transformation of the GPS results to geoid heights using the leveled heights, comparisons with different existing gravimetric geoid determinations including geopotential models were performed. In addition, new geopotential models complete to degree and order 360 tailored to gravity data in Europe, and gravimetric geoid solutions using 6 x 10' mean gravity anomalies were investigated. The comparison with GPS and leveling yields rms discrepancies of + or - 0.1...0.2 m over 1000 km traverse sections for the best solutions, but a strong slope is existing in Sweden and southern Norway in almost all solutions, which is probably caused by systematic errors in the available gravity data for Scandinavia. This is confirmed by a new geoid computation at the Danish Geodetic Institute where the slope has disappeared. If this new solution is taken for the northern traverse section and the best solution for the central part, the rms discrepancy reduces to approximately + or - 0.2 m over 3000 km. Thus, a + or - 10 (exp 7) relative height accuracy seems to be achievable over long distances with the GPS/leveling and the gravimetric geoid calculation techniques

  1. Could climate change cancel out the results of water quality control measures at Lake Balaton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutics, Karoly; Molnar, Gabor

    2013-04-01

    With an average depth of some 3.5 m, Lake Balaton (LB) is a very shallow large lake. For comparison, Lake Geneva (Leman) has almost the same surface area but its volume is 44 times of that of Lake Balaton. In terms of the dynamic ratio (DR), a measure of shallowness introduced by Hakanson, Lake Balaton is the second shallowest in Europe with DR=7.4, and it is in the top ten in the world among shallow lakes of high environmental and/or economic importance. Just as the water balance (refer to adjoining article on LB water quantity), water quality is highly vulnerable to external factors, such as nutrient and pollutant loads and changes in the hydro-meteorological conditions. Anthropogenic eutrophication of Lake Balaton became well recognized in the early 1960's, and serious algae blooms were recorded in the next 3 decades. Serious control measures targeting the radical reduction of phosphorus (and nitrogen) load first helped to avoid further (potentially disastrous) deterioration of water quality, and then resulted in improvement since the middle of the 1990s. However, reduced water levels and the lack of outflow for many of the last 12 years have rose concerns of the effects of climate change on water quality. Experienced changes include slight increase in phytoplankton concentration, mass blooms of filamentous green algae C. glomerata in the extremely shallow shoreline areas, increase in salt concentration, spread of introduced/invasive species, etc. Based on the regional climate predictions conducted at the Austrian Institute of Technology in the framework of the EULAKES project, model simulations on water quality were carried out by using a dynamic tanks-in-series model to predict changes in the level of eutrophication as a result of climate change and measures to prevent the potential deterioration of water quality are suggested.

  2. Improving experience in personal social systems through family constellation seminars: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen; Weinhold, Jan

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) on individuals' experience in their personal social systems, especially the experience of belonging, autonomy, accord, and confidence. We conducted a single-blind, stratified and balanced, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10, 79% women) who were randomly allocated either to the intervention group (3-day FCSs; 64 active participants, 40 observing participants) or to the wait-list group (64 active participants, 40 observing participants). Change was measured short-term (2-week and 4-month follow-up) using the Experience In Social Systems Questionnaire, personal domain (EXIS.pers). EXIS.pers is a new outcome measure being applied for the first time in evaluation research. In addition, we used interpersonal scales derived from established measures (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45; Tool for the Evaluation of the Psychotherapeutic Progress, FEP). The average person in the intervention group showed improved experience in personal social systems, as compared with approximately 73% of the wait-list group after 2 weeks (total score: Cohen's d = .61, p = .000) and 69% of the wait-list group after 4 months (total score: d = .53, p = .000). The results were confirmed in per-protocol analyses (n = 191) by the results of the EXIS.pers dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, and Confidence) and the interpersonal scales derived from the OQ-45 and FEP. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides first evidence that FCSs tend to positively influence participants' experience in their social systems.

  3. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  4. Efficacy of the "Responsive Classroom" Approach: Results from a 3-Year, Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A. A.; Baroody, Alison E.; Curby, Timothy W.; Ko, Michelle; Thomas, Julia B.; Merritt, Eileen G.; Abry, Tashia; DeCoster, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This randomized controlled field trial examined the efficacy of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach on student achievement. Schools (n = 24) were randomized into intervention and control conditions; 2,904 children were studied from end of second to fifth grade. Students at schools assigned to the RC condition did not outperform students at…

  5. Disseminating the Positively Aging[R] Teaching Materials: Results of a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of 2 dissemination methods for the Positively Aging teaching materials. In San Antonio, Texas, 4 middle schools participated in a 3-year controlled trial of dissemination via distance electronic support alone (control) compared to distance electronic support plus in-school support from study staff…

  6. Mead acid (20:3n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not associated with risk of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Kei; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Seki, Shoji; Hori, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2015-05-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) involves the replacement of ligamentous tissue with ectopic bone. Although genetics and heritability appear to be involved in the development of OPLL, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Given previous findings that 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid [20:3n-9, Mead acid (MA)] has depressive effects on osteoblastic activity and anti-angiogenic effects, and that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a preventive effect on heterotopic ossification, we hypothesized that both fatty acids would be involved in OPLL development. To examine the biological significance of these and other fatty acids in OPLL, we conducted this case-control study involving 106 patients with cervical OPLL and 109 age matched controls. Fatty acid composition was determined from plasma samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident OPLL were evaluated by logistic regression. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant differences between patients and controls in the levels of MA or n-3 PUFAs (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any associations with OPLL risk for MA or n-3 PUFAs. In conclusion, no potential role was found for MA or n-3 PUFAs in ectopic bone formation in the spinal canal.

  7. The Large Binocular Telescope primary mirror support control system description and current performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David S.; Kern, Jonathan; Hill, John M.; Davison, Warren B.; Cuerden, Brian; Brynnel, Joar G.; Biddick, Chris; Duffek, Kenneth

    2008-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is built around two lightweight borosilicate honeycomb mirrors which, at 8.4 meters in diameter, are the largest operational examples of this technology. Since the mirrors are relatively stiff, the LBT mirror support system relies on passive position control and active force control. Passive position control is performed by six extendable hardpoints organized as a truncated hexapod, which may be positioned as required by the active optics control loop. The hardpoints rely on their axial stiffness to maintain the mirror position against residual external disturbances. The active force control system minimizes the force exerted by the hardpoints on the glass. Additionally, the axial component of the nominally uniform active support forces can be perturbed to distort the mirror as required by the active optics control loop. Because of the relatively large CTE of borosilicate glass, the differential temperature of the mirror is critical. Thus, the force control system must support a 16 metric ton mirror using less than 100 Watts of electrical power. The authors present a description of the primary mirror support system as implemented at the LBT. Initial stability problems made the mirrors nearly unusable in freezing temperatures. The authors explain the reason for this instability and describe the solutions implemented. Data demonstrating the current performance of the primary mirror support system are also presented.

  8. Nonconventional control of the flexible pole-cart balancing problem: Experimental results.

    PubMed

    Dadios, E P; Williams, D J

    1998-01-01

    Emerging techniques of intelligent or learning control seem attractive for applications in manufacturing and robotics. It is however important to understand the capabilities of such control systems. In the past the inverted pendulum has been used as a test case, however, this problem is not sufficiently testing. This research therefore concentrates on the control of the inverted pendulum with additional degrees of freedom as a testing demonstrator problem for learning control system experimentation. A flexible pole is used in place of a rigid one. The transverse displacement of the flexible pole has distributed elasticity and therefore infinite degrees of freedom. The dynamics of this new system are more complex as the system needs additional parameters to be defined due to the pole's elastic deflection. This problem also has many of the significant features associated with flexible robots with lightweight links as applied in manufacturing. Novel neural network and fuzzy control systems are presented that control such a system in real time in one of its modes of vibration. A fuzzy-genetic approach is also demonstrated that allows the creation of fuzzy control systems without the use of extensive knowledge.

  9. Asthma control and hospitalizations among inner-city children: results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Meade, Kelley; Chen, Ying Qing; Benson, Mindy

    2004-01-01

    Asthma prevalence is increasing among poor and minority children. We examined the effectiveness of a novel interactive device programmed for self-management of pediatric asthma in reducing asthma control problems and hospitalizations. A randomized controlled trial (66 children in the intervention group and 68 in the control group) was conducted at home and in an outpatient hospital clinic with 8-16-year-old inner-city children with physician-diagnosed asthma. During a 12-week period, children in the experimental group received an asthma self-management and education program, the Health Buddy (Health Hero Network), designed to enable them to monitor their symptoms and transmit this information to a case manager through a secure website. Control group participants used an asthma diary. After adjusting for baseline asthma control problems, asthma severity, and seasonality, children randomized to automated self-management had a significantly lower mean number of asthma control problems at 6 weeks (2.0, SD = 1.6) as compared to children assigned to the asthma diary (2.7, SD = 1.6) (p = 0.03). By 12 weeks, after adjusting for time and the other covariates, asthma control problems dropped markedly in both groups, and did not differ by intervention modality (p = .07). The intervention modality was not a significant predictor of hospitalization. Educational interventions that encourage children's active involvement in their own care and symptom monitoring would help children increase their control of asthma problems. Compared to the asthma diary, the automated self-management had a significant short-term impact on asthma control problems. Its initial effectiveness and more consistent use suggest that remote monitoring may be successfully used in short-term interventions and in settings where staffing for case management is weak.

  10. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  11. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  12. Cost effectiveness of day and inpatient psychiatric treatment: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Creed, F.; Mbaya, P.; Lancashire, S.; Tomenson, B.; Williams, B.; Holme, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare direct and indirect costs of day and inpatient treatment of acute psychiatric illness. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with outcome and costs assessed over 12 months after the date of admission. SETTING: Teaching hospital in an inner city area. SUBJECTS: 179 patients with acute psychiatric illness referred for admission who were suitable for random allocation to day hospital or inpatient treatment. 77 (43%) patients had schizophrenia. INTERVENTIONS: Routine inpatient or day hospital treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct and indirect costs over 12 months, clinical symptoms, social functioning, and burden on relatives over the follow up period. RESULTS: Clinical and social outcomes were similar at 12 months, except that inpatients improved significantly faster than day patients and burden on relatives was significantly less in the day hospital group at one year. Median direct costs to the hospital were 1923 pounds (95% confidence interval 750 pounds to 3174 pounds) per patient less for day hospital treatment than inpatient treatment. Indirect costs were greater for day patients; when these were included, overall day hospital treatment was 2165 pounds cheaper than inpatient treatment (95% confidence interval of median difference 737 pounds to 3593 pounds). Including costs to informants when appropriate meant that day hospital treatment was 1994 pounds per patient cheaper (95% confidence interval 600 pounds to 3543 pounds). CONCLUSIONS: Day patient treatment is cheaper for the 30-40% of potential admissions that can be treated in this way. Carers of day hospital patients may bear additional costs. Carers of all patients with acute psychiatric illness are often themselves severely distressed at the time of admission, but day hospital treatment leads to less burden on carers in the long term. PMID:9161310

  13. Clinical results of renal artery embolization to control postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background With the wider application of nephron-sparing surgery, there has been an increase in the occurrence of postoperative hemorrhage. However, despite such an increase, there are only a limited number of reports regarding renal artery embolization (RAE) for the management of postoperative bleeding after nephron-sparing surgery, especially after robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). Purpose To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of transcatheter RAE for postoperative hemorrhage after open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and RALPN. Material and Methods A total of 29 patients (17 men, 12 women; age range, 31–70 years) who were referred to our hospital for postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy, between December 2003 and December 2014, were selected. We retrospectively reviewed patients’ clinical data, angiographic findings, embolization details, and clinical outcomes. Results Embolization was performed in patients who underwent OPN (25/29) and RALPN (4/29). The angiographic findings were as follows: renal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 18), contrast extravasation (n = 8), and arteriovenous fistula (n = 3). Fiber-coated microcoil and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) was administered to the targeted bleeding renal arteries in 12 and 11 patients, respectively. In six patients, fiber-coated microcoil and NBCA were used concurrently. Technical and clinical successes were achieved in all patients (100%). Bleeding cessation was achieved in all patients, and no further relevant surgeries or interventions were required for hemorrhage control. There were no episodes of hemorrhagic recurrence during the follow-up period (median, 20 days; range, 7–108 days). Conclusion Angiography and RAE identified the origin of bleeding and could successfully preserve the residual renal function. PMID:27570638

  14. Evaluation of a stroke family care worker: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Slattery, J.; Staniforth, T.; Warlow, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of contact with a stroke family care worker on the physical, social, and psychological status of stroke patients and their carers. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with broad entry criteria and blinded outcome assessment six months after randomisation. SETTING: A well organised stroke service in an Edinburgh teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 417 patients with an acute stroke in the previous 30 days randomly allocated to be contacted by a stroke family care worker (210) or to receive standard care (207). The patients represented 67% of all stroke patients assessed at the hospital during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient completed Barthel index, Frenchay activities index, general health questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, social adjustment scale, mental adjustment to stroke scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire; carer completed Frenchay activities index, general health questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, social adjustment scale, caregiving bassles scale, and carer satisfaction questionnaire. RESULTS: The groups were balanced for all important baseline variables. There were no significant differences in physical outcomes in patients or carers, though patients in the treatment group were possibly more helpless less well adjusted socially, and more depressed, whereas carers in the treatment group were possibly less hassled and anxious. However, both patients and carers in the group contacted by the stroke family care worker expressed significantly greater satisfaction with certain aspects of their care, in particular those related to communication and support. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a stroke family care worker improved patients' and their carers' satisfaction with services and may have had some effect on psychological and social outcomes but did not improve measures of patients' physical wellbeing. PMID:9133884

  15. Diaphragm Used with Replens Gel and Risk of Bacterial Vaginosis: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Craig R.; Cheng, Su-Chun; Shiboski, Stephen; Chipato, Tsungai; Matu, Martin; Mwangi, James; Mutimutema, Monalisa E. S.; Tuveson, Jennifer; Kamba, Mavis; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to female HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the effect of providing a latex diaphragm with Replens and condoms compared to condom only on BV prevalence among participants enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Methods. We enrolled HIV-seronegative women and obtained a vaginal swab for diagnosis of BV using Nugent's criteria; women with BV (score 7–10) were compared to those with intermediate (score 4–6) and normal flora (score 0–3). During quarterly follow-up visits over 12–24 months a vaginal Gram stain was obtained. The primary outcome was serial point prevalence of BV during followup. Results. 528 participants were enrolled; 213 (40%) had BV at enrollment. Overall, BV prevalence declined after enrollment in women with BV at baseline (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.29–.56) but did not differ by intervention group. In the intention-to-treat analysis BV prevalence did not differ between the intervention and control groups for women who had BV (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.52–1.94) or for those who did not have BV (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.65–2.27) at enrollment. Only 2.1% of participants were treated for symptomatic BV and few women (5–16%) were reported using anything else but water to cleanse the vagina over the course of the trial. Conclusions. Provision of the diaphragm, Replens, and condoms did not change the risk of BV in comparison to the provision of condoms alone. PMID:23133307

  16. Description and test results of a digital supersonic propulsion system integrated control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.; Arpasi, D. J.; Baumbick, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A digitally implemented integrated inlet/engine control system was developed and tested on a mixed compression, Mach 2.5, supersonic inlet and augmented turbofan engine. The control matched engine airflow to available inlet airflow so that in steady state, the shock would be at the desired location, and the overboard bypass doors would be closed. During engine induced transients, such as augmentor lights and cutoffs, the inlet operating point was momentarily changed to a more supercritical point to minimize unstarts. The digital control also provided automatic inlet restart.

  17. Mycotoxins in foods in Lower Saxony (Germany): results of official control analyses performed in 2009.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Lilli; Reinhardt, Katja

    2011-05-01

    In this presentation, the mycotoxin levels-as analysed by the analytical centre for mycotoxin surveillance of the state food laboratory (LAVES Braunschweig)-for approximately 500 food samples are reported. The samples were collected in the year 2009 at retail in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A were analysed in dried fruits, spices, cereals and tree nuts. Ochratoxin A was detected in all samples of dried vine fruits, at levels up to 8.1 μg/kg. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A were also found in nutmeg and curry powder: the maximum regulatory levels for aflatoxins were exceeded in 25% of the nutmeg samples. Nearly all samples of basmati rice contained aflatoxins, although at levels below the maximum regulatory level in all but one sample. Aflatoxins were also detected in about 50% of hazelnut samples, in 20% of the samples the maximum levels was exceeded (maximum 23.2 μg/kg). In contrast, aflatoxin contents in pistachios were surprisingly low. Fusarium toxins were analysed in cereals and cereal products such as flour, bread, and pasta. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was the predominant toxin found in these samples: DON was found in about 40% of the samples, although the maximum levels were not exceeded (max. 418 μg/kg). Fumonisins (FBs) and zearalenone (ZEA) were specifically analysed in maize products (snacks, flour and oil). Most of these samples (80%) were positive, but at levels not exceeding the maximum levels. Maximum levels were 98 μg/kg (ZEA) and 577 μg/kg (sum of FB1 and FB2). Ergot alkaloids (six major alkaloids) were analysed in rye flour, and approximately 50% were positive. The highest concentration of ergot alkaloids was 1,063 μg/kg; the predominant alkaloids were ergotamine and ergocristine. In conclusion, the results indicate that continuous and efficient control measures for mycotoxins in a wide range of critical foods are necessary to ensure compliance with maximum levels. Although the mycotoxin levels in the vast

  18. Proof-of-Concept Demonstration Results for Robotic Visual Servo Controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Chawda, P.V.

    2004-09-22

    There is significant motivation to provide robotic systems with improved autonomy as a means to significantly accelerate deactivation and decommissioning operations while also reducing the associated costs, removing human operators from hazardous environments, and reducing the required burden and skill of human operators. To achieve improved autonomy, fundamental research is focused on the challenges of developing visual servo controllers. The challenge in developing these controllers is that a camera provides 2-dimensional image information about the 3-dimensional Euclidean-space through a perspective (range dependent) projection that can be corrupted by uncertainty in the camera calibration matrix. Disturbances in this relationship (i.e., corruption in the sensor information) propagate erroneous information to the feedback controller of the robot, leading to potentially unpredictable task execution. This technical manual describes 3 proof-of-concept demonstrations of visual servo controllers developed from fundamental research aimed at these challenges. Specifically, one section describes the implementation of a cooperative visual servo control scheme with a camera-in-hand and a fixed camera to track a moving target despite uncertainty in the camera calibration and the unknown constant distance from the camera to a target where the camera is mounted on the end-effector of a 6 degrees-of-freedom hydraulic robot manipulator. The next section describes the implementation of 2 homography-based visual servo tracking and regulation controllers for a mobile robot with a calibrated camera despite an unknown time-varying distance from the camera to a target.

  19. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  20. Design of a symmetry controller for cycling induced by electrical stimulation: preliminary results on post-acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Schauer, Thomas; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    This study deals with the design of a controller for cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation. The controller will be exploitable in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic patients who need to recover motor symmetry. It uses the pulse width as the control variable in the stimulation of the two legs in order to nullify the unbalance between the torques produced at the two crank arms. It was validated by means of isokinetic trials performed both by healthy subjects and stroke patients. The results showed that the controller was able to reach, and then maintain, a symmetrical pedaling. In the future, the controller will be validated on a larger number of stroke patients.

  1. Design of a symmetry controller for cycling induced by electrical stimulation: preliminary results on post-acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Schauer, Thomas; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    This study deals with the design of a controller for cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation. The controller will be exploitable in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic patients who need to recover motor symmetry. It uses the pulse width as the control variable in the stimulation of the two legs in order to nullify the unbalance between the torques produced at the two crank arms. It was validated by means of isokinetic trials performed both by healthy subjects and stroke patients. The results showed that the controller was able to reach, and then maintain, a symmetrical pedaling. In the future, the controller will be validated on a larger number of stroke patients. PMID:20528850

  2. Occupation and skin cancer: the results of the HELIOS-I multicenter case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Tormo, Maria José; Rosso, Stefano; Schraub, Simon; Gafà, Lorenzo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Wechsler, Janine; Zanetti, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequent tumour among Caucasian populations worldwide. Among the risk factors associated with this tumour, there are host-related factors and several environmental agents. A greater likelihood of high exposure to physical agents (with the exception of solar radiation) and chemical agents depends on the work setting. Our objective is to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in NMSC, with special emphasis on risk factors other than solar radiation and skin type. Methods We analysed 1585 cases (1333 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 183 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) and 1507 controls drawn from the Helios-I multicenter study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression mixed models. Results For NMSC as a whole (both histological types), miners and quarrymen, secondary education teachers, and masons registered excess risk, regardless of exposure to solar radiation and skin type (OR 7.04, 95% CI 2.44–20.31; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05–2.89 and OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04–2.27, respectively). Frequency of BCC proved higher among railway engine drivers and firemen (OR 4.55; 95% CI 0.96–21.57), specialised farmers (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.59) and salesmen (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.05–2.86), in addition to miners and quarrymen and secondary education teachers (OR 7.96; 95% CI 2.72–23.23 and OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.05–2.94 respectively). The occupations that registered a higher risk of SCC (though not of BCC) were those involving direct contact with livestock, construction workers not elsewhere classified (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.12–7.74), stationary engine and related equipment operators not elsewhere classified (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.13–21.04) and masons (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.36–4.78). Conclusion Exposure to hazardous air pollutants, arsenic, ionizing radiations and burns may explain a good part of the associations observed in this study. The Helios study affords an excellent

  3. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed III: first experimental results with linear-control alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Fusco, Thierry; Escolle, Clément; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science and Operations Center. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the full linear control alignment infrastructure developed for JOST, with an emphasis on multi-field wavefront sensing and control. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is experimentally tested. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by small misalignments of the three lenses, are tested and validated on simulations.

  4. [Results of tuberculosis control and development of the organization for pulmonology in Hungary (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hutás, I; Nyárády, I

    1976-05-01

    The organization of tuberculosis control in Hungary is organized in 3 levels: The central level is represented in the leading Korányi-Institute, the regional level are 19 district care departments for lung diseases, and the local care departments for lung diseases, which are responsible for the practical realization of the control programme. Between the different levels exist a bilateral stream of information, which guarantees the functioning of this organisational structure. At the onset of this century, tuberculosis morbidity in Hungary was 2 to 3 times higher than in the European industrial countries. This situation has been rapidly and permanently improved until the present time. But the tuberculosis problem is not yet removed today. The development of tuberculosis control turned out in 3 periods after the second world war: 1. Up to 1950 - The basis was built up, epidemiological indices were defined and a compulsary registration was introduced; 2. 1950 to 1964 - A complex programme of tuberculosis control was elaborated; a new documentation system and new sanatoriums were erected; 3. from 1964 - Final eradication of tuberculosis among children. The objective of complete eradication of tuberculosis was established. Intensive examination and control and chemoprophylaxis are organized for high risk groups. With the repression of tuberculosis new tasks in the field of respiratory diseases will be assumed step by step.

  5. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  6. When planning results in loss of control: intention-based reflexivity and working-memory

    PubMed Central

    Meiran, Nachshon; Cole, Michael W.; Braver, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the authors discuss the seemingly paradoxical loss of control associated with states of high readiness to execute a plan, termed “intention-based reflexivity.” The review suggests that the neuro-cognitive systems involved in the preparation of novel plans are different than those involved in preparation of practiced plans (i.e., those that have been executed beforehand). When the plans are practiced, intention-based reflexivity depends on the prior availability of response codes in long-term memory (LTM). When the plans are novel, reflexivity is observed when the plan is pending and the goal has not yet been achieved. Intention-based reflexivity also depends on the availability of working-memory (WM) limited resources and the motivation to prepare. Reflexivity is probably related to the fact that, unlike reactive control (once a plan is prepared), proactive control tends to be relatively rigid. PMID:22586382

  7. The experimental results of a self tuning adaptive controller using online frequency identification. [for Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, W.-W.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A fourth-order laboratory dynamic system featuring very low structural damping and a noncolocated actuator-sensor pair has been used to test a novel real-time adaptive controller, implemented in a minicomputer, which consists of a state estimator, a set of state feedback gains, and a frequency-locked loop for real-time parameter identification. The adaptation algorithm employed can correct controller error and stabilize the system for more than 50 percent variation in the plant's natural frequency, compared with a 10 percent stability margin in frequency variation for a fixed gain controller having the same performance as the nominal plant condition. The very rapid convergence achievable by this adaptive system is demonstrated experimentally, and proven with simple, root-locus methods.

  8. Dosing free nitrous acid for sulfide control in sewers: results of field trials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keating, Anthony; Corrie, Shaun; O'halloran, Kelly; Nguyen, Lam; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    Intermittent dosing of free nitrous acid (FNA), with or without the simultaneous dosing of hydrogen peroxide, is a new strategy developed recently for the control of sulfide production in sewers. Six-month field trials have been carried out in a rising main sewer in Australia (150 mm in diameter and 1080 m in length) to evaluate the performance of the strategy that was previously demonstrated in laboratory studies. In each trial, FNA was dosed at a pumping station for a period of 8 or 24 h, some with simultaneous hydrogen peroxide dosing. The sulfide control effectiveness was monitored by measuring, on-line, the dissolved sulfide concentration at a downstream location of the pipeline (828 m from the pumping station) and the gaseous H2S concentration at the discharge manhole. Effective sulfide control was achieved in all nine consecutive trials, with sulfide production reduced by more than 80% in 10 days following each dose. Later trials achieved better control efficiency than the first few trials possibly due to the disrupting effects of FNA on sewer biofilms. This suggests that an initial strong dose (more chemical consumption) followed by maintenance dosing (less chemical consumption) could be a very cost-effective way to achieve consistent control efficiency. It was also found that heavy rainfall slowed the recovery of sulfide production after dosing, likely due to the dilution effects and reduced retention time. Overall, intermittent dose of FNA or FNA in combination with H2O2 was successfully demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for sulfide control in rising main sewers.

