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Sample records for age-matched controls showed

  1. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  2. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  3. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  4. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  5. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  6. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  7. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  8. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  9. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  10. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  11. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  12. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  13. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  14. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  15. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  16. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  17. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  18. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  19. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  20. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  1. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  2. 3. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF CONTROL PANELS SHOWING MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF CONTROL PANELS SHOWING MAIN PRESSURE GAUGES, LOOKING NORTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. AIDS control: TN may show the way.

    PubMed

    1999-04-19

    The successful experiences of Tamil Nadu (TN) in the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS provides vital clues for the second phase of the Rs. 1,150-crore World Bank-funded national AIDS control program which will begin in July. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) is looking at TN for concrete answers in several areas before it composes its guidelines for the second phase. Key areas of focus in the second phase will be high-risk groups, control of STDs, people living with AIDS, communication structures and blood safety. NACO and the funding agency has been impressed by TN¿s method of mobilizing NGOs in the massive anti-HIV/AIDS campaign and its handling of the cost of the care. In addition to the Tamil Nadu State AIDS Control Society (TNSACS), the AIDS Prevention and Control Project of the Voluntary Health Services (supported by USAID) also contributed to the impressive performance of this State.

  4. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  5. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  6. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  7. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  8. 2. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF INTERIOR SHOWING EXTERIOR DOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF INTERIOR SHOWING EXTERIOR DOOR, WINDOWS AND CONTROL PANELS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND TOWER, LOOKING SOUTH - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Fire Control Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  11. CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Firing Control Building, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. South side. Also showing forebay, wing for the main control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side. Also showing forebay, wing for the main control room, and evaporative cooling unit at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  15. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS AND LEVERS AND HOIST FOR TRASH RAKE - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  17. VIEW TO WEST FROM AIRFIELD APRON, SHOWING BASE OPERATIONS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO WEST FROM AIRFIELD APRON, SHOWING BASE OPERATIONS CONTROL TOWER (FACILITY NO. 365), AND RESERVOIR HILL BEYOND Hangar NO. 9, AT RIGHT - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  18. 2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX AT JUNCTION OF PIPE WITH CONCRETE CHANNEL TO FISH SCREEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING EMERGENCY BULKHEAD STIFFLEG DERRICK TO RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  20. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  1. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CONTROL TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CONTROL TOWER AT SOUTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; ENTRANCE TO BRADFORD ISLAND FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GE CONTROL PANEL, RHEOSTATS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GE CONTROL PANEL, RHEOSTATS AND METERS FOR NO. 2 FURNACE. METER TO THE LEFT IS WESTINGHOUSE. - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. Main control room, showing original sixpane windows and doors to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main control room, showing original six-pane windows and doors to pump motor room at left. The main control cabinets and switchgear, visible on right, were replaced in 2003. View to the south - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 16. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor, interior view showing highcapacity venting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor, interior view showing high-capacity venting system and black-out shades on south wall VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  6. 12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television monitoring of tests and personnel operating rocket engine test controls. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45021. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel operating rocket engine test controls and observer watching activity from observation room. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45020. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 46. Building 102, view showing waveguide control switch used to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Building 102, view showing waveguide control switch used to achieve equal length adjustments and frequency control between separate Klystron tube radion frequency (RF) generators. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  10. SPERTI plot plan, showing reactor and control areas after 1956 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I plot plan, showing reactor and control areas after 1956 addition to PER-601. Includes reactor-area buildings PER-605, -606, and -607; Terminal Building (PER-604), and control-area buildings PER-601, -602, -603 along with associated parking areas and fencing. Vicinity map shows relationship of SPERT-I to SPERT-II, SPERT-III, central facilities area (at west end of E. Portland Avenue) and Highways 20 and 26. Idaho Operations Office PER-103-IDO-1. Date: December 1955. INEEL index no. 760-0103-396-109112 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 5. WEST SIDE, ALSO SHOWING INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL BUILDING (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST SIDE, ALSO SHOWING INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL BUILDING (BLDG. 8668) IN MIDDLE DISTANCE AT LEFT, AND TEST AREAS 1-120 AND 1-125 BEYOND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING DREDGING OF THE FLOOD CONTROL CANAL. Report ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING DREDGING OF THE FLOOD CONTROL CANAL. Report to the Governor, Territory of Hawaii, by the Superintendent of Public Works, Year ending June 30, 1938. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 22. VIEW, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST, SHOWING CONTROLLER PANEL AT EXTREME LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST, SHOWING CONTROLLER PANEL AT EXTREME LEFT, EMERGENCY HAND BRAKE, REDUCTION GEAR HOUSING FROM WHICH PROTRUDES MAIN PULLEY SHAFT, AND LIFT SPAN HEIGHT INDICATOR AT CENTER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 14. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING CONTROL HOUSE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING CONTROL HOUSE AT UPSTREAM END OF NAVIGATION LOCK #1; POWERHOUSE #1 IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 13. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel with data recording instrumentation. 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-46211. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 18. NORTH SIDE OF CONTROL ROOM SHOWING MAIN ELECTRIC PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. NORTH SIDE OF CONTROL ROOM SHOWING MAIN ELECTRIC PANEL ON LEFT, SIGNAL SWITCH BOX IN CENTER, AND SIGNAL RELAYS ON RIGHT. RESISTOR BANK BEHIND ON RIGHT. BRIDGE TENDER'S DESK BEHIND ON SOUTH SIDE. (Fred Small) - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior of control room shows control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior of control room shows control console from direction facing visitors room and its observation window. Camera facing northeast. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-7-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 30. VIEW DOWN INTO TURBINE PIT SHOWING WICKET GATE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW DOWN INTO TURBINE PIT SHOWING WICKET GATE CONTROL MECHANISM AND MAIN SHAFT OF I. P. MORRIS TURBINE. TURBINE BUILT BY I. P. MORRIS & DE LA VERGNE, INC. OF PHILADELPHIA, PA, AND INSTALLED IN 1925. TURBINE RATED AT 18,000 HP AT 113.3 RPM UNDER 18.5 FEET OF HEAD. - Lake Lynn Hydroelectric Power House & Dam, Cheat River, Morgantown, Monongalia County, WV

  19. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  20. 143. ARAIII Control building (ARA607) Floor plan. Shows control room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. ARA-III Control building (ARA-607) Floor plan. Shows control room, contaminated work area, counting and computer room, health physics room, instrument repair room, offices, and other rooms. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-607-A-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0607-00-013-102546. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  2. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  3. 95. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1. Shows test and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1. Shows test and control buildings, berms, fencing. March 14, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-1666. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS23G ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS-23G DETECTING-RANGING SET, MARK & CONTROL PANEL, CAN-55134 RECORDER, SPEED INDICATOR, VARIOUS ALARMS AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  6. PBF contextual view shows relationship between PBF Control Building (PER619, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF contextual view shows relationship between PBF Control Building (PER-619, in foreground at right) and SPERT-I Control Building (PER-601). Walkway with railing connects to waste reduction operations support building (PER-632), built in 1981. Note paneled stucco siding applied to PER-619 after 1980. Original concrete block is exposed at corner. Date: July 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-9-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS

  8. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  9. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior in data acquisition room showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior in data acquisition room showing data racks. The system recorded multiple channels of data during tests. INEEL negative no. HD-41-8-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 20. DETaIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETaIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING EMERGENCY BULKHEAD STIFFLEG DERRICK, MAIN LOCK PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE, RECESSES FOR MAIN LOCK LIFT GATE, AND TILE GAUGES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  11. Interior view of Apollo 11 Lunar Module showing displays and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    An interior view of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module showing some of the displays and controls. Mounted in the Lunar Module window is a 16mm data acquisition camera which has a variable frame speed of 1, 6, 12 and 24 frames per second.

  12. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p<0.05). The median correlation was 0.06. A test for whether the distribution of p values deviated from the null distribution under no association was not significant (p>0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  13. Sea-level fluctuations show Ocean Circulation controls Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Gerard; Haigh, Ivan; Hirschi, Joel; Grist, Jeremy; Smeed, David

    2015-04-01

    We present observational evidence that ocean circulation controls the decadal evolution of heat content and consequently sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic. One of the most prominent modes of Atlantic variability is the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) observed in SSTs. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO are associated with warmer (cooler) SSTs. Positive phases of the AMO have been linked with decadal climate fluctuations including increased summer precipitation in Europe; increased northern hemisphere land temperatures, fewer droughts in the Sahel region of Africa and increased Atlantic hurricane activity. It is widely believed that the Atlantic circulation controls the phases of the AMO by controlling the decadal changes in heat content in the North Atlantic. However, due to the lack of ocean circulation observations, this link has not been previously proven. We present a new interpretation of the sea-level gradient along to the east coast of the United States to derive a measure of ocean circulation spanning decadal timescales. We use this to estimate heat content changes that we validate against direct estimates of heat content. We use the longevity of the tide gauge record to show that circulation, as interpreted in sea-level gradient changes, drives the major transitions in the AMO since the 1920's. We show that the North Atlantic Oscillation is highly correlated with this sea-level gradient, indicating that the atmosphere drives the circulation changes. The circulation changes are essentially integrated by the ocean in the form of ocean heat content and returned to the atmosphere as the AMO. An additional consequence of our interpretation is that recently reported accelerations in sea-level rise along the US east coast are consistent with a declining AMO that has been predicted by a number of authors.

  14. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L

    2010-12-01

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

  15. Vanadate-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae show alterations in protein phosphorylation and growth control.

    PubMed Central

    Kanik-Ennulat, C; Neff, N

    1990-01-01

    This work describes two spontaneous vanadate-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with constitutive alterations in protein phosphorylation, growth control, and sporulation. Vanadate has been shown by a number of studies to be an efficient competitor of phosphate in biochemical reactions, especially those that involve phosphoproteins as intermediates or substrates. Resistance to toxic concentrations of vanadate can arise in S. cerevisiae by both recessive and dominant spontaneous mutations in a large number of loci. Mutations in two of the recessive loci, van1-18 and van2-93, resulted in alterations in the phosphorylation of a number of proteins. The mutant van1-18 gene also showed an increase in plasma membrane ATPase activity in vitro and a lowered basal phosphatase activity under alkaline conditions. Cells containing the van2-93 mutant allele had normal levels of plasma membrane ATPase activity, but this activity was not inhibited by vanadate. Both of these mutants failed to enter stationary phase, were heat shock sensitive, showed lowered long-term viability, and sporulated on rich medium in the presence of 2% glucose. The wild-type VAN1 gene was isolated and sequenced. The open reading frame predicts a protein of 522 amino acids, with no significant homology to any genes that have been identified. Diploid cells that contained two mutant alleles of this gene demonstrated defects in spore viability. These data suggest that the VAN1 gene product is involved in regulation of the phosphorylation of a number of proteins, some of which appear to be important in cell growth control. Images PMID:2137555

  16. Children with a Learning Disorder Show Prospective Control Impairments during Visuomanual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roon, Dominique; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a learning disorder (LD) are able to use prospective motor control, 30 children with LD (mean age 8 years and 11 months) and an age- and gender-matched control group were asked to smoothly track an accelerating dot presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizer. Children with LD performed worse…

  17. Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension*

    PubMed Central

    FILIPPI, ROBERTO; MORRIS, JOHN; RICHARDSON, FIONA M.; BRIGHT, PETER; THOMAS, MICHAEL S. C.; KARMILOFF-SMITH, ANNETTE; MARIAN, VIORICA

    2014-01-01

    Studies measuring inhibitory control in the visual modality have shown a bilingual advantage in both children and adults. However, there is a lack of developmental research on inhibitory control in the auditory modality. This study compared the comprehension of active and passive English sentences in 7–10 years old bilingual and monolingual children. The task was to identify the agent of a sentence in the presence of verbal interference. The target sentence was cued by the gender of the speaker. Children were instructed to focus on the sentence in the target voice and ignore the distractor sentence. Results indicate that bilinguals are more accurate than monolinguals in comprehending syntactically complex sentences in the presence of linguistic noise. This supports previous findings with adult participants (Filippi, Leech, Thomas, Green & Dick, 2012). We therefore conclude that the bilingual advantage in interference control begins early in life and is maintained throughout development. PMID:26146479

  18. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  19. Trading Up: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Show Self-Control Through Their Exchange Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Rossettie, Mattea S.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Self-control is defined as the ability or capacity to obtain an objectively more valuable outcome rather than an objectively less valuable outcome though tolerating a longer delay or a greater effort requirement (or both) in obtaining that more valuable outcome. A number of tests have been devised to assess self-control in nonhuman animals, including exchange tasks. In this study, three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) participated in a delay of gratification task that required food exchange as the behavioral response that reflected self-control. The chimpanzees were offered opportunities to inhibit eating and instead exchange a currently possessed food item for a different (and sometimes better) item, often needing to exchange several food items before obtaining the highest-valued reward. We manipulated reward type, reward size, reward visibility, delay to exchange, and location of the highest-valued reward in the sequence of exchange events to compare performance within the same individuals. The chimpanzees successfully traded until obtaining the best item in most cases, although there were individual differences among participants in some variations of the test. These results support the idea that self-control is robust in chimpanzees even in contexts in which they perhaps anticipate future rewards and sustain delay of gratification until they can obtain the ultimately most-valuable item. PMID:26325355