  9. Dosing free nitrous acid for sulfide control in sewers: results of field trials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keating, Anthony; Corrie, Shaun; O'halloran, Kelly; Nguyen, Lam; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    Intermittent dosing of free nitrous acid (FNA), with or without the simultaneous dosing of hydrogen peroxide, is a new strategy developed recently for the control of sulfide production in sewers. Six-month field trials have been carried out in a rising main sewer in Australia (150 mm in diameter and 1080 m in length) to evaluate the performance of the strategy that was previously demonstrated in laboratory studies. In each trial, FNA was dosed at a pumping station for a period of 8 or 24 h, some with simultaneous hydrogen peroxide dosing. The sulfide control effectiveness was monitored by measuring, on-line, the dissolved sulfide concentration at a downstream location of the pipeline (828 m from the pumping station) and the gaseous H2S concentration at the discharge manhole. Effective sulfide control was achieved in all nine consecutive trials, with sulfide production reduced by more than 80% in 10 days following each dose. Later trials achieved better control efficiency than the first few trials possibly due to the disrupting effects of FNA on sewer biofilms. This suggests that an initial strong dose (more chemical consumption) followed by maintenance dosing (less chemical consumption) could be a very cost-effective way to achieve consistent control efficiency. It was also found that heavy rainfall slowed the recovery of sulfide production after dosing, likely due to the dilution effects and reduced retention time. Overall, intermittent dose of FNA or FNA in combination with H2O2 was successfully demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for sulfide control in rising main sewers. PMID:23764584

  10. Seventy-year-old habitual volleyball players have larger tibial cross-sectional area and may be differentiated from their age-matched peers by the osteogenic index in dynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Linnamo, V; Komi, P V; Selänne, H; Heinonen, A

    2010-07-01

    The osteogenicity of a given exercise may be estimated by calculating an osteogenic index (OI) consisting of magnitude and rate of strain. Volleyball involves repetitive jumping and requires high power output and thus may be expected to be beneficial to bone and performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine if habitual volleyball playing is reflected in OI. Ten elderly habitual volleyball players [age 69.9 (SD 4.4) years] and ten matched controls volunteered [age 69.7 (4.2) years] as subjects. Distal tibia (d), tibial mid-shaft (50) and femoral neck (FN) bone characteristics were measured using pQCT and DXA. To estimate skeletal rigidity, cross-sectional area (ToA(50)), and compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (SSImax(50)) were calculated. Maximal performance was assessed with eccentric ankle plantar flexion, isometric leg press and countermovement jump (CMJ). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was calculated from the acceleration of the center of mass during the CMJ. Maximal acceleration (MAG) and mean magnitude frequency (MMF) were selected to represent the constituents of OI. OI was calculated as the sum of the products of magnitudes and corresponding frequencies. Volleyball players had 7% larger ToA(50) and 37% higher power in CMJ, 15% higher MAG and 36% higher OI (P controls. No difference was observed in leg press, plantar flexion or the MMF (P >or= 0.646). In conclusion, habitual volleyball players may be differentiated from their matched peers by their dynamic jumping performance, and the differences are reflected in the magnitude but not rate of loading.

  11. Mainstreaming Remedial Mathematics Students in Introductory Statistics: Results Using a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Alexandra W.; Watanabe-Rose, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This study used a randomized controlled trial to determine whether students, assessed by their community colleges as needing an elementary algebra (remedial) mathematics course, could instead succeed at least as well in a college-level, credit-bearing introductory statistics course with extra support (a weekly workshop). Researchers randomly…

  12. Processes, Procedures, and Methods to Control Pollution Resulting from Silvicultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report presents brief documentation of silvicultural practices, both those now in use and those in stages of research and development. A majority of the text is concerned with the specific aspects of silvicultural activities which relate to nonpoint source pollution control methods. Analyzed are existing and near future pollution control…

  13. Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  15. Mixed Results from Six Large Randomized Controlled Trials of Learning Communities in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Alexander K.; Weiss, Michael J.; Visher, Mary G.; Sommo, Colleen; Rudd, Timothy; Cullinan, Dan; Weissman, Evan; Wathington, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research that explores similarities and differences across six randomized controlled trials of learning communities in community colleges that were conducted by MDRC and the National Center for Postsecondary Research. Five of these studies track students' progress in the program semester and two follow-up semesters, and one…

  16. Ear Playing and Aural Development in the Instrumental Lesson: Results from a "Case-Control" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David; Green, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a case-control experiment that was conducted in 2012 as part of the Ear Playing Project (EPP) at the Institute of Education, University of London. The EPP developed from the "informal learning" strand of Musical Futures and engaged instrumental students in the UK in learning from specially-created audio recordings…

  17. Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from Spontaneous Retrieval and Impaired Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; control group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of…

  18. Preliminary Results of the 1.5% TCA (Modular) Controls Model in the NASA Langley UPWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubiatko, Paul; McMillin, Naomi; Cameron, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    To summarize the significant highlights in this report: (1) Data quality, determined by multiple repeat runs performed on the TCA baseline configuration, and long-term repeatability, determined by comparing baseline Reference H data from this test to a previous test, have been shown to be good. (2) The longitudinal stability of the TCA is more non-linear than for the Reference H, and while it is similar at normal lift values, the TCA has considerably more pitch-up at higher lift. (3) Longitudinal control effectiveness of the TCA is similar to the Reference H and the ratio of elevator effectiveness to horizontal tail effectiveness is approximately 0.3. 4) The directional stability of the TCA is improved relative to Reference H at higher angles-of attack. The chine is effective for improving directional stability. (5) The directional control effectiveness 'of the TCA rudder is the same as that of the Reference H rudder at low angles-of-attack, after taking factors, such as number of rudder panels deflected and vertical tail volume into account. However, rudder effectiveness was shown to be reduced at higher angles-of-attack. (6) The lateral stability was shown to be reduced relative to the Reference H, which may be beneficial at low speeds for alleviating lateral control saturation. (7) Lateral control effectiveness for the TCA was shown to be similar to the Reference H for negative trailing-edge flap deflections and was reduced by approximately 25% for positive trailing-edge flap deflections.

  19. Parametric Analysis of the Factors Controlling the Costs of Sedimentary Geothermal Systems - Preliminary Results (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.

    2013-10-01

    Parametric analysis of the factors controlling the costs of sedimentary geothermal systems was carried out using a modified version of the Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). The sedimentary system modeled assumed production from and injection into a single sedimentary formation.

  20. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  1. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2005-01-26

    Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)

  2. Educational video game for juvenile diabetes: results of a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brown, S J; Lieberman, D A; Germeny, B A; Fan, Y C; Wilson, D M; Pasta, D J

    1997-01-01

    Packy & Marlon, an interactive video game designed to improve self-care among children and adolescents with diabetes, was evaluated in a six-month randomized controlled trial. In the game, players take the role of animated characters who manage their diabetes by monitoring blood glucose, taking insulin injections, and choosing foods, while setting out to save a diabetes summer camp from marauding rats and mice who have stolen the diabetes supplies. Study participants were patients aged 8 to 16 from two separate diabetes clinics. Each participant received a Super Nintendo video game system at an initial clinic visit and was randomly assigned to receive either Packy & Marlon (treatment group, N = 31) or an entertainment video game containing no diabetes-related content (control group, N = 28). Participants were interviewed and a parent filled out a questionnaire at baseline, three months, and six months. The findings in this study indicate that well-designed, educational video games can be effective interventions. There was improvement in the treatment group relative to the control group in terms of diabetes-related self-efficacy (p = 0.07), communication with parents about diabetes (p = 0.025), and self-care behaviours (p = 0.003), and a decrease in unscheduled urgent doctor visits (p = 0.08). There were no significant differences between the groups in knowledge about diabetes or in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Since participants in the study were in general well-controlled patients who were receiving excellent medical care, future research is contemplated involving youngsters who are not under good glycaemic control.

  3. Persistent effects of a message counter-marketing light cigarettes: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, L T; Palmer, R; Stine, M M; Strasser, A A; Yost, B A

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled trial, a national sample of smokers of Light cigarettes heard by telephone a "radio message" counter-marketing Light cigarettes. This message caused immediate changes in beliefs. Follow-up telephone interviews were done about 7 months later. The Message Group (N = 181) was more likely than the Control Group (N = 85) to report that (a) one Light equaled one Regular in tar yield to smokers, (b) Lights did not decrease health risks, and (c) they wanted to give up smoking (P<.05); they did not report greater quitting or intention to quit, or greater knowledge of filter ventilation. Systematic counter-marketing of Lights is recommended. A telephone-based exposure and follow-up procedure could be a good way to study message effects. PMID:11436936

  4. State Financial Control Practices and Public Universities: Results of a National Study. Revised. ASHE 1984 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    Results of a national study of budgetary control imposed upon 88 Ph.D. granting public universities by 49 state governments (excluding Alaska) are presented. A comparative analysis is provided of financial control practices in each state, along with an index that places these practices along a continuum. Information is included on the nature and…

  5. Analysis of Students' Responses to Contradictory Results Obtained by Simple Observation or Controlling Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jongwon; Kim, Ikgyun

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' responses to presentations of experimental results that conflicted with their preconceptions regarding electric circuits, and how those responses varied according to the type of inquiry skills required to obtain the results. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

  6. Guidance and Control of an Autonomous Soaring Vehicle with Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A guidance and control method was developed to detect and exploit thermals for energy gain. Latency in energy rate estimation degraded performance. The concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology. Many UAVs have similar mission constraints to birds and sailplanes. a) Surveillance; b) Point to point flight with minimal energy; and c) Increased ground speed.

  7. Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan; Grossman, Paul; Schwarzer, Barbara; Jena, Susanne; Naumann, Johannes; Walach, Harald

    2011-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured 8-week group program teaching mindfulness meditation and mindful yoga exercises. MBSR aims to help participants develop nonjudgmental awareness of moment-to-moment experience. Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome with chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia as major symptoms. Efficacy of MBSR for enhanced well-being of fibromyalgia patients was investigated in a 3-armed trial, which was a follow-up to an earlier quasi-randomized investigation. A total of 177 female patients were randomized to one of the following: (1) MBSR, (2) an active control procedure controlling for nonspecific effects of MBSR, or (3) a wait list. The major outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 2 months post-treatment. Secondary outcomes were disorder-specific quality of life, depression, pain, anxiety, somatic complaints, and a proposed index of mindfulness. Of the patients, 82% completed the study. There were no significant differences between groups on primary outcome, but patients overall improved in HRQoL at short-term follow-up (P=0.004). Post hoc analyses showed that only MBSR manifested a significant pre-to-post-intervention improvement in HRQoL (P=0.02). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of secondary measures indicated modest benefits for MBSR patients. MBSR yielded significant pre-to-post-intervention improvements in 6 of 8 secondary outcome variables, the active control in 3, and the wait list in 2. In conclusion, primary outcome analyses did not support the efficacy of MBSR in fibromyalgia, although patients in the MBSR arm appeared to benefit most. Effect sizes were small compared to the earlier, quasi-randomized investigation. Several methodological aspects are discussed, e.g., patient burden, treatment preference and motivation, that may provide explanations for differences. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial in female patients suffering from fibromyalgia, patients benefited modestly from a mindfulness

  8. Dietary vitamin A and lung cancer: results of a case-control study among chemical workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.G.; Thompson, F.E.; Cook, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    A nested case-control study conducted among a cohort of chemical manufacturing employees provided an opportunity to test the hypothesis that lung cancer risk is inversely related to dietary intake of vitamin A. Eligible for study were 308 former male employees who had died of lung cancer between 1940 and 1980. Two control groups, one a decedent and the other a living series, were individually matched to the cases one-for-one. Interviews were completed with 734 subjects or their next-of-kin and included a food frequency list. A vitamin A index was developed for each subject based on the frequency of consumption of 29 food items. After adjustment for a number of potentially confounding variables (e.g., smoking, educational level, and use of vitamin supplements), there was evidence that vitamin A intake was inversely associated with lung cancer risk. The effect was most pronounced in the comparisons with the living controls and appeared strongest among cigarette smokers. Subjects in the lowest tertile of vitamin A intake had approximately twice the risk of lung cancer as those in the highest. Analyses of an index of carotenoids and of individual food items suggested that plant sources of vitamin A may play a more important role in producing the effect than do animal sources.

  9. Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

  10. Design and experimental results on a terawatt magnetically controlled plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.; McDaniel, D.H.; Levine, J.S.; Tucker, T.S.

    1998-05-01

    The magnetically controlled plasma opening switch (MCPOS) is an advanced plasma opening switch that utilizes magnetic fields to improve operation. Magnetic fields always dominate terawatt, pulsed power plasma opening switches. For that reason, the MCPOS uses controlled applied magnetic fields with magnitude comparable to the self-magnetic field of the storage inductor. One applied field holds the plasma in place while energy accumulates in the storage inductor, then another applied field pushes the plasma away from the cathode to allow energy to flow downstream. Over a ten month period, an MCPOS was designed, built, and tested on DECADE Module 2 at Physics International. The peak drive current was 1.8 MA in 250 ns. The output parameters were up to 1 MA into an electron beam load. The radiation temporal pulse width averaged 60 nanoseconds full-width at half-maximum. The peak load voltage ranged from one to two megavolts. The experiments demonstrated efficient power flow through a long, low-impedance magnetically insulated transmission line between the magnetically controlled plasma opening switch and the load.

  11. [The evidences for formulation of schistosomiasis control and elimination criteria: results from a large scale of retrospective investigations].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Tian-Ping; Lin, Dan-Dan; Wen, Li-Yong; Zhou, Bo; Xu, Jing; Li Shi-Zhu

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we summarized the results from the retrospective investigation on endemic situation of schistosomiasis that was implemented in nine provinces (autonomous region), China in 2009, demonstrated the role of these retrospective investigations in accelerating the progress of schistosomiasis control in China, and clarified the great significance of the investigation for summarizing the experiences for the control of schistosomiasis, and analyzing the changing patterns and affecting factors of endemic status of schistosomiasis in China. In addition, these retrospective investigations provide reliable evidence for revising the Criteria of Schistosomiasis Control and Elimination, and for the more accurate and scientific assessment of the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control in China.

  12. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Colter, Ashley L; Cutler, Caroline; Meckling, Kelly Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L). Methods Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. Results Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. Conclusion These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly

  13. Metabolic Correction in the Management of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improving Clinical Results Beyond Symptom Control

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Gonzalez, Michael J.; Jimenez, Francisco J.; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z.; Duconge, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Current Clinical Management Guidelines of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) are based on adequate glucose control and symptomatic pain relief. However, meticulous glycemic control could delay the onset or slow the progression of diabetic neuropathy in patients with DM type 2, but it does not completely prevent the progression of the disease. Complications of DPN as it continues its natural course, produce increasing pain and discomfort, loss of sensation, ulcers, infections, amputations and even death. In addition to the increased suffering, disability and loss of productivity, there is a very significant economic impact related to the treatment of DPN and its complications. In USA alone, it has been estimated that there are more than 5,000,000 patients suffering from DPN and the total annual cost of treating the disease and its complications is over $10,000 million dollars. In order to be able to reduce complications of DPN, it is crucial to improve or correct the metabolic conditions that lead to the pathology present in this condition. Pathophysiologic mechanisms implicated in diabetic neuropathy include: increased polyol pathway with accumulation of sorbitol and reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity, microvascular damage and hypoxia due to nitric oxide deficit and increased oxygen free radical activity. Moreover, there is a decrease in glutathione and increase in homocysteine. Clinical trials in the last two decades have demonstrated that the use of specific nutrients can correct some of these metabolic derangements, improving symptom control and providing further benefits such as improved sensorium, blood flow and nerve regeneration. We will discuss the evidence on lipoic acid, acetyi-L-carnitine, benfotiamine and the combination of active B vitamins L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin and piridoxal-6-phosphate. In addition, we discuss the role of metforrnin, an important drug in the management of diabetes, and the presence of specific polymorphic genes, in the risk

  14. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Alina; Jiang, Shang I. Brian; Cohen, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively). Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively). There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002); however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]). Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening. PMID:25884238

  15. The Controls-Structures Interaction Guest Investigator Program - An overview and phase I experimental results. [for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith-Taylor, Rudeen; Tanner, Sharon E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator program is described in terms of its support of the development of CSI technologies. The program is based on the introduction of CSI researchers from industry and academia to available test facilities for experimental validation of technologies and methods. Phase I experimental results are reviewed with attention given to their use of the Mini-MAST test facility and the facility for the Advance Control Evaluation of Structures. Experiments were conducted regarding: collocated/noncollocated controllers, nonlinear math modeling, controller design, passive/active suspension systems design, and system identification and fault isolation. The results demonstrate that significantly enhanced performance from the control techniques can be achieved by integrating knowledge of the structural dynamics under consideration into the approaches.

  16. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing.

  17. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing. PMID:22910144

  18. Norovirus Antagonism of B cell Antigen Presentation Results in Impaired Control of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Jones, Melissa K.; Hickman, Danielle; Han, Shuhong; Reeves, Westley; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis so vaccine development is desperately needed. Elucidating viral mechanisms of immune antagonism can provide key insight into designing effective immunization platforms. We recently revealed that B cells are targets of norovirus infection. Because noroviruses can regulate antigen presentation by infected macrophages and B cells can function as antigen presenting cells, we tested whether noroviruses regulate B cell-mediated antigen presentation and the biological consequence of such regulation. Indeed, murine noroviruses could prevent B cell expression of antigen presentation molecules and this directly correlated with impaired control of acute infection. In addition to B cells, acute control required MHC class I molecules, CD8+ T cells, and granzymes, supporting a model whereby B cells act as antigen presenting cells to activate cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. This immune pathway was active prior to the induction of antiviral antibody responses. As in macrophages, the minor structural protein VP2 regulated B cell antigen presentation in a virus-specific manner. Commensal bacteria were not required for activation of this pathway and ultimately only B cells were required for clearance of viral infection. These findings provide new insight into the role of B cells in stimulating antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:27007673

  19. Ligand-mediated control of dislocation dynamics and resulting particle morphology of GdOCl nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kort, Kenneth R; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2015-01-21

    While much progress has been achieved in the shape-controlled synthesis of nanocrystals, chemical strategies to define morphology remain primarily empirical. Here, a mechanistic study of the influence of different coordinating ligands on the kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal growth during the preparation of GdOCl by the non-hydrolytic condensation of GdCl3 and Gd(O (i) Pr)3 is reported. Growth using oleylamine, octadecylamine, trioctylamine, and didodecylamine yields 2D nanosheets with approximately square cross sections, whereas growth in trioctylphosphine oxide yields larger and thicker platelets. The nanostructures are characterized by the presence of spiral growth patterns and dislocations. Apart from preferential binding to specific crystallographic facets, the coordinating ligands are suggested to control the extent of supersaturation, thereby facilitating and tuning dislocation-mediated growth. Upon depletion of monomers, thermodynamic surface energy considerations become of paramount importance and the nanocrystals are reshaped via mass transport from edges to sides yielding their eventual equilibrium shapes. The mechanisms developed here are thought to be broadly generalizable to the ligand-directed growth of nanomaterials. PMID:25160777

  20. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Vietnam: Results of a randomized controlled trial Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ha Thi Thu; Leuridan, Elke; Maertens, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung Dac; Hens, Niel; Vu, Ngoc Ha; Caboré, Raissa Nadège; Duong, Hong Thi; Huygen, Kris; Van Damme, Pierre; Dang, Anh Duc

    2016-01-01

    A pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has recently been adopted in several countries to indirectly protect young infants. This study assessed the effect of adding a pertussis component to the tetanus vaccination, in the pregnancy immunization program in Vietnam. A randomized controlled trial was performed. Pregnant women received either a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria acellular pertussis) vaccine or a tetanus only vaccine between 19 and 35 weeks' gestational age. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against tetanus (TT), diphtheria (DT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemaglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn) were measured using commercial ELISA tests, at baseline, 1 month after maternal vaccination, at delivery, and in infants from cord blood and before and after the primary series (EPI: month 2-3-4) of a pertussis containing vaccine. Significantly higher geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were observed for all 3 measured pertussis antigens in the offspring of the Tdap group, up to 2 months of age. One month after completion of the primary infant vaccination schedule, anti-Prn GMC, but not anti-PT and anti-FHA GMCs, was significantly (p=0.006) higher in the control group. Maternal antibodies induced by vaccination during pregnancy close the susceptibility gap for pertussis in young infants. Limited interference with the infant vaccine responses was observed. Whether this interference effect disappears with the administration of a fourth vaccine dose is further studied. PMID:26529073

  1. Lung cancer risk and welding--preliminary results from an ongoing case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jöckel, K H; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U

    1994-06-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study, 391 male cases or primary lung cancer and the same number of controls--matched by sex, age, and region--were personally interviewed for their job and smoking histories. The data reported reflect the midpoint of a study aiming at a total of 1,000 cases. One objective of the study was to assess confounding by asbestos exposure in what was thought to be a welding-associated risk. While the odds ratios (OR) increased steeply with cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke and were raised also for lifelong asbestos exposure of over 4,100 working hours (OR = 1.91), the effect of welding exposure was reduced after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos. Furthermore, no consistent dose-response relationship could be shown in relation to welding hours. Therefore the present study supports the hypothesis that some, if not all, of the excess risk of welders observed in the literature may be due to the exposure to asbestos. The finding that the subgroup of employees in the aircraft industry showed an increased odds ratio of 2.14 after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos deserves further attention. This suggests the need for further research on the role of berryllium-containing alloys, which has been suggested by other authors.

  2. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Vietnam: Results of a randomized controlled trial Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ha Thi Thu; Leuridan, Elke; Maertens, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung Dac; Hens, Niel; Vu, Ngoc Ha; Caboré, Raissa Nadège; Duong, Hong Thi; Huygen, Kris; Van Damme, Pierre; Dang, Anh Duc

    2016-01-01

    A pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has recently been adopted in several countries to indirectly protect young infants. This study assessed the effect of adding a pertussis component to the tetanus vaccination, in the pregnancy immunization program in Vietnam. A randomized controlled trial was performed. Pregnant women received either a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria acellular pertussis) vaccine or a tetanus only vaccine between 19 and 35 weeks' gestational age. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against tetanus (TT), diphtheria (DT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemaglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn) were measured using commercial ELISA tests, at baseline, 1 month after maternal vaccination, at delivery, and in infants from cord blood and before and after the primary series (EPI: month 2-3-4) of a pertussis containing vaccine. Significantly higher geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were observed for all 3 measured pertussis antigens in the offspring of the Tdap group, up to 2 months of age. One month after completion of the primary infant vaccination schedule, anti-Prn GMC, but not anti-PT and anti-FHA GMCs, was significantly (p=0.006) higher in the control group. Maternal antibodies induced by vaccination during pregnancy close the susceptibility gap for pertussis in young infants. Limited interference with the infant vaccine responses was observed. Whether this interference effect disappears with the administration of a fourth vaccine dose is further studied.

  3. A frequency-control particle separation device based on resultant effects of electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiang-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Particle separation plays an important role in microfluidic sample preparation for various biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a particle manipulation and separation scheme using a microfluidic device based on low-volume/low-voltage electrokinetic frequency modulation. Utilizing a circular micro-electrode array, both electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis can be contributed to manipulate particles in the device by controlling the frequency of applied sinusoidal travelling wave signals. Theoretical simulations based on finite-element methods are employed to establish fundamental understanding of the developed scheme. For experimental demonstration, polystyrene beads (6 μm in diameter) and human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) are used to validate the frequency-modulation effect. Furthermore, different diameter polystyrene beads (6 μm and 10 μm in diameter) are mixed to show potentials of precise particle separations (˜90% efficiency) by the reported frequency-controlled electrokinetic device. The developed technique can be exploited as an actuation scheme and particle manipulation method for microfluidic sample preparations of low ionic concentration samples.

  4. Do community football players wear allocated protective equipment? Descriptive results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Braham, R A; Finch, C F

    2004-06-01

    Before protective equipment can be adopted as an effective sports safety intervention, its protective effects in reducing the incidence and severity of injury need to be demonstrated, Importantly, it also needs to be well accepted by the players. The Australian Football Injury Prevention Project (AFIPP) was a large scale community-based randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of headgear and mouthguards in preventing head/neck/dental injuries in Australian Football. A subcomponent of this study was to assess the extent to which community football players complied with the requirement to wear protective headgear and/or mouthguards, as this equipment is not compulsory in this sport. Three hundred and one community football players from 23 teams were randomly allocated to one of three protective equipment intervention arms or one control arm. Protective equipment usage was measured by a primary data collector at each training and game session during the 2001 playing season. Mouthguard use was higher than headgear use, with the highest usage for both being measured during games rather than training. Although many players use mouthguards, particularly in games, most do not wear headgear. Given the low adoption of headgear, other strategies to prevent head injuries need further investigation.

  5. Preliminary results from a four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine controls model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    A four working space, double acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behaviour but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid behaviour model for all four working spaces. The single working space (SWS) model contains the detailed fluid dynamics. It has seven control volumes in which continuity, energy, and pressure loss effects are simulated. Comparison of the SWS model with experimental data shows reasonable agreement in net power versus speed characteristics for various mean pressure levels in the working space. The four working space (FWS) model was built to observe the behaviour of the whole engine. The drive dynamics and vehicle inertia effects are simulated. To reduce calculation time, only three volumes are used in each working space and the gas temperature are fixed (no energy equation). Comparison of the FWS model predicted power with experimental data shows reasonable agreement. Since all four working spaces are simulated, the unique capabilities of the model are exercised to look at working fluid supply transients, short circuit transients, and piston ring leakage effects.

  6. [Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women. (Results of a case control study)].

    PubMed

    Vutuc, C

    1982-08-01

    Smoking habits of 297 female lung cancer patients (Kreyberg I: 202, Kreyberg II: 95) and 580 controls were analyzed. In addition tar exposures (TE) were calculated. Calculation of TE includes amount of consumptions, duration and the tar yields of all cigarette brands ever smoked. These are significant more smokers among patients (63%) and patients with a K I tumor (80%) compared to the controls (21%); K II: 29%. All patients and patients with a K I tumor had a significant longer smoking career (39.3 years; 39.6 years) and a higher tar exposure (TE = 1767; TE - 1810) compared to the controls (31.9 years, TE = 1146). K II: 37.4 years, TE = 1508. Lung cancer risks (adj. for TE) and population attributable risks (PAR) were: all age groups R = 7.3*, PAR = 54%; less than 40 years R = 1.1, PAR = 3%; 41-50 years R = 4.2*, PAR = 42% ; 51-60 years R = 7.6*, PAR = 62%; 61-70 years R = 7.8*, PAR = 54%; greater than 71 years R = 8.0*, PAR = 55%. Lung cancer risks (adj. for age) in relation to tar exposure and attributable risks (AR) were: TE less than 500: all cases R = 1.5, AT = 34% (KIR = 2.9, K II R = 0.8); TE 501-1000: all cases R = 4.2*, AR = 76% (KIR = 9.9*, K II R - 1.1): TE 1001-2000: all cases R = 12.1*, AR = 92% (KIR = 27.2*, K II R = 2.6**); TE 2001-3000: all cases R = 11.1*, AR = 91% (KIR = 25.2*, K II R = 2.0); TE greater than 3001: all cases R = 13.0*, AR = 92% (KIR = 29.3*, K II R = 3.3). These is a significant increase of risk of cigarette smokers beyond a TE of 501, which could be identified as a sort of critical exposure. There is a pronounced dose response relationship between cigarette smoking in relation to TE and lung cancer risk as concerning K I tumors but not KII tumors. Lung cancer risks in relation to age began smoking: less than 19 years R = 7.8*; 19 years and above R = 6.5*. *P less than 1%, **P less than 5%. PMID:7148206

  7. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on thermal control and optical materials - STS-8 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Harwell, R. J.; Griner, D. B.; Dehaye, R. F.; Fromhold, A. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of exposing 23 specimens of optical and thermal control materials to space at 120 km altitude for over 40 hrs during the STS-8 mission are discussed. Ten samples of paint targeted for the Space Telescope (ST) and the Tethered Satellite were exposed, and included polyurethane, oxide, silicone, and glossy black and white samples which were scanned for alterations in the optical properties after being retrieved. Nine mirror-type materials were also investigated, along with silver specimens typical of solar cell interconnects. The oxygen flow at the orbital altitude was 3.5 x 10 to the 20th atoms/cu cm. The exposures caused no degradation of the magnesium fluoride mirror coatings, while the Kapton coating for the ST solar cell panels showed evidence of losing thickness. The Ag solar cell contacts will require coatings to extend their lifetimes. Overcoatings were also proven necessary for inhibiting degradation of painted surfaces.

  8. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  9. Nutraceuticals and Blood Pressure Control: Results from Clinical Trials and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colletti, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Beyond the well-known effects on blood pressure (BP) of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diets, a large number of studies has investigated the possible BP lowering effect of different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, the most part of them being antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular relatively large body of evidence support the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, and aged garlic extract. However there is a need for data about the long-term safety of a large part of the above discussed products. Moreover further clinical research is advisable to identify between the available active nutraceuticals those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a large use in general population with low-added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension. PMID:25788027

  10. Preliminary Results of the 1.5% TCA (Modular) Controls Model in the NASA Langley UPWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubiatko, Paul; McMillin, Naomi; Cameron, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    To summarize the significant highlights in this report: (1) Data quality, determined by multiple repeat runs performed on the TCA baseline configuration, and long-term repeatability, determined by comparing baseline Reference H data from this test to a previous test, have been shown to be good. (2) The longitudinal stability of the TCA is more non-linear than for the Reference H, and while it is similar at normal lift values, the TCA has considerably more pitch-up at higher lift. (3) Longitudinal control effectiveness of the TCA is similar to the Reference H and the ratio of elevator effectiveness to horizontal tail effectiveness is approximately 0.3. (4) The directional stability of the TCA is improved relative to Reference H at higher angles-of attack. The chine is effective for improving directional stability.

  11. Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2012-01-01

    Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved. PMID:21318932

  12. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-01

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  13. Thermal control paints on LDEF: Results of M0003 sub-experiment 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, C. H.; Meshishnek, M. J.; Coggi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Several thermal control paints were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including the white paints Chemglaze A276, S13GLO, and YB-71, and the black paint D-111. The effects of low earth orbit, which includes those induced by UV radiation and atomic oxygen, varied significantly with each paint and its location on LDEF. For example, samples of Chemglaze A276 located on the trailing edge of LDEF darkened significantly due to UV-induced degradation of the paint's binder, while leading edge samples remained white but exhibited severe atomic oxygen erosion of the binder. Although the response of S13GLO to low earth orbit is much more complicated, it also exhibited greater darkening on trailing edge samples as compared to leading edge samples. In contrast, YB-71 and D-111 remained relatively stable and showed minimal degradation. The performance of these paints as determined by changes in their optical and physical properties, including solar absorptance as well as surface chemical changes and changes in surface morphology is examined. It will also provide a correlation of these optical and physical property changes to the physical phenomena that occurred in these materials during the LDEF mission.

  14. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-01

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential). PMID:25093939

  15. Characterization of a mineral waste resulting from the melting treatment of air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-vazquez, A; Metiver-pignon, H; Tiruta-barna, L; Piantone, P

    2009-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues which are generated by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration show a high-level of pollution potential. In order to stabilize such APC residues, the French power supply company (EDF) is developing a thermal treatment process which leads to the production of a vitrified material. A structural characterization of the vitrified product was carried out by applying complementary investigation methods: XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, EPMA, and data interpretation methods such as mineralogical analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The major phase of the material was a solid solution of melilite type composed of five end-members: gehlenite (44%), åkermanite (25%), ferri-gehlenite (5%), sodamelilite (14%) and hardystonite (11%). The minor phases identified were spinels and pyroxenes. An ANC leaching test was performed in order to observe the treatment effect on pollutant release. The natural pH was close to 10, and the major element release was less than in the case of untreated APC. This was a consequence of melilite formation. The effect of pH was fundamental for heavy metals release: lower solubilization occurs at pH 10 than at APC's natural pH (11-12).

  16. Space Station propulsion system test bed and control system testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, A. M.; Briley, G. L.; Nave, L. H.; Pavlinsky, J. F.; Allums, S.

    1987-01-01

    The test bed fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the IOC Space Station application is described and test results are presented. The reliability and safety of the O2/H2 system was demonstrated with blowdowns and thruster firings. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated through the addition of an electrolysis supply module.

  17. Comparing Two Examination Results Using Means of Sample Means and Control Charts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi-Labaika, A. Bisi; Ahani, E.

    2015-01-01

    Some examination candidates submit their scripts first, sometimes, for recognition as being brilliant, and some do for not knowing what to write. However, some equally submit last because they want to dot i's and cross t's. The objective of this research is to compare the results of both the earliest and latest submissions with the aim of finding…

  18. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar: results of 7 years of deworming.

    PubMed

    Tun, Aung; Myat, Su Mon; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Montresor, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    After a baseline survey in 2003 which showed an overall parasitological prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths of 69.7% in school children (prevalence of ascariasis 48.5%, prevalence of trichuriasis 57.5% and prevalence of hookworm infection 6.5), a national deworming programme was established. After 7 years of implementation, it had resulted in a significant reduction of STH prevalence (prevalence of any STH 21%, prevalence of ascariasis 5.8%, prevalence of trichuriasis 18.6% and prevalence of hookworm infection 0.3%) as well as a reduction of the infections of moderate-heavy intensity from 18.5% at baseline to less than 7%. The results are encouraging and a reduction of the frequency of deworming can be envisaged in two of four ecological areas of Myanmar.

  19. Mitigation of Systemic Oxidative Stress by Curcuminoids in Osteoarthritis: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Parvin, Shahram; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Curcuminoids are natural polyphenols with strong antioxidant capacity and may thus be helpful in the treatment of osteoarthritis. The present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigated the efficacy of curcuminoids in reducing systemic oxidative burden in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Forty patients with mild-to-moderate primary knee osteoarthritis were given curcuminoid capsules (1500 mg/day in 3 divided doses; n = 19) or matched placebo capsules (n = 21) for a period of 6 weeks. Curcuminoids were co-administered with piperine (15 mg/day) in order to improve the bioavailability. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonedialdehyde (MDA) were determined spectrophotometrically at baseline and at the end of the treatment period in both groups. Serum activities of SOD as well as GSH and MDA concentrations were comparable between the study groups at baseline (p > 0.05). There was a significant elevation in serum SOD activities (mean change: 2.94 ± 3.73 vs. -0.38 ± 1.33; p < 0.001), a borderline significant elevation in GSH concentrations (mean change: 1.39 ± 2.78 vs. -0.02 ± 1.62; p = 0.064) and a significant reduction in MDA concentrations (mean change: -5.26 ± 4.46 vs. -2.49 ± 3.81; p = 0.044) in the curcuminoids compared with the placebo group. Changes in serum activities of SOD and concentrations of GSH and MDA during the course of trial were significantly correlated. Short-term supplementation with curcuminoids attenuates systemic oxidative stress in patients with osteoarthritis. These antioxidant effects may account for the reported therapeutic effects of curcuminoids in relieving osteoarthritis symptoms. PMID:25688638

  20. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: short time results show appropriate regional control.

    PubMed

    Fait, V; Chrenko, V

    2007-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy becomes a standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool in breast cancer in certain indications, while in other indications its validity is still reviewed. The authors present their experience with this method. In the years 2000-2006 700 patients underwent surgery. 704 sentinel node biopsies were performed (bilaterally in 4 cases), 7 times surgery was unsuccessful. In the unsuccessful cases immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. 985 sentinel nodes were found, the average was 1.4 nodes, maximum 6 nodes. In 7 patients contralateral ALND for node positive contralateral cancer was necessary along with sentinel node biopsy. A positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) was found in 188 (26.9%) patients. A strong correlation between tumor size and lymph node positivity was found, 5.3% in pT1a, and 40.4% in pT2, respectively. The sentinel node metastases could be divided according to their size. The number of affected further nodes did correlate with this size, yet with the exception of isolated tumor cell detection, small size metastases did not exclude the possibility of further affection. Our findings support the role of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. 332 patients reached at least 2 years of follow up by the time of statistic evaluation, 2.5% of SLN negative and 5.6% of SLN positive patients experienced a recurrence. All of these recurrences were distant with no regional (axillary) involvement to this date. We conclude that sentinel node biopsy is not only a safe and accurate diagnostic tool, but it also provides acceptable regional control of the disease. PMID:17447860

  1. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  2. Improvement of IVF results and optimisation of quality control by using intermittent activity.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Nelly; Fanchin, Rénato; Le Dû, Anne; Bourrier, Marie Catherine; Tachdjian, Gérard; Frydman, René

    2004-11-01

    For several years the present authors' team had not been satisfied with the pregnancy rate achieved by their unit, especially in comparison with the results achieved by other teams with a similar population. A quality programme was established, and it was decided to switch from non-stop to intermittent activity. It was envisaged that this programme would provide a more realistic view of the team's activity and could also, as a secondary effect, improve its results. The team's experience of an in-series organization was presented for the management of 408 consecutive infertile couples, during 2002. The results obtained during 2002 were compared with those for two previous years. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the clinical pregnancy rate per oocyte retrieval from 28.9% (2000) and 25.2% (2001) to 41% (2002) in IVF and from 23% (2000) and 26% (2001) to 38.5% (2002) in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A significant increase (P < 0.01) was also observed in the implantation rate, from 14.8% and 13.4% to 20% in IVF and from 12.1% and 12.9% to 23.5% in ICSI. The higher pregnancy rate was achieved without an increase in the multiple pregnancy rate. In conclusion, recent data support the hypothesis that the use of a quality management system, can, as in this case, have positive repercussions on pregnancy rates.

  3. Emergency mosquito aerial spray response to the 2004 Florida hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne: an overview of control results.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jennifer E

    2006-09-01

    In total, 43 aerial spray missions were conducted in 26 Florida counties to control mosquito populations after each of the 4 hurricanes making landfall in Florida in 2004. Mosquitoes were trapped before and after each spray mission to determine the percentage (%) of control for the West Nile virus vector Culex nigripalpus (64.1%), the floodwater pest mosquito Psorophora columbiae (69.7%), and for all species combined (67.7%). A discussion on these results and suggestions for future efforts are presented.

  4. Lung cancer and occupation: results of a multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, A; Markowitz, S; Garibaldi, K; Wynder, E L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate the risk of lung cancer attributable to occupational factors and not due to tobacco. At 24 hospitals in nine metropolitan areas in the United States, 1793 male lung cancer cases were matched for race, age, hospital, year of interview, and cigarette smoking (never smoker, ex-smoker, smoker (1-19 and > or = 20 cigarettes per day)) to two types of controls (cancer and non-cancer hospital patients). Information on usual occupation, exposure to specific potential carcinogens, and cigarette smoking was obtained by interview. Risk of lung cancer was increased significantly for electricians; sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths; bookbinders and related printing trade workers; cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen; moulders, heat treaters, annealers and other heated metal workers; and construction labourers. All of these occupations are potentially exposed to known carcinogens. Odds ratios (ORs) were increased for exposure to coal dust (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.1). After stratification, this association was statistically significant only after 10 or more years of exposure. Lung cancer was also related to exposure to asbestos (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.2). The ORs increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos for all smoking categories except for current smokers of 1-19 cigarettes per day. The statistical power to detect ORs among occupations that were previously reported to be at increased risk of lung cancer but that failed to show an OR of at least 1.5 in the current study was small. The cumulative population attributable risk (PAR) of lung cancer due to occupation was 9.2%. It is concluded that occupational factors play an important part in the development of lung cancer independently of cigarette smoking. Because occupations at high risk of lung cancer were under-represented, the cumulative PAR of the present study is likely to be an underestimate of the true contribution of

  5. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (an update of control group results)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The economic experiment, the results obtained to date and the work which still remains to be done are summarized. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service and Federal Crop Insurance Corp. Resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements are discussed.

  6. Caspase-3 deficiency results in disrupted synaptic homeostasis and impaired attention control.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Wang, Yuanyuan; Weber, Martin; Larson, Jessica L; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Sheng, Morgan

    2015-02-01

    The ability to attend to relevant stimuli and to adapt dynamically as demands change is a core aspect of cognition, and one that is impaired in several neuropsychiatric diseases, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying such cognitive adaptability are poorly understood. We found that deletion of the caspase-3 gene, encoding an apoptosis protease with newly discovered roles in neural plasticity, disrupts attention in mice while preserving multiple learning and memory capabilities. Attention-related deficits include distractibility, impulsivity, behavioral rigidity, and reduced habituation to novel stimuli. Excess exploratory activity in Casp3(-/-) mice was correlated with enhanced novelty-induced activity in the dentate gyrus, which may be related to our findings that caspase-3 is required for homeostatic synaptic plasticity in vitro and homeostatic expression of AMPA receptors in vivo in response to chronic or repeated stimuli. These results suggest an important role for caspase-3 in synaptic suppression of irrelevant stimuli.

  7. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel: Results of a Multicenter Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Salimnia, Hossein; Lephart, Paul R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; DesJarlais, Sharon M.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Robinson, Gwen; Carroll, Karen C.; Greer, Amy; Morgan, Margie; Chan, Raymond; Loeffelholz, Michael; Valencia-Shelton, Frances; Jenkins, Stephen; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Daly, Judy A.; Barney, Trenda; Hemmert, Andrew; Kanack, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased medical expense. Rapid diagnosis improves outcomes and reduces costs. The FilmArray blood culture identification panel (BioFire Diagnostics LLC, Salt Lake City, UT), a highly multiplexed PCR assay, can identify 24 etiologic agents of sepsis (8 Gram-positive, 11 Gram-negative, and 5 yeast species) and three antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, vanA/B, and blaKPC) from positive blood culture bottles. It provides results in about 1 h with 2 min for assay setup. We present the results of an eight-center trial comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the panel with those of the laboratories' standard phenotypic identification techniques, as well as with molecular methods used to distinguish Acinetobacter baumannii from other members of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and to detect antimicrobial resistance genes. Testing included 2,207 positive aerobic blood culture samples, 1,568 clinical and 639 seeded. Samples were tested fresh or were frozen for later testing within 8 h after the bottles were flagged as positive by an automated blood culture system. At least one organism was detected by the panel in 1,382 (88.1%) of the positive clinical specimens. The others contained primarily off-panel organisms. The panel reported multiple organisms in 81 (5.86%) positive clinical specimens. The unresolved blood culture identification sensitivity for all target detections exceeded 96%, except for Klebsiella oxytoca (92.2%), which achieved 98.3% sensitivity after resolution of an unavoidable phenotypic error. The sensitivity and specificity for vanA/B and blaKPC were 100%; those for mecA were 98.4 and 98.3%, respectively. PMID:26739158

  9. Endogenous levels of nitrites and nitrates in wide consumption foodstuffs: Results of five years of official controls and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2013-10-15

    The massive introduction of nitrogen fertilisers, necessary to maximise the global food production, has brought about an increase of the residual amounts of nitrites and nitrates in the products. Notoriously, these compounds may exercise toxic effects. In this work the results obtained from 5years of official controls and monitoring focused on tracing quantifiable amounts of nitrites and nitrates in 1785 samples of meat, dairy, fish products and leafy vegetables are reported. A widespread presence of nitrates at low concentrations in foodstuffs was verified. High concentrations of nitrates were registered in some leafy vegetables and mussels samples, while high nitrites concentrations were registered in some spinach samples. The results confirmed the necessity to develop most controls and suggest the introduction of new legal limits related to some combinations contaminant/matrix. Such new limits may fill legislative gaps that may cause wrong interpretations of the results obtained during official controls.

  10. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Augmentors and Resulting Flight Stability and Control (Center Director's Discretionary Fund Project 93-05, Part III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents the control requirements, the details of the designed Flight Control Augmentor's (FCA's), the static stability and dynamic stability wind tunnel test programs, the static stability and control analyses, the dynamic stability characteristics of the experimental Launch Vehicle (LV) with the designed FCA's, and a consideration of the elastic vehicle. Dramatic improvements in flight stability have been realized with all the FCA designs; these ranged from 41 percent to 72 percent achieved by the blunt TE design. The control analysis showed that control increased 110 percent with only 3 degrees of FCA deflection. The dynamic stability results showed improvements with all FCA designs tested at all Mach numbers tested. The blunt TE FCA's had the best overall dynamic stability results. Since the lowest elastic vehicle frequency must be well separated from that of the control system, the significant frequencies and modes of vibration have been identified, and the response spectra compared for the experimental LV in both the conventional and the aft cg configuration. Although the dynamic response was 150 percent greater in the aft cg configuration, the lowest bending mode frequency decreased by only 2.8 percent.

  11. Odor control in composting plants: results from full-scale experiences.

    PubMed

    Canovai, Alessandro; Valentini, Federico; Manetti, Edoardo; Zagaroli, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    The development and spread of mechanical biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants is often hindered by the problems and concerns arising from emission bad odors. Several technologies are now available to process exhausted air originated from these or similar plants. Exhausted air emissions contain a large amount of organic compounds, most of them in very low concentrations. This determines the advantage in using biological abatement systems (biofilters) instead of physical-chemical treatments. This article describes the operative results obtained in two Italian waste treatment plants, one in Albano, near Rome, and the other in the "ex-Maserati area" of Milan, including (i) the analysis of operational parameters as temperature, pH. humidity, loss of pressure of the biofilter affecting the biofiltration efficiency, for both chemical parameters and odorous compound concentration, measured by means of odor panel evaluation technique and (ii) the efficiency of the biofiltration system for several compounds present in air emissions, analyzing organic substances by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The two plants used similar biofiltration systems except for the material used as biofilter bed. A bioscrubber pretreatment of the air flow coming from the aerobic reactor was tested in the Albano plant for the purpose of reducing the odor concentration of the most impacting flow going to the biofilter.

  12. Summary of Transition Results From the F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Laurie A.

    2000-01-01

    A variable-porosity suction glove has been flown on the F-16XL-2 aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport. Boundary-layer transition data on the titanium glove primarily have been obtained at speeds of Mach 2.0 and altitudes of 15,240-16,764 m (50,000-55,000 ft). The objectives of this flight experiment have been to achieve 0.50-0.60 chord laminar flow on a highly swept wing at supersonic speeds and to provide data to validate codes and suction design. The most successful laminar flow results have not been obtained at the glove design point, a speed of Mach 1.9 at an altitude of 15,240 m (50,000 ft); but rather at a speed of Mach 2.0 and an altitude of 16,154 m (53,000 ft). Laminar flow has been obtained to more than 0.46 wing chord at a Reynolds number of 22.7 x 10(exp 6). A turbulence diverter has been used to initially obtain a laminar boundary layer at the attachment line. A lower-surface shock fence was required to block an inlet shock from the wing leading edge. This paper discusses research variables that directly impact the ability to obtain laminar flow and techniques to correct for these variables.

  13. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions.

  14. Ion concentrations in seagrass: A comparison of results from field and controlled-environment studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote-Moreno, Aurora; Cambridge, Marion; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2016-11-01

    Osmoregulation is essential for the survival of seagrasses in marine and hypersaline environments. The aim of this study was to examine ion concentrations of four seagrass species (Posidonia australis, P. sinuosa, Amphibolis antarctica and A. griffithii) after exposure to salinity changes. Plant fragments were placed in a series of aquaria at marine salinity (35) and, after one week of acclimation, exposed for 7 days to salinities between 20 and 70. Cl-, Na+ and total ion concentration increased with salinity in leaf tissue of the four seagrasses species. These results were compared with those of P. australis and A. antarctica samples collected at three locations at Shark Bay, Western Australia where higher salinities occurred, ranging from 46 to 51. Concentrations of K+ and Ca+2 were higher in seagrass tissues from Shark Bay than in those in aquarium trials. Cl-, Na+ and total ions in P. australis and A. antarctica from Shark Bay were lowest at the highest salinity location. The K+/Na+ ratio in the aquarium trials (under ambient conditions) was in the following order: A. antarctica = A. griffithii > P. australis > P. sinuosa and Ca+2/Na+ ratio was: A. antarctica = A. griffithii > P. sinuosa > P. australis. This species order indicates a physiological capacity to tolerate variation in salinity. Furthermore, these ratios were higher in the locality with highest salinity in Shark Bay, indicating acclimation and adaptation of ion concentrations to the salinity regime in the environment.

  15. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions. PMID:25145257

  16. Interim results of a randomised controlled trial of homeopathic treatment for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Emily J; Relton, Clare; Raw, Jackie; Walters, Clare; Thomas, Kate; Smith, Christine; Kapur, Kapil; Said, Elmuhtady

    2014-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic condition for which there is no consensus on the optimum treatment. Gastroenterology problems are some of the most common conditions treated by homeopaths, yet few trials have explored the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic treatment for IBS. A three-armed trial was conducted which compared: usual care, homeopathic treatment plus usual care and supportive listening plus usual care. The primary outcome was change in irritable bowel symptom severity score between baseline and 26 weeks, calculated using ANCOVA. An interim ANCOVA adjusted for baseline IBS severity, age and employment status found no statistically significant difference between the three arms. However, a post-hoc test comparing homeopathic treatment plus usual care to usual care alone found a statistically significant difference in favour of homeopathic treatment. In addition, 62.5 percent of patients in the homeopathic treatment arm (compared to 25.0 percent of those in the usual care arm), achieved a clinically relevant change in irritable bowel symptom severity score, which indicates a promising effect for homeopathic treatment, though these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low number of participants in the study. PMID:24931748

  17. Monitoring waterbird abundance in wetlands: The importance of controlling results for variation in water depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland use by waterbirds is highly dependent on water depth, and depth requirements generally vary among species. Furthermore, water depth within wetlands often varies greatly over time due to unpredictable hydrological events, making comparisons of waterbird abundance among wetlands difficult as effects of habitat variables and water depth are confounded. Species-specific relationships between bird abundance and water depth necessarily are non-linear; thus, we developed a methodology to correct waterbird abundance for variation in water depth, based on the non-parametric regression of these two variables. Accordingly, we used the difference between observed and predicted abundances from non-parametric regression (analogous to parametric residuals) as an estimate of bird abundance at equivalent water depths. We scaled this difference to levels of observed and predicted abundances using the formula: ((observed - predicted abundance)/(observed + predicted abundance)) ?? 100. This estimate also corresponds to the observed:predicted abundance ratio, which allows easy interpretation of results. We illustrated this methodology using two hypothetical species that differed in water depth and wetland preferences. Comparisons of wetlands, using both observed and relative corrected abundances, indicated that relative corrected abundance adequately separates the effect of water depth from the effect of wetlands. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Interim results of a randomised controlled trial of homeopathic treatment for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Emily J; Relton, Clare; Raw, Jackie; Walters, Clare; Thomas, Kate; Smith, Christine; Kapur, Kapil; Said, Elmuhtady

    2014-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic condition for which there is no consensus on the optimum treatment. Gastroenterology problems are some of the most common conditions treated by homeopaths, yet few trials have explored the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic treatment for IBS. A three-armed trial was conducted which compared: usual care, homeopathic treatment plus usual care and supportive listening plus usual care. The primary outcome was change in irritable bowel symptom severity score between baseline and 26 weeks, calculated using ANCOVA. An interim ANCOVA adjusted for baseline IBS severity, age and employment status found no statistically significant difference between the three arms. However, a post-hoc test comparing homeopathic treatment plus usual care to usual care alone found a statistically significant difference in favour of homeopathic treatment. In addition, 62.5 percent of patients in the homeopathic treatment arm (compared to 25.0 percent of those in the usual care arm), achieved a clinically relevant change in irritable bowel symptom severity score, which indicates a promising effect for homeopathic treatment, though these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low number of participants in the study.

  19. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  20. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  1. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  2. Salix response to different flow regimes in controlled experiments: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Dams and water management for hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities alter the natural flow regime of rivers. The new river hydrograph components depend on the type of impoundment and the policy of regulation but such a different flow regime will likely affect the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define sustainable flow releases is to quantify hydrological effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem response. A considerable lack of knowledge still affects the link hydrology-ecology and inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) are consequently still widespread: further research in this direction is urgently required. We present an experiment, which aims to investigate the effects of different water stage regimes on riparian vegetation (salix Viminalis cuttings) development in a temperate region (Switzerland). This work describes the installation setup, together with the first results concerning the first of the two scheduled seasons of campaign. Sixty Salix cuttings were planted in non-cohesive sandy-gravel sediment within 1 meter tall plastic pots installed outside in the EPFL campus. After grouping them in three batteries, the water level within them has been varying following three river regimes simulated by adjusting the water level within the pots by means of an automatic hydraulic system. The three water level regimes reproduce a natural flow regime, a minimum residual flow policy, which only conserves peaks during flooding conditions, and an artificial regime conserving only low frequencies (e.g., seasonality) of the natural dynamic. The natural flow regime of the first battery has been applied for two months to the entire system; the three regimes above said started in June 2012. This triggered a plant response transitory regime, which we monitored by measuring plant growth, soil and atmospheric variables. Particularly, measures concern with branches development leaves photosynthesis and

  3. Statin Effects on Aggression: Results from the UCSD Statin Study, a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Koslik, Hayley J.; Evans, Marcella A.; Lu, Xun; Rossi, Steven; Mills, Paul J.; Criqui, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low/ered cholesterol is linked to aggression in some study designs. Cases/series have reported reproducible aggression increases on statins, but statins also bear mechanisms that could reduce aggression. Usual statin effects on aggression have not been characterized. Methods 1016 adults (692 men, 324 postmenopausal women) underwent double-blind sex-stratified randomization to placebo, simvastatin 20mg, or pravastatin 40mg (6 months). The Overt-Aggression-Scale-Modified–Aggression-Subscale (OASMa) assessed behavioral aggression. A significant sex-statin interaction was deemed to dictate sex-stratified analysis. Exploratory analyses assessed the influence of baseline-aggression, testosterone-change (men), sleep and age. Results The sex-statin interaction was significant (P=0.008). In men, statins tended to decrease aggression, significantly so on pravastatin: difference=-1.0(SE=0.49)P=0.038. Three marked outliers (OASMa-change ≥40 points) offset otherwise strong significance-vs-placebo: statins:-1.3(SE=0.38)P=0.0007; simvastatin:-1.4(SE=0.43)P=0.0011; pravastatin:-1.2(SE=0.45)P=0.0083. Age≤40 predicted greater aggression-decline on statins: difference=-1.4(SE=0.64)P=0.026. Aggression-protection was emphasized in those with low baseline aggression: age<40-and-low-baseline-aggression (N=40) statin-difference-vs-placebo=-2.4(SE=0.71)P=0.0016. Statins (especially simvastatin) lowered testosterone, and increased sleep problems. Testosterone-drop on statins predicted aggression-decline: β=0.64(SE=0.30)P=0.034, particularly on simvastatin: β=1.29(SE=0.49)P=0.009. Sleep-worsening on statins significantly predicted aggression-increase: β=2.2(SE=0.55)P<0.001, particularly on simvastatin (potentially explaining two of the outliers): β=3.3(SE=0.83)P<0.001. Among (postmenopausal) women, a borderline aggression-increase on statins became significant with exclusion of one younger, surgically-menopausal woman (N=310) β=0.70(SE=0.34)P=0.039. The increase was

  4. Addendum to Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project: Additiona NH3, NOx, and CO Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-03-01

    On March 28-30 and May 1-4, 2007, CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-MW Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The testing in March and May demonstrated that the multi-pollutant control system attained its performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, acid gas (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) removal efficiency, and mercury removal efficiency. However, the ammonia slip measured between the SCR outlet and air heater inlet was consistently greater than the guarantee of 2 ppmvd {at} 3% O{sub 2}. As a result, additional testing was performed on May 30-June 1 and on June 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with tuning of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system by BPEI, in an effort to achieve the performance target for ammonia slip. This additional testing occurred after the installation of a large particle ash (LPA) screen and removal system just above the SCR reactor and a fresh SCR catalyst layer in mid-May. This report describes the results of the additional tests. During the May 30-June 1 sampling period, CONSOL R&D and Clean Air Engineering (CAE) each measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet, downstream of the in-duct SCR reactor. In addition, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the

  5. Importance of relationship context in HIV transmission: results from a qualitative case-control study in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelley, Laura; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

    2014-04-01

    We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health.