  20. Control Networks in Paediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Immature and Anomalous Patterns of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jessica A.; Fair, Damien A.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder characterized by unwanted, repetitive behaviours that manifest as stereotyped movements and vocalizations called "tics". Operating under the hypothesis that the brain's control systems may be impaired in TS, we measured resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) between 39 previously…

  1. Bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors: attractive alternatives for control of infectious pathogens showing multiple drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ashima K; Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Rajpara, Neha

    2013-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication process that depends on the bacterial population density. It involves small diffusible signaling molecules which activate the expression of myriad genes that control diverse array of functions like bioluminescence, virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, to name a few. Since QS is responsible for virulence in the clinically relevant bacteria, inhibition of QS appears to be a promising strategy to control these pathogenic bacteria. With indiscriminate use of antibiotics, there has been an alarming increase in the number of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Antibiotics are no longer the magic bullets they were once thought to be and therefore there is a need for development of new antibiotics and/or other novel strategies to combat the infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms. Quorum sensing inhibition or quorum quenching has been pursued as one of such novel strategies. While antibiotics kill or slow down the growth of bacteria, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) or quorum quenchers (QQs) attenuate bacterial virulence. A large body of work on QS has been carried out in deadly pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, Escherichia coli and V. cholerae etc to unravel the mechanisms of QS as well as identify and study QSIs. This review describes various aspects of QS, QSI, different model systems to study these phenomena and recent patents on various QSIs. It suggests QSIs as attractive alternatives for controlling human, animal and plant pathogens and their utility in agriculture and other industries.

  2. Size Controlled Heparin Fragment-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugate Showed Anticancer Property by Inhibiting VEGF165.

    PubMed

    Park, Jooho; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Kim, Ji-Young; Byun, Youngro

    2015-05-20

    Heparin is a highly sulfated, long, and linear polysaccharide, which can inhibit tumor growth by interacting with growth factors such as bFGF and VEGF. Several researchers have shown the anti-angiogenic effect of heparin and its conjugates in relation to growth factor inhibition. For drug development and inhibition of growth factors using heparin conjugates, the molecular size of heparin may be crucial considering the size of the heparin binding site of growth factors. In this study, we synthesized heparin fragments and deoxycholic acid conjugated heparin fragments (HFD) to search for the optimal size-controlled conjugate that will inhibit the angiogenic effect of VEGF165. We have also shown that the HFDs could have an enhanced therapeutic effect in vitro and in vivo consequent to the molecular size control. HFDs have significant anti-angiogenic effects by blocking the angiogenic activity of VEGF165 depending on its molecular size. Among them, HFD2 was a promising candidate for oral angiogenesis inhibitor. These results suggest that size-controlled synthesis is necessary for heparin-based drug development.

  3. Restraints on Pupils Variable: New Data Show Disparities in Use of Control Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on new statistics which show that students with disabilities and black students are most likely to be restrained or isolated in school. As part of its most recent data collection, the U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights asked more than 72,000 public schools to report how many students were isolated or…

  4. Functional ability perceived by individuals following total knee arthroplasty compared to age-matched individuals without knee disability.

    PubMed

    Finch, E; Walsh, M; Thomas, S G; Woodhouse, L J

    1998-04-01

    A comparison of function of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with healthy control subjects (controls) meaningfully describes outcome in these patients. Perception of function measured by two questionnaires, the Lower Extremity Activity Profile (LEAP) and the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and walking and stair performance was compared between 29 patients, 1 year after TKA, and 40 controls. There was significantly greater perceived difficulty with function in patients with TKA than in controls. In TKA men, LEAP and WOMAC scores correlated respectively with self-paced walk speed (r = -.71 and -.55) and stair performance time (r = 0.70 and 0.68). In TKA women, LEAP difficulty score correlated with self-paced walk speed (r = -.41) and stair performance time (r = -0.71). By 1 year, TKA subjects regained 80% of the function of controls. Perception of function after TKA can be measured by either questionnaire in men; however, the LEAP is the preferable questionnaire with women.

  5. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned.

  6. Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endemism in Pangaea.

    PubMed

    Sidor, Christian A; O'Keefe, F Robin; Damiani, Ross; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Larsson, Hans C E; Sereno, Paul C; Ide, Oumarou; Maga, Abdoulaye

    2005-04-14

    New fossils from the Upper Permian Moradi Formation of northern Niger provide an insight into the faunas that inhabited low-latitude, xeric environments near the end of the Palaeozoic era (approximately 251 million years ago). We describe here two new temnospondyl amphibians, the cochleosaurid Nigerpeton ricqlesi gen. et sp. nov. and the stem edopoid Saharastega moradiensis gen. et sp. nov., as relicts of Carboniferous lineages that diverged 40-90 million years earlier. Coupled with a scarcity of therapsids, the new finds suggest that faunas from the poorly sampled xeric belt that straddled the Equator during the Permian period differed markedly from well-sampled faunas that dominated tropical-to-temperate zones to the north and south. Our results show that long-standing theories of Late Permian faunal homogeneity are probably oversimplified as the result of uneven latitudinal sampling.

  7. Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial shows no benefit of homeopathic mastitis treatment in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Fanny; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Simons, Julia; Pieper, Laura

    2017-03-22

    Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals. The homeopathic treatment was selected based on clinical symptoms but most commonly consisted of a combination of nosodes with Streptococcinum, Staphylococcinum, Pyrogenium, and Escherichia coli at a potency of 200c. Treatment was administered to cows in the homeopathy group at least once per day for an average of 5 d. The cows in the placebo group were treated similarly, using a placebo preparation instead (lactose globules without active ingredients). If necessary, we also used allopathic drugs (e.g., antibiotics, udder creams, and anti-inflammatory drugs) in both groups. We recorded data relating to the clinical signs of mastitis, treatment, time to recovery, milk yield, somatic cell count at first milk recording after mastitis, and culling. We observed cows for up to 200 d after clinical recovery. Base-level data did not differ between the homeopathy and placebo groups. Mastitis lasted for an average of 6 d in both groups. We observed no significant differences in time to recovery, somatic cell count, risk of clinical cure within 14 d after disease occurrence, mastitis recurrence risk, or culling risk. The results indicated no additional effect of homeopathic treatment compared with placebo. The advantages or disadvantages of homeopathy should be carefully assessed for individual farms.

  8. Hypoconnectivity of Resting-State Networks in Persons with Aphasia Compared with Healthy Age-Matched Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece W.

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is a language disorder affecting more than one million people in the US. While language function has traditionally been the focus of neuroimaging research, other cognitive functions are affected in this population, which has implications not only for those specific processes but also for the interaction of language and other cognitive functions. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a practical and informative way to explore and characterize general cognitive engagement and/or health in this population, but it is currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to explore the functional connectivity in resting state networks (RSNs) and in the semantic network in seven persons with aphasia (PWA) who were at least 6 months post onset compared with 11 neurologically healthy adults (NHA) in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of general cognitive engagement in aphasia. These preliminary results show that PWA exhibit hypoconnectivity in the semantic network and all RSNs except the visual network. Compared with NHA, PWA appear to have fewer cross- and left-hemispheric connections. However, PWA exhibit some stronger connections than NHA within the semantic network, which could indicate compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, connectivity for RSNs appear to increase with decreasing aphasia severity and decrease with increasing lesion size. This knowledge has the potential to improve aphasia therapy by furthering the understanding of lesion effects on the cognitive system as a whole, which can guide treatment target selection and promotion of favorable neural reorganization for optimal recovery of function. PMID:28293185

  9. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  10. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  11. Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Nan, Weizhi; Taxer, Jamie; Dai, Weine; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    According to the balance model of self-regulation, dysfunction of the inhibitory control and reward processing might be a behavioral marker for addiction and problematic behaviors. Although several studies have separately examined the inhibitory control or reward processing of individuals exhibiting problematic Internet use (PIU), no study has explored these two functions simultaneously to examine the potential imbalance of these functions. This study aimed to investigate whether the self-regulatory failure of PIU individuals results from deficits in both inhibitory control [indexed with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a stop signal task] and risk taking with losses (measured as the acceptance rates of risky gables or the ratio of win/loss in a mixed gambles task). The results revealed that PIU individuals, compared with controls, showed decreased SSRT and increased error rates as well as reduced risk taking with losses. Correlational analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between the SSRT and risk taking with losses. These findings suggest that both the inhibitory control and reward functions are impaired in PIU individuals and reveal an association between these two systems. These results strengthen the balance model of self-regulation theory’s argument that deficits in inhibitory control and risk taking with losses may assist in identifying risk markers for early diagnosis, progression, and prediction of PIU. PMID:27014170

  12. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2014-01-01

    The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1) testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2) applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  13. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  14. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  15. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  16. Global assessment of schistosomiasis control over the past century shows targeting the snail intermediate host works best

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Swartz, Scott J.; Lopez, Melina; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Rickards, Chloe; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2016-01-01

    Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis.

  17. Metabolic control analysis of developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv Westar) embryos shows that lipid assembly exerts significant control over oil accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingguo; Guschina, Irina A; O'Hara, Paul; Slabas, Antoni R; Quant, Patti A; Fawcett, Tony; Harwood, John L

    2012-10-01

    Metabolic control analysis allows the study of metabolic regulation. We applied both single- and double-manipulation top-down control analysis to examine the control of lipid accumulation in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) embryos. The biosynthetic pathway was conceptually divided into two blocks of reactions (fatty acid biosynthesis (Block A), lipid assembly (Block B)) connected by a single system intermediate, the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) pool. Single manipulation used exogenous oleate. Triclosan was used to inhibit specifically Block A, whereas diazepam selectively manipulated flux through Block B. Exogenous oleate inhibited the radiolabelling of fatty acids from [1-(14)C]acetate, but stimulated that from [U-14C]glycerol into acyl lipids. The calculation of group flux control coefficients showed that c. 70% of the metabolic control was in the lipid assembly block of reactions. Monte Carlo simulations gave an estimation of the error of the resulting group flux control coefficients as 0.27±0.06 for Block A and 0.73±0.06 for Block B. The two methods of control analysis gave very similar results and showed that Block B reactions were more important under our conditions. This contrasts notably with data from oil palm or olive fruit cultures and is important for efforts to increase oilseed rape lipid yields.

  18. Global Assessment of Schistosomiasis Control Over the Past Century Shows Targeting the Snail Intermediate Host Works Best

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lopez, Melina; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Rickards, Chloe; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during the 20th century, and (ii) schistosomiasis remains endemic, or (iii) schistosomiasis has been "eliminated," or is "no longer endemic," or transmission has been interrupted. Principal Findings Widespread snail control reduced prevalence by 92 ± 5% (N = 19) vs. 37 ± 7% (N = 29) for programs using little or no snail control. In addition, ecological, economic, and political factors contributed to schistosomiasis elimination. For instance, snail control was most common and widespread in wealthier countries and when control began earlier in the 20th century. Conclusions/Significance Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis. PMID:27441556

  19. Field and controlled environment measurements show strong seasonal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration potential in boreal Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Bäck, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the seasonality of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees and its control by the environment requires separation of the instantaneous and slow responses, as well as the dynamics of light reactions, carbon reactions, and respiration. We determined the seasonality of photosynthetic light response and respiration parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the field in southern Finland and in controlled laboratory conditions. CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured in the field using a continuously operated automated chamber setup and fluorescence monitoring systems. We also carried out monthly measurements of photosynthetic light, CO2 and temperature responses in standard conditions with a portable IRGA and fluorometer instrument. The field and response measurements indicated strong seasonal variability in the state of the photosynthetic machinery with a deep downregulation during winter. Despite the downregulation, the photosynthetic machinery retained a significant capacity during winter, which was not visible in the field measurements. Light-saturated photosynthesis (P sat) and the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response (α) obtained in standard conditions were up to 20% of their respective summertime values. Respiration also showed seasonal acclimation with peak values of respiration in standard temperature in spring and decline in autumn. Spring recovery of all photosynthetic parameters could be predicted with temperature history. On the other hand, the operating quantum yield of photosystem II and the initial slope of photosynthetic light response stayed almost at the summertime level until late autumn while at the same time P sat decreased following the prevailing temperature. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters with the environmental drivers suggests that light and minimum temperature are also decisive factors in the seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees.