  6. Controlled and Uncontrolled Subject Descriptions in the CF Database: A Comparison of Optimal Cluster-Based Retrieval Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted on the cystic fibrosis (CF) database, a subset of MEDLINE, that investigated clustering structure and the effectiveness of cluster-based retrieval as a function of the exhaustivity of the uncontrolled subject descriptions. Results are compared to calculations for controlled descriptions based on Medical Subject Headings…

  7. Differences in the Cardiometabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes according to Gender and the Presence of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the eControl Study.

    PubMed

    Franch-Nadal, Josep; Mata-Cases, Manel; Vinagre, Irene; Patitucci, Flor; Hermosilla, Eduard; Casellas, Aina; Bolivar, Bonaventura; Mauricio, Dídac

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in the control and treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF: HbA1c, blood pressure [BP], LDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking habit) according to gender and the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Catalonia, Spain. The study included available data from electronic medical records for a total of 286,791 patients. After controlling for sex, age, diabetes duration, and treatment received, both men and women with prior CVD had worse cardiometabolic control than patients without previous CVD; women with prior CVD had worse overall control of CVRFs than men except for smoking; and women without prior CVD were only better than men at controlling smoking and BP, with no significant differences in glycemic control. Finally, although the proportion of women treated with lipid-lowering medications was similar to (with prior CVD) or even higher (without CVD) than men, LDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably uncontrolled in both women with and women without CVD. The results stress the need to implement measures to better prevent and treat CVRF in the subgroup of diabetic women, specifically with more intensive statin treatment in those with CVD. PMID:25328520

  8. Differences in the Cardiometabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes according to Gender and the Presence of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the eControl Study

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Cases, Manel; Vinagre, Irene; Patitucci, Flor; Hermosilla, Eduard; Casellas, Aina; Bolivar, Bonaventura; Mauricio, Dídac

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in the control and treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF: HbA1c, blood pressure [BP], LDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking habit) according to gender and the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Catalonia, Spain. The study included available data from electronic medical records for a total of 286,791 patients. After controlling for sex, age, diabetes duration, and treatment received, both men and women with prior CVD had worse cardiometabolic control than patients without previous CVD; women with prior CVD had worse overall control of CVRFs than men except for smoking; and women without prior CVD were only better than men at controlling smoking and BP, with no significant differences in glycemic control. Finally, although the proportion of women treated with lipid-lowering medications was similar to (with prior CVD) or even higher (without CVD) than men, LDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably uncontrolled in both women with and women without CVD. The results stress the need to implement measures to better prevent and treat CVRF in the subgroup of diabetic women, specifically with more intensive statin treatment in those with CVD. PMID:25328520

  9. Differences between homicide and filicide offenders; results of a nationwide register-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Lindberg, Nina; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide, the killing of one's child, is an extraordinary form of homicide. It has commonly been associated with suicide and parental psychiatric illness. In the research on filicide, nationwide studies with comparison groups, specific perpetrator subgroups, and assessment of possible risk factors have been called for. The purpose of the current study was to provide all that. Methods In this nationwide register-based case-control study all filicide offenders who were in a forensic psychiatric examination in Finland 1995–2004 were examined and compared with an age- and gender matched control group of homicide offenders. The assessed variables were psychosocial history, index offence, and psychiatric variables as well as psychopathy using the PCL-R. Results Filicide offenders were not significantly more often diagnosed with psychotic disorders than the controls but they had attempted suicide at the crime scene significantly more often. Filicide offenders had alcohol abuse/dependence and antisocial personality less often than the controls. Filicide offenders scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the controls. Within the group of filicide offenders, the psychopathy items with relatively higher scores were lack of remorse or guilt, shallow affect, callous/lack of empathy, poor behavioral controls, and failure to accept responsibility. Conclusion Since filicide offenders did not seem significantly more mentally disordered than the other homicide offenders, psychiatry alone cannot be held responsible for the prevention of filicide. Extensive international studies are needed to replicate our findings and provide more specific knowledge in order to enhance prevention. PMID:19480648

  10. What factors play a role in preventing self-immolation? Results from a case-control study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Hosein; Schwebel, David C.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Mohammadi, Reza; Choubsaz, Mansour; Heidari Zadie, Zahra; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To investigate factors related to prevention of self-immolation in west of Iran. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns admitted to the regional burn center (Imam Khomeini hospital in Kermanshah province, Iran) were compared with controls selected from the community and matched by sex, age, district-county of residence, and rural vs urban living environment. The following characteristics relevant to preventing self-immolation were collected from all cases and controls: main domestic fuel used in the household, awareness about complications of burn injuries, and use of counseling services. Results: Descriptive analyses revealed that kerosene was the main domestic fuel in the household for 83% of cases. Not surprisingly, the main means of self-immolation in 93% of the patients was kerosene, with other fuels such as petrol and domestic gas used in remaining cases. The majority of cases and controls were aware of the potential complications of burn injuries. Use of counseling services was more common in controls. Conclusions: All three aspects of preventing self-immolation – having kerosene and other fuels in the home, being aware of the complications of burn injuries, and using counseling services were present in both the cases and controls. This suggests a large portion of residents in rural Iran are potential self-immolation victims. Increasing preventive strategies may reduce risk of suicide by self-immolation. PMID:26081518

  11. [Latent bone lesions in divers. Comparison of results in a survey of 105 divers and 105 control subjects].

    PubMed

    Hauteville, D; Esquirol, E; Hyacinthe, R; Herne, N

    1976-11-01

    The results of a systematic radiological study of the shoulders and hips of 105 naval divers are reported and compared with those of recorded during a comparative study carried out in non-diver control subjects of a similar age. Almost half the divers had small bone lesions such as dense islets or bordered geodes. These appeared more frequently in divers than in the controls. Their precise natur remains hypothetical, in the absence of histological criteria, but it is possible at least for the bordered geodes, that they represent tiny centres of osteonecrosis.

  12. Controller design for delay systems via eigenvalue assignment - on a new result in the distribution of quasi-polynomial roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghai; Liu, Jianchang; Yang, Feisheng; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the eigenvalue distribution of a linear time-invariant (LTI) system with time delays and its application to some controllers design for a delay plant via eigenvalue assignment. First, a new result on the root distribution for a class of quasi-polynomials is developed based on the extension of the Hermite-Biehler theorem. Then, such result is applied to proportional-integral (PI) controller parameter design for a first-order plant with time delay through pole placement. The complete region of PI gains can be obtained so that the rightmost eigenvalues in the infinite eigenspectrum of the closed-loop system with delay plant are assigned to desired positions in the complex plane. Furthermore, on the basis of the previous result, this paper also extended the PI control to the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. It is worth pointing out that this work aims to improve the performance of the closed-loop system on the premise of guaranteeing the stability.

  13. Flight Results of the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Aircraft with Adaptation to a Longitudinally Destabilized Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. The goal for the adaptive system is to provide an increase in survivability in the event that these extreme changes occur. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane. The adaptive element was incorporated into a dynamic inversion controller with explicit reference model-following. As a test the system was subjected to an abrupt change in plant stability simulating a destabilizing failure. Flight evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to stabilize the vehicle and reestablish good onboard reference model-following. Flight evaluation with the simulated destabilizing failure and adaptation engaged showed improvement in the vehicle stability margins. The convergent properties of this initial system warrant additional improvement since continued maneuvering caused continued adaptation change. Compared to the non-adaptive system the adaptive system provided better closed-loop behavior with improved matching of the onboard reference model. A detailed discussion of the flight results is presented.

  14. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Attitude control results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    As part of the RICIS activity, the reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Max satellite simulation. This activity is carried out in the software technology laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This report is deliverable D2 Altitude Control Results and provides the status of the project after four months of activities and outlines the future plans. In section 2 we describe the Fuzzy-Learner system for the attitude control functions. In section 3, we provide the description of test cases and results in a chronological order. In section 4, we have summarized our results and conclusions. Our future plans and recommendations are provided in section 5.

  15. Behavioral changes resulting from the administration of cycloheximide in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Jair Guilherme; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro; Blanco, Mirian Marcela; Menezes de Oliveira, Maria Gabriela; Mello, Luíz Eugênio

    2005-12-20

    Cycloheximide influences synaptic reorganization resulting from pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). To investigate the possible behavioral consequences of this effect, we subjected animals to pilocarpine-induced SE either in the absence (Pilo group) or presence of cycloheximide (Chx group). Animals were further divided regarding the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Two months after SE induction animals were exposed to different behavioral tests. Age-matched naïve animals were used as controls. All epileptic groups showed a significantly diminished freezing time in contextual and tone fear conditioning, performed poorly in the Morris water maze and present less seconds in immobility position as compared to controls. Only Pilo animals explored more extensively the open arms of the elevated plus maze and showed increased in horizontal exploratory activity in the open field as compared to controls. With the exception of Pilo animals without recorded SRS, all other groups had extensive tissue shrinkage in central nucleus of the amygdala as compared to controls. Cycloheximide-treated animals differed from Pilo animals in the extent of hilar loss and supragranular mossy fiber sprouting as well as tissue shrinkage in the dorsal hippocampus. Despite the histological differences seen in the dorsal hippocampus between experimental groups, no differences were encountered in the cognitive tests used to evaluate dorsal hippocampal function. The encountered histological differences between Chx and Pilo animals, however, might underlie the different emotional responses between the two groups.

  16. Local Control Following Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: Effect of High Biologically Effective Dose on Biopsy Results and Oncologic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Unger, Pam

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine factors that influence local control and systemic relapse in patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Methods and Materials: A total of 584 patients receiving PPB alone or PPB with external beam radiation therapy (19.5%) agreed to undergo prostate biopsy (PB) at 2 years postimplantion and yearly if results were positive or if the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level increased. Short-term hormone therapy was used with 280 (47.9%) patients. Radiation doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) (using alpha/beta = 2). Comparisons were made by chi-square analysis and linear regression. Survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median PSA concentration was 7.1 ng/ml, and the median follow-up period was 7.1 years. PB results were positive for 48/584 (8.2%) patients. Positive biopsy results by BED group were as follows: 22/121 (18.2%) patients received a BED of <=150 Gy; 15/244 (6.1%) patients received >150 to 200 Gy; and 6/193 (3.1%; p < 0.001) patients received >200 Gy. Significant associations of positive PB results by risk group were low-risk group BED (p = 0.019), intermediate-risk group hormone therapy (p = 0.011) and BED (p = 0.040), and high-risk group BED (p = 0.004). Biochemical freedom from failure rate at 7 years was 82.7%. Biochemical freedom from failure rate by PB result was 84.7% for negative results vs. 59.2% for positive results (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed significant associations with BED (p = 0.038) and PB results (p = 0.002) in low-risk patients, with BED (p = 0.003) in intermediate-risk patients, and with Gleason score (p = 0.006), PSA level (p < 0.001), and PB result (p = 0.038) in high-risk patients. Fifty-three (9.1%) patients died, of which eight deaths were due to prostate cancer. Cause-specific survival was 99.2% for negative PB results vs. 87.6% for positive PB results (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Higher radiation doses are required to achieve local

  17. The moderation of Mindfulness-based stress reduction effects by trait mindfulness: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Shauna L; Brown, Kirk Warren; Thoresen, Carl; Plante, Thomas G

    2011-03-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has shown effectiveness for a variety of mental health conditions. However, it is not known for whom the intervention is most effective. In a randomized controlled trial (N = 30), we explored whether individuals with higher levels of pretreatment trait mindfulness would benefit more from MBSR intervention. Results demonstrated that relative to a control condition (n = 15), MBSR treatment (n = 15) had significant effects on several outcomes, including increased trait mindfulness, subjective well-being, and empathy measured at 2 and 12 months after treatment. However, relative to controls, MBSR participants with higher levels of pretreatment mindfulness showed a larger increase in mindfulness, subjective well-being, empathy, and hope, and larger declines in perceived stress up to 1 year after treatment.

  18. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Needs Evaluation and Sizing Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2009-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), located within the ventilation loop of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), is responsible for removing hazardous trace contaminants from the space suit ventilation flow. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that evaluated if trace contaminant control could be accomplished without a TCCS, relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Trace contaminant generation rates were revisited to verify that values reflect the latest designs for CSSE pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. Additionally, TCCS sizing calculations were performed and a literature survey was conducted to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

  19. Diabetes Nurse Case Management and Motivational Interviewing for Change (DYNAMIC): Results of a 2-year Randomized Controlled Pragmatic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Robert A.; Añel-Tiangco, Raquel M.; Dellasega, Cheryl; Mauger, David T.; Adelman, Alan; Van Horn, Deborah H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if the addition of nurse case managers (NCMs) trained in motivational interviewing (MI) to usual care would result in improved outcomes in high risk type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A 2-year randomized controlled pragmatic trial randomized 545 patients to usual care control (n=313) or those who received the intervention (n= 232) with additional practice embedded NCM care, including MI-guided behavior change counseling. NCMs received intensive MI training with ongoing fidelity assessment. Results Systolic BP was better in the intervention group (131±15.9 vs. 135±18.2, p < 0.05). HbA1c, LDL, and diastolic BP improved in both groups: HbA1c (control group 9.1% to 8.0%, intervention group 8.8% to 7.8%), LDL (control group 127 to 100 mg/dL, intervention group 128 to 102 mg/dL), diastolic BP (control group 78 to 74 mm Hg, intervention group 80 to 74 mm Hg). Depression symptom scores were better in the intervention group. The reduction in diabetes-related distress approached statistical significance. Conclusions NCMs and MI improved systolic BP and complications screening. The large decrease in HbA1C and LDL in the control group may have obscured any further intervention effect. Although nurses prompted providers for medication titration, strategies to reduce provider clinical inertia might also be needed. Significant findings of the study In patients with type 2 diabetes, an intervention with nurse case management and motivational interviewing improves systolic blood pressure, depression, and screening for complications. What this study adds First study to look at the benefit of the addition of motivational interviewing to nurse case management in the care of the high-risk adult with type 2 diabetes. Particular attention was given to ensuring fidelity to the motivational interviewing approach. PMID:23368423

  20. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Karin; Green, My; Barman, Malin; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Background A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28) and from control families in the same rural area (n=37) was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings. PMID:27534847

  1. The effect of training on question formulation among public health practitioners: results from a randomized controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Richard; Broudy, David; Voorhees, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To improve understanding of the information-seeking behaviors of public health professionals, the authors conducted this randomized controlled trial involving sixty participants to determine whether library and informatics training, with an emphasis on PubMed searching skills, increased the frequency and sophistication of participants' practice-related questions. Methods: The intervention group (n = 34) received evidence-based public health library and informatics training first, whereas the control group (n = 26) received identical training two weeks later. The frequency and sophistication of the questions generated by both intervention and control groups during the interim two-week period served as the basis for comparison. Results: The intervention group reported an average of almost 1.8 times more questions than those reported by the control group (1.24 vs. 0.69 questions per participant); however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. The intervention group overall produced more sophisticated (foreground) questions than the control group (18 vs. 9); however, this difference also did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The training provided in the current study seemed to prompt public health practitioners to identify and articulate questions more often. Training appears to create the necessary precondition for increased information-seeking behavior among public health professionals. PMID:18974808

  2. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) as therapeutic option in supraspinatus tendon syndrome? One year results of a placebo controlled study].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Tosch, A; Hünerkopf, M; Haake, M

    2002-07-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is seen as a therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic supraspinatus tendinitis by some authors. To test whether ESWT comprising 3 x 2000 pulses with the positive energy flux density ED+ of 0.33 mJ/mm2 is clinically superior to a sham ESWT treatment, a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study with an independent observer was performed. Forty patients were treated either by verum ESWT or sham ESWT under local anesthesia. Target criteria were the age-corrected Constant score, pain at rest and during activity on a visual analogue scale, and subjective improvement. Patients who reported no subjective improvement after 12 weeks were deblinded and received verum ESWT if they had belonged to the placebo group (partial crossover). The results of the verum group lie within the range of results for ESWT published by other authors. Patients in the placebo group with local anesthetic showed equally good results. At 12 weeks, and 1 year after intervention, no difference could be found between the verum and placebo groups regarding Constant score, pain, shoulder function, or subjective improvement. The nonresponders to the placebo ESWT continued to show no improvement after receiving verum ESWT. This contradicts a specific ESWT effect. Based on the results of this placebo-controlled study, ESWT appears to have no clinically relevant effect on supraspinatus tendinitis. The study underlines the importance of a control group in evaluating new treatment methods for diseases with unknown natural history.

  3. Serum bile acids and GLP-1 decrease following telemetric induced weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Penner, Marina; Borucki, Katrin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Rönicke, Raik; Biemann, Kathleen; Weikert, Cornelia; Lux, Anke; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schneider, Jochen G; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45-55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm. Before and after a 6 months intervention period clinical and laboratory parameters, body composition, serum BA profile, FGF-19, and GLP-1 concentrations were determined in fasting blood samples. 30 participants in the control and 33 participants in the treatment arm completed the study and were included in the data analysis. In participants of the treatment arm lifestyle-induced weight loss resulted in markedly improved insulin sensitivity. Serum levels of BA species and total GLP-1 decreased, while FGF-19 remained stable. Serum BA composition changed towards an increased 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hydroxylated ratio. None of these parameters changed in participants of the control arm. Our results demonstrate that improved metabolic control by lifestyle modifications lowers serum levels of BAs and GLP-1 and changes serum BA composition towards an increased 12α/non-12α ratio (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). PMID:27452603

  4. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Translational controller results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    The reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite simulation. In utilizing these fuzzy learning techniques, we also use the Approximate Reasoning based Intelligent Control (ARIC) architecture, and so we use two terms interchangeable to imply the same. This activity is carried out in the Software Technology Laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This report is the deliverable D3 in our project activity and provides the test results of the fuzzy learning translational controller. This report is organized in six sections. Based on our experience and analysis with the attitude controller, we have modified the basic configuration of the reinforcement learning algorithm in ARIC as described in section 2. The shuttle translational controller and its implementation in fuzzy learning architecture is described in section 3. Two test cases that we have performed are described in section 4. Our results and conclusions are discussed in section 5, and section 6 provides future plans and summary for the project.

  5. Serum bile acids and GLP-1 decrease following telemetric induced weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Biemann, Ronald; Penner, Marina; Borucki, Katrin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Rönicke, Raik; Biemann, Kathleen; Weikert, Cornelia; Lux, Anke; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schneider, Jochen G.; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45–55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm. Before and after a 6 months intervention period clinical and laboratory parameters, body composition, serum BA profile, FGF-19, and GLP-1 concentrations were determined in fasting blood samples. 30 participants in the control and 33 participants in the treatment arm completed the study and were included in the data analysis. In participants of the treatment arm lifestyle-induced weight loss resulted in markedly improved insulin sensitivity. Serum levels of BA species and total GLP-1 decreased, while FGF-19 remained stable. Serum BA composition changed towards an increased 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hydroxylated ratio. None of these parameters changed in participants of the control arm. Our results demonstrate that improved metabolic control by lifestyle modifications lowers serum levels of BAs and GLP-1 and changes serum BA composition towards an increased 12α/non-12α ratio (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). PMID:27452603

  6. Peripheral hormone levels in controls and patients with prostatic cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the Dutch-Japanese case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, F H; Oishi, K; Hayes, R B; Bogdanowicz, J F; Raatgever, J W; van der Maas, P J; Yoshida, O; Schroeder, F H

    1991-07-01

    The possible relationship between changes in peripheral hormone levels and the occurrence of prostatic pathology was studied in a case-control study, involving estimation of various plasma hormones in 368 Dutch and 258 Japanese men, who were grouped as controls and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, focal prostatic carcinoma, or clinically evident prostatic carcinoma. Results of a number of previous, smaller studies concerning interrelationships between hormone levels in elderly men were confirmed within the Dutch and Japanese groups. Plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol were significantly lower in the Japanese men, when compared with those in Dutch men. Probably as a result of this difference in testosterone levels, the ratio between serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in the Japanese men, while the ratio between the concentrations of dihydrotestosterone and testosterone was increased. These differences were also found when results from Japanese subgroups (controls and patients with prostate pathology) were compared with those from the Dutch subgroups. There were no significant differences in plasma androgen levels between Japanese or Dutch prostate cancer cases and their respective control subgroups. These findings do not support a correlation between the lower plasma testosterone levels and a lower incidence of prostate cancer in the Japanese men. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between salivary levels of testosterone or the ratio between testosterone and SHBG in the various Dutch subgroups. In Japanese benign prostatic hyperplasia patients, the testosterone to SHBG ratio was significantly increased. In conclusion, the results of this retrospective, cross-sectional study do not indicate that hormonal levels play a primary role in the origin or promotion of prostatic abnormalities. The finding of a lower plasma testosterone in the Japanese men, however, remains suggestive

  7. Setting priorities for occupational cancer research and control: synthesis of the results of occupational disease surveillance studies.

    PubMed

    Dubrow, R; Wegman, D H

    1983-12-01

    The objectives of this paper were 1) to identify occupations with potentially high cancer risk by combining the results of 12 major occupational disease surveillance studies, 2) to develop a quantitative methodology for accomplishing the first objective, and 3) to make recommendations concerning priorities for occupational cancer research and control on the basis of the results of this analysis in conjunction with other available epidemiologic, industrial hygiene, toxicologic, and employment data. It was suggested that the first priority be the investigation and control of occupational exposure to asbestos, particularly in the automobile repair and construction industries. Of the 34 occupational groups found to be at high risk for lung cancer in this analysis, 18 have potential asbestos exposure. The second priority was suggested to be research into the consistent lung-cancer excess found among motor vehicle drivers. This excess may be due to occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, to cigarette smoking, or to both of these factors. PMID:6581356

  8. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions. An economic experiment was carried out which will monitor citrus growers' decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events and will establish the economic benefits of improved temperature forecasts. A summary is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service, and Federal Crop Insurance Corp., resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements.

  9. Effect of the Mediterranean diet on blood pressure in the PREDIMED trial: results from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension can be prevented by adopting healthy dietary patterns. Our aim was to assess the 4-year effect on blood pressure (BP) control of a randomized feeding trial promoting the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. Methods The PREDIMED primary prevention trial is a randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial conducted in Spanish primary healthcare centers. We recruited 7,447 men (aged 55 to 80 years) and women (aged 60 to 80 years) who had high risk for cardiovascular disease. Participants were assigned to a control group or to one of two Mediterranean diets. The control group received education on following a low-fat diet, while the groups on Mediterranean diets received nutritional education and also free foods; either extra virgin olive oil, or nuts. Trained personnel measured participants’ BP at baseline and once yearly during a 4-year follow-up. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the differences between groups during the follow-up. Results The percentage of participants with controlled BP increased in all three intervention groups (P-value for within-group changes: P<0.001). Participants allocated to either of the two Mediterranean diet groups had significantly lower diastolic BP than the participants in the control group (−1.53 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) −2.01 to −1.04) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, and −0.65 mmHg (95% CI -1.15 to −0.15) mmHg for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts). No between-group differences in changes of systolic BP were seen. Conclusions Both the traditional Mediterranean diet and a low-fat diet exerted beneficial effects on BP and could be part of advice to patients for controlling BP. However, we found lower values of diastolic BP in the two groups promoting the Mediterranean diet with extra virgin olive oil or with nuts than in the control group. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN35739639 PMID:24050803

  10. Fractional representation theory - Robustness results with applications to finite dimensional control of a class of linear distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nett, C. N.; Jacobson, C. A.; Balas, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews and extends the fractional representation theory. In particular, new and powerful robustness results are presented. This new theory is utilized to develop a preliminary design methodology for finite dimensional control of a class of linear evolution equations on a Banach space. The design is for stability in an input-output sense, but particular attention is paid to internal stability as well.

  11. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  12. The Influence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy on Local Postural Muscle and Central Sensory Feedback Balance Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  13. Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychological Health of College Students: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Ling, Kun; Lin, Hui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on physical and psychological health of college students. Methods Two hundred six college students were recruited and randomly allocated to a control group or a TCC exercise group in an equal ratio. Participants in the control group were instructed to maintain their original activity level and those in the TCC exercise group received 12 weeks of TCC exercise training based on their original activity level. Physical and psychological outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks and 25 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with the control group, the TCC exercise group showed significant improvements at the end of the 12-week intervention period for flexibility (length of Sit and Reach (cm): TCC group 14.09±7.40 versus control 12.88±6.57, P = 0.039 adjusted for its baseline measures using a general linear model) and balance ability (open eyes perimeter: TCC group 235.6(191~314) versus control 261(216~300); closed eyes perimeter: TCC group 370.5 (284~454) versus control 367 (293~483); P = 0.0414, 0.008, respectively, adjusted for corresponding baseline measures using a general linear model). No significant changes in other physical and mental outcomes were found between the two groups. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusion TCC exercise was beneficial in college students for improving flexibility and balance capability to some extent, compared with usual exercise. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003328 PMID:26147842

  14. Controls/CFD Interdisciplinary Research Software Generates Low-Order Linear Models for Control Design From Steady-State CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing analytical methods and software tools to create a bridge between the controls and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) disciplines. Traditionally, control design engineers have used coarse nonlinear simulations to generate information for the design of new propulsion system controls. However, such traditional methods are not adequate for modeling the propulsion systems of complex, high-speed vehicles like the High Speed Civil Transport. To properly model the relevant flow physics of high-speed propulsion systems, one must use simulations based on CFD methods. Such CFD simulations have become useful tools for engineers that are designing propulsion system components. The analysis techniques and software being developed as part of this effort are an attempt to evolve CFD into a useful tool for control design as well. One major aspect of this research is the generation of linear models from steady-state CFD results. CFD simulations, often used during the design of high-speed inlets, yield high resolution operating point data. Under a NASA grant, the University of Akron has developed analytical techniques and software tools that use these data to generate linear models for control design. The resulting linear models have the same number of states as the original CFD simulation, so they are still very large and computationally cumbersome. Model reduction techniques have been successfully applied to reduce these large linear models by several orders of magnitude without significantly changing the dynamic response. The result is an accurate, easy to use, low-order linear model that takes less time to generate than those generated by traditional means. The development of methods for generating low-order linear models from steady-state CFD is most complete at the one-dimensional level, where software is available to generate models with different kinds of input and output variables. One-dimensional methods have been extended

  15. A Novel Behavioral Intervention in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Improves Glycemic Control: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maranda, Louise; Lau, May; Stewart, Sunita M; Gupta, Olga T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop and pilot an innovative behavioral intervention in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) incorporating structured care of a pet to improve glycemic control. Methods Twenty-eight adolescents with A1C > 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (care of a Betta splendens pet fish) or the control group (usual care). Adolescents in the intervention group were given instructions to associate daily and weekly fish care duties with diabetes self-management tasks including blood glucose testing and parent-adolescent communication. Results After 3 months the participants in the intervention group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in A1C levels (−0.5%) compared to their peers in the control group who had an increase in A1C levels (0.8%)(p = 0.04). The younger adolescents (ages 10–13) demonstrated a greater response to the intervention which was statistically significant (−1.5% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.04) compared with the older adolescents (ages 14–17). Conclusions Structured care of a pet fish can improve glycemic control in adolescents with T1DM, likely by providing cues to perform diabetes self-management behaviors. PMID:25614529

  16. Active Control of Low-Speed Fan Tonal Noise Using Actuators Mounted in Stator Vanes: Part III Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Remington, Paul J.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2003-01-01

    A test program to demonstrate simplification of Active Noise Control (ANC) systems relative to standard techniques was performed on the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan from May through September 2001. The target mode was the m = 2 circumferential mode generated by the rotor-stator interaction at 2BPF. Seven radials (combined inlet and exhaust) were present at this condition. Several different error-sensing strategies were implemented. Integration of the error-sensors with passive treatment was investigated. These were: (i) an in-duct linear axial array, (ii) an induct steering array, (iii) a pylon-mounted array, and (iv) a near-field boom array. The effect of incorporating passive treatment was investigated as well as reducing the actuator count. These simplified systems were compared to a fully ANC specified system. Modal data acquired using the Rotating Rake are presented for a range of corrected fan rpm. Simplified control has been demonstrated to be possible but requires a well-known and dominant mode signature. The documented results here in are part III of a three-part series of reports with the same base title. Part I and II document the control system and error-sensing design and implementation.

  17. The X-43A Hyper-X Mach 7 Flight 2 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Overview and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine; Baumann, Ethan; Martin, John; Bose, David; Beck, Roger E.; Strovers, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Hyper-X program was to flight demonstrate an airframe-integrated hypersonic vehicle. On March 27, 2004, the Hyper-X program team successfully conducted flight 2 and achieved all of the research objectives. The Hyper-X research vehicle successfully separated from the Hyper-X launch vehicle and achieved the desired engine test conditions before the experiment began. The research vehicle rejected the disturbances caused by the cowl door opening and the fuel turning on and off and maintained the engine test conditions throughout the experiment. After the engine test was complete, the vehicle recovered and descended along a trajectory while performing research maneuvers. The last data acquired showed that the vehicle maintained control to the water. This report will provide an overview of the research vehicle guidance and control systems and the performance of the vehicle during the separation event and engine test. The research maneuvers were performed to collect data for aerodynamics and flight controls research. This report also will provide an overview of the flight controls related research and results.

  18. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Methods. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Results. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors’ access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Conclusions. Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment. PMID:26270303

  19. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). Executive summary. [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions so as to significantly reduce the cost for frost and freeze protection and crop losses. The design and implementation of the first phase of an economic experiment which will monitor citrus growers decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events was carried out. The economic experiment was designed to measure the change in annual protection costs and crop losses which are the direct result of improved temperature forecasts. To estimate the benefits that may result from improved temperature forecasting capability, control and test groups were established with effective separation being accomplished temporally. The control group, utilizing current forecasting capability, was observed during the 1976-77 frost season and the results are reported. A brief overview is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done.

  20. Effects of long-acting testosterone undecanoate on bone mineral density in middle-aged men with late-onset hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: results from a 36 months controlled study.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Antonio; Bruzziches, Roberto; Francomano, Davide; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Lenzi, Andrea; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on the bone mineral density (BMD) in obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Sixty men (mean age 57 ± 10) with low serum testosterone (T < 320 ng/dL) and MS regardless the presence of osteoporosis were enrolled. Forty men received intramuscular T-undecanoate (TU) four times/year for 36 months and 20 age-matched hypogonadal men with MS in whom T treatment was contraindicated were used as controls. Hormonal, biochemical markers, vertebral and femoral BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were measured. At baseline, overall patients had mild osteopenia (lumbar BMD= 0.891 ± 0.097 g/cm(2); femoral BMD= 0.847 ± 0.117 g/cm(2)). TU induced a significant improvement of bone mass after 36 months (lumbar BMD=1.053 ± 0.145 g/cm(2); p < 0.002; femoral BMD=0.989 ± 0.109; p < 0.003 g/cm(2)) with a 5%/year increase and a significant reduction in hs-CRP without changes in body mass index. A direct relationship between serum T and BMD increments at the lumbar (r(2) = 0.66, p < 0.0001) and femoral (r(2) =0.52, p < 0.0001) sites was demonstrated. Study adherence was 50% without serious side effects. Long-term TRT in middle-aged men with LOH and MS determines a significant increase in both vertebral and femoral BMD related to increased serum T levels, probably independently from estradiol modifications. PMID:22439807

  1. Sustained Reduction of the Dengue Vector Population Resulting from an Integrated Control Strategy Applied in Two Brazilian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Lêda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M. Nogueira.; da Silva, Juliana C. Serafim.; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N. M.; Ribeiro Jr., Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008–2009, with 96.8%–100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program’s success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  2. Effects of music therapy on pain among female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Hong; Zhou, Kai-Na; Dang, Shao-Nong; Wang, Duo-Lao; Zhang, Yin-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Music therapy has been used in multiple health care settings to reduce patient pain, anxiety, and stress. However, few available studies have investigated its effect on pain among breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of music therapy on pain reduction in patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Surgical Department of Oncology Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from March to November 2009. A total of 120 breast cancer patients who received Personal Controlled Analgesia (PCA) following surgery (mastectomy) were randomly allocated to two groups, an intervention group and a control group (60 patients in each group). The intervention group accepted music therapy from the first day after radical mastectomy to the third admission to hospital for chemotherapy in addition to the routine nursing care, while the control group received only routine nursing care. Pain scores were measured at baseline and three post-tests using the General Questionnaire and Chinese version of Short-Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the change in the Pain Rating Index (PRI-total) score from baseline. Music therapy was found to reduce the PRI-total score in the intervention group significantly compared with the control group with a mean difference (95% CI) of -2.38 (-2.80, -1.95), -2.41 (-2.85, -1.96), and -1.87 (-2.33, -1.42) for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd post-tests, respectively. Similar results were found for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Present Pain Intensity (PPI) scores. The findings of the study provide some evidence that music therapy has both short- and long-term positive effects on alleviating pain in breast cancer patients following radical mastectomy.

  3. Drug-induced liver injury: results from the hospital-based Berlin Case–Control Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Sarganas, Giselle; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2015-01-01

    Aim Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often responsible for acute liver failure, drug withdrawal, boxed warnings or drug non-approval. Therefore, we conducted a case–control study to determine the hepatotoxic risk of a wide range of drugs. Methods The Berlin Case–Control Surveillance Study FAKOS included all 51 Berlin hospitals in a hospital network. Between 2002 and 2011, 198 patients with acute idiopathic hepatitis, 377 inpatient controls and 708 outpatient controls were ascertained. Case patients were thoroughly validated using anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and histological data. Drug exposure was obtained in a face-to-face interview. A possible drug aetiology was assessed in individual patients by applying the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale. Drug risks were further quantified [odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] in a case–control design with unconditional logistic regression analysis. Drug intake in the last 28 days before index date was considered for the analysis. Results The study corroborated hepatotoxic risks for a number of drugs, including phenprocoumon (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5, 6.7), amiodarone (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.3, 21.2), clozapine (OR 34.6, 95% CI 2.8, 824.9) and flupirtine (OR 40.2, 95% CI 5.5, 856.9). Increased risks were also suggested for less commonly reported substances such as angiotensin II receptor blockers, atypical antipsychotics and for biperiden, a drug never before reported to be hepatotoxic. Conclusions Our study identified a large number of drugs as possible causes of hepatotoxicity. The observed risk for seldom reported substances highlights the need for further post-authorization safety studies not exclusively focusing on drugs already labelled as potentially hepatotoxic. PMID:25444550

  4. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  5. Does using potting mix make you sick? Results from a Legionella longbeachae case-control study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B A; Carman, J; Eckert, K; Tucker, G; Givney, R; Cameron, S

    2007-01-01

    A case-control study was performed in South Australia to determine if L. longbeachae infection was associated with recent handling of commercial potting mix and to examine possible modes of transmission. Twenty-five laboratory-confirmed cases and 75 matched controls were enrolled between April 1997 and March 1999. Information on underlying illness, smoking, gardening exposures and behaviours was obtained by telephone interviews. Recent use of potting mix was associated with illness (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.65-13.55, P=0.004) in bivariate analysis only. Better predictors of illness in multivariate analysis included poor hand-washing practices after gardening, long-term smoking and being near dripping hanging flower pots. Awareness of a possible health risk with potting mix protected against illness. Results are consistent with inhalation and ingestion as possible modes of transmission. Exposure to aerosolized organisms and poor gardening hygiene may be important predisposing factors to L. longbeachae infection.

  6. Does using potting mix make you sick? Results from a Legionella longbeachae case-control study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B A; Carman, J; Eckert, K; Tucker, G; Givney, R; Cameron, S

    2007-01-01

    A case-control study was performed in South Australia to determine if L. longbeachae infection was associated with recent handling of commercial potting mix and to examine possible modes of transmission. Twenty-five laboratory-confirmed cases and 75 matched controls were enrolled between April 1997 and March 1999. Information on underlying illness, smoking, gardening exposures and behaviours was obtained by telephone interviews. Recent use of potting mix was associated with illness (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.65-13.55, P=0.004) in bivariate analysis only. Better predictors of illness in multivariate analysis included poor hand-washing practices after gardening, long-term smoking and being near dripping hanging flower pots. Awareness of a possible health risk with potting mix protected against illness. Results are consistent with inhalation and ingestion as possible modes of transmission. Exposure to aerosolized organisms and poor gardening hygiene may be important predisposing factors to L. longbeachae infection. PMID:16780608

  7. Description and Flight Test Results of the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A NASA program to develop digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) technology for aircraft applications is discussed. Phase I of the program demonstrated the feasibility of using a digital fly-by-wire system for aircraft control through developing and flight testing a single channel system, which used Apollo hardware, in an F-8C airplane. The objective of Phase II of the program is to establish a technology base for designing practical DFBW systems. It will involve developing and flight testing a triplex digital fly-by-wire system using state-of-the-art airborne computers, system hardware, software, and redundancy concepts. The papers included in this report describe the Phase I system and its development and present results from the flight program. Man-rated flight software and the effects of lightning on digital flight control systems are also discussed.

  8. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  9. Examining the Impact of Public Service Announcements on Help Seeking and Stigma: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Al-Khouja, Maya A

    2015-11-01

    Health communication campaigns often seek to diminish stigma and promote care seeking, with public service announcements (PSAs) frequently prominent in these campaigns. One example is the Australian-based beyondblue campaign. As an alternative approach, campaigns may seek to reduce stigma by promoting stories of recovery. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and empowering attitudes at pre-, post-, and 72-hour follow-up after being randomized to a PSA recovery-oriented video, treatable disease-oriented video (beyondblue), or control. When exposed to the recovery-oriented PSA, participants showed significant reduction in stigmatizing attitudes from pre- to posttest than beyondblue or the control group with the emergence of nonsignificant trends identified at follow-up. Findings suggest a recovery-oriented video leads to better change on measures of stigma and affirming attitudes than beyondblue. Despite the aforementioned findings, results failed to show either the recovery or beyondblue videos had a significant impact on intent to seek treatment. PMID:26488913

  10. Lifestyle factors and lumbar disc disease: results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In the large-scale case-control study EPILIFT, we investigated the dose-response relationship between lifestyle factors (weight, smoking amount, cumulative duration of different sports activities) and lumbar disc disease. Methods In four German study regions (Frankfurt am Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), 564 male and female patients with lumbar disc herniation and 351 patients with lumbar disc narrowing (chondrosis) aged 25 to 70 years were prospectively recruited. From the regional population registers, 901 population control subjects were randomly selected. In a structured personal interview, we enquired as to body weight at different ages, body height, cumulative smoking amount and cumulative duration of different sports activities. Confounders were selected according to biological plausibility and to the change-in-estimate criterion. Adjusted, gender-stratified odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results The results of this case-control study reveal a positive association between weight and lumbar disc herniation as well as lumbar disc narrowing among men and women. A medium amount of pack-years was associated with lumbar disc herniation and narrowing in men and women. A non-significantly lowered risk of lumbar disc disease was found in men with high levels of cumulative body building and strength training. Conclusions According to our multi-center case-control study, body weight might be related to lumbar disc herniation as well as to lumbar disc narrowing. Further research should clarify the potential protective role of body building or strength training on lumbar disc disease. PMID:20955546

  11. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on the results of total knee arthroplasty: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Tom M; Bakker, Wouter; Reijman, Max; Verhaar, Jan AN

    2007-01-01

    Background We performed a matched case control study to assess the effect of prior high tibia valgus producing osteotomy on results and complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods From 1996 until 2003 356 patients underwent all cemented primary total knee replacement in our institution. Twelve patients with a history of 14 HTO were identified and matched to a control group of 12 patients with 14 primary TKA without previous HTO. The match was made for gender, age, date of surgery, body mass index, aetiology and type of prosthesis. Clinical and radiographic outcome were evaluated after a median duration of follow-up of 3.7 years (minimum, 2.3 years). The SPSS program was used for statistical analyses. Results The index group had more perioperative blood loss and exposure difficulties with one tibial tuberosity osteotomy and three patients with lateral retinacular releases. No such procedures were needed in the control group. Mid-term HSS, KSS and WOMAC scores were less favourable for the index group, but these differences were not significant. The tibial slope of patients with prior HTO was significantly decreased after this procedure. The tibial posterior inclination angle was corrected during knee replacement but posterior inclination was significantly less compared to the control group. No deep infection or knee component loosening were seen in the group with prior HTO. Conclusion We conclude that TKA after HTO seems to be technically more demanding than a primary knee arthroplasty, but clinical outcome was almost identical to a matched group that had no HTO previously. PMID:17683549

  12. Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Adults With CKD: Results From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Anderson, Amanda; Charleston, Jeanne; Chen, Zhen; Ford, Virginia; Makos, Gail; O’Connor, Andrew; Perumal, Kalyani; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Townsend, Raymond; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T

    2010-01-01

    Background A low rate of blood pressure control has been reported among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These data were derived from population-based samples with a low rate of CKD awareness. Study Design Cross-sectional Setting & Participants Data from the baseline visit of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study (n=3612) were analyzed. Participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 ml/min/1.73m2 were identified from physician offices and review of laboratory databases. Outcomes Prevalence and awareness of hypertension, treatment patterns, control rates and factors associated with hypertension control. Measurements Following a standardized protocol, blood pressure was measured three times by trained staff and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Patients’ awareness and treatment of hypertension were defined using self-report and two levels of hypertension control were evaluated: systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 85.7%, and 98.9% of CRIC participants were aware of this diagnosis, 98.3% were treated with medications while 67.1% and 46.1% had their hypertension controlled to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg, respectively. Of CRIC participants with hypertension, 15%, 25%, 26% and 32% were taking one, two, three and four or more antihypertensive medications, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, older patients, blacks, those with higher urinary albumin excretion were less likely while participants taking ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were more likely to have controlled their hypertension to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Limitations Data were derived from a single study visit. Conclusions Despite almost universal hypertension awareness and treatment in this cohort of patients with CKD, rates of

  13. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  14. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Forward-Planned Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer: Interim Results at 2 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Moody, Anne M.; Wilson, Charles B.; Twyman, Nicola; Wishart, Gordon C.; Burnet, Neil G.; Coles, Charlotte E.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: This single-center randomized trial was designed to investigate whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) reduces late toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The standard tangential plans of 1,145 nonselected patients were analyzed. The patients with inhomogeneous plans were randomized to a simple method of forward-planned IMRT or standard radiotherapy (RT). The primary endpoint was serial photographic assessment of breast shrinkage. Results: At 2 years, no significant difference was found in the development of any photographically assessed breast shrinkage between the patients randomized to the interventional or control group (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.58; p = .41). The patients in the control group were more likely to develop telangiectasia than those in the IMRT group (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.40; p = .009). Poor baseline surgical cosmesis resulted in poor overall cosmesis at 2 years after RT. In patients who had good surgical cosmesis, those randomized to IMRT were less likely to deteriorate to a moderate or poor overall cosmesis than those in the control group (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.03, p = .061). Conclusions: IMRT can lead to a significant reduction in telangiectasia at comparatively early follow-up of only 2 years after RT completion. An important component of breast induration and shrinkage will actually result from the surgery and not from the RT. Surgical cosmesis is an important determinant of overall cosmesis and could partially mask the longer term benefits of IMRT at this early stage.

  16. Control of laser-accelerated ions: Recent advances and preliminary results from the new Trident 250-TW laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Albright, Brian J.; Yin, Lin; Flippo, Kirk A.; Cort Gautier, D.; Letzring, Samuel; Schulze, Roland; Schmitt, Mark; Fernandez, Juan C.

    2007-11-01

    Advanced target design, treatment and characterization enable progress in laser-driven ion acceleration. We demonstrate spectral shaping and mono-energetic features from in-situ formed source layers on different substrate materials. Advanced targets and experimental techniques allow control of the properties of laser accelerated ion beams, which is of importance to future applications like Ion Fast Ignition (IFI), WDM research and others. We will also present preliminary results from the new 250-TW Trident laser system that will allow the extrapolation of scaling laws similar to those derived for proton acceleration.

  17. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  18. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects. PMID:24667153

  19. Effects of Passive Hydrotherapy WATSU (WaterShiatsu) in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: Results of a Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Schitter, Agnes M; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Baur, Heiner; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Raio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. WATSU (WaterShiatsu) is a complementary therapeutic treatment method comprising passive stretches and massage techniques administered in 35°C warm water. Pregnant women claim safe methods to reduce pain, stress, and fatigue. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study evaluating the effects of WATSU on pregnancy-related complaints in third trimester pregnant women. Methods. Nine healthy pregnant women at gestational week ≥34 were included in an intervention group (receiving WATSU) and compared to eight women in a passive control group (receiving no treatment). WATSU was performed on days 1 and 4 of the study, accompanied by ultrasound examinations. Outcomes include physiological and psychometric as well as qualitative data. Participants in the control group completed questionnaires only. Results. WATSU was found to significantly lower participants' levels of stress and pain and to improve their mental health-related quality of life and mood. In comparison to the passive control group, participants in the intervention group reported reduction in perceived stress from day 1 to day 8 (P = 0.036, Cohen's f = 0.57). Qualitative data indicate that WATSU was appreciated as enjoyable and deeply relaxing. No negative side effects were reported. Conclusion. Our findings support the notion that WATSU yields therapeutic benefits for pregnant women and warrant further research. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01708018. PMID:25815033

  20. Low Earth orbit thermal control coatings exposure flight tests: A comparison of U.S. and Russian results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tribble, A. C.; Lukins, R.; Watts, E.; Naumov, S. F.; Sergeev, V. K.

    1995-01-01

    Both the United States (US) and Russia have conducted a variety of space environment effects on materials (SEEM) flight experiments in recent years. A prime US example was the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which spent 5 years and 9 months in low Earth orbit (LEO) from April 1984 to January 1990. A key Russian experiment was the Removable Cassette Container experiment, (RCC-1), flown on the Mir Orbital Station from 11 January 1990 to 26 April 1991. This paper evaluates the thermal control coating materials data generated by these two missions by comparing: environmental exposure conditions, functionality and chemistry of thermal control coating materials, and pre- and post-flight analysis of absorptance, emittance, and mass loss due to atomic oxygen erosion. It will be seen that there are noticeable differences in the US and Russian space environment measurements and models, which complicates comparisons of environments. The results of both flight experiments confirm that zinc oxide and zinc oxide orthotitanate white thermal control paints in metasilicate binders (Z93, YB71, TP-co-2, TP-co-11, and TP-co-12), are the most stable upon exposure to the space environment. It is also seen that Russian flight materials experience broadens to the use of silicone and acrylic resin binders while the US relies more heavily on polyurethane.

  1. Effects of Passive Hydrotherapy WATSU (WaterShiatsu) in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: Results of a Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Schitter, Agnes M; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Baur, Heiner; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Raio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. WATSU (WaterShiatsu) is a complementary therapeutic treatment method comprising passive stretches and massage techniques administered in 35°C warm water. Pregnant women claim safe methods to reduce pain, stress, and fatigue. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study evaluating the effects of WATSU on pregnancy-related complaints in third trimester pregnant women. Methods. Nine healthy pregnant women at gestational week ≥34 were included in an intervention group (receiving WATSU) and compared to eight women in a passive control group (receiving no treatment). WATSU was performed on days 1 and 4 of the study, accompanied by ultrasound examinations. Outcomes include physiological and psychometric as well as qualitative data. Participants in the control group completed questionnaires only. Results. WATSU was found to significantly lower participants' levels of stress and pain and to improve their mental health-related quality of life and mood. In comparison to the passive control group, participants in the intervention group reported reduction in perceived stress from day 1 to day 8 (P = 0.036, Cohen's f = 0.57). Qualitative data indicate that WATSU was appreciated as enjoyable and deeply relaxing. No negative side effects were reported. Conclusion. Our findings support the notion that WATSU yields therapeutic benefits for pregnant women and warrant further research. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01708018.

  2. Effects of Passive Hydrotherapy WATSU (WaterShiatsu) in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: Results of a Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schitter, Agnes M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. WATSU (WaterShiatsu) is a complementary therapeutic treatment method comprising passive stretches and massage techniques administered in 35°C warm water. Pregnant women claim safe methods to reduce pain, stress, and fatigue. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study evaluating the effects of WATSU on pregnancy-related complaints in third trimester pregnant women. Methods. Nine healthy pregnant women at gestational week ≥34 were included in an intervention group (receiving WATSU) and compared to eight women in a passive control group (receiving no treatment). WATSU was performed on days 1 and 4 of the study, accompanied by ultrasound examinations. Outcomes include physiological and psychometric as well as qualitative data. Participants in the control group completed questionnaires only. Results. WATSU was found to significantly lower participants' levels of stress and pain and to improve their mental health-related quality of life and mood. In comparison to the passive control group, participants in the intervention group reported reduction in perceived stress from day 1 to day 8 (P = 0.036, Cohen's f = 0.57). Qualitative data indicate that WATSU was appreciated as enjoyable and deeply relaxing. No negative side effects were reported. Conclusion. Our findings support the notion that WATSU yields therapeutic benefits for pregnant women and warrant further research. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01708018. PMID:25815033

  3. Body Mass Index Is Associated With Mucosal Disease in Crohn’s: Results of a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Talha A.; Kaslow, Richard A.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Mannon, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that increased body mass index (BMI) may have an adverse effect on treatment outcomes and natural history in Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to test the hypothesis that CD patients with higher BMI would be more likely than those with lower BMI to have persistent active mucosal disease. Methods We designed a case-control study. Sample population comprised CD patients with active disease at the beginning of observation. At the end of observation, cases had persistent active mucosal disease and controls had entered remission. With multivariable logistic regression models, we evaluated the effect of baseline BMI as a continuous variable and a categorical variable on persistent active mucosal disease. Results We analyzed data from 104 patients (36 cases and 68 controls). In a model containing BMI as a continuous variable, higher BMI was significantly associated with persistent active mucosal disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09 per unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02 - 1.17; P = 0.012). In a model containing BMI as a categorical variable, obese patients were 2.7 times more likely to have persistent active mucosal disease compared to non-obese patients (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.00 - 7.35; P = 0.049). Conclusion Excessive weight measured both quantitatively as BMI and categorically as obesity in CD patients is associated with persistent active mucosal disease.

  4. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects.