  20. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  1. Fluorescently Labeled Virus Probes Show that Natural Virus Populations Can Control the Structure of Marine Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Hennes, K P; Suttle, C A; Chan, A M

    1995-10-01

    Fluorescently stained viruses were used as probes to label, identify, and enumerate specific strains of bacteria and cyanobacteria in mixed microbial assemblages. Several marine virus isolates were fluorescently stained with YOYO-1 or POPO-1 (Molecular Probes, Inc.) and added to seawater samples that contained natural microbial communities. Cells to which the stained viruses adsorbed were easily distinguished from nonhost cells; typically, there was undetectable binding of stained viruses to natural microbial assemblages containing >10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1) but to which host cells were not added. Host cells that were added to natural seawater were quantified with 99% (plusmn) 2% (mean (plusmn) range) efficiency with fluorescently labeled virus probes (FLVPs). A marine bacterial isolate (strain PWH3a), tentatively identified as Vibrio natriegens, was introduced into natural microbial communities that were either supplemented with nutrients or untreated, and changes in the abundance of the isolate were monitored with FLVPs. Simultaneously, the concentrations of viruses that infected strain PWH3a were monitored by plaque assay. Following the addition of PWH3a, the concentration of viruses infecting this strain increased from undetectable levels (<1 ml(sup-1)) to 2.9 x 10(sup7) and 8.3 x 10(sup8) ml(sup-1) for the untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. The increase in viruses was associated with a collapse in populations of strain PWH3a from ca. 30 to 2% and 43 to 0.01% of the microbial communities in untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that FLVPs can be used to identify and quantify specific groups of bacteria in mixed microbial communities. The data show as well that viruses which are present at low abundances in natural aquatic viral communities can control microbial community structure.

  2. Fluorescently Labeled Virus Probes Show that Natural Virus Populations Can Control the Structure of Marine Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hennes, K. P.; Suttle, C. A.; Chan, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescently stained viruses were used as probes to label, identify, and enumerate specific strains of bacteria and cyanobacteria in mixed microbial assemblages. Several marine virus isolates were fluorescently stained with YOYO-1 or POPO-1 (Molecular Probes, Inc.) and added to seawater samples that contained natural microbial communities. Cells to which the stained viruses adsorbed were easily distinguished from nonhost cells; typically, there was undetectable binding of stained viruses to natural microbial assemblages containing >10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1) but to which host cells were not added. Host cells that were added to natural seawater were quantified with 99% (plusmn) 2% (mean (plusmn) range) efficiency with fluorescently labeled virus probes (FLVPs). A marine bacterial isolate (strain PWH3a), tentatively identified as Vibrio natriegens, was introduced into natural microbial communities that were either supplemented with nutrients or untreated, and changes in the abundance of the isolate were monitored with FLVPs. Simultaneously, the concentrations of viruses that infected strain PWH3a were monitored by plaque assay. Following the addition of PWH3a, the concentration of viruses infecting this strain increased from undetectable levels (<1 ml(sup-1)) to 2.9 x 10(sup7) and 8.3 x 10(sup8) ml(sup-1) for the untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. The increase in viruses was associated with a collapse in populations of strain PWH3a from ca. 30 to 2% and 43 to 0.01% of the microbial communities in untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that FLVPs can be used to identify and quantify specific groups of bacteria in mixed microbial communities. The data show as well that viruses which are present at low abundances in natural aquatic viral communities can control microbial community structure. PMID:16535146

  3. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18–35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition–M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant’s body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS’ growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control. PMID:28099522

  4. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  5. Control analysis of lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from oil crops shows that flux control is shared between fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    Top-Down (Metabolic) Control Analysis (TDCA) was used to examine, quantitatively, lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from two commercially important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). A conceptually simplified system was defined comprising two blocks of reactions: fatty acid synthesis (Block A) and lipid assembly (Block B), which produced and consumed, respectively, a common and unique system intermediate, cytosolic acyl-CoA. We manipulated the steady-state levels of the system intermediate by adding exogenous oleic acid and, using two independent assays, measured the effect of the addition on the system fluxes (J(A) and J(B)). These were the rate of incorporation of radioactivity: (i) through Block A from [1-(14)C]acetate into fatty acids and (ii) via Block B from [U-(14)C]glycerol into complex lipids respectively. The data showed that fatty acid formation (Block A) exerted higher control than lipid assembly (Block B) in both tissues with the following group flux control coefficients (C):(i) Oil palm: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.64+/-0.05 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.36+/-0.05(ii) Olive: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.57+/-0.10 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.43+/-0.10where *C indicates the group flux control coefficient over the lipid biosynthesis flux (J(TL)) and the subscripts BlkA and BlkB refer to defined blocks of the system, Block A and Block B. Nevertheless, because both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway exert significant flux control, we suggest strongly that manipulation of single enzyme steps will not affect product yield appreciably. The present study represents the first use of TDCA to examine the overall lipid biosynthetic pathway in any tissue, and its findings are of immediate academic and economic relevance to the yield and nutritional quality of oil crops. PMID:12023882

  6. Control analysis of lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from oil crops shows that flux control is shared between fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-06-01

    Top-Down (Metabolic) Control Analysis (TDCA) was used to examine, quantitatively, lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from two commercially important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). A conceptually simplified system was defined comprising two blocks of reactions: fatty acid synthesis (Block A) and lipid assembly (Block B), which produced and consumed, respectively, a common and unique system intermediate, cytosolic acyl-CoA. We manipulated the steady-state levels of the system intermediate by adding exogenous oleic acid and, using two independent assays, measured the effect of the addition on the system fluxes (J(A) and J(B)). These were the rate of incorporation of radioactivity: (i) through Block A from [1-(14)C]acetate into fatty acids and (ii) via Block B from [U-(14)C]glycerol into complex lipids respectively. The data showed that fatty acid formation (Block A) exerted higher control than lipid assembly (Block B) in both tissues with the following group flux control coefficients (C):(i) Oil palm: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.64+/-0.05 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.36+/-0.05(ii) Olive: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.57+/-0.10 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.43+/-0.10where *C indicates the group flux control coefficient over the lipid biosynthesis flux (J(TL)) and the subscripts BlkA and BlkB refer to defined blocks of the system, Block A and Block B. Nevertheless, because both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway exert significant flux control, we suggest strongly that manipulation of single enzyme steps will not affect product yield appreciably. The present study represents the first use of TDCA to examine the overall lipid biosynthetic pathway in any tissue, and its findings are of immediate academic and economic relevance to the yield and nutritional quality of oil crops.

  7. "A phony way to show sincerity, as we all well know": tobacco industry lobbying against tobacco control in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's efforts to influence public policy and block the legislative process on tobacco control in Hong Kong, 1973 to 1997. Method: Systematic review of relevant tobacco industry documents made public via the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The tobacco industry in Hong Kong has sought to manipulate the policymaking process and delay the introduction of tobacco control legislation in Hong Kong from at least 1973. The industry ensured that each of the government's initial meagre steps toward tobacco control were delayed and thwarted by drawn out "cooperation" followed by voluntary concessions on issues the industry regarded as minor. By the 1980s the government had became increasingly active in tobacco control and introduced a number of initiatives, resulting in some of the tightest legislative restrictions on smoking in Asia. The tobacco industry was successful in thwarting only one of these initiatives. Conclusions: Throughout the 1980s and 1990s two factors played a significant role in hindering the tobacco industry from successfully blocking policy initiatives: a growing political imperative, and an active and sophisticated tobacco control movement. Political will to promote public health and a strong tobacco control advocacy presence can enable governments to resist the enormous pressure exerted upon them by multinational tobacco companies. PMID:15564215

  8. Heterogeneity of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Lung metastasis show better prognosis than liver metastasis—a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Claire, Decoster; Marine, Gilabert; Aurélie, Autret; Olivier, Turrini; Sandrine, Oziel-Taieb; Flora, Poizat; Marc, Giovannini; Patrice, Viens; Juan, Iovanna; Jean-Luc, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is grim, with a median overall survival of under 1 year. In our clinical practice, we observed a few cases of isolated lung metastases from PDAC with unusually long outcomes. We compared these cases in a case-control study of lung-only vs. liver-only metastases from PDAC. From our database, we found 37 cases of lung-only metastases and paired them with 37 cases of liver-only metastases by age, tumor location and treatment. The lung-only group differed significantly from the liver-only group with respect to the following parameters: female predominance, more metachronous cases, fewer nodules per patient, and smaller increases in tumor markers. Local invasion parameters (i.e., arterial or venous involvement) were not significantly different. The outcomes were significantly different, with a median overall survival from the occurrence of metastases of 20.8 vs. 9.1 months and a median progression-free survival of 11 vs. 3.5 months. In conclusion, this case-control study seemed to confirm that lung-only PDAC metastases have prognoses different from those of liver-only metastases. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences will help identify abnormalities associated with tumor aggressiveness. PMID:27286454

  9. Volar locking distal radius plates show better short-term results than other treatment options: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drobetz, Herwig; Koval, Lidia; Weninger, Patrick; Luscombe, Ruth; Jeffries, Paula; Ehrendorfer, Stefan; Heal, Clare

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of displaced distal radius fractures treated with volar locking plates and with immediate postoperative mobilisation with the outcomes of these fractures treated with modalities that necessitate 6 wk wrist immobilisation. METHODS A prospective, randomised controlled single-centre trial was conducted with 56 patients who had a displaced radius fracture were randomised to treatment either with a volar locking plate (n = 29), or another treatment modality (n = 27; cast immobilisation with or without wires or external fixator). Outcomes were measured at 12 wk. Functional outcome scores measured were the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and activities of daily living (ADLs). Clinical outcomes were wrist range of motion and grip strength. Radiographic parameters were volar inclination and ulnar variance. RESULTS Patients in the volar locking plate group had significantly better PRWE scores, ADL scores, grip strength and range of extension at three months compared with the control group. All radiological parameters were significantly better in the volar locking plate group at 3 mo. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that volar locking plates produced significantly better functional and clinical outcomes at 3 mo compared with other treatment modalities. Anatomical reduction was significantly more likely to be preserved in the plating group. Level of evidence: II. PMID:27795951

  10. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuji; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Sakai, Soichi; Ochiai, Hidekazu; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose), luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose), placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF) method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF) in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg) nor supratherapeutic (20 mg) doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects. PMID:26444986

  11. The effects of practice on the concurrent performance of a speech and postural task in persons with Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Foreman, K Bo; Sondrup, Stuart; Dromey, Christopher; Jarvis, Eon; Nissen, Shawn; Dibble, Leland E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) demonstrate deficits in motor learning as well as bidirectional interference (the performance of one task concurrently interferes with the performance of another task) during dual-task performance. Few studies have examined the practice dosages necessary for behavioral change in rehabilitation relevant tasks. Therefore, to compare the effects of age and PD on motor learning during dual-task performance, this pilot study examined persons with PD as well as neurologically healthy participants during concurrent performance of postural and speaking tasks. Methods. Seven persons with PD and 7 healthy age-matched and 10 healthy young control subjects were tested in a motion capture facility. Task performances were performed concurrently and recorded during 3 time periods (acquisition (beginning and ending), 48-hour retention, and 1-week retention). Postural control and speech articulatory acoustic variables were measured. Results. Healthy young participants consistently performed better than other groups on all measured postural and speech variables. Healthy young participants showed decreased variability at retention, while persons with PD and healthy age-matched controls were unable to consistently improve their performance as a result of practice. No changes were noted in the speech variables. Conclusion. The lack of consistent changes in motor performance in any of the tasks, except in the healthy young group, suggests a decreased efficiency of motor learning in the age-matched and PD groups and argues for increased practice dosages during balance training.

  12. The Effects of Practice on the Concurrent Performance of a Speech and Postural Task in Persons with Parkinson Disease and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, K. Bo; Sondrup, Stuart; Dromey, Christopher; Jarvis, Eon; Nissen, Shawn; Dibble, Leland E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) demonstrate deficits in motor learning as well as bidirectional interference (the performance of one task concurrently interferes with the performance of another task) during dual-task performance. Few studies have examined the practice dosages necessary for behavioral change in rehabilitation relevant tasks. Therefore, to compare the effects of age and PD on motor learning during dual-task performance, this pilot study examined persons with PD as well as neurologically healthy participants during concurrent performance of postural and speaking tasks. Methods. Seven persons with PD and 7 healthy age-matched and 10 healthy young control subjects were tested in a motion capture facility. Task performances were performed concurrently and recorded during 3 time periods (acquisition (beginning and ending), 48-hour retention, and 1-week retention). Postural control and speech articulatory acoustic variables were measured. Results. Healthy young participants consistently performed better than other groups on all measured postural and speech variables. Healthy young participants showed decreased variability at retention, while persons with PD and healthy age-matched controls were unable to consistently improve their performance as a result of practice. No changes were noted in the speech variables. Conclusion. The lack of consistent changes in motor performance in any of the tasks, except in the healthy young group, suggests a decreased efficiency of motor learning in the age-matched and PD groups and argues for increased practice dosages during balance training. PMID:23841022

  13. Seizure control by derivatives of medium chain fatty acids associated with the ketogenic diet show novel branching-point structure for enhanced potency.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Zuckermann, Alexandra M E; Williams, Sophie; Close, Adam J; Cano-Jaimez, Marife; McEvoy, James P; Spencer, John; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2015-01-01

    The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is a major treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy but is problematic, particularly in adults, because of poor tolerability. Branched derivatives of octanoic acid (OA), a medium chain fat provided in the diet have been suggested as potential new treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy, but the structural basis of this functionality has not been determined. Here we investigate structural variants of branched medium chain fatty acids as new seizure-control treatments. We initially employ a series of methyl-branched OA derivatives, and using the GABAA receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol to induce seizure-like activity in rat hippocampal slices, we show a strong, branch-point-specific activity that improves upon the related epilepsy treatment valproic acid. Using low magnesium conditions to induce glutamate excitotoxicity in rat primary hippocampal neuronal cultures for the assessment of neuroprotection, we also show a structural dependence identical to that for seizure control, suggesting a related mechanism of action for these compounds in both seizure control and neuroprotection. In contrast, the effect of these compounds on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, associated with teratogenicity, shows no correlation with therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, small structural modifications of the starting compounds provide active compounds without HDAC inhibitory effects. Finally, using multiple in vivo seizure models, we identify potent lead candidates for the treatment of epilepsy. This study therefore identifies a novel family of fatty acids, related to the MCT ketogenic diet, that show promise as new treatments for epilepsy control and possibly other MCT ketogenic diet-responding conditions, such as Alzheimer disease.

  14. Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    van Kleeff, P. J. M.; Jaspert, N.; Li, K. W.; Rauch, S.; Oecking, C.; de Boer, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

  15. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

  16. Altered DNA-binding specificity mutants of EKLF and Sp1 show that EKLF is an activator of the β-globin locus control region in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gillemans, Nynke; Tewari, Rita; Lindeboom, Fokke; Rottier, Robbert; de Wit, Ton; Wijgerde, Mark; Grosveld, Frank; Philipsen, Sjaak

    1998-01-01

    The locus control region of the β-globin cluster contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (5′HS1–5) required for locus activation. 5′HS3 contains six G-rich motifs that are essential for its activity. Members of a protein family, characterized by three zinc fingers highly homologous to those found in transcription factor Sp1, interact with these motifs. Because point mutagenesis cannot distinguish between family members, it is not known which protein activates 5′HS3. We show that the function of such closely related proteins can be distinguished in vivo by matching point mutations in 5′HS3 with amino acid changes in the zinc fingers of Sp1 and EKLF. Testing their activity in transgenic mice shows that EKLF is a direct activator of 5′HS3. PMID:9744863

  17. Combined Linkage and Association Studies Show that HLA Class II Variants Control Levels of Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Cobat, Aurélie; Guergnon, Julien; Brice, Pauline; Fermé, Christophe; Carde, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Pendeven, Catherine Le-; Amiel, Corinne; Taoufik, Yassine; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Theodorou, Ioannis; Besson, Caroline; Abel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) or anti-Epstein Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG levels in a unique cohort of 424 individuals of European origin from 119 French families recruited through a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patient. No major locus controlling anti-VCA antibody levels was identified. However, we found that the HLA region influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers. Refined association studies in this region identified a cluster of HLA class II variants associated with anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers (e.g. p = 5×10–5 for rs9268403). The major allele of rs9268403 conferring a predisposition to high anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels was also associated with an increased risk of HL (p = 0.02). In summary, this study shows that HLA class II variants influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers in a European population. It further shows the role of the same variants in the risk of HL. PMID:25025336

  18. Almost 50 years of monitoring shows that climate, not forestry, controls long-term organic carbon fluxes in a large boreal watershed.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Ahti; Futter, Martyn N; Kortelainen, Pirkko

    2014-04-01

    Here, we use a unique long-term data set on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes, its climatic drivers and effects of land management from a large boreal watershed in northern Finland. TOC and runoff have been monitored at several sites in the Simojoki watershed (3160 km(2) ) since the early 1960s. Annual TOC fluxes have increased significantly together with increased inter-annual variability. Acid deposition in the area has been low and has not significantly influenced losses of TOC. Forest management, including ditching and clear felling, had a minor influence on TOC fluxes - seasonal and long-term patterns in TOC were controlled primarily by changes in soil frost, seasonal precipitation, drought, and runoff. Deeper soil frost led to lower spring TOC concentrations in the river. Summer TOC concentrations were positively correlated with precipitation and soil moisture not temperature. There is some indication that drought conditions led to elevated TOC concentrations and fluxes in subsequent years (1998-2000). A sensitivity analysis of the INCA-C model results showed the importance of landscape position, land-use type, and soil temperature as controls of modeled TOC concentrations. Model predictions were not sensitive to forest management. Our results are contradictory to some earlier plot-scale and small catchment studies that have shown more profound forest management impacts on TOC fluxes. This shows the importance of scale when assessing the mechanisms controlling TOC fluxes and concentrations. The results highlight the value of long-term multiple data sets to better understand ecosystem response to land management, climate change and extremes in northern ecosystems.

  19. Biocompatible photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) based on functionalized poly(epsilon-caprolactone) prepolymer shows surface erosion controlled drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mönkäre, J; Hakala, R A; Vlasova, M A; Huotari, A; Kilpeläinen, M; Kiviniemi, A; Meretoja, V; Herzig, K H; Korhonen, H; Seppälä, J V; Järvinen, K

    2010-09-15

    Star-shaped poly(epsilon-caprolactone) oligomers functionalized with succinic anhydride were used as prepolymers to prepare photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) to evaluate their in vivo drug delivery functionality and biocompatibility. Thus, in this work, erosion, drug release and safety of the photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were examined in vitro and in vivo. A small water-soluble drug, propranolol HCl (M(w) 296 g/mol, solubility 50 mg/ml), was used as the model drug in an evaluation of the erosion controlled release. Drug-free and drug-loaded (10-60% w/w) poly(ester anhydride) discoids eroded in vitro (pH 7.4 buffer, +37 degrees C) linearly within 24-48 h. A strong correlation between the polymer erosion and the linear drug release in vitro was observed, indicating that the release had been controlled by the erosion of the polymer. Similarly, in vivo studies (s.c. implantation of discoids in rats) indicated that surface erosion controlled drug release from the discoids (drug loading 40% w/w). Oligomers did not decrease cell viability in vitro and the implanted discoids (s.c., rats) did not evoke any cytokine activity in vivo. In summary, surface erosion controlled drug release and the safety of photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were demonstrated in this study.

  20. Long-term study of patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment shows that dapagliflozin reduces weight and blood pressure but does not improve glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Donald E; Fioretto, Paola; Tang, Weihua; List, James F

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, glycemic improvement by sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition depends on the kidney's ability to filter glucose. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes and normal or mildly impaired renal function. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we assessed daily treatment with dapagliflozin in 252 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment. The primary endpoint, the mean change in HbA1c, was not statistically different from placebo after 24 weeks (−0.41% and −0.44% for 5- and 10-mg doses, respectively, and −0.32% for placebo). The mean weight change from baseline was −1.54 and −1.89 kg for the 5- and 10-mg doses, respectively, and +0.21 kg for placebo. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in the dapagliflozin groups compared to placebo. Through 104 weeks, 13 patients receiving dapagliflozin and no patients receiving placebo experienced bone fracture. At 1 week, the mean serum creatinine increased with dapagliflozin 5 mg (+0.13 mg/dl) and 10 mg (+0.18 mg/dl) and did not change further after 104 weeks. Mean serum electrolytes did not change in any group, and there were fewer episodes of hyperkalemia with dapagliflozin than placebo. Thus, in patients with moderate renal impairment, dapagliflozin did not improve glycemic control, but reduced weight and blood pressure. PMID:24067431

  1. Deficiens, a homeotic gene involved in the control of flower morphogenesis in Antirrhinum majus: the protein shows homology to transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, H; Beltrán, J P; Huijser, P; Pape, H; Lönnig, W E; Saedler, H; Schwarz-Sommer, Z

    1990-01-01

    Deficiens (defA+) is a homeotic gene involved in the genetic control of Antirrhinum majus flower development. Mutation of this gene (defA-1) causes homeotic transformation of petals into sepals and of stamina into carpels in flowers displaying the 'globifera' phenotype, as shown by cross sections and scanning electronmicroscopy of developing flowers. A cDNA derived from the wild type defA+ gene has been cloned by differential screening of a subtracted 'flower specific' cDNA library. The identity of this cDNA with the defA+ gene product has been confirmed by utilizing the somatic and germinal instability of defA-1 mutants. According to Northern blot analyses the defA+ gene is expressed in flowers but not in leaves, and its expression is nearly constant during all stages of flower development. The 1.1 kb long mRNA has a 681 bp long open reading frame that can code for a putative protein of 227 amino acids (mol. wt 26.2 kd). At its N-terminus the DEF A protein reveals homology to a conserved domain of the regulatory proteins SRF (activating c-fos) in mammals and GRM/PRTF (regulating mating type) in yeast. We discuss the structure and the possible function of the DEF A protein in the control of floral organogenesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1968830

  2. Women with elevated food addiction symptoms show accelerated reactions, but no impaired inhibitory control, in response to pictures of high-calorie food-cues.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behaviors are accompanied by a lack of inhibitory control, specifically when individuals are confronted with substance-related cues. Thus, we expected women with symptoms of food addiction to be impaired in inhibitory control, when confronted with palatable, high-calorie food-cues. Female college students (N=50) were divided in low and high food addiction groups based on the symptom count of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Participants performed a Go/No-go-task with high-calorie food-cues or neutral pictures presented behind the targets. Self-reported impulsivity was also assessed. The high food addiction group had faster reaction times in response to food-cues as compared to neutral cues and reported higher attentional impulsivity than the low food addiction group. Commission and omission errors did not differ between groups or picture types. Hence, women with food addiction symptoms reported higher attentional impulsivity and reacted faster in response to food-cues, although neither increased self-reported motor impulsivity nor impaired behavioral inhibition was found. Food addiction symptoms seem to be related to attentional aspects of impulsivity but not other facets of impulsivity.

  3. Study of 201 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Given Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Shows Local Control Dependence on Dose Calculation Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Latifi, Kujtim; Oliver, Jasmine; Baker, Ryan; Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W.; Kim, Jongphil; Yue, Binglin; DeMarco, MaryLou; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Pencil beam (PB) and collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithms differ significantly when used in the thorax. However, such differences have seldom been previously directly correlated with outcomes of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR). Methods and Materials: Data for 201 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with 50 Gy in 5 fractions of 10 Gy each. The radiation prescription mandated that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) receive the prescribed dose. One hundred sixteen patients were planned with BrainLab treatment planning software (TPS) with the PB algorithm and treated on a Novalis unit. The other 85 were planned on the Pinnacle TPS with the CCC algorithm and treated on a Varian linac. Treatment planning objectives were numerically identical for both groups. The median follow-up times were 24 and 17 months for the PB and CCC groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was local/marginal control of the irradiated lesion. Gray's competing risk method was used to determine the statistical differences in local/marginal control rates between the PB and CCC groups. Results: Twenty-five patients planned with PB and 4 patients planned with the CCC algorithms to the same nominal doses experienced local recurrence. There was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between the PB and CCC groups (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.83], Gray's test P=.019). The differences (Δ) between the 2 algorithms for target coverage were as follows: ΔD99{sub GITV} = 7.4 Gy, ΔD99{sub PTV} = 10.4 Gy, ΔV90{sub GITV} = 13.7%, ΔV90{sub PTV} = 37.6%, ΔD95{sub PTV} = 9.8 Gy, and ΔD{sub ISO} = 3.4 Gy. GITV = gross internal tumor volume. Conclusions: Local control in patients receiving who were planned to the same nominal dose with PB and CCC algorithms were statistically significantly different. Possible alternative

  4. Mitochondrial sequences of Seriatopora corals show little agreement with morphology and reveal the duplication of a tRNA gene near the control region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flot, J.-F.; Licuanan, W. Y.; Nakano, Y.; Payri, C.; Cruaud, C.; Tillier, S.