  5. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Method Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9–12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. Results The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Conclusions Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types. PMID:26262428

  6. ISway: a sensitive, valid and reliable measure of postural control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians need a practical, objective test of postural control that is sensitive to mild neurological disease, shows experimental and clinical validity, and has good test-retest reliability. We developed an instrumented test of postural sway (ISway) using a body-worn accelerometer to offer an objective and practical measure of postural control. Methods We conducted two separate studies with two groups of subjects. Study I: sensitivity and experimental concurrent validity. Thirteen subjects with early, untreated Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 12 age-matched control subjects (CTR) were tested in the laboratory, to compare sway from force-plate COP and inertial sensors. Study II: test-retest reliability and clinical concurrent validity. A different set of 17 early-to-moderate, treated PD (tested ON medication), and 17 age-matched CTR subjects were tested in the clinic to compare clinical balance tests with sway from inertial sensors. For reliability, the sensor was removed, subjects rested for 30 min, and the protocol was repeated. Thirteen sway measures (7 time-domain, 5 frequency-domain measures, and JERK) were computed from the 2D time series acceleration (ACC) data to determine the best metrics for a clinical balance test. Results Both center of pressure (COP) and ACC measures differentiated sway between CTR and untreated PD. JERK and time-domain measures showed the best test-retest reliability (JERK ICC was 0.86 in PD and 0.87 in CTR; time-domain measures ICC ranged from 0.55 to 0.84 in PD and from 0.60 to 0.89 in CTR). JERK, all but one time-domain measure, and one frequency measure were significantly correlated with the clinical postural stability score (r ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, 0.01 < p < 0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, we recommend a subset of the most sensitive, reliable, and valid ISway measures to characterize posture control in PD: 1) JERK, 2) RMS amplitude and mean velocity from the time-domain measures, and 3) centroidal

  7. The impact of performance incentives on child health outcomes: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, John W; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Solon, Orville; Javier, Xylee; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Improving clinical performance using measurement and payment incentives, including pay for performance (or P4P), has, so far, shown modest to no benefit on patient outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact of a P4P programme on paediatric health outcomes in the Philippines. We used data from the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study. In this study, the P4P intervention, introduced in 2004, was randomly assigned to 10 community district hospitals, which were matched to 10 control sites. At all sites, physician quality was measured using Clinical Performance Vignettes (CPVs) among randomly selected physicians every 6 months over a 36-month period. In the hospitals randomized to the P4P intervention, physicians received bonus payments if they met qualifying scores on the CPV. We measured health outcomes 4–10 weeks after hospital discharge among children 5 years of age and under who had been hospitalized for diarrhoea and pneumonia (the two most common illnesses affecting this age cohort) and had been under the care of physicians participating in the study. Health outcomes data collection was done at baseline/pre-intervention and 2 years post-intervention on the following post-discharge outcomes: (1) age-adjusted wasting, (2) C-reactive protein in blood, (3) haemoglobin level and (4) parental assessment of child’s health using general self-reported health (GSRH) measure. To evaluate changes in health outcomes in the control vs intervention sites over time (baseline vs post-intervention), we used a difference-in-difference logistic regression analysis, controlling for potential confounders. We found an improvement of 7 and 9 percentage points in GSRH and wasting over time (post-intervention vs baseline) in the intervention sites relative to the control sites (P ≤ 0.001). The results from this randomized social experiment indicate that the introduction of a performance-based incentive programme, which included measurement and feedback, led to improvements

  8. GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN WOMEN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE DCCT/EDIC

    PubMed Central

    Lenherr, Sara M.; Clemens, J. Quentin; Braffett, Barbara H.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Hotaling, James M.; Jacobson, Alan M.; Kim, Catherine; Herman, William; Brown, Jeanette S.; Wessells, Hunter; Sarma, Aruna V.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We examined the relationship between glycemic control and urinary tract infections (UTI) in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) were surveyed to assess the rate of physician-diagnosed UTI in the preceding 12 months. The relationship between HbA1c levels and number of UTIs in the previous 12 months was assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression model. RESULTS At EDIC Year 17, 572 women were evaluated: mean age 50.7 ± 7.2 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 28.6 ± 5.9 kg/m2, type 1 diabetes duration 29.8 ± 5.0 years, and mean HbA1c 8.0 ± 0.9%. Of these, 86 (15.0%) reported at least one physician diagnosed UTI during the past 12 months. Higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with number of UTIs, such that for every unit increase (1%) in recent HbA1c level, there was a 21% (p=0.02) increase in UTI frequency in the previous 12 months after adjusting for race, hysterectomy status, urinary incontinence (UI), sexual activity in the past 12 months, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of UTI increases with poor glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes. This relationship is independent of other well-described predictors of UTI and suggests that factors directly related to glycemic control may influence the risk of lower urinary tract infections. PMID:27131462

  9. Efficacy and causal mechanism of an online social media intervention to increase physical activity: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify what features of social media – promotional messaging or peer networks – can increase physical activity. Method: A 13-week social media-based exercise program was conducted at a large Northeastern university in Philadelphia, PA. In a randomized controlled trial, 217 graduate students from the University were randomized to three conditions: a control condition with a basic online program for enrolling in weekly exercise classes led by instructors of the University for 13 weeks, a media condition that supplemented the basic program with weekly online promotional media messages that encourage physical activity, and a social condition that replaced the media content with an online network of four to six anonymous peers composed of other participants of the program, in which each participant was able to see their peers' progress in enrolling in classes. The primary outcome was the number of enrollments in exercise classes, and the secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activities. Data were collected in 2014. Results: Participants enrolled in 5.5 classes on average. Compared with enrollment in the control condition (mean = 4.5), promotional messages moderately increased enrollment (mean = 5.7, p = 0.08), while anonymous social networks significantly increased enrollment (mean = 6.3, p = 0.02). By the end of the program, participants in the social condition reported exercising moderately for an additional 1.6 days each week compared with the baseline, which was significantly more than an additional 0.8 days in the control condition. Conclusion: Social influence from anonymous online peers was more successful than promotional messages for improving physical activity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02267369. PMID:26844132

  10. Assessing adherence in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel HIV prevention trial: results of a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Weaver, Mark A; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Succop, Stacey; Majola, Nelisle; Taylor, Doug; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2014-05-01

    Adherence undeniably impacts product effectiveness in microbicide trials, but the connection has proven challenging to quantify using routinely collected behavioral data. We explored this relationship using a nested case-control study in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir (TFV) gel HIV prevention trial. Detailed 3-month recall data on sex events, condom and gel use were collected from 72 incident cases and 205 uninfected controls. We then assessed how the relationship between self-reported adherence and HIV acquisition differed between the TFV and placebo gel groups, an interaction effect that should exist if effectiveness increases with adherence. The CAPRISA 004 trial determined that randomization to TFV gel was associated with a significant reduction in risk of HIV acquisition. In our nested case-control study, however, we did not observe a meaningful decrease in the relative odds of infection-TFV versus placebo-as self-reported adherence increased. To the contrary, exploratory sub-group analysis of the case-control data identified greater evidence for a protective effect of TFV gel among participants reporting less than 80 % adherence to the protocol-defined regimen (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; 95 % CI 0.11-0.78) than among those reporting ≥ 80 % adherence (Odds Ratio 0.81; 95 % CI 0.34-1.92). The small number of cases may have inhibited our ability to detect the hypothesized interaction between adherence and effectiveness. Nonetheless, our results re-emphasize the challenges faced by investigators when adherence may be miss-measured, miss-reported, or confounded with the risk of HIV. PMID:24647763

  11. The impact of performance incentives on child health outcomes: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Peabody, John W; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Solon, Orville; Javier, Xylee; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Improving clinical performance using measurement and payment incentives, including pay for performance (or P4P), has, so far, shown modest to no benefit on patient outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact of a P4P programme on paediatric health outcomes in the Philippines. We used data from the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study. In this study, the P4P intervention, introduced in 2004, was randomly assigned to 10 community district hospitals, which were matched to 10 control sites. At all sites, physician quality was measured using Clinical Performance Vignettes (CPVs) among randomly selected physicians every 6 months over a 36-month period. In the hospitals randomized to the P4P intervention, physicians received bonus payments if they met qualifying scores on the CPV. We measured health outcomes 4-10 weeks after hospital discharge among children 5 years of age and under who had been hospitalized for diarrhoea and pneumonia (the two most common illnesses affecting this age cohort) and had been under the care of physicians participating in the study. Health outcomes data collection was done at baseline/pre-intervention and 2 years post-intervention on the following post-discharge outcomes: (1) age-adjusted wasting, (2) C-reactive protein in blood, (3) haemoglobin level and (4) parental assessment of child's health using general self-reported health (GSRH) measure. To evaluate changes in health outcomes in the control vs intervention sites over time (baseline vs post-intervention), we used a difference-in-difference logistic regression analysis, controlling for potential confounders. We found an improvement of 7 and 9 percentage points in GSRH and wasting over time (post-intervention vs baseline) in the intervention sites relative to the control sites (P ≤ 0.001). The results from this randomized social experiment indicate that the introduction of a performance-based incentive programme, which included measurement and feedback, led to improvements in

  12. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  13. Lack of RsmA-mediated control results in constant hypervirulence, cell elongation, and hyperflagellation in Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    PubMed

    Kõiv, Viia; Andresen, Liis; Broberg, Martin; Frolova, Jekaterina; Somervuo, Panu; Auvinen, Petri; Pirhonen, Minna; Tenson, Tanel; Mäe, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The posttranscriptional regulator RsmA controls the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) and cell motility in the Pectobacterium genus of plant pathogens. In this study the physiological role of gene regulation by RsmA is under investigation. Disruption of rsmA gene of the Pectobacterium wasabiae strain, SCC3193 resulted in 3-fold decrease in growth rate and increased virulence. The comparison of mRNA levels of the rsmA(-) mutant and wild-type using a genome-wide microarray showed, that genes responsible for successful infection, i.e. virulence factors, motility, butanediol fermentation, various secretion systems etc. were up-regulated in the rsmA(-) strain. The rsmA(-) strain exhibited a higher propensity to swarm and produce PCWDE compared to the wild-type strain. Virulence experiments in potato tubers demonstrated that in spite of its more efficient tissue maceration, the rsmA(-) strain's ability to survive within the host is reduced and the infection site is taken over by resident bacteria. Taken together, in the absence of RsmA, cells revert to a constitutively infective phenotype characterized by expression of virulence factors and swarming. We hypothesize that lack of control over these costly energetic processes results in decreased growth rate and fitness. In addition, our findings suggest a relationship between swarming and virulence in plant pathogens.

  14. Lack of RsmA-mediated control results in constant hypervirulence, cell elongation, and hyperflagellation in Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    PubMed

    Kõiv, Viia; Andresen, Liis; Broberg, Martin; Frolova, Jekaterina; Somervuo, Panu; Auvinen, Petri; Pirhonen, Minna; Tenson, Tanel; Mäe, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The posttranscriptional regulator RsmA controls the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) and cell motility in the Pectobacterium genus of plant pathogens. In this study the physiological role of gene regulation by RsmA is under investigation. Disruption of rsmA gene of the Pectobacterium wasabiae strain, SCC3193 resulted in 3-fold decrease in growth rate and increased virulence. The comparison of mRNA levels of the rsmA(-) mutant and wild-type using a genome-wide microarray showed, that genes responsible for successful infection, i.e. virulence factors, motility, butanediol fermentation, various secretion systems etc. were up-regulated in the rsmA(-) strain. The rsmA(-) strain exhibited a higher propensity to swarm and produce PCWDE compared to the wild-type strain. Virulence experiments in potato tubers demonstrated that in spite of its more efficient tissue maceration, the rsmA(-) strain's ability to survive within the host is reduced and the infection site is taken over by resident bacteria. Taken together, in the absence of RsmA, cells revert to a constitutively infective phenotype characterized by expression of virulence factors and swarming. We hypothesize that lack of control over these costly energetic processes results in decreased growth rate and fitness. In addition, our findings suggest a relationship between swarming and virulence in plant pathogens. PMID:23372695

  15. Lack of RsmA-Mediated Control Results in Constant Hypervirulence, Cell Elongation, and Hyperflagellation in Pectobacterium wasabiae

    PubMed Central

    Kõiv, Viia; Andresen, Liis; Broberg, Martin; Frolova, Jekaterina; Somervuo, Panu; Auvinen, Petri; Pirhonen, Minna; Tenson, Tanel; Mäe, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The posttranscriptional regulator RsmA controls the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) and cell motility in the Pectobacterium genus of plant pathogens. In this study the physiological role of gene regulation by RsmA is under investigation. Disruption of rsmA gene of the Pectobacterium wasabiae strain, SCC3193 resulted in 3-fold decrease in growth rate and increased virulence. The comparison of mRNA levels of the rsmA− mutant and wild-type using a genome-wide microarray showed, that genes responsible for successful infection, i.e. virulence factors, motility, butanediol fermentation, various secretion systems etc. were up-regulated in the rsmA− strain. The rsmA− strain exhibited a higher propensity to swarm and produce PCWDE compared to the wild-type strain. Virulence experiments in potato tubers demonstrated that in spite of its more efficient tissue maceration, the rsmA− strain's ability to survive within the host is reduced and the infection site is taken over by resident bacteria. Taken together, in the absence of RsmA, cells revert to a constitutively infective phenotype characterized by expression of virulence factors and swarming. We hypothesize that lack of control over these costly energetic processes results in decreased growth rate and fitness. In addition, our findings suggest a relationship between swarming and virulence in plant pathogens. PMID:23372695

  16. On being grateful and kind: results of two randomized controlled trials on study-related emotions and academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Ouweneel, Else; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large amount of research attention to engagement as well as positive psychology in a general context, there have been few attempts to increase academic well-being by means of positive psychological interventions. This article tests the potential of positive psychological interventions to enhance study-related positive emotions and academic engagement, and to reduce study-related negative emotions among university students. We modified two existing positive interventions that are aimed at increasing general happiness for use in an academic context. These interventions focused on "thoughts of gratitude" and "acts of kindness," respectively. The present study consisted of two randomized controlled trials with experimental (thoughts of gratitude or acts of kindness) and control conditions in which participants were monitored on a daily basis during the one-week intervention, and additional pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments were carried out. Results revealed that the gratitude intervention had a significant positive effect on daily positive emotions only. The kindness intervention had a positive influence on both positive emotions and academic engagement, though not in the long run. The results showed no effects on negative emotions in either of the two interventions. Positive psychological interventions seem to foster positive emotions and academic engagement, but do not decrease negative emotions.

  17. Material need insecurities, diabetes control, and care utilization: Results from the Measuring Economic iNsecurity in Diabetes (MEND) study

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A.; Meigs, James B.; DeWalt, Darren; Seligman, Hilary K.; Barnard, Lily S.; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Schow, Marie; Atlas, Steven J.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increasing access to care may be insufficient to improve health for diabetes patients with unmet basic needs. However, how specific material need insecurities relate to clinical outcomes and care utilization in a setting of near-universal care access is unclear. Objective To determine the association of food insecurity, cost-related medication underuse, housing instability, and energy insecurity with diabetes control and healthcare utilization. Design Cross-sectional(data collected June 2012 -- October 2013). Setting One academic primary care clinic, two community health centers and one specialty diabetes center in Massachusetts. Participants Random sample, stratified by clinic, of adult(age >20 years) diabetes patients. 411 patients were included(response rate: 62.3%). Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The pre-specified primary outcome was a composite indicator of poor diabetes control(Hemoglobin A1c >9.0%, LDL cholesterol >100mg/dL, or blood pressure >140/90mm/Hg). Pre-specified secondary outcomes included outpatient visits and emergency department visits/acute care hospitalizations (ED/inpatient). Results Overall, 19% of respondents reported food insecurity, 28% cost-related medication underuse, 11% housing instability, and 14% energy insecurity; 40% reported at least one material need insecurity. Forty-two percent of respondents had poor diabetes control. In multivariable models, food insecurity was associated with greater odds of poor diabetes control(adjusted Odds Ratio[OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval[95%CI]1.58 – 2.47) and increased outpatient visits(adjusted Incident Rate Ratio[IRR] 1.19 95%CI 1.05 – 1.36), but not increased ED/inpatient visits(IRR 1.00 95%CI 0.51 – 1.97). Cost-related medication underuse was associated with poor diabetes control(OR 1.91 95%CI 1.35 – 2.70) and greater ED/inpatient utilization(IRR 1.68 95%CI 1.21 – 2.34), but not outpatient visits(IRR 1.07 95%CI 0.95 – 1.21). Housing instability(IRR 1.31 95%CI 1.14– 1

  18. Successful Promotion of Hepatitis B Vaccinations Among Vietnamese-American Children Ages 3 to 18: Results of a Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.; Nguyen, Thoa; Euler, Gary L.; Mock, Jeremiah; Wong, Ching; Lam, Tram; Nguyen, Walter; Nguyen, Sang; Ha, Martin Quach Huynh; Do, Son T.; Buu, Chau

    2006-01-01

    Objective Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus is endemic in Southeast Asian populations, including Vietnamese. Previous research has documented low rates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage among Vietnamese-American children and adolescents ages 3 to 18. To address this problem, we designed and tested in a controlled trial 2 public health outreach “catch-up” campaigns for this population. Design In the Houston, Texas metropolitan area, we mounted a media-led information and education campaign, and in the Dallas metropolitan area, we organized a community mobilization strategy. We evaluated the success of these interventions in a controlled trial, using the Washington, DC metropolitan area as a control site. To do so, we conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews with random samples of ~500 Vietnamese-American households in each of the 3 study sites both before and after the interventions. We assessed respondents’ awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B and asked for hepatitis B vaccination dates for a randomly selected child in each household. When possible, we validated vaccination dates through direct contact with each child’s providers. Results Awareness of hepatitis B increased significantly between the pre- and postintervention surveys in all 3 areas, and the increase in the media education area (+21.5 percentage points) was significantly larger than in the control area (+9.0 percentage points). At postintervention, significantly more parents knew that free vaccines were available for children in the media education (+31.9 percentage points) and community mobilization (+16.7 percentage points) areas than in the control area (+4.7 percentage points). An increase in knowledge of sexual transmission of hepatitis B virus was significant in the media education area (+14.0 percentage points) and community mobilization (+13.6 percentage points) areas compared with the control area (+5.2 percentage points). Parent- or provider-reported data (n = 783

  19. Web-enabled Conversational Interactions as a Means to Improve Cognitive Functions: Results of a 6-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Zhu, Jian; Mattek, Nora; Bowman, Molly; Ybarra, Oscar; Wild, Katherine; Loewenstein, David A.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Increasing social interaction could be a promising intervention for improving cognitive function. We examined the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to assess whether conversation-based cognitive stimulation, through personal computers, webcams, and a user-friendly interactive Internet interface had high adherence and a positive effect on cognitive functions among older adults without dementia. METHODS Daily 30 minute face-to-face communications were conducted over a 6-week trial period in the intervention group. The control group had only a weekly telephone interview. Cognitive status of normal and MCI subjects was operationally defined as Global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0 and 0.5, respectively. Age, sex, education, Mini-Mental State Exam and CDR score were balancing factors in randomization. Subjects were recruited using mass-mailing invitations. Pre-post differences in cognitive test scores and loneliness scores were compared between control and intervention groups using linear regression models. RESULTS Eighty-three subjects participated (intervention: n=41, control: n=42). Their mean (std) age was 80.5 (6.8) years. Adherence to the protocol was high; there was no dropout and mean % of days completed out of the targeted trial days among the intervention group was 89% (range: 77%–100%). Among the cognitively intact participants, the intervention group improved more than the control group on a semantic fluency test (p=0.003) at the post-trial assessment and a phonemic fluency test (p=0.004) at the 18th week assessments. Among those with MCI, a trend (p=0.04) of improved psychomotor speed was observed in the intervention group. DISCUSSION Daily conversations via user-friendly Internet communication programs demonstrated high adherence. Among cognitively intact, the intervention group showed greater improvement in tests of language-based executive functions. Increasing daily social contacts through communication technologies could

  20. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial

  1. Pre-operative diclofenac HPβCD for pain control of needle biopsy in musculoskeletal neoplasm: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    D’Arienzo, Antonio; Beltrami, Giovanni; Mancini, Daniele; Scoccianti, Guido; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Muratori, Francesco; Matera, Davide; Ippolito, Massimiliano; Mondanelli, Nicola; Frenos, Filippo; Totti, Francesca; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Needle biopsy is the main standard method used for diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors of the limbs and superficial trunk. Pain control during this procedure is through the use of Local Anaestetic (L.A.). In order to achieve a complete pain control in our cases, recently we started using diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg via s.c. preoperativly. We present the clinical results of a non-randomized study of two eterogeneous groups of patients: “Experimental” Group (1): diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg via s.c. one hour before surgical procedure, local anesthesia and ev. diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg via s.c. 12 hours postoperative; “Conventional” Group (2): local anesthesia and ev. postoperative tramadol 100 mg via oral for pain control. In October 2014, at the Department of Orthopedic Oncology and Reconstructive Surgery of Florence, 37 musculoskeletal biopsies for a bone or a soft tissue lesion were performed. Exclusion criteria for this study were: known allergies to lidocaine, diclofenac, tramadol; known gastric or duodenal ulcers; known gastrointestinal bleed or perforation; refusal of the patients to collaborate. For one or more of these reasons, 6 patients were excluded from this study. In the Group 1, 10 patients (59%) referred no pain during the surgical procedure (8/14 biopsies on soft tissue and 2/3 on bone). In 5 cases (29%) no exacerbation of previous chronic pain, and in 2 cases (12%) a progression of local pain after biopsy (average 1 points higher in the VAS). In Group 2, only 6 patients (42%) did not have any pain during the procedure, 4 (29%) no exacerbation of previous chronic pain and 4 (29%) a progression of local pain (average 2 points higher in the VAS). Despite similar results in both Groups, Group 1 seemed to have a mild better control of perioperative pain. The use of diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg preoperative seems to be a rational approach for minimizing perioperative pain and the preliminary data of our study seem encouraging. Obviously many bias are

  2. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fillinger, Ulrike; Kannady, Khadija; William, George; Vanek, Michael J; Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Geissbühler, Yvonne; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nico J; Mathenge, Evan M; Singer, Burton H; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven W; Tanner, Marcel; Mtasiwa, Deo; de Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2008-01-01

    Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04). Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience. PMID:18218148

  3. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Pierotti, Paola; Cariaggi, Maria Paola; Palma, Paolo Dalla; Naldoni, Carlo; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Parisio, Franca; Pojer, Ada; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Sintoni, Catia; Zorzi, Manuel; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine screening programmes in Italy. Participants Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22 466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22 708 were assigned to the experimental arm. Interventions Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and testing for human papillomavirus. Main outcome measure Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result. Results In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77). Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25). Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result. No evidence was found of heterogeneity between centres or of improvement with increasing time from start of the study. The relative frequency of women with at least one unsatisfactory result was lower with liquid based cytology (0.62, 0.56 to 0.69). Conclusion Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more. More positive results were found, however, leading to a lower positive

  4. Risk factors for MRSA infection in companion animals: results from a case-control study within Germany.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Szilvia; Brandenburg, Anja G; Espelage, Werner; Stamm, Ivonne; Wieler, Lothar H; Kopp, Peter A; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Walther, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    Increasing numbers of companion animals suffering from infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported in the recent past. These infections are of particular concern because of the limited treatment options for MRSA and their transferability to humans. Since MRSA lineages isolated from infected companion animals often mirror typical human epidemic strains circulating in the same region, successful strategies to combat MRSA need strong and coordinated efforts from both, the human and the veterinary field according to the "One Health" concept. Hence, to identify potential risk factors related to MRSA infections in dogs, cats and horses, a case-control study was conducted, including data on 106 MRSA-infected animal patients as cases and 102 MSSA-infected animals as controls, originating from 155 different veterinary settings within Germany. Demographic data on animal patients, patient history and administration of antibiotics as well as practice/clinic specific parameters were assessed as putative risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression identified the following variables as risk factors for MRSA infection compared to MSSA infection: number of employees working at the veterinary setting (n>10; p<0.001), antibiotic treatment prior to sampling (systemic: p=0.002; local: p=0.049, both: p=0.011) and surgical site infection (p<0.001). Spa typing revealed predominantly clonal complexes well-known for hospital-associated lineages spreading in human health-care settings in Germany (CC5 and CC22) for isolates of dog and cat origin. CC398-MRSA dominated among equine isolates, a CC that was described as a nosocomial pathogen in equine clinical settings before. The identified risk factors and genotyping results are in accordance with numerous study outcomes from the field of human medicine and point towards reasonable problems with nosocomial spread of MRSA, especially within companion animal veterinary clinics. To define targeted

  5. Treatment with octreotide LAR in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Alessandra; Giampietro, Antonella; Bianchi, Antonio; Cimino, Vincenzo; Lugli, Francesca; Piacentini, Serena; Lorusso, Margherita; Tofani, Anna; Perotti, Germano; Lauriola, Libero; Anile, Carmelo; Maira, Giulio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; De Marinis, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Surgical cure cannot be achieved in most patients with invasive non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPA). Short-term residual tumor treatment with somatostatin analogs has produced disappointing results. This prospective case-control study assessed the efficacy of chronic treatment with long acting octreotide (octreotide LAR) on tumor volume in patients harboring post-surgical NFPA residue. The study population comprised 39 patients with NFPAs not cured by surgery. All patients underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy at least 6 months after the last surgery. Patients with a positive pituitary level octreoscan at (n = 26) received octreotide LAR (20 mg every 28 days) for ≥ 12 months (mean follow-up 37 ± 18 months) (Treated group). Moreover, a fragment of tumor tissue from patients in the treated group was retrospectively collected to assess the immunohistochemical expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTRs). The patients with a negative octreoscan (n = 13) formed the control group (mean follow-up 37 ± 16 months). Hormonal, radiological and visual field parameters were periodically assessed. In the treated group, all tumors expressed at least one SSTR subtype. The SSTR5 subtype was the most abundant, followed by SSTR3. The tumor residue increased in five of 26 patients (19%) in the treated group and in seven of 13 controls (53%). Visual field and pituitary function did not change in any patient. This study indicates that SSTR5 and SSTR3 are the most frequently expressed SSTR subtypes in NFPAs and supports a potential role of SSTR subtypes in stabilization of tumor remnant from NFPAs. PMID:22207350

  6. Ultrasound therapy for recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ennis, William J; Foremann, Phil; Mozen, Neal; Massey, Joi; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Meneses, Patricio

    2005-08-01

    An estimated 15% of patients with diabetes will develop a foot ulcer sometime in their life, making them 30 to 40 times more likely to undergo amputation due to a non-healing foot ulcer than the non-diabetic population. To determine the safety and efficacy of a new, non-contact, kilohertz ultrasound therapy for the healing of recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers - as well as to evaluate the impact on total closure and quantitative bacterial cultures and the effect on healing of various levels of sharp/surgical debridement - a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in hospital-based and private wound care clinics. Patients (55 met criteria for efficacy analysis) received standard of care, which included products that provide a moist environment, offloading diabetic shoes and socks, debridement, wound evaluation, and measurement. The "therapy" was either active 40 KHz ultrasound delivered by a saline mist or a "sham device" which delivered a saline mist without the use of ultrasound. After 12 weeks of care, the proportion of wounds healed (defined as complete epithelialization without drainage) in the active ultrasound therapy device group was significantly higher than that in the sham control group (40.7% versus 14.3%, P = 0.0366, Fisher's exact test). The ultrasound treatment was easy to use and no difference in the number and type of adverse events between the two treatment groups was noted. Of interest, wounds were debrided at baseline followed by a quantitative culture biopsy. The results of these cultures demonstrated a significant bioburden (greater than 10(5)) in the majority of cases, despite a lack of clinical signs of infection. Compared to control, this therapeutic modality was found to increase the healing rate of recalcitrant, diabetic foot ulcers.

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  8. Results of a randomized controlled trial of mental illness self-management using Wellness Recovery Action Planning.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Copeland, Mary Ellen; Jonikas, Jessica A; Hamilton, Marie M; Razzano, Lisa A; Grey, Dennis D; Floyd, Carol B; Hudson, Walter B; Macfarlane, Rachel T; Carter, Tina M; Boyd, Sherry

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a peer-led illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) by comparing it with usual care. The primary outcome was reduction of psychiatric symptoms, with secondary outcomes of increased hopefulness, and enhanced quality of life (QOL). A total of 519 adults with severe and persistent mental illness were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in 6 Ohio communities and randomly assigned to the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control condition. Outcomes were assessed at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up using an intent-to-treat mixed-effects random regression analysis. Compared to controls, at immediate postintervention and at 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants reported: (1) significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory Global Symptom Severity and Positive Symptom Total, (2) significantly greater improvement over time in hopefulness as assessed by the Hope Scale total score and subscale for goal directed hopefulness, and (3) enhanced improvement over time in QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF environment subscale. These results indicate that peer-delivered mental illness self-management training reduces psychiatric symptoms, enhances participants' hopefulness, and improves their QOL over time. This confirms the importance of peer-led wellness management interventions, such as WRAP, as part of a group of evidence-based recovery-oriented services.

  9. BVI impulsive noise reduction by higher harmonic pitch control - Results of a scaled model rotor experiment in the DNW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splettstoesser, Wolf R.; Schultz, KLAUS-J.; Kube, Roland; Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Niesl, Georg; Streby, Olivier

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a model rotor acoustics test performed to examine the benefit of higher harmonic control (HHC) of blade pitch to reduce blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise. A dynamically scaled, four-bladed, rigid rotor model, a 40-percent replica of the B0-105 main rotor, was tested in the German Dutch Wind Tunnel. Noise characteristics and noise directivity patterns as well as vibratory loads were measured and used to demonstrate the changes when different HHC schedules were applied. Dramatic changes of the acoustic signatures and the noise radiation directivity with the HHC phase variations are found. Compared to the baseline conditions (without HHC), significant mid-frequency noise reductions of locally 6 dB are obtained for low-speed descent conditions where GVI is most intense. For other rotor operating conditions with less intense BVI there is less or no benefit from the use of HHC. LF noise and vibratory loads, especially at optimum noise reduction control settings, are found to increase.

  10. Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Mental Illness Self-management Using Wellness Recovery Action Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Copeland, Mary Ellen; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Hamilton, Marie M.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Grey, Dennis D.; Floyd, Carol B.; Hudson, Walter B.; Macfarlane, Rachel T.; Carter, Tina M.; Boyd, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a peer-led illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) by comparing it with usual care. The primary outcome was reduction of psychiatric symptoms, with secondary outcomes of increased hopefulness, and enhanced quality of life (QOL). A total of 519 adults with severe and persistent mental illness were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in 6 Ohio communities and randomly assigned to the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control condition. Outcomes were assessed at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up using an intent-to-treat mixed-effects random regression analysis. Compared to controls, at immediate postintervention and at 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants reported: (1) significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory Global Symptom Severity and Positive Symptom Total, (2) significantly greater improvement over time in hopefulness as assessed by the Hope Scale total score and subscale for goal directed hopefulness, and (3) enhanced improvement over time in QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF environment subscale. These results indicate that peer-delivered mental illness self-management training reduces psychiatric symptoms, enhances participants’ hopefulness, and improves their QOL over time. This confirms the importance of peer-led wellness management interventions, such as WRAP, as part of a group of evidence-based recovery-oriented services. PMID:21402724

  11. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of preventive methods for occlusal surface according to caries risk: results of a controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Marinho, Daniel Savignon; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Pardi, Vanessa; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis in a controlled clinical trial on the effectiveness of a modified glass ionomer resin sealant ( Vitremer, 3M ESPE) and the application of fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars in children 6-8 years of age (N = 268), according to caries risk (high versus low). Children were examined semiannually by the same calibrated dentist for 24 months after allocation in six groups: high and low risk controls (oral health education every three months); high and low risk with varnish (oral health education every three months + varnish biannually); and high and low risk with sealant (oral health education every three months + a single application of sealant). Economic analysis showed that sealing permanent first molars of high-risk schoolchildren showed a C/E ratio of US$ 119.80 per saved occlusal surface and an incremental C/E ratio of US$ 108.36 per additional saved occlusal surface. The study concluded that sealing permanent first molars of high-risk schoolchildren was the most cost-effective intervention.

  12. An art therapy intervention for cancer patients in the ambulant aftercare - results from a non-randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Geue, K; Richter, R; Buttstädt, M; Brähler, E; Singer, S

    2013-05-01

    Art therapy in psycho-oncology is gaining increasing importance, but systematic evaluations of its effects are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an art therapy intervention for cancer patients in ambulant aftercare on psychological distress and coping. The intervention consisted of 22 sessions. At three points of measurement (t1: before intervention, t2: following intervention, t3: 6 months after t2), participants responded to questionnaires (Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness, Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). A group of haemato-oncological patients served as the comparison group (CG). Pre-post comparisons and analyses of variance were applied for statistical analysis. Relevant confounders were controlled. Fifty-four patients (intervention group, IG) with various cancer diagnoses completed the intervention. One hundred and twenty-nine data sets were available for the CG. Analyses of variance included group membership (IG vs. CG) and the following factors: gender, other psychosocial help and major life events. None of these variables was a predictor for changes in depression, anxiety and coping. Therefore, we could not prove intervention effects over time. Our results contradict those of preliminary studies and raise important questions. Further work on evaluating art therapy is necessary to explore which intervention concepts in which setting at which treatment stage show significant effects. Therefore, controlling for relevant confounders is needed.

  13. High-contrast imager for complex aperture telescopes (HiCAT): 3. first lab results with wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Egron, Sylvain; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Carlotti, Alexis; Long, Chris A.; Lajoie, Rachel; Soummer, Rémi

    2015-09-01

    HiCAT is a high-contrast imaging testbed designed to provide complete solutions in wavefront sensing, control and starlight suppression with complex aperture telescopes. The pupil geometry of such observatories includes primary mirror segmentation, central obstruction, and spider vanes, which make the direct imaging of habitable worlds very challenging. The testbed alignment was completed in the summer of 2014, exceeding specifications with a total wavefront error of 12nm rms over a 18mm pupil. The installation of two deformable mirrors for wavefront control is to be completed in the winter of 2015. In this communication, we report on the first testbed results using a classical Lyot coronagraph. We also present the coronagraph design for HiCAT geometry, based on our recent development of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) with shaped-pupil type optimizations. These new APLC-type solutions using two-dimensional shaped-pupil apodizer render the system quasi-insensitive to jitter and low-order aberrations, while improving the performance in terms of inner working angle, bandpass and contrast over a classical APLC.

  14. Volar locking distal radius plates show better short-term results than other treatment options: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drobetz, Herwig; Koval, Lidia; Weninger, Patrick; Luscombe, Ruth; Jeffries, Paula; Ehrendorfer, Stefan; Heal, Clare

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of displaced distal radius fractures treated with volar locking plates and with immediate postoperative mobilisation with the outcomes of these fractures treated with modalities that necessitate 6 wk wrist immobilisation. METHODS A prospective, randomised controlled single-centre trial was conducted with 56 patients who had a displaced radius fracture were randomised to treatment either with a volar locking plate (n = 29), or another treatment modality (n = 27; cast immobilisation with or without wires or external fixator). Outcomes were measured at 12 wk. Functional outcome scores measured were the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and activities of daily living (ADLs). Clinical outcomes were wrist range of motion and grip strength. Radiographic parameters were volar inclination and ulnar variance. RESULTS Patients in the volar locking plate group had significantly better PRWE scores, ADL scores, grip strength and range of extension at three months compared with the control group. All radiological parameters were significantly better in the volar locking plate group at 3 mo. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that volar locking plates produced significantly better functional and clinical outcomes at 3 mo compared with other treatment modalities. Anatomical reduction was significantly more likely to be preserved in the plating group. Level of evidence: II. PMID:27795951

  15. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of preventive methods for occlusal surface according to caries risk: results of a controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Marinho, Daniel Savignon; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Pardi, Vanessa; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis in a controlled clinical trial on the effectiveness of a modified glass ionomer resin sealant ( Vitremer, 3M ESPE) and the application of fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars in children 6-8 years of age (N = 268), according to caries risk (high versus low). Children were examined semiannually by the same calibrated dentist for 24 months after allocation in six groups: high and low risk controls (oral health education every three months); high and low risk with varnish (oral health education every three months + varnish biannually); and high and low risk with sealant (oral health education every three months + a single application of sealant). Economic analysis showed that sealing permanent first molars of high-risk schoolchildren showed a C/E ratio of US$ 119.80 per saved occlusal surface and an incremental C/E ratio of US$ 108.36 per additional saved occlusal surface. The study concluded that sealing permanent first molars of high-risk schoolchildren was the most cost-effective intervention. PMID:25402241

  17. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  18. KSTAR stability and rotation control results for high normalized beta plasmas exceeding the ideal MHD no-wall stability limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, W. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Bak, J. G.; You, K.-I.; Park, J. K.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2013-10-01

    Plasma stability parameters in KSTAR have reached and exceeded the n = 1 ideal no-wall limit computed for H-mode profiles. Normalized beta up to 2.9 has been achieved and sustained with plasma internal inductance near 0.75. The ratio βN/li has exceeded 3.6 (an 80% increase over the prior year). Plasma stored energy has exceeded 0.5 MJ. Non-axisymmetric field spectra with dominant n = 2 component were applied to alter the plasma rotation profile by non-resonant neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV). The rotation profile was significantly altered without tearing activity or mode locking. Changing the in-vessel control coil current in steps altered rotation in a controlled fashion without hysteresis. The core rotation was lowered by 50% as measured by charge exchange spectroscopy, x-ray crystal spectrometer, and supported by magnetic diagnostics. H-mode energy confinement was maintained at reduced rotation while the resultant profile was peaked, as found in L-mode. Tearing mode onset conditions and mode locking criteria due to the applied n = 1, 2 applied fields were investigated. Additionally, ELMs were mitigated using sufficient n = 2 field strength by using midplane coils alone. Advances from the recent run campaign will be reported. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  19. Results of examination of the A276 white and Z306 black thermal control paint disks flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of A276 white and Z306 black thermal control paints were analyzed for the effects of space environmental exposure as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Special Investigation Group activity. The specimens, actually disks or spots of paint on tray clamps, were located at regular intervals on all LDEF longerons and intercostals. The principle conclusions from the analysis are: UV exposure degraded the surface resin of A276 paint, with coating solar absorptance increasing with UV exposure; contamination, though detected, was not enough to have adversely affected optical properties; atomic oxygen eroded resin on specimens with incidence angles of up to 100 deg; the erosion of Z306 paint on leading edge specimens removed a minimum of 10 microns of that coating; and the erosion of A276 paint at up to 80 deg incidence angle resulted in near original condition solar absorptance readings.

  20. The use of active noise control (ANC) to reduce acoustic noise generated during MRI scanning: some initial results.

    PubMed

    McJury, M; Stewart, R W; Crawford, D; Toma, E

    1997-01-01

    MRI scanning generates high levels of acoustic noise that cannot only pose a safety hazard, but also impair communication between staff and patient. In this article we present active noise control (ANC) techniques that introduce antiphase noise to destructively interfere with the MRI noise and with the aim of producing a zone of quiet around the patient's ears. Using noise recorded from a 1.0 Tesla midfield MR scanner the acoustic noise generated by three standard MR imaging sequences was replayed to a real time two channel ANC system. The results obtained show a useful attenuation of low-frequency periodic acoustic noise components. Therefore, in combination with standard passive ear protection, this suggests that MR generated acoustic noise can be effectively attenuated at both low and high frequencies leading to improved patient comfort.

  1. Non-hodgkin's lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency during the study period. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit the statistical models. Results: Farming exposure and exposure to pesticides-contaminated cloths were related to an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to pesticides was strongly associated with an increased risk of NHL, especially for men. Conclusion: For men, the incidence of NHL was associated with exposure to pesticides after adjusting for other independent predictors. PMID:24872670

  2. Preliminary validation results of an ASIC for the readout and control of near-infrared large array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Meier, Dirk; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Øya, Petter; Steenari, David; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present initial test results of the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC (NIRCA), designed for large area image sensors under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Norwegian Space Center. The ASIC is designed to read out image sensors based on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe, or MCT) operating down to 77 K. IDEAS has developed, designed and initiated testing of NIRCA with promising results, showing complete functionality of all ASIC sub-components. The ASIC generates programmable digital signals to clock out the contents of an image array and to amplify, digitize and transfer the resulting pixel charge. The digital signals can be programmed into the ASIC during run-time and allows for windowing and custom readout schemes. The clocked out voltages are amplified by programmable gain amplifiers and digitized by 12-bit, 3-Msps successive approximation register (SAR) analogue-to-digital converters (ADC). Digitized data is encoded using 8-bit to 10-bit encoding and transferred over LVDS to the readout system. The ASIC will give European researchers access to high spectral sensitivity, very low noise and radiation hardened readout electronics for astronomy and Earth observation missions operating at 77 K and room temperature. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, or defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  3. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  4. Implementing a guideline for the treatment of type 2 diabetics: results of a Cluster- Randomized Controlled Trial (C-RCT)

    PubMed Central

    Perria, Carla; Mandolini, Donatella; Guerrera, Carmelina; Jefferson, Tom; Billi, Paolo; Calzini, Virgilio; Fiorillo, Alfonso; Grasso, Giuseppe; Leotta, Sergio; Marrocco, Walter; Suraci, Concetta; Pasquarella, Amina

    2007-01-01

    Background In Italy many diabetics still lack adequate care in general practice. We assessed the effectiveness of different strategies for the implementation of an evidence-based guideline for the management of non-complicated type 2 diabetes among General Practitioners (GPs) of Lazio region. Methods Three-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial with GPs as units of randomisation (clusters). 252 GPs were randomised either to an active strategy (training module with administration of the guideline), or to a passive dissemination (administration of the guideline only), or to usual care (control). Data on prescriptions of tests and drugs were collected by existing information systems, whereas patients' data came from GPs' databases. Process outcomes were measured at the cluster level one year after the intervention. Primary outcomes concerned the measurement of glycosilated haemoglobin and the commissioning of micro- and macrovascular complications assessment tests. In order to assess the physicians' drug prescribing behaviour secondary outcomes were also calculated. Results GPs identified 6395 uncomplicated type 2 patients with a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Data on GPs baseline performance show low proportions of glycosilated haemoglobin assessments. Results of the C-RCT analysis indicate that the active implementation strategy was ineffective relating to all primary outcomes (respectively, OR 1.06 [95% IC: 0.76–1.46]; OR 1.07 [95% IC: 0.80–1.43]; OR 1.4 [95% IC:0.91–2.16]. Similarly, passive dissemination of the guideline showed no effect. Conclusion In our region compliance of GPs with guidelines was not enhanced by a structured learning programme. Implementation through organizational measures appears to be essential to induce behavioural changes. Trial registration ISRCTN80116232 PMID:17547760

  5. Effects of infectious young stock on results of certification, surveillance and control programmes for paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Weber, M F; Groenendaal, H

    2012-01-27

    In many epidemiological models for paratuberculosis, it is assumed that infected young stock (<2 years of age) do not shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) before adulthood. If this assumption were true, the effective separation of young stock from adult cattle (≥ 2 years) would largely prevent postnatal infections, provided that uninfected adult cattle are highly resistant to infection. However, this assumption is in contrast with observed faecal shedding of MAP in young stock. Consequently, this assumption may have resulted in an underestimation of the effects of MAP transmission in herds participating in certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of transmission of MAP amongst young stock on key output parameters of certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis in simulated closed dairy herds. Closed Dutch dairy herds participating in a paratuberculosis programme were simulated with a stochastic model, JohneSSim. Various test schemes, preventive management measures, distributions of age at onset of faecal shedding and rates of effective contacts between young stock were simulated. The results indicate that transmission of MAP amongst young stock has no relevant effects on the animal-level prevalence and milk quality of herds that are certified in a paratuberculosis programme. However, transmission of MAP amongst young stock increased the economic losses due to paratuberculosis and costs of participation in a programme. Moreover, it substantially decreased the beneficial effect of the separation of young stock from adult cattle on the probability of being certified. However, even in the presence of transmission of MAP amongst young stock, preventive management measures to separate young stock from adult cattle remain important.

  6. Occupational Therapy in HomEcare Re-ablement Services (OTHERS): results of a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Marion F; Parry, Ruth H; Latif, Zaid; McGeorge, Ian D; Drummond, Avril E R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention targeted at activities of daily living (ADL), delivered by an occupational therapist, in homecare reablement. Design Feasibility parallel group RCT. Setting Single-site local authority homecare reablement service. Participants People referred for homecare reablement with ability to consent. Exclusion criteria were as follows: inability to speak English, receiving other community therapy services, needing two or more to assist transfer and receiving end-of-life care. Control ‘Usual care’ was 6 weeks of homecare reablement delivered by social care workers (no routine health professional input). Intervention A targeted ADL programme, delivered by an occupational therapist incorporating goal setting, teaching/practising techniques, equipment/adaptations and provision of advice/support. This was in addition to usual care. Outcome measures Aspects of feasibility including eligibility, recruitment, intervention delivery, attrition and suitability and sensitivity of outcome measures. Participant outcomes were personal and extended ADL, quality of life, falls and use of health and social care services. Results 30 participants were recruited, 15 to each arm, which was 60% of those eligible. Data from 22 (73%) were analysed at 6 months. Of the 15 participants, 13 (86%) received the intervention and were able to set one or more ADL goals. There were improvements from baseline in both groups, although overall improvements were greater in the occupational therapy (OT) intervention group. The biggest threat to feasibility was a change in service configuration during the trial, involving additional occupational therapy input, affecting usual care and recruitment. Conclusions Despite the service reconfiguration, it was feasible to recruit and retain participants, deliver the intervention and collect outcome data that were responsive to

  7. Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Plant Growth and on Soil Magnetic Properties: Preliminary Results from Controlled Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, B.; Cioppa, M. T.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of an iron pollutant (magnetite, <5µm) on both tomato plants and their growth media (soil) in garden pots have been examined in this study. Morphological differences in the plants subjected to different concentrations (0.04 mg/kg and 0.4mg/kg) of the pollutant have been monitored at different ontogenic stages by measuring plant height and leaf colour, using a reflectance spectrometer (USB 4000). The surface magnetic susceptibility (MS) of the growth media has been measured using the Bartington MS2 system on a weekly basis. The changes in soil magnetic properties and some trace element concentrations of elements potentially associated with Fe have been determined through magnetic and chemical methods. The preliminary results in the control samples and a few of the contaminated samples show that exposure to iron contaminant can affect plant growth significantly, and can change the magnetic susceptibility of the growth media. Distinct morphological differences are observed in plants subjected to different treatments. The control plants are much taller (30-40cm, measured to date) compared to low-contamination (20-30cm) and high- contamination plants (10-15cm). In contrast, the mean brightness and saturation values of the leaves did not vary substantially. These colour parameters were hypothesized to vary significantly; however an explanation for their similarity is still being researched. The average decrease in MS is about 23% in the control soil. From a theoretical perspective, with the decrease in MS, there should be a corresponding decrease in iron minerals, which should be observable by chemical methods. However the MS values increased in most of the samples with contaminated soils but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We would expect that, in such a controlled environment, any changes in soil magnetic properties and trace element concentrations must be due to the plant growth and its effects on the surrounding soil. The background values

  8. The Diaphragm and Lubricant Gel for Prevention of Cervical Sexually Transmitted Infections: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; van der Straten, Ariane; Chipato, Tsungai; de Bruyn, Guy; Blanchard, Kelly; Shiboski, Stephen; Cheng, Helen; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Padian, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the effectiveness of the Ortho All-Flex Diaphragm, lubricant gel (Replens®) and condoms compared to condoms alone on the incidence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in an open-label randomized controlled trial among women at risk of HIV/STI infections. Methods We randomized 5045 sexually-active women at three sites in Southern Africa. Participants who tested positive for curable STIs were treated prior to enrollment as per local guidelines. Women were followed quarterly and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infection by nucleic-acid amplification testing (Roche Amplicor®) using first-catch urine specimens. STIs detected at follow-up visits were treated. We compared the incidence of first infection after randomization between study arms in both intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol populations. Findings Baseline demographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics were balanced across study arms. Nearly 80% of participants were under 35 years of age. Median follow-up time was 21 months and the retention rate was over 93%. There were 471 first chlamydia infections, 247 in the intervention arm and 224 in the control arm with an overall incidence of 6.2/100 woman-years (wy) (relative hazard (RH) 1.11, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.93–1.33; p = 0.25) and 192 first gonococcal infections, 95 in the intervention arm and 97 in the control arm with an overall incidence of 2.4/100wy (RH 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74–1.30; p = 0.90). Per protocol results indicated that when diaphragm adherence was defined as “always use” since the last visit, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of GC infection among women randomized to the intervention arm (RH 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41–0.91, P = 0.02). Interpretation There was no difference by study arm in the rate of acquisition of CT or GC. However, our per-protocol results suggest that consistent use of the diaphragm may reduce acquisition of GC. Trial

  9. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  10. Guidelines for laboratory testing and result reporting of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Alter, Miriam J; Kuhnert, Wendi L; Finelli, Lyn

    2003-02-01

    Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-19] :1-33). Testing for anti-HCV should include use of an antibody screening assay, and for screening test-positive results, a more specific supplemental assay. Verifying the presence of anti-HCV minimizes unnecessary medical visits and psychological harm for persons who test falsely positive by screening assays and ensures that counseling, medical referral, and evaluation are targeted for patients serologically confirmed as having been infected with HCV. However, substantial variation in reflex supplemental testing practices exists among laboratories, and an anti-HCV-positive laboratory report does not uniformly represent a confirmed positive result. These guidelines expand recommendations for anti-HCV testing to include an option for reflex supplemental testing based on screening-test-positive signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios. Use of s/co ratios minimizes the amount of supplemental testing that needs to be performed while improving the reliability of reported test results. These guidelines were developed on the basis of available knowledge of CDC staff in consultation with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration and public health, hospital, and independent laboratories. Adoption of these guidelines by all public and private laboratories that perform in vitro diagnostic anti-HCV testing will improve the accuracy and utility of reported anti-HCV test results for counseling and medical evaluation of patients by health-care professionals and for surveillance by public health departments. PMID:12585742

  11. 47 CFR 22.943 - Limitations on transfer of control and assignment for authorizations issued as a result of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... three years. (a) The FCC may accept and grant applications for consent to transfer of control or for... grant applications for consent to transfer of control or for assignment of the authorization of a... and grant applications for consent to transfer of control or for assignment of authorization if...

  12. Comparison of flight results with digital simulation for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Substantial benefits of a full authority digital electronic engine control on an air breathing engine were demonstrated repeatedly in simulation studies, ground engine tests, and engine altitude test facilities. A digital engine electronic control system showed improvements in efficiency, performance, and operation. An additional benefit of full authority digital controls is the capability of detecting and correcting failures and providing engine health diagnostics.

  13. The effect of a brief social intervention on the examination results of UK medical students: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I Chris; Gill, Deborah; Dacre, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority (EM) medical students and doctors underperform academically, but little evidence exists on how to ameliorate the problem. Psychologists Cohen et al. recently demonstrated that a written self-affirmation intervention substantially improved EM adolescents' school grades several months later. Cohen et al.'s methods were replicated in the different setting of UK undergraduate medical education. Methods All 348 Year 3 white (W) and EM students at one UK medical school were randomly allocated to an intervention condition (writing about one's own values) or a control condition (writing about another's values), via their tutor group. Students and assessors were blind to the existence of the study. Group comparisons on post-intervention written and OSCE (clinical) assessment scores adjusted for baseline written assessment scores were made using two-way analysis of covariance. All assessment scores were transformed to z-scores (mean = 0 standard deviation = 1) for ease of comparison. Comparisons between types of words used in essays were calculated using t-tests. The study was covered by University Ethics Committee guidelines. Results Groups were statistically identical at baseline on demographic and psychological factors, and analysis was by intention to treat [intervention group EM n = 95, W n = 79; control group EM n = 77; W n = 84]. As predicted, there was a significant ethnicity by intervention interaction [F(4,334) = 5.74; p = 0.017] on the written assessment. Unexpectedly, this was due to decreased scores in the W intervention group [mean difference = 0.283; (95% CI = 0.093 to 0.474] not improved EM intervention group scores [mean difference = -0.060 (95% CI = -0.268 to 0.148)]. On the OSCE, both W and EM intervention groups outperformed controls [mean difference = 0.261; (95%CI = -0.047 to -0.476; p = 0.013)]. The intervention group used more optimistic words (p < 0.001) and more "I" and "self" pronouns in their essays (p < 0.001), whereas

  14. The MEXICO project (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions): The database and first results of data processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snel, H.; Schepers, J. G.; Montgomerie, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Mexico (Model experiments in Controlled Conditions) was a FP5 project, partly financed by European Commission. The main objective was to create a database of detailed aerodynamic and load measurements on a wind turbine model, in a large and high quality wind tunnel, to be used for model validation and improvement. Here model stands for both the extended BEM modelling used in state-of-the-art design and certification software, and CFD modelling of the rotor and near wake flow. For this purpose a three bladed 4.5 m diameter wind tunnel model was built and instrumented. The wind tunnel experiments were carried out in the open section (9.5*9.5 m2) of the Large Scale Facility of the DNW (German-Netherlands) during a six day campaign in December 2006. The conditions for measurements cover three operational tip speed ratios, many blade pitch angles, three yaw misalignment angles and a small number of unsteady cases in the form of pitch ramps and rotor speed ramps. One of the most important feats of the measurement program was the flow field mapping, with stereo PIV techniques. Overall the measurement campaign was very successful. The paper describes the now existing database and discusses a number of highlights from early data processing and interpretation. It should be stressed that all results are first results, no tunnel correction has been performed so far, nor has the necessary checking of data quality.

  15. [Analytical procedure of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis and effective use of analysis results for tuberculosis control].

    PubMed

    Hachisu, Yushi; Hashimoto, Ruiko; Kishida, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is one of the methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. VNTR analysis is a method based on PCR, provides rapid highly reproducible results and higher strain discrimination power than the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis widely used in molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genetic lineage compositions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates differ among the regions from where they are isolated, and allelic diversity at each locus also differs among the genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, the combination of VNTR loci that can provide high discrimination capacity for analysis is not common in every region. The Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) 12 (15) reported a standard combination of VNTR loci for analysis in Japan, and the combination with hypervariable (HV) loci added to JATA12 (15), which has very high discrimination capacity, was also reported. From these reports, it is thought that data sharing between institutions and construction of a nationwide database will progress from now on. Using database construction of VNTR profiles, VNTR analysis has become an effective tool to trace the route of tuberculosis infection, and also helps in decision-making in the treatment course. However, in order to utilize the results of VNTR analysis effectively, it is important that each related organization cooperates closely, and analysis should be appropriately applied in the system in which accurate control and private information protection are ensured.

  16. Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-08

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-control parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.

  17. Split-Dose Polyethylene Glycol Is Superior to Single Dose for Colonoscopy Preparation: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rachid; Hilsden, Robert J.; Dube, Catherine; Rostom, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of colonoscopy in detecting abnormalities within the colon is highly dependent on the adequacy of the bowel preparation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG lavage and split-dose PEG lavage with specific emphasis on the cleanliness of the right colon. Methods. The study was a prospective, randomized, two-arm, controlled trial of 237 patients. Patients between the age of 50 and 75 years were referred to an outpatient university screening clinic for colonoscopy. Patients were allocated to receive either a single 4 L PEG lavage or a split-dose PEG lavage. Results. Overall, the bowel preparation was superior in the split-dose group compared with the single-dose group (mean Ottawa score 3.50 ± 2.89 versus 5.96 ± 3.53; P < 0.05) and resulted in less overall fluid in the colon. This effect was observed across all segments of the colon assessed. Conclusions. The current study supports use of a split-dose PEG lavage over a single large volume lavage for superior bowel cleanliness, which may improve polyp detection. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01610856. PMID:27446836

  18. Dynamics of the coupled human-climate system resulting from closed-loop control of solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Keith, David W.; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response. Feedback might also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. However, in addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a box-diffusion dynamic model of the climate system to understand how changing the properties of the feedback control affect the emergent dynamics of this coupled human-climate system, and evaluate these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain). This is a challenge for policy as a delayed response is needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification of natural variability, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to changes in the observed state of the climate system.

  19. Comparison of hearing results following the use of NiTiBOND versus Nitinol prostheses in stapes surgery: a retrospective controlled study reporting short-term postoperative results.

    PubMed

    Révész, Péter; Szanyi, István; Ráth, Gábor; Bocskai, Tímea; Lujber, László; Piski, Zalán; Karosi, Tamás; Gerlinger, Imre

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the 3-month postoperative hearing results following laser stapedotomy with the use of NiTiBOND versus Nitinol prostheses (31 and 39 patients, respectively). The operations were performed between September 2012 and September 2014, and between March 2006 and December 2012 regarding NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. Twenty of the consecutive 31 patients were female and 11 were male for NiTiBOND, while 11 were male and 28 were female for Nitinol. The mean age was 43.8 years (range 22-61) and 46.9 years (range 28-83) for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. No significant cochlear trauma was documented postoperatively. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 3-month postoperative follow-up was 7.6 dB (SD 4.7), and 9.3 dB (SD 4.1) for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. The differences between the mean pre- (p = 0.179), and postoperative (p = 0.059) ABG of the two groups were not significant. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.4 and 59 % for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively, the difference was not significant (p = 0.10). Two cases of delayed facial paralysis occurred, 1 with Nitinol and 1 with the NiTiBOND. All patients attained an ABG <20 dB following surgery. Laser stapedotomy with the application of either heat-memory piston prosthesis allowed an easy and minimally invasive approach with excellent short-term hearing results when the NiTiBOND prosthesis was applied. Laser application allowed manipulation in a bloodless environment and avoided manual crimping of the incus.