    2008-12-01

    The taxonomy of corals of the genus Seriatopora has not previously been studied using molecular sequence markers. As a first step toward a re-evaluation of species boundaries in this genus, mitochondrial sequence variability was analyzed in 51 samples collected from Okinawa, New Caledonia, and the Philippines. Four clusters of sequences were detected that showed little concordance with species currently recognized on a morphological basis. The most likely explanation is that the skeletal characters used for species identification are highly variable (polymorphic or phenotypically plastic); alternative explanations include introgression/hybridization, or deep coalescence and the retention of ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms. In all individuals sequenced, two copies of trnW were found on either side of the atp8 gene near the putative D-loop, a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement that may have arisen from a duplication of the trnW-atp8 region followed by a deletion of one atp8.

  5. Distinct regions of the cerebellum show gray matter decreases in autism, ADHD, and developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in cerebellar structure have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and developmental dyslexia. However, it is not clear if different cerebellar regions are involved in each disorder, and thus whether cerebellar anatomical differences reflect a generic developmental vulnerability or disorder-specific characteristics. To clarify this, we conducted an anatomic likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies which compared ASD (17 studies), ADHD (10 studies), and dyslexic (10 studies) participants with age-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. A second ALE analysis included studies in which the cerebellum was a region of interest (ROI). There were no regions of significantly increased gray matter (GM) in the cerebellum in ASD, ADHD, or dyslexia. Data from ASD studies revealed reduced GM in the inferior cerebellar vermis (lobule IX), left lobule VIIIB, and right Crus I. In ADHD, significantly decreased GM was found bilaterally in lobule IX, whereas participants with developmental dyslexia showed GM decreases in left lobule VI. There was no overlap between the cerebellar clusters identified in each disorder. We evaluated the functional significance of the regions revealed in both whole-brain and cerebellar ROI ALE analyses using Buckner and colleagues' 7-network functional connectivity map available in the SUIT cerebellar atlas. The cerebellar regions identified in ASD showed functional connectivity with frontoparietal, default mode, somatomotor, and limbic networks; in ADHD, the clusters were part of dorsal and ventral attention networks; and in dyslexia, the clusters involved ventral attention, frontoparietal, and default mode networks. The results suggest that different cerebellar regions are affected in ASD, ADHD, and dyslexia, and these cerebellar regions participate in functional networks that are consistent with the characteristic symptoms of each

  6. Surface electromyography shows increased mirroring in Parkinson's disease patients without overt mirror movements.

    PubMed

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Balestrieri, Fabrizio; Vanni, Paola; Ragazzoni, Aldo; Zaccara, Gaetano; Ziemann, Ulf

    2006-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may present mirror movements (MM). Transcranial magnetic stimulation data indicate that these movements reflect an abnormal enhancement of the "physiological mirroring" that can be observed in healthy adults during complex and effortful tasks. It was hypothesized that, in PD, enhanced mirroring is caused by a failure of basal ganglia output to support the cortical network that is responsible for the execution of strictly unimanual movements. If so, it is likely that subtle alterations of voluntary unimanual motor control are also present in PD patients without overt MM. We tested this hypothesis by using surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques in 12 mildly to moderately affected PD patients without overt MM, and in 2 control groups (12 age-matched and 10 young healthy volunteers). Subjects performed unilateral phasic thumb abduction during a sustained tonic contraction of the opposite abductor pollicis brevis. All patients were tested on dopaminergic therapy. On a separate day, 7 of 12 patients were re-tested after withdrawal of medication. During this task, involuntary mirror-like increase in surface EMG of the tonically abducting thumb was significantly larger in PD patients than in age-matched or young healthy volunteers. Off therapy, mirroring was slightly greater than on medication, although this difference was not significant. Our findings suggest that dysfunction of unimanual motor control is a general feature of PD. It is likely that this deficient movement lateralization contributes to an impairment of nonsymmetrical bimanual movements in PD.

  7. Human pluripotent stem cells with distinct X inactivation status show molecular and cellular differences controlled by the X-Linked ELK-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Tal; Yanuka, Ofra; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2013-07-25

    Female human pluripotent stem cells show vast heterogeneity regarding the status of X chromosome inactivation. By comparing the gene expression profile of cells with two active X chromosomes (XaXa cells) to that of cells with only one active X chromosome (XaXi cells), a set of autosomal genes was shown to be overexpressed in the XaXa cells. Among these genes, we found significant enrichment for genes regulated by the X-linked transcription factor ELK-1. Comparison of the phenotype of XaXa and XaXi cells demonstrated differences in programmed cell death and differentiation, implying some growth disadvantage of the XaXa cells. Interestingly, ELK-1-overexpressing cells mimicked the phenotype of XaXa cells, whereas knockdown of ELK-1 with small hairpin RNA mimicked the phenotype of XaXi cells. When cultured at low oxygen levels, these cellular differences were considerably weakened. Our analysis implies a role of ELK-1 in the differences between pluripotent stem cells with distinct X chromosome inactivation statuses.

  8. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  9. Bilingualism alters children's frontal lobe functioning for attentional control.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Maria M; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2016-01-06

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n = 14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest that early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development.

  10. A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Grupe, Andrew; Li, Yonghong; Rowland, Charles; Nowotny, Petra; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Smemo, Scott; Kauwe, John S K; Maxwell, Taylor J; Cherny, Sara; Doil, Lisa; Tacey, Kristina; van Luchene, Ryan; Myers, Amanda; Wavrant-De Vrièze, Fabienne; Kaleem, Mona; Hollingworth, Paul; Jehu, Luke; Foy, Catherine; Archer, Nicola; Hamilton, Gillian; Holmans, Peter; Morris, Chris M; Catanese, Joseph; Sninsky, John; White, Thomas J; Powell, John; Hardy, John; O'Donovan, Michael; Lovestone, Simon; Jones, Lesley; Morris, John C; Thal, Leon; Owen, Michael; Williams, Julie; Goate, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  11. Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2016-05-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring processes (the ability to accurately represent one's own mental states) and control processes (the ability to control one's cognitive processes effectively). Both processes play vital roles in self-regulated learning. However, currently it is unclear whether these processes are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aimed to assess metacognition in thirty-two children with ASD, and 30 IQ-/age-matched neurotypical children, using a judgment of confidence task. It was found that children with ASD showed diminished accuracy in their judgments of confidence, indicating metacognitive monitoring impairments in ASD. Children with ASD also used monitoring to influence control processes significantly less than neurotypical children, despite little evidence of impairments in overall control ability.

  12. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  13. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  14. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  15. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  16. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  17. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  18. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  19. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  20. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  1. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  2. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  3. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  4. Association of hypothyroidism with unruptured cerebral aneurysms: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Tipirneni, Anita; Zhang, Tony; Khandelwal, Priyank; Ambekar, Sudheer; Snelling, Brian; Dharmadhikari, Sushrut; Dong, Chuanhui; Guada, Luis; Ramdas, Kevin; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Rundek, Tatjana; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2017-02-17

    OBJECTIVE Thyroid disorder has been known to affect vascular function and has been associated with aortic aneurysm formation in some cases; however, the connection has not been well studied. The authors hypothesized that hypothyroidism is associated with the formation of cerebral aneurysms. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective case-control study of consecutive patients who had undergone cerebral angiography at an academic, tertiary care medical center in the period from April 2004 through April 2014. Patients with unruptured aneurysms were identified from among those who had undergone 3-vessel catheter angiography. Age-matched controls without cerebral aneurysms on angiography were also identified from the same database. Patients with previous subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage were excluded. History of hypothyroidism and other risk factors were recorded. RESULTS Two hundred forty-three patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms were identified and age matched with 243 controls. Mean aneurysm size was 9.6 ± 0.8 mm. Hypothyroidism was present in 40 patients (16.5%) and 9 matched controls (3.7%; adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.8, p = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that men with hypothyroidism had higher odds of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm diagnosis than the women with hypothyroidism, with an adjusted OR of 12.7 (95% CI 1.3-121.9) versus an OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-6.4) on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Hypothyroidism appears to be independently associated with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, with a higher effect seen in men. Given the known pathophysiological associations between hypothyroidism and vascular dysfunction, this finding warrants further exploration.

  5. The influence of oculomotor tasks on postural control in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Mélithe, Damien; Ajrezo, Layla; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gérard, Christophe-Loic

    2014-01-01

    Dual task is known to affect postural stability in children. We explored the effect of visual tasks on postural control in thirty dyslexic children. A selected group of thirty chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children (mean age: 9.92 ± 0.35 years) and a group of thirty reading age-matched non-dyslexic children (mean reading age: 7.90 ± 0.25 years) were chosen for comparison. All children underwent ophthalmologic and optometric evaluation. Eye movements were recorded by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2) and postural sway was recorded simultaneously by a force platform (TechnoConept®). All children performed fixations, pursuits, pro- and anti-saccades tasks. Dyslexic children showed significantly poor near fusional vergence ranges (convergence and divergence) with respect to the non-dyslexic children groups. During the postural task, quality of fixation and anti-saccade performance in dyslexic children were significantly worse compared to the two non-dyslexic children groups. In contrast, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits and the latency of pro- and anti-saccades were similar in the three groups of children examined. Concerning postural quality, dyslexic children were more unstable than chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children group. For all three groups of children tested we also observed that executing saccades (pro- and anti-saccades) reduced postural values significantly in comparison with fixation and pursuit tasks. The impairment in convergence and divergence fusional capabilities could be due to an immaturity in cortical structures controlling the vergence system. The poor oculomotor performance reported in dyslexic children suggested a deficit in allocating visual attention and their postural instability observed is in line with the cerebellar impairment previously reported in dyslexic children. Finally, pro- or anti-saccades reduce postural values compared to fixation and pursuit tasks in all groups of children tested

  6. Size sequencing as a window on executive control in children with autism and Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Margaret; Bodner, Kimberly; Fox-Pitt, Alicia; Nicholson, Laura

    2008-08-01

    A study is reported in which size sequencing on a touch screen is used as a measure of executive control in 20 high-functioning children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The data show a significant and age-independent effect of the length of sequence that can be executed without errors by these children, in comparison with a chronologically age-matched group of children with normal development. Error data and reaction times are analysed and are interpreted as revealing a constraint on the prospective component of working memory in children on the autistic spectrum even when there is no change in goal or perceptual set. It is concluded that the size sequencing paradigm is an effective measure of executive difficulties associated with autism.

  7. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  8. Real-time pH monitoring of industrially relevant enzymatic reactions in a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) shows potential for pH control.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Pia; Marques, Marco P C; Sulzer, Philipp; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Mayr, Torsten; Baganz, Frank; Szita, Nicolas

    2017-01-20

    Monitoring and control of pH is essential for the control of reaction conditions and reaction progress for any biocatalytic or biotechnological process. Microfluidic enzymatic reactors are increasingly proposed for process development, however typically lack instrumentation, such as pH monitoring. We present a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) and demonstrate for the first time real-time pH monitoring of the progression of an enzymatic reaction in a microfluidic reactor as a first step towards achieving pH control. Two different types of optical pH sensors were integrated at several positions in the reactor channel which enabled pH monitoring between pH 3.5 and pH 8.5, thus a broader range than typically reported. The sensors withstood the thermal bonding temperatures typical of microfluidic device fabrication. Additionally, fluidic inputs along the reaction channel were implemented to adjust the pH of the reaction. Time-course profiles of pH were recorded for a transketolase and a penicillin G acylase catalyzed reaction. Without pH adjustment, the former showed a pH increase of 1 pH unit and the latter a pH decrease of about 2.5 pH units. With pH adjustment, the pH drop of the penicillin G acylase catalyzed reaction was significantly attenuated, the reaction condition kept at a pH suitable for the operation of the enzyme, and the product yield increased. This contribution represents a further step towards fully instrumented and controlled microfluidic reactors for biocatalytic process development.

  9. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  10. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  11. Intracranial administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein in Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9 transgenic mice at an early age shows enhanced performance at a later age using a cheese board maze test.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Amod P; Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2008-12-01

    One of the key pro-inflammatory mediators activated by amyloid protein in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease is the complement system. Vaccinia virus complement control protein secreted by vaccinia virus, commonly known as VCP, was found to inhibit amyloid protein mediated up-regulation of complement system in vitro. In the current research investigation, VCP was administered twice (First dose at 3 weeks and the second dose at 6-7 months) intracranially into the parietal cortical area of Mo/Hu APPswe transgenic mice. At the age of 2 years or more, the same mice were subjected to cued-learning, spatial learning, probe and reverse probe trial paradigms of cheese board maze tasks for cognitive assessment. A significant difference was observed between VCP treated mice and the transgenic controls on days two and three of the cued trials and probe trials. The VCP treated group showed a similar trend as revealed during the spatial learning trial and reverse probe trial. A differential pattern of thioflavine S staining was observed in the VCP treated group. These results suggest that administration of VCP at an early age in transgenic mice may be effective in regulating the progression to the familial form of Alzheimer's disease at a later age.

  12. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  13. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD.

  14. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  15. Characterization of the procera tomato mutant shows novel functions of the SlDELLA protein in the control of flower morphology, cell division and expansion, and the auxin-signaling pathway during fruit-set and development.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2012-11-01

    procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA₃. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA₃ or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA₃ application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set.

  16. Graph analysis of functional brain networks for cognitive control of action in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-04-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly dispersed frontal and parietal activity during performance of cognitive control tasks. We constructed binary and weighted functional networks and calculated their topological properties using a graph theoretical approach. Twenty-three adults with traumatic brain injury and 26 age-matched controls were instructed to switch between coordination modes while making spatially and temporally coupled circular motions with joysticks during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results demonstrated that switching performance was significantly lower in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with control subjects. Furthermore, although brain networks of both groups exhibited economical small-world topology, altered functional connectivity was demonstrated in patients with traumatic brain injury. In particular, compared with controls, patients with traumatic brain injury showed increased connectivity degree and strength, and higher values of local efficiency, suggesting adaptive mechanisms in this group. Finally, the degree of increased connectivity was significantly correlated with poorer switching task performance and more severe brain injury. We conclude that analysing the functional brain network connectivity provides new insights into understanding cognitive control changes following brain injury.

  17. Control of ventilation in elite synchronized swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bjurström, R L; Schoene, R B

    1987-09-01

    Synchronized swimmers perform strenuous underwater exercise during prolonged breath holds. To investigate the role of the control of ventilation and lung volumes in these athletes, we studied the 10 members of the National Synchronized Swim Team including an olympic gold medalist and 10 age-matched controls. We evaluated static pulmonary function, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory drives, and normoxic and hyperoxic breath holding. Synchronized swimmers had an increased total lung capacity and vital capacity compared with controls (P less than 0.005). The hypoxic ventilatory response (expressed as the hyperbolic shape parameter A) was lower in the synchronized swimmers than controls with a mean value of 29.2 +/- 2.6 (SE) and 65.6 +/- 7.1, respectively (P less than 0.001). The hypercapnic ventilatory response [expressed as S, minute ventilation (1/min)/alveolar CO2 partial pressure (Torr)] was no different between synchronized swimmers and controls. Breath-hold duration during normoxia was greater in the synchronized swimmers, with a mean value of 108.6 +/- 4.8 (SE) vs. 68.03 +/- 8.1 s in the controls (P less than 0.001). No difference was seen in hyperoxic breath-hold times between groups. During breath holding synchronized swimmers demonstrated marked apneic bradycardia expressed as either absolute or heart rate change from basal heart rate as opposed to the controls, in whom heart rate increased during breath holds. Therefore the results show that elite synchronized swimmers have increased lung volumes, blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses, and a marked apneic bradycardia that may provide physiological characteristics that offer a competitive advantage for championship performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  19. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  20. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  1. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  3. Patterns of Somatic Diagnoses in Older People with Intellectual Disability: A Swedish Eleven Year Case-Control Study of Inpatient Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Magnus; Ahlström, Gerd; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about diagnoses patterns in older people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Methods: The case group (n = 7936) comprised people with intellectual disabilities aged 55 years and older. The control group (n = 7936) was age matched and sex matched. Somatic inpatient diagnoses (2002-2012) were collected retrospectively.…

  4. Heart rate and blood pressure control in obesity - how to detect early dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Javorka, Michal; Turianikova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Lazarova, Zuzana; Czippelova, Barbora; Javorka, Kamil

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is accompanied by many severe complications including various cardiovascular disorders. An impairment of cardiovascular control by autonomic nervous system could be one of the possible links between obesity and cardiovascular complications development. The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous heart rate and systolic blood pressure oscillations reflecting cardiovascular autonomic control of young obese subjects with normal control subjects by linear and nonlinear methods and to find sensitive markers of early autonomic dysregulation. Continuous recordings of beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure and RR intervals from ECG were obtained from 40 obese subjects (25 female, age 14·2 [13·1-16·1] (median [interquartile range]) years) and gender and age matched non-obese control subjects. In addition to linear measures (time and frequency domain), we performed recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and multiscale entropy analysis for both signals. While no significant differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure dynamics were detected by linear measures and MSE, analysis of recurrence plots from RR intervals time series showed significant differences - indices trapping time and maximal length of vertical from RQA were significantly higher in obese compared to control group. We conclude that heart rate and blood pressure control by autonomic nervous system in young obese subjects is relatively well preserved. However, novel RQA-related measures are able to detect early subtle abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control in obese subjects indicating decreased signal complexity.

  5. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  6. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    PubMed

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  7. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  8. Error types and error positions in neglect dyslexia: comparative analyses in neglect patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to healthy controls. This question has been difficult to answer so far, given the usually low number of reading errors in healthy controls. Therefore, the present study compared single word reading of 18 patients with left-sided neglect, due to right-hemisphere stroke, and 11 age-matched healthy controls, and adjusted individual task difficulty (by varying stimulus presentation times in participants) in order to reach approximately equal error rates between neglect patients and controls. Results showed that, while both omission and substitution errors were frequently produced in neglect patients and controls, only omissions appeared neglect-specific when task difficulty was adapted between groups. Analyses of individual letter positions within words revealed that the spatial distribution of reading errors in the neglect dyslexic patients followed an almost linear increase from the end to the beginning of the word (right-to-left-gradient). Both, the gradient in error positions and the predominance of omission errors presented a neglect-specific pattern. Consistent with current models of visual word processing, these findings suggest that ND reflects sublexical, visuospatial attentional mechanisms in letter string encoding.

  9. Proactive and reactive control of movement are differently affected in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder children.

    PubMed

    Pani, P; Menghini, D; Napolitano, C; Calcagni, M; Armando, M; Sergeant, J A; Vicari, S

    2013-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder children are impaired in the ability to interrupt an ongoing action in relation to a sudden change in the environment (reactive control, measured by stop signal reaction time, SSRT). Less investigated is the ability to control the response when it is known in advance that it will be required to stop (proactive control, measured by change in Reaction time, RT). The study is aimed at exploring both the reactive and the proactive inhibitory control in a group of ADHD children compared to a group of age-matched controls. ADHD children (N=28) and Controls (N=28) performed 4 tasks: 2 tasks required to respond to the appearance of the go-signals (go task and nostop task) and 2 tasks to respond to the go signals in a context in which sometimes a restrain or suppression of the response was required (go-nogo task and stop task). ADHD children showed a longer SSRT compared to controls. Both groups showed an increment in RT by comparing the go-nogo to the go task and an increment in RT and SD by comparing the stop to the nostop task. ADHD children showed higher intra-individual variability (SD) compared to controls only in the stop and nostop task. ADHD children showed impaired reactive control but preserved proactive control, and the physical appearance of the go signal affected their reaction times intra-individual variability. A comparison between the reactive and proactive controls helps in defining neuropsychological profiles of ADHD children and can inspires therapeutic behavioral-cognitive strategies for response control.

  10. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  11. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions in elderly patients with essential tremor: comparison with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Oh, Yoon-Sang; Park, Hyung-Eun; Lee, Si-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Wook; Song, In-Uk; An, Jae-Young; Park, Hun-Jun; Son, Byung-Chul; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Questionnaire-based analyses show that patients with essential tremor (ET) may have several autonomic dysfunctions, especially in the cardiovascular and genitourinary domains; yet the laboratory correlates of autonomic dysfunction in ET are unknown and have not been studied. Herein, we explored whether sympathetic and parasympathetic functions differed between control subjects and patients with ET. Seventy-five elderly patients with ET were enrolled in this study, along with 25 age-matched controls. Orthostatic vital signs, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring and 24-h Holter monitoring values were recorded and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was assessed using the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M ratio). The frequencies of orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping were not different between the ET patients and the controls, although ET patients had more episodes of orthostatic intolerance. The ET group also had similar heart rate variations as the control group for all the time-domains. The mean H/M ratios for the ET group were not statistically different from that of the control group. This result proves that the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is normal in ET.

  12. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  13. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  14. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. Dissociation between working memory performance and proactive interference control in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Swick, Diane; Cayton, Julien; Ashley, Victoria; Turken, And U

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory. It is unclear whether this dissociation applies to WM, as no studies have used identical task parameters across material. Here we tested 29 combat Veterans with PTSD and 29 age-matched control Veterans on a recent probes WM task with words and visual patterns in separate blocks. Participants studied four-item sets, followed by a probe stimulus that had been presented in the previous set (recent probe) or not (nonrecent probe). Participants with PTSD made more errors than controls, and this decrement was similar for verbal and visual stimuli. Proactive interference from items recently presented, but no longer relevant, was not significantly different in the PTSD group and showed no relationship to re-experiencing symptom severity. These results demonstrate that PTSD is not reliably associated with increased intrusions of irrelevant representations into WM when non-emotional stimuli are used. Future studies that use trauma-related material may provide insight into the flashbacks and intrusive thoughts that plague those with PTSD.

  17. Linear and angular control of circular walking in healthy older adults and subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam D; Paquette, Caroline; Jones, Geoffrey Melvill; Block, Edward W; Fletcher, William A; Hu, Bin; Horak, Fay B

    2012-05-01

    Linear and angular control of trunk and leg motion during curvilinear navigation was investigated in subjects with cerebellar ataxia and age-matched control subjects. Subjects walked with eyes open around a 1.2-m circle. The relationship of linear to angular motion was quantified by determining the ratios of trunk linear velocity to trunk angular velocity and foot linear position to foot angular position. Errors in walking radius (the ratio of linear to angular motion) also were quantified continuously during the circular walk. Relative variability of linear and angular measures was compared using coefficients of variation (CoV). Patterns of variability were compared using power spectral analysis for the trunk and auto-covariance analysis for the feet. Errors in radius were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar damage as compared to controls. Cerebellar subjects had significantly larger CoV of feet and trunk in angular, but not linear, motion. Control subjects also showed larger CoV in angular compared to linear motion of the feet and trunk. Angular and linear components of stepping differed in that angular, but not linear, foot placement had a negative correlation from one stride to the next. Thus, walking in a circle was associated with more, and a different type of, variability in angular compared to linear motion. Results are consistent with increased difficulty of, and role of the cerebellum in, control of angular trunk and foot motion for curvilinear locomotion.

  18. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  19. Children with specific language impairment also show impairment of music-syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan; Sallat, Stephan; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-11-01

    Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we expected children with specific language impairment (SLI, which is characterized by deficient processing of linguistic syntax) to demonstrate difficulties with music-syntactic processing. Such difficulties were indeed observed in the neural correlates of music-syntactic processing: neither an ERAN nor an N5 was elicited in children with SLI, whereas both components were evoked in age-matched control children with typical language development. Moreover, the amplitudes of ERAN and N5 were correlated with subtests of a language development test. These data provide evidence for a strong interrelation between the language and the music processing system, thereby setting the ground for possible effects of musical training in SLI therapy.

  20. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30 ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer

  1. Abnormal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Rosano, G M; Ponikowski, P; Adamopoulos, S; Collins, P; Poole-Wilson, P A; Coats, A J; Kaski, J C

    1994-06-15

    Anomalies of autonomic control of the coronary circulation may play a role in the development of syndrome X (angina pectoris, ischemic-appearing results on exercise test, and normal coronary arteriograms). Twenty-six patients with syndrome X and 20 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied by means of analysis of heart rate variability during 24-hour Holter monitoring. Spectral and nonspectral parameters of heart rate variability were investigated. Mean heart rate was similar in patients with syndrome X and in control subjects. Patients with syndrome X had significantly lower standard deviation of all normal RR intervals, a lower percentage of adjacent normal RR intervals > 50 ms in difference (126.4 +/- 22 vs 149 +/- 43 ms, p < 0.05; 6.3 +/- 4 vs 11.2 +/- 7%, p < 0.05; respectively), and a trend toward lower values of time-domain parameters. Lower values of total power and low frequency were also observed in patients with syndrome X (1273 +/- 693 vs 1790 +/- 989 ms2, p < 0.05; 406 +/- 176 vs 729 +/- 455 ms2, p < 0.01, respectively). An inverse correlation between heart rate and measures of heart rate variability was found in syndrome X but not in control subjects. High- and low-frequency power showed a similar circadian pattern in syndrome X patients and control subjects. Patients and control subjects were then allocated into 2 groups according to the median RR duration: syndrome X1 and control 1 with high mean heart rate, and syndrome X2 and control 2 with low mean heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Parkinsonian deficits in sensory integration for postural control: temporal response to changes in visual input.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lesley A; Cooper, Stephanie A; Doan, Jon B; Dickin, D Clark; Whishaw, Ian Q; Pellis, Sergio M; Suchowersky, Oksana

    2006-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the time course for postural control following the removal and reinsertion of visual information. Twelve medicated PD patients (PD) and 12 age matched control (CTRL) subjects performed two 45-s quiet standing trials, during which visual feedback was available (0-15s), deprived (15-30s), and then restored (30-45s). The 45s test trial was divided into 5s time bins to compare the time-based effect of sensory reorganization during deprivation and reintegration. Results revealed an increase in Elliptical Sway Area (ESA) following visual deprivation for both groups; this increased ESA remained significantly higher than the baseline level for the duration of the deprivation period among PD patients and returned to baseline the level among CTRL. Despite elevated ESA at the end of visual deprivation among PD patients, neither group showed a change in ESA after visual information was restored. These results indicate a PD-associated deficit with the reorganization of sensory priorities for postural control, and may implicate the basal ganglia as being critical for integration of sensory information for postural control.