  20. Associations of serum organohalogen levels and prostate cancer risk: Results from a case-control study in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Pi, Na; Chia, Sin Eng; Ong, Choon Nam; Kelly, Barry C

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that elevated exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. As part of a hospital-based case-control study of the Singaporean male population, we investigated associations between organohalogen exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Trace residue concentrations of 74 organohalogen contaminants, including several PCBs, OCPs and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), were determined in serum samples (n = 120) using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A variety of OCPs, PCBs and HFRs were detected in samples of both patients and controls. Mean concentrations of p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 187 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in serum of patients. p,p' DDE measured in serum of patients was relatively high (mean:13,700 ng/g lipid, 95% CI:7000-26,800). Odds ratios (ORs) of OCPs and PCBs in many cases exceeded 1. ORs for p,p' DDE and PCB-153 at the highest tertile (>67th) were 5.67 (95% CI, 2.37-13.54) and 2.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 4.66), respectively. The results suggest that exposure to DDTs and PCBs may be associated with prostate cancer risk in Singaporean males. No such association was observed for the organohalogen flame retardants studied, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The study provides novel information regarding the occurrence, levels and potential associations with prostate cancer risk for several organohalogen contaminants in the Singapore population. However, further investigation and analyses should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  1. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Improves Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress: Results from A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Shahar, Ben; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The high likelihood of recurrences in depression is linked to progressive increase in emotional reactivity to stress (stress sensitization). Mindfulness-based therapies teach mindfulness skills designed to decrease emotional reactivity in the face of negative-affect producing stressors. The primary aim of the current study was to assess whether Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing emotional reactivity to social evaluative threat in a clinical sample with recurrent depression. A secondary aim was to assess whether improvement in emotional reactivity mediates improvements in depressive symptoms. Methods Fifty-two individuals with partially-remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week MBCT course or a waitlist control condition. All participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) before and after the 8-week trial period. Emotional reactivity to stress was assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory at several time points before, during and after the stressor. Results MBCT was associated with decreased emotional reactivity to social stress, specifically during the recovery (post-stressor) phase of the TSST. Waitlist controls showed an increase in anticipatory (pre-stressor) anxiety, which was absent in the MBCT group. Improvements in emotional reactivity partially mediated improvements in depressive symptoms. Limitations Limitations include small sample size, lack of objective or treatment adherence measures, and non-generalizability to more severely depressed populations. Conclusions Given that emotional reactivity to stress is an important psychopathological process underlying the chronic and recurrent nature of depression, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills are important in adaptive emotion regulation when coping with stress. PMID:22440072

  2. Brief Intervention Decreases Drinking Frequency in HIV-Infected, Heavy Drinking Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Lau, Bryan; Xu, Xiaoqiang; McCaul, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hazardous alcohol use by HIV-infected women is associated with poor HIV outcomes and HIV transmission risk behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol intervention (BI) among hazardous drinking women receiving care in an urban, HIV clinic. Methods Women were randomized to a 2-session BI or usual care. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months included 90-day frequency of any alcohol use and heavy/binge drinking (≥4 drinks per occasion), and average drinks per drinking episode. Secondary outcomes included HIV medication and appointment adherence, HIV1-RNA suppression, and days of unprotected vaginal sex. We examined intervention effectiveness using generalized mixed effect models and quantile regression. Results Of 148 eligible women, 74 were randomized to each arm. In mixed effects models, 90-day drinking frequency decreased among intervention group compared to control, with women in the intervention condition less likely to have a drinking day (OR: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23–0.75). Heavy/binge drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ significantly between groups. Quantile regression demonstrated a decrease in drinking frequency in the middle to upper ranges of the distribution of drinking days and heavy/binge drinking days that differed significantly between intervention and control conditions. At follow-up, the intervention group had significantly fewer episodes of unprotected vaginal sex. No intervention effects were observed for other outcomes. Conclusions Brief alcohol intervention reduces frequency of alcohol use and unprotected vaginal sex among HIV-infected women. More intensive services may be needed to lower drinks per drinking day and enhance care for more severely affected drinkers. PMID:25967270

  3. A worksite vitality intervention to improve older workers' lifestyle and vitality-related outcomes: results of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Strijk, Jorien E; Proper, Karin I; van Mechelen, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite vitality intervention on vigorous physical activity (VPA), fruit intake, aerobic capacity, mental health and need for recovery after work among older hospital workers (ie, 45 years and older). Methods The 6-month intervention was evaluated using a randomised controlled trial design. Workers who were randomised to the intervention group (n=367; control: n=363) received the Vital@Work intervention containing (1) a Vitality Exercise Program (VEP) combined with (2) three visits to Personal Vitality Coach. The VEP consisted of a weekly yoga session, a weekly workout session and weekly unsupervised aerobic exercising. Free fruit was provided at the VEP. Data on the outcome measures were collected (ie, year 2009–2010) at baseline (n=730) and 6 months of follow-up after baseline (n=575) using questionnaires, accelerometers and 2 km walk tests. Effects were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle with complete cases (n=575) and imputed data (n=730) using linear regression analyses. Additional analyses were performed for high yoga and workout compliance (ie, >mean number of sessions). Results Effects were found for sports activities (β=40.4 min/week, 95% CI 13.0 to 67.7) and fruit intake (β=2.7 pieces/week, 95% CI 0.07 to 4.7) and were stronger for workers with high compliance to yoga (sport: β=49.6 min/week, 95% CI 13.9 to 85.2; fruit: β=3.8 pieces/week, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.4) and workout sessions (sport: β=72.9 min/week, 95% CI 36.1 to 109.8; fruit: β=4.0 pieces/week, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.4). The intervention group lowered their need for recovery, when compared to controls (β=−3.5, 95% CI −6.4 to −0.54), with stronger effects for high workout compliance (β=−5.3, 95% CI −9.3 to −1.3). No effects were found on VPA, aerobic capacity or mental health. Conclusions Implementation of worksite yoga and workout facilities and minimal fruit interventions should be considered by employers to

  4. A CONTROLLED RESUSCITATION STRATEGY IS FEASIBLE AND SAFE IN HYPOTENSIVE TRAUMA PATIENTS: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Martin A.; Meier, Eric N.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Newgard, Craig D.; Brasel, Karen; Egan, Debra; Witham, William; Williams, Carolyn; Daya, Mohamud; Beeson, Jeff; McCully, Belinda H.; Wheeler, Stephen; Kannas, Delores; May, Susanne; McKnight, Barbara; Hoyt, David B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optimal resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients has not been defined. This trial was performed to assess the feasibility and safety of controlled resuscitation (CR) versus standard resuscitation (SR) in hypotensive trauma patients. METHODS Patients were enrolled and randomized in the out-of-hospital setting. 19 EMS systems in the Resuscitation Outcome Consortium participated. Eligible patients had an out-of-hospital systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤ 90 mmHg. CR patients received 250 cc of fluid if they had no radial pulse or a SBP < 70 mmHg and additional 250 cc boluses to maintain a radial pulse or a SBP ≥ 70 mmHg. SR group patients received 2 liters initially and additional fluid as needed to maintain a SBP ≥ 110 mmHg. The crystalloid protocol was maintained until hemorrhage control or 2 hours after hospital arrival. RESULTS 192 patients were randomized (97 CR and 95 SR). The CR and SR groups were similar at baseline. Average crystalloid volume administered during the study period was 1.0 liter (SD 1.5) in the CR group and 2.0 liters (SD 1.4) in the SR group, a difference of 1.0 liter (95% CI: 0.6 to 1.4). ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, renal injury and renal failure did not differ between groups. At 24 hours after admission, there were 5 deaths (5%) in the CR group and 14 (15%) in the SR group (adjusted odds ratio 0.39 [95% CI: 0.12, 1.26]). Among patients with blunt trauma, 24-hour mortality was 3% (CR) and 18% (SR) with an adjusted OR of 0.17 (0.03, 0.92). There was no difference among patients with penetrating trauma: 9% vs 9%, adjusted OR 1.93 (0.19, 19.17). CONCLUSION Controlled resuscitation is achievable in out-of-hospital and hospital settings and may offer an early survival advantage in blunt trauma. A large-scale, Phase III trial to examine its effects on survival and other clinical outcomes is warranted. PMID:25807399

  5. Post-operative quality of life in children with severe perthes disease: differences to matched controls and correlation with clinical function.

    PubMed

    Palmen, Nina K; Zilkens, Christoph; Rosenthal, Dietmar; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Hefter, Harald; Westhoff, Bettina

    2014-10-27

    The diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) has a considerable influence on the daily life of the patients with restrictions in their leisure time activities. This might influence their mood. Until now this aspect of the disease has been neglected. Therefore the objective of the study was to evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with severe LCPD who had an extensive surgery with pelvic/femoral osteotomy. The KIDSCREEN-10 and the modified Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) -questionnaire were administered to 17 children (16 boys and 1 girl) aged 5 to 11 years at the time of surgery. Analyses of mHHS were made preoperatively and at the time of the follow-up examination at least 2 years postoperatively. KIDSCREEN-analyses were made postoperatively. The follow-up results were compared to an age-matched normal control group. Correlations were computed between KIDSCREEN-10 and mHHS pre- and post-operatively. The postoperative calculated KIDSCREEN-10-T-value [70.2 (SD 12.7)] was higher than the mean T-value of the control-group [56.6 (SD 10.4)]. The mHHS improved from 54.4 (SD 19.9) to a score of 99.5 (SD 1.5) postoperatively. A strong correlation was found between the preoperative mHHS and the postoperative KIDSCREEN-10-T-value (Spearman's-rho 0.67, P=0.003). After containment improving surgery and a mean follow-up period of 4.2 years the HRQoL-status is even better compared with a healthy age-matched control group. As well an excellent clinical function could be achieved. PMID:25568729

  6. Cognitive control under distressing emotional stimulation in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Euler, Felix; Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has been linked to deficient processing of emotional stimulation and recent studies indicate that in aggressive juveniles executive functions are impaired when distressing emotional stimulation is being processed. This study examines the interrelation of distressing emotional stimulation and cognitive control in aggressive adolescents and healthy controls. We combined a color-word Stroop test with pictures from the International Affective Picture System with either neutral or distressing emotional content to assess Stroop interference under neutral and distressing emotional stimulation in 20 male reactive aggressive patients with conduct disorder (CD) and 20 age-matched male control participants. We found impaired Stroop performance under distressing emotional stimulation in patients compared to healthy controls. No difference was present under neutral emotional stimulation. Our results indicate that cognitive control under distressing emotional stimulation was affected in adolescents with CD but not in healthy controls. We conclude that executive functions in reactive aggressive CD patients are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of distressing emotional stimulation. The results provide a possible explanation for pathologic impulsive-aggressive behavior under emotional distress in CD patients.

  7. Melatonin therapy to improve nocturnal sleep in critically ill patients: encouraging results from a small randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Richard S; Mills, Gary H; Minelli, Cosetta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disturbances are common in critically ill patients and when sleep does occur it traverses the day-night periods. The reduction in plasma melatonin levels and loss of circadian rhythm observed in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation may contribute to this irregular sleep-wake pattern. We sought to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on nocturnal sleep quantity in these patients and, furthermore, to describe the kinetics of melatonin after oral administration in this patient population, thereby guiding future dosing schedules. Methods We conducted a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 24 patients who had undergone a tracheostomy to aid weaning from mechanical ventilation. Oral melatonin 10 mg or placebo was administered at 9 p.m. for four nights. Nocturnal sleep was monitored using the bispectral index (BIS) and was expressed in terms of sleep efficiency index (SEI) and area under the curve (AUC). Secondary endpoints were SEI measured by actigraphy and nurse and patient assessments. Plasma melatonin concentrations were measured in nine patients in the melatonin group on the first night. Results Nocturnal sleep time was 2.5 hours in the placebo group (mean SEI = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 0.36). Melatonin use was associated with a 1-hour increase in nocturnal sleep (SEI difference = 0.12, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.27; P = 0.09) and a decrease in BIS AUC indicating 'better' sleep (AUC difference = -54.23, 95% CI -104.47 to -3.98; P = 0.04). Results from the additional sleep measurement methods were inconclusive. Melatonin appeared to be rapidly absorbed from the oral solution, producing higher plasma concentrations relative to similar doses reported in healthy individuals. Plasma concentrations declined biexponentially, but morning (8 a.m.) plasma levels remained supraphysiological. Conclusion In our patients, nocturnal sleep quantity was severely compromised and melatonin use was associated with

  8. Symptomatic treatment (ibuprofen) or antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) for uncomplicated urinary tract infection? - Results of a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTI) are usually treated with antibiotics. However, there is little evidence for alternative therapeutic options. This pilot study was set out 1) to make a rough estimate of the equivalence of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin for uncomplicated urinary tract infection with regard to symptom resolution, and 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of a double-blind, randomized controlled drug trial in German general practices. Methods We performed a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial in 29 German general practices. Eighty otherwise healthy women aged 18 to 85 years, presenting with at least one of the main UTI symptoms dysuria and frequency and without any complicating factors, were randomly assigned to receive either ibuprofen 3 × 400 mg oral or ciprofloxacin 2 × 250 mg (+1 placebo) oral, both for three days. Intensity of main symptoms - dysuria, frequency, low abdominal pain - was recorded at inclusion and after 4, 7 and 28 days, scoring each symptom from 0 (none) to 4 (very strong). The primary endpoint was symptom resolution on Day 4. Secondary outcomes were the burden of symptoms on Days 4 and 7 (based on the sum score of all symptoms), symptom resolution on Day 7 and frequency of relapses. Equivalence margins for symptom burden on Day 4 were pre-specified as +/- 0.5 sum score points. Data analysis was done by intention to treat and per protocol. Randomization was carried out on patient level by computer programme in blocks of six. Results Seventy-nine patients were analyzed (ibuprofen n = 40, ciprofloxacin n = 39). On Day 4, 21/36 (58.3%) of patients in the ibuprofen-group were symptom-free versus 17/33 (51.5%) in the ciprofloxacin-group. On Day 4, ibuprofen patients reported fewer symptoms in terms of total sum score (1; SD 1,42) than ciprofloxacin patients (1,3; SD 1,9), difference -0,33 (95% CI (-1,13 to +0,47)), PP (per protocol) analysis. During Days 0 and 9, 12/36 (33%) of patients in the

  9. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  10. Five-year results of a randomised controlled trial comparing mobile and fixed bearings in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Breeman, S; Campbell, M K; Dakin, H; Fiddian, N; Fitzpatrick, R; Grant, A; Gray, A; Johnston, L; MacLennan, G S; Morris, R W; Murray, D W

    2013-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the merits of mobile bearings in total knee replacement, partly because most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have not been adequately powered. We report the results of a multicentre RCT of mobile versus fixed bearings. This was part of the knee arthroplasty trial (KAT), where 539 patients were randomly allocated to mobile or fixed bearings and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome measure was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) plus secondary measures including Short Form-12, EuroQol EQ-5D, costs, cost-effectiveness and need for further surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups pre-operatively: mean OKS was 17.18 (sd 7.60) in the mobile-bearing group and 16.49 (sd 7.40) in the fixed-bearing group. At five years mean OKS was 33.19 (sd 16.68) and 33.65 (sd 9.68), respectively. There was no significant difference between trial groups in OKS at five years (-1.12 (95% confidence interval -2.77 to 0.52) or any of the other outcome measures. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with knee-related re-operations or in total costs. In this appropriately powered RCT, over the first five years after total knee replacement functional outcomes, re-operation rates and healthcare costs appear to be the same irrespective of whether a mobile or fixed bearing is used.

  11. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA decrease plasma F(2)-isoprostanes: Results from two placebo-controlled interventions.

    PubMed

    Mas, Emilie; Woodman, Richard J; Burke, Valerie; Puddey, Ian B; Beilin, Lawrence J; Durand, Thierry; Mori, Trevor A

    2010-09-01

    Omega-3 (omega3) fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protect against cardiovascular disease. Despite these benefits, concern remains that omega3 fatty acids may increase lipid peroxidation. It has previously been shown that urinary F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) were reduced following omega3 fatty acid supplementation in humans. It is now determined whether EPA or DHA supplementation affects plasma F(2)-IsoPs. In two 6-week placebo-controlled interventions, Study A: overweight, dyslipidaemic men; and Study B: treated-hypertensive Type 2 diabetic, patients were randomized to 4 g daily EPA, DHA. Post-intervention plasma F(2)-IsoPs were significantly reduced by EPA (24% in Study A, 19% in Study B) and by DHA (14% in Study A, 23% in Study B) relative to the olive oil group. The fall in plasma F(2)-IsoPs was not altered in analyses that corrected for changes in plasma arachidonic acid, which was reduced with EPA and DHA supplementation. Neither F(3)- nor F(4)-IsoPs were observed in plasma in both studies. These results show that in humans, EPA and DHA reduce in vivo oxidant stress as measured in human plasma and urine.

  12. Compensatory cognitive training for people with first-episode schizophrenia: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mendella, Paul D; Burton, Cynthia Z; Tasca, Giorgio A; Roy, Paul; St Louis, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive training or remediation now has multiple studies and meta-analyses supporting its efficacy in improving cognition and functioning in people with schizophrenia. However, relatively little is known about cognitive training outcomes in early psychosis. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU) in 27 participants with first-episode psychosis who had received treatment for psychosis for less than six months. Assessments of cognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery; MCCB) and functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B) were administered at baseline and following the 12-week treatment. The CCT condition, compared to TAU, was associated with significant improvements on the MCCB composite score, as well as MCCB subtests measuring processing speed (Trail Making) and social cognition (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), with large effects on these three outcome measures. There were no significant CCT-associated effects on the UPSA-B or on positive, negative, or depressive symptoms. CCT treatment of cognitive impairments in first-episode schizophrenia is feasible and can result in large effect size improvements in global cognition, processing speed, and social cognition. PMID:25631454

  13. Comparison of high and low intensity training in well controlled rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    van den Ende, C H; Hazes, J M; le Cessie, S; Mulder, W J; Belfor, D G; Breedveld, F C; Dijkmans, B A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefit of intensive dynamic exercises in comparison to range of motion (ROM) and isometric exercises in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: 100 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients on stable medication were randomly assigned to (1) intensive dynamic group exercises which included full weight bearing exercises and conditioning exercises on a stationary bicycle while the heart rate was maintained at 70-85% of the age predicted maximum heart rate, (2) range of motion (ROM) exercises and isometric exercises in a group, (3) individual isometric and ROM exercises, and (4) home instructions for isometric and ROM exercises. Variables of physical condition, muscle strength, joint mobility, daily functioning (HAQ), and disease activity were assessed before and after the 12 week exercise course, and 12 weeks thereafter. An intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Increases in aerobic capacity (n = 77), muscle strength, and joint mobility in the high intensity exercise programme were respectively 17%, 17% and 16% and differed significantly from the changes in aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and joint mobility in the other exercise groups. No deterioration of disease activity was observed. Twelve weeks after discontinuation of the exercise course the gain in physical capacity had disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive dynamic training is more effective in increasing aerobic capacity, joint mobility, and muscle strength than ROM exercises and isometric training in rheumatoid arthritis patients with well controlled disease. PMID:8976635

  14. Emotional processing and its relationship to chronic low back pain: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Jorge E; Wheatley, Laura; Mayall, Clare; Abbey, Hilary

    2013-12-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common, yet challenging condition for both patients and clinicians. Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between CLBP and psychological factors such as anxiety, fear-avoidance, self-efficacy, catastrophizing and depression. These factors are closely linked with emotional states; however, it is unknown whether CLBP patients process their emotions differently from asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between CLBP and emotional processing. A sample of 110 participants comprising of 55 patients with chronic back pain and 55 individuals without a history of CLBP were assessed using the Emotional Processing Scale (EPS-25). The EPS-25 generates an overall score, and also scores pertaining to five individual emotional processing factors--avoidance, suppression, unregulated emotion, impoverished emotional experience and signs of unprocessed emotion. Chronic back pain patients scored significantly higher in the overall EPS-25 score (p < 0.001) with an effect size of 0.33. In addition, there were significant differences in four factors--impoverished emotional experience, unregulated emotion, unprocessed emotion, and suppression, with effect sizes ranging from 0.20 to 0.44. The results suggest that dysfunctional emotional processing, particularly with regard to the suppression of emotions, is associated with CLBP. Clinicians should critically consider the role of emotional processing in their patients' evaluation and management. Future research using a prospective cohort should assess the role of emotional processing as a predictor in the development of chronic back pain.

  15. Comparative survey of go/no-go results to identify the inhibitory control ability change of Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Koji; Tabuchi, Hisaaki; Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Yanagisawa, Akitaka; Shinohara, Kikunori; Terasawa, Saiki; Saijo, Osamitsu; Masaki, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    This research, conducted in 1998 and 2008, uses go/no-go data to investigate the fundamentals of cognitive functioning in the inhibitory control ability of Japanese children. 844 subjects from kindergarten to junior high school participated in go/no-go task experiments. Performance of go/no-go tasks, which are frequently used to investigate response inhibition, measures a variety of cognitive components besides response inhibition. With normal brain development, the ability to inhibit responses improves substantially in adolescence. An increase over time in the error rate during the go/no-go tasks of subjects of the same age indicates that these processes are not functioning properly. Comparisons between the 1998 and 2008 data revealed several differences in error rates. In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range. The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects. Taken together, these results show changing conditions in the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex. However, the reason for these changing conditions remains unclear. While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation. PMID:25061475

  16. Synthesis and application of lignin-based copolymer LSAA on controlling non-point source pollution resulted from surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Guangxia; Mu, Huanzhen; Yuan, Zonghuan; Tang, Lianyi; Lin, Xiangwei

    2008-01-01

    In this article, alkali lignin separated from paper pulp waste was grafted into a novel copolymer LSAA (a copolymer of lignin, starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid). Its practical application effect and environmental safety were studied. The results of field simulation experiment indicated that the application of LSAA significantly affected the output of the runoff and pollutants. The runoff quantity was decreased by 16.67%-47.00% and the loads of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 17.78%-62.14%, 26.32%-59.91%, 15.25%-47.42%, and 22.18%-52.78%, respectively. The tests on its environmental safety showed that LSAA did no harm the soil. Compared with polyacrylamide (PAM), a dominant product in this field, LSAA exhibited similar effects and cheap cost. Thus, this study not only created a new product for controlling runoff water quality but also offered a beneficial application for industrial paper waste.

  17. Public engagement in priority-setting: results from a pan-Canadian survey of decision-makers in cancer control.

    PubMed

    Regier, Dean A; Bentley, Colene; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Burgess, Michael M; Chesney, Ellen; Coldman, Andy; Gibson, Jennifer; Hoch, Jeffrey; Rahman, Syed; Sabharwal, Mona; Sawka, Carol; Schuckel, Victoria; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-12-01

    Decision-makers are challenged to incorporate public input into priority-setting decisions. We conducted a pan-Canadian survey of decision-makers in cancer control to investigate the types of evidence, especially evidence supplied by the public, that are utilized in health care priority-setting. We further examined how normative attitudes and contextual factors influence the use of public engagement as evidence at the committee level. Administered between November and December 2012, 67 respondents from 117 invited individuals participated in the survey. The results indicated that public engagement was infrequently utilized compared to clinical effectiveness evidence or cost evidence. General positive agreement between normative attitudes towards the use of evidence and the frequency of evidence utilization was observed, but absence of correlative agreement was found for the types of evidence that are supplied by the general public and for cost-effectiveness inputs. Regression analyses suggested that public engagement was unevenly utilized between jurisdictions and that educational background and barriers to implementing public input may decrease the odds of using public engagement as evidence. We recommend that institutions establish a link between committee members' normative attitudes for using public engagement and its real-world utilization. PMID:25441325

  18. Synthesis and application of lignin-based copolymer LSAA on controlling non-point source pollution resulted from surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Guangxia; Mu, Huanzhen; Yuan, Zonghuan; Tang, Lianyi; Lin, Xiangwei

    2008-01-01

    In this article, alkali lignin separated from paper pulp waste was grafted into a novel copolymer LSAA (a copolymer of lignin, starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid). Its practical application effect and environmental safety were studied. The results of field simulation experiment indicated that the application of LSAA significantly affected the output of the runoff and pollutants. The runoff quantity was decreased by 16.67%-47.00% and the loads of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 17.78%-62.14%, 26.32%-59.91%, 15.25%-47.42%, and 22.18%-52.78%, respectively. The tests on its environmental safety showed that LSAA did no harm the soil. Compared with polyacrylamide (PAM), a dominant product in this field, LSAA exhibited similar effects and cheap cost. Thus, this study not only created a new product for controlling runoff water quality but also offered a beneficial application for industrial paper waste. PMID:18814577

  19. OCAM - A CELSS modeling tool: Description and results. [Object-oriented Controlled Ecological Life Support System Analysis and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is critical to the Space Exploration Initiative. NASA's Kennedy Space Center has been performing CELSS research for several years, developing data related to CELSS design. We have developed OCAM (Object-oriented CELSS Analysis and Modeling), a CELSS modeling tool, and have used this tool to evaluate CELSS concepts, using this data. In using OCAM, a CELSS is broken down into components, and each component is modeled as a combination of containers, converters, and gates which store, process, and exchange carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen on a daily basis. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options modeled include combustion, leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic or anaerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. Results include printouts and time-history graphs of total system mass, biomass, carbon dioxide, and oxygen quantities; energy consumption; and manpower requirements. The contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost have been analyzed to compare configurations and determine appropriate research directions.

  20. An integral topical gel for cellulite reduction: results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Eric; Journet, Michel; Oula, Marie-Laure; Gomez, Juan; Léveillé, Claude; Loing, Estelle; Bilodeau, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a serious cosmetic concern for most of the 90% of women affected by it. Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of a complex integral anti-cellulite gel. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved 44 healthy women, aged 25–55 years. Subjects had a normal to slightly overweight body mass index and presented slight to moderate cellulite on their thighs, buttocks, and/or hips at baseline. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the treated or placebo group and accordingly applied the active product or placebo on their hips, stomach, buttocks, and thighs, twice daily for 3 months. Skin tonicity, orange-peel aspect, and stubborn cellulite were assessed at day 0, 28, 56, and 84. A self-evaluation questionnaire was completed by all volunteers. Results At the end of the study, an average of 81% of the subjects applying the active product presented improvement in their cellulite condition versus 32% for the placebo group (all descriptors and sites combined). At day 84, skin tonicity, orange-peel appearance, and stubborn cellulite were improved in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, on all studied areas. Skin tonicity improved on average by +41% for buttocks, +35% for hips, and +31% for thighs. Orange peel appearance was reduced on average by −25% for buttocks, −22% for hips, and −22% for thighs. Stubborn cellulite was reduced on average by −19% for buttocks, −24% for hips, and −22% for thighs. Circumference measurements decreased in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, for the abdomen (average value of −1.1 cm) and thighs (average value of −0.8 cm). The product was well tolerated and perceived by the volunteers themselves as better performing than placebo on all criteria. Conclusion All results validate the efficacy of the present integral formulation to significantly reduce signs of cellulite and reshape the silhouette. PMID:24600240