  3. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  4. Parkinsonian deficits in context-dependent regulation of standing postural control.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lesley A; Doan, Jon B; Whishaw, Ian Q; Suchowersky, Oksana

    2007-05-18

    This study explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease alter the regulation of upright standing according to constraints imposed by the environmental context. The provision of context-dependent adaptations was inferred from the presence of adjustments to standing postural control that would serve to reduce fall risk when balance was challenged by a threatening environmental context. Participants were asked to stand as still as possible in two environmental context conditions that differed in the level of imposed postural threat: LOW threat and HIGH threat. Eight levodopa dependent patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and eight age-matched control subjects (CTRL) provided the subject sample. PD patients were tested following a 12-h withdrawal of anti-Parkinsonian medications and approximately 1h post-medication. The CTRL group showed altered postural control in the HIGH threat condition, in a manner that was indicative of appropriate context-dependent regulation of standing. PD patients, in the non-medicated or medicated states, did not modify stance regulation when the environmental context heightened postural threat. Our results extend the current understanding of Parkinsonian deficits in the context-dependent regulation of postural control to include upright standing.

  5. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  6. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems via procedural as well as non-procedural learning.

    PubMed

    Osman, Magda; Wilkinson, Leonora; Beigi, Mazda; Castaneda, Cristina Sanchez; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2008-01-01

    The striatum is considered to mediate some forms of procedural learning. Complex dynamic control (CDC) tasks involve an individual having to make a series of sequential decisions to achieve a specific outcome (e.g. learning to operate and control a car), and they involve procedural learning. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with Parkinson's disease who have striatal dysfunction, are impaired on CDC tasks only when learning involves procedural learning. 26 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 26 age-matched controls performed two CDC tasks, one in which training was observation-based (non-procedural), and a second in which training was action-based (procedural). Both groups were able to control the system to a specific criterion equally well, regardless of the training condition. However, when reporting their knowledge of the underlying structure of the system, both groups showed poorer accuracy when learning took place through observation-based compared with action-based training. Moreover, the controls' accuracy in reporting the underlying structure of the systems was superior to that of PD patients. The findings suggest that the striatal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is not associated with impairment of procedural learning, regardless of whether the task involved procedural learning or not. It is possible that the learning and performance on CDC tasks are mediated by perceptual priming mechanisms in the neocortex.

  7. Sleep disorders in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease): a controlled polysomnographic and self-reported questionnaires study.

    PubMed

    Romigi, Andrea; Liguori, Claudio; Placidi, Fabio; Albanese, Maria; Izzi, Francesca; Uasone, Elisabetta; Terracciano, Chiara; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Ludovisi, Raffaella; Massa, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    No data are available regarding the occurrence of sleep disorders in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). We investigated the sleep-wake cycle in SBMA patients compared with healthy subjects. Nine SBMA outpatients and nine age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated. Subjective quality of sleep was assessed by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used in order to evaluate excessive daytime sleepiness. All participants underwent a 48-h polysomnography followed by the multiple sleep latency test. Time in bed, total sleep time and sleep efficiency were significantly lower in SBMA than controls. Furthermore, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly higher in SBMA than controls. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA: AHI >5/h) was evident in 6/9 patients (66.6 %). REM sleep without atonia was evident in three patients also affected by OSA and higher AHI in REM; 2/9 (22.2 %) SBMA patients showed periodic limb movements in sleep. The global PSQI score was higher in SBMA versus controls. Sleep quality in SBMA is poorer than in controls. OSA is the most common sleep disorder in SBMA. The sleep impairment could be induced both by OSA or/and the neurodegenerative processes involving crucial areas regulating the sleep-wake cycle.

  8. Disease-related differences in resting-state networks: a comparison between localized provoked vulvodynia, irritable bowel syndrome, and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Rapkin, Andrea J; Gill, Zafar; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Fling, Connor; Stains, Jean; Masghati, Salome; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Localized provoked vulvodynia (LPVD) affects approximately 16% of the female population, but biological mechanisms underlying symptoms remain unknown. Like in other often comorbid chronic pain disorders, altered sensory processing and modulation of pain, including central sensitization, dysregulation of endogenous pain modulatory systems, and attentional enhancement of pain perception, have been implicated. The aim of this study was to test whether regions of interest showing differences in LPVD compared to healthy control subjects (HCs) in structural and evoked-pain neuroimaging studies, also show alterations during rest when compared with HCs and a chronic pain control group (irritable bowel syndrome [IBS]). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during resting state in 87 age-matched premenopausal females (29 LPVD, 29 HCs, and 29 IBS). Group-independent component analysis and general linear models were applied to investigate group differences in the intrinsic connectivity of regions comprising sensorimotor, salience, and default mode resting-state networks. Subjects with LPVD showed substantial alterations in the intrinsic connectivity of these networks compared with HCs and IBS. The intrinsic connectivity of many of the regions showing group differences during rest were moderately associated with clinical symptom reports in LPVD. Findings were robust to controlling for affect and medication usage. The current findings indicate that subjects with LPVD have alterations in the intrinsic connectivity of regions comprising the sensorimotor, salience, and default mode networks. Although shared brain mechanisms between different chronic pain disorders have been postulated, the current findings suggest that some alterations in functional connectivity may show disease specificity.

  9. Control of angular momentum during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Kaat, Desloovere; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Children with hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (CP) walk with marked asymmetries. For instance, we have recently shown that they have less arm swing on the affected side, and more arm swing at the unaffected side. Such an increase in arm swing at the unaffected side may be aimed at controlling total body angular momentum about the vertical axis, although it was never investigated in this respect. In the current study, we thus investigated if participants with hemiparetic CP control angular momentum by compensatory movements of the unaffected arm. We measured gait kinematics of 11 CP children, and 24 age matched typically developing (TD) children, walking at both self-selected and fast walking speeds, and calculated angular momenta. We found that children with hemiparetic CP did not have a reduced angular momentum of the affected arm. However, they showed substantial increases in angular momentum generated by the legs, which were compensated by increased angular momentum of the unaffected arm. As a result, there were no differences in total body angular momentum between TD and CP children. Moreover, walking speed had no effect on total body angular momentum in both groups. These findings support the idea that angular momentum during walking is a controlled variable, even in children with hemiplegic CP.

  10. Impaired Synergic Control of Posture in Parkinson’s Patients without Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Falaki, Ali; Huang, Xuemei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural instability is one of most disabling motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Indices of multi-muscle synergies are new measurements of movement and postural stability. Objectives Multi-muscle synergies stabilizing vertical posture were studied in Parkinson’s disease patients without clinical symptoms of postural instability (Hoehn-Yahr- ≤ II) and age-matched controls. We tested the hypothesis that both synergy indices during quiet standing and synergy adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations would be reduced in patients. Methods Eleven Parkinson’s disease patients and 11 controls performed whole-body tasks while standing. Surface electromyography was used to quantify synergy indices stabilizing center of pressure shifts in the anterior-posterior direction during a load-release task. Results Parkinson’s disease patients showed a significantly lower percentage of variance in the muscle activation space accounted for by the first four principal components, significantly reduced synergy indices during steady state, and significantly reduced anticipatory synergy adjustments (a drop in the synergy index prior to the self-triggered unloading). Conclusions The study demonstrates for the first time that impaired synergic control in Parkinson’s disease can be quantified in postural tasks, even in patients without clinical manifestations of postural instability. Synergy measurements may provide a biomarker sensitive for early problems with postural stability in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27004660

  11. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility.

  12. Estimation of calcium, magnesium, cadmium, and lead in biological samples from paralyzed quality control and production steel mill workers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Shah, Faheem

    2015-06-01

    The determination of trace and toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of essential trace and toxic elements cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), and magnesium (Mg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of male paralyzed production (PPW) and quality control workers (PQW) of a steel mill, age ranged (35-55 years). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched exposed referent subjects (EC), working in steel mill and control subjects (NEC), who were not working in industries and lived far away from the industrial areas, were selected as control subjects. The concentrations of electrolytes and toxic elements in biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of PPW and PQW as compared to NEC and EC (p < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of Ca and Mg were found to be lower in the scalp hair and blood but higher in the urine samples of PPW and PQW. The results show the need for immediate improvements in workplace, ventilation, and industrial hygiene practices.

  13. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Rizos, Alexandra; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Mulholland, Nicola; Robinson, Stephanie; Howell, Nicholas A; Harrison, Neil; Vivian, Gill; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-01-01

    Objective Impulse control disorders are commonly associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients with impulse control disorders demonstrate enhanced dopamine release to conditioned cues and a gambling task on [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and enhanced ventral striatal activity to reward on functional MRI. We compared PD patients with impulse control disorders and age-matched and gender-matched controls without impulse control disorders using [123I]FP-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density. Methods The [123I]FP-CIT binding data in the striatum were compared between 15 PD patients with and 15 without impulse control disorders using independent t tests. Results Those with impulse control disorders showed significantly lower DAT binding in the right striatum with a trend in the left (right: F(1,24)=5.93, p=0.02; left: F(1,24)=3.75, p=0.07) compared to controls. Conclusions Our findings suggest that greater dopaminergic striatal activity in PD patients with impulse control disorders may be partly related to decreased uptake and clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Whether these findings are related to state or trait effects is not known. These findings dovetail with reports of lower DAT levels secondary to the effects of methamphetamine and alcohol. Although any regulation of DAT by antiparkinsonian medication appears to be modest, PD patients with impulse control disorders may be differentially sensitive to regulatory mechanisms of DAT expression by dopaminergic medications. PMID:23899625

  14. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle; Simonsen, Erik B; Petersen, Nicolas C; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that impairs walking ability and function. We compared the temporal gait variability and motor control in people with knee OA with healthy controls. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that the temporal gait variability would reflect a more stereotypic pattern in people with knee OA compared with healthy age-matched subjects. To assess the gait variability the temporal structure of the ankle and knee joint kinematics was quantified by the largest Lyapunov exponent and the stride time fluctuations were quantified by sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H-reflex amplitude was significantly higher in the knee OA group around heel strike when compared with the controls. The mean group difference in the H-reflex in the initial part of the stance phase (control-knee OA) was -6.6% Mmax (95% CI: -10.4 to -2.7, p=0.041). The present OA group reported relatively small impact of their disease. These results suggest that the OA group in general sustained a normal gait pattern with natural variability but with suggestions of facilitated SO H-reflex in the swing to stance phase transition. We speculate that the difference in SO H-reflex modulation reflects that the OA group increased the excitability of the soleus stretch reflex as a preparatory mechanism to avoid sudden collapse of the knee joint which is not uncommon in knee OA.

  15. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 1, SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 1, SHOWING DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CONTROL PANELS, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, AND NO. 1 CONTROL GATE HAND BRAKE, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  16. 1. EAST SIDE SHOWING LOW CINDERBLOCK WALL AND ASPHALTPAVED PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST SIDE SHOWING LOW CINDER-BLOCK WALL AND ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING LOT FOR NEW CONTROL BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. 8. VIEW, LOOKING EAST OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASHRAKE HOIST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING EAST OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASH-RAKE HOIST, LEVER CONTROLS, MOTOR CONTROLLER - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  18. 28. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 5 (installed 1908) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 5 (installed 1908) showing exciter, generator, deflector motor, needle valve control, impulse wheel housing, and gate valve controls. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  19. 2. WEST SIDE SHOWING SHED ADDITION, BATHROOM AND WOODPOLE TELECOMMUNICATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST SIDE SHOWING SHED ADDITION, BATHROOM AND WOOD-POLE TELECOMMUNICATION ANTENNA. NEW CONTROL STATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. Mice deficient in PAPP-A show resistance to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Mader, Jessica R; Resch, Zachary T; McLean, Gary R; Mikkelsen, Jakob H; Oxvig, Claus; Marler, Ronald J; Conover, Cheryl A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in diabetic nephropathy. Normal human kidney showed specific staining for PAPP-A in glomeruli, and this staining was markedly increased in diabetic kidney. To assess the possible contribution of PAPP-A in the development of diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes with streptozotocin in 14-month-old WT and Papp-A knockout (KO) mice. Renal histopathology was evaluated after 4 months of stable hyperglycemia. Kidneys from diabetic WT mice showed multiple abnormalities including thickening of Bowman's capsule (100% of mice), increased glomerular size (80% of mice), tubule dilation (80% of mice), and mononuclear cell infiltration (90% of mice). Kidneys of age-matched non-diabetic WT mice had similar evidence of tubule dilation and mononuclear cell infiltration to those of diabetic WT mice, indicating that these changes were predominantly age-related. However, thickened Bowman's capsule and increased glomerular size appeared specific for the experimental diabetes. Kidneys from diabetic Papp-A KO mice had significantly reduced or no evidence of changes in Bowman's capsule thickening and glomerular size. There was also a shift to larger mesangial area and increased macrophage staining in diabetic WT mice compared with Papp-A KO mice. In summary, elevated PAPP-A expression in glomeruli is associated with diabetic nephropathy in humans and absence of PAPP-A is associated with resistance to the development of indicators of diabetic nephropathy in mice. These data suggest PAPP-A as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  1. A case-control investigation on cancer of the ovary in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, A; Anantha, N; Dhar, M; Ahuja, V; Kumar, R; Reddy, S; Venugopal, T; Rajanna; Vinutha, A T; Srinivas

    1995-11-03

    Cancer of the ovary is the sixth leading cancer among females in Bangalore, and is a leading site of cancer in other population-based cancer registries in India. A case-control investigation was conducted utilizing the data from the population-based cancer registry in Bangalore. In addition to the core patient information, certain other details pertaining to consumption of tobacco, reproductive and obstetric factors and those related to the practice of family planning, including the method adopted, were available with the registry, for the period 1982-1985. Identical information was also available for patients residing in the registry area who did not have cancer. Ninety-seven cases of ovarian cancer in ever-married women were age-matched with 194 controls from the same area who showed no evidence of cancer. The risk of ovarian cancer was not influenced by tobacco habits, alcohol consumption, diet or the various reproductive factors. However, tubectomy as a method of family planning appeared to reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer. This reduction in risk was not influenced by parity or age of the woman at the time of birth of the first child.

  2. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings.

  3. Abnormal capacity for grip force control in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Abe, Masaki O; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP), which is an extremely rare sensory neuropathy, is defined as the absence of normal responses to noxious stimuli. Although motor function is not directly impaired in CIP patients, it is likely that the sensory deficit affects the motor control system. In order to characterize motor capacity in CIP patients, we here measured grip force and acceleration of a held object in 12 patients with CIP and 12 age-matched able-bodied subjects. The results demonstrated that the grip force during the object grasp-lift-holding task was significantly greater, less reproducibility and greater fluctuation in the acceleration of the object in CIP patients than in normal subjects. Moreover, some patients showed absence of temporal coupling between the grip and load force, suggesting that anticipatory modulation of the grip force was at least partly impaired. As far as the authors know, this is the first study to characterize motor control ability in patients with CIP. The observed abnormal motor capacity can be at least partly attributed to a lack of sensory inputs mediated by Aδ and unmyelinated C-, specifically C-tactile, fibers. The present results may provide information useful for the prevention of secondary injury and education for patients during the developmental stage.

  4. When brain damage "improves" perception: neglect patients can localize motion-shifted probes better than controls.

    PubMed

    de Vito, Stefania; Lunven, Marine; Bourlon, Clémence; Duret, Christophe; Cavanagh, Patrick; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    When we look at bars flashed against a moving background, we see them displaced in the direction of the upcoming motion (flash-grab illusion). It is still debated whether these motion-induced position shifts are low-level, reflexive consequences of stimulus motion or high-level compensation engaged only when the stimulus is tracked with attention. To investigate whether attention is a causal factor for this striking illusory position shift, we evaluated the flash-grab illusion in six patients with damaged attentional networks in the right hemisphere and signs of left visual neglect and six age-matched controls. With stimuli in the top, right, and bottom visual fields, neglect patients experienced the same amount of illusion as controls. However, patients showed no significant shift when the test was presented in their left hemifield, despite having equally precise judgments. Thus, paradoxically, neglect patients perceived the position of the flash more veridically in their neglected hemifield. These results suggest that impaired attentional processes can reduce the interaction between a moving background and a superimposed stationary flash, and indicate that attention is a critical factor in generating the illusory motion-induced shifts of location.

  5. Colonization by Candida in children with cancer, children with cystic fibrosis, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gammelsrud, K W; Sandven, P; Høiby, E A; Sandvik, L; Brandtzaeg, P; Gaustad, P

    2011-12-01

    A longitudinal, prospective study was conducted intermittently in Norway, from 1999 to 2008, to investigate the Candida colonization rates and species distributions in the tonsillopharyngeal and faecal flora in: (i) children with cancer; (ii) children with cystic fibrosis (CF); and (iii) healthy children. The effect of antibiotic treatment on Candida colonization was also studied, and we looked for changes in antifungal susceptibility over time within each child and between the different groups of children. In total, 566 tonsillopharyngeal swabs and 545 faecal samples were collected from 45 children with cancer, 37 children with CF, and 71 healthy, age-matched controls. The overall colonization rate with Candida was not significantly higher in the two groups of children undergoing extensive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics than in healthy controls. Approximately one-third of the cancer patients had a total lack of Candida colonization or had only one Candida-positive sample, despite multiple samples being taken, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, long hospital stays, and periods with neutropenia. Children with CF had the highest prevalence of Candida albicans. Amoxycillin, azithromycin, third-generation cephalosporins and oral vancomycin resulted in a significantly increased Candida colonization rate. Phenoxymethylpenicillin, second-generation cephalosporins, metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, penicillinase-resistant penicillins and inhaled tobramycin or colistin showed minimal effects on the Candida colonization rate. We found no evidence of development of antifungal resistance over time.

  6. Hemodynamic variability and cerebrovascular control after transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Philip D; Faulkner, James; O’Donnell, Terrence; Lanford, Jeremy; Wong, Lai-kin; Saleem, Saqib; Woolley, Brandon; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if hemodynamic variability, cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, and their interrelationships differ between patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and controls. We recorded blood pressure (BP) and bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAv) in a cohort of TIA patients (n = 17), and age-matched controls (n = 15). Spontaneous fluctuations in BP and MCAv were characterized by spectral power analysis, and CBF regulation was assessed by wavelet phase synchronization analysis in the very low- (0.02–0.07 Hz), low- (0.07–0.20 Hz), and high-frequency (0.20–0.40 Hz) ranges. Furthermore, cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity was assessed as a second metric of CBF regulation by inducing hypercapnia with 8% CO2 inhalation followed by hyperventilation driven hypocapnia. We found that TIA was associated with higher BP power (group effect, P < 0.05), but not MCAv power (P = 0.11). CBF regulation (assessed by wavelet phase synchronization and CO2 reactivity) was intact in patients (all P ≥ 0.075) across both hemispheres (all P ≥ 0.51). Pooled data (controls and affected hemisphere of patients) showed that BP and MCAv power were positively correlated at all frequency ranges (R2 = 0.20–0.80, all P < 0.01). Furthermore, LF phase synchronization index was a significant determinant of MCAv power (P < 0.05), while VLF and HF phase synchronization index, and TIA were not (all P ≥ 0.50). These results indicate that CBF stability and control is maintained in TIA patients, but BPV is markedly elevated. BPV attenuation may be an important therapeutic strategy for enhancing secondary stroke prevention in patients who suffer a TIA. PMID:26537345

  7. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Münch, M.; Léon, L.; Collomb, S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  8. Muscle force generation and force control of finger movements in children with spastic hemiplegia during isometric tasks.

    PubMed

    Smits-Engelsman, B C; Rameckers, E A; Duysens, J

    2005-05-01

    Force control ability was investigated in 10 males and 10 females, between 5 and 15 years old with spastic hemiplegia (mild and moderate hand dysfunction), and an aged-matched control group (eight males, 12 females). An isometric force production task at five different levels of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was performed. Results showed that MVC generated with the affected hand (AH) was only one-third of that generated by the non-affected hand (NAH; p < 0.001), time to peak was almost twofold at the highest force level (p < 0.001), and the coefficient of variation was twice as high (p < 0.001). Results for the NAH did not differ from those of the control children. Correlations between clinical and experimental variables were significant for the relation between Ashworth score for elbow flexors, MVC and variability at the highest force level. In conclusion, the findings for the AH suggests that strength training should be considered for agonist spastic muscles.

  9. Telencephalic neural precursor cells show transient competence to interpret the dopaminergic niche of the embryonic midbrain.

    PubMed

    Baizabal, José-Manuel; Valencia, Concepción; Guerrero-Flores, Gilda; Covarrubias, Luis

    2011-01-15

    Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs) generate complex stereotypic arrays of neuronal subtypes in the brain. This process involves the integration of patterning cues that progressively restrict the fate of specific NPCs. Yet the capacity of NPCs to interpret foreign microenvironments during development remains poorly defined. The aim of this work was to test the competence of mouse telencephalic NPCs to respond to the dopaminergic niche of the mesencephalon. Telencephalic NPCs isolated from midgestation mouse embryos (E10.5) and transplanted to age-matched mesencephalic explants efficiently differentiated into neurons but were largely unable to produce midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Instead, E10.5 telencephalic NPCs behaved as restricted gabaergic progenitors that maintained ectopic expression of Foxg1 and Pax6. In contrast, E8.5 telencephalic NPCs were able to differentiate into Lmx1a(+)/Foxa2(+)/TH(+) neurons in the dopaminergic niche of the mesencephalic explants. In addition, these early telencephalic NPCs showed region-dependent expression of Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and site-specific differentiation into gabaergic neurons within the mesencephalic tissue. Significant dopaminergic differentiation of E8.5 telencephalic NPCs was not observed after transplantation to E12.5 mesencephalic explants, suggesting that inductive signals in the dopaminergic niche rapidly decay after midgestation. Moreover, we employed transplantation of embryonic stem cells-derived precursors to demonstrate that extinction of inductive signals within the telencephalon lags behind the commitment of residing NPCs. Our data indicate that the plasticity to interpret multiple instructive niches is an early and ephemeral feature of the telencephalic neural lineage.

  10. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  11. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  12. Children with reading difficulties show differences in brain regions associated with orthographic processing during spoken language processing.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Amy S; Cone, Nadia E; Bolger, Donald J; Bitan, Tali; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

    2010-10-14

    We explored the neural basis of spoken language deficits in children with reading difficulty, specifically focusing on the role of orthography during spoken language processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activation between children with reading difficulties (aged 9-to-15 years) and age-matched children with typical achievement during an auditory rhyming task. Both groups showed activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA 42 and 22), a region associated with phonological processing, with no significant between-group differences. Interestingly, typically achieving children, but not children with reading difficulties, showed activation of left fusiform cortex (BA 37), a region implicated in orthographic processing. Furthermore, this activation was significantly greater for typically achieving children compared to those with reading difficulties. These findings suggest that typical children automatically activate orthographic representations during spoken language processing, while those with reading difficulties do not. Follow-up analyses revealed that the intensity of the activation in the fusiform gyrus was associated with significantly stronger behavioral conflict effects in typically achieving children only (i.e., longer latencies to rhyming pairs with orthographically dissimilar endings than to those with identical orthographic endings; jazz-has vs. cat-hat). Finally, for reading disabled children, a positive correlation between left fusiform activation and nonword reading was observed, such that greater access to orthography was related to decoding ability. Taken together, the results suggest that the integration of orthographic and phonological processing is directly related to reading ability.

  13. Preschoolers with Down syndrome do not yet show the learning and memory impairments seen in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynette V; Richmond, Jenny L

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that depend on the prefrontal cortex. While these functions have been investigated in adults with DS, it is largely unclear how these processes develop in young children with DS. Here we tested preschoolers with DS and typically developing children, age-matched on either receptive language or non-verbal scores as a proxy for mental age (MA), on a battery of eye-tracking and behavioral measures that have been shown to depend on the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Preschoolers with DS performed equivalently to MA-matched controls, suggesting that the disability-specific memory deficits documented in adults with DS, in addition to a cognitive delay, are not yet evident in preschoolers with DS, and likely emerge progressively with age. Our results reinforce the idea that early childhood may be a critical time frame for targeted early intervention. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6GUA6my22Q&list=UU3FIcom6UpITHZOIEa8Onnw.

  14. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  15. Factors associated with conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia: A case control study

    SciTech Connect

    Napora, C.; Cohen, E.J.; Genvert, G.I.; Presson, A.C.; Arentsen, J.J.; Eagle, R.C.; Laibson, P.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Familial and environmental factors may play a role in the development of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Nineteen patients with biopsy-proven CIN completed a questionnaire to evaluate possible predisposing factors. Nineteen age-matched and sex-matched controls completed questionnaires and received slit-lamp examinations. Factors associated with a relatively increased risk of developing CIN included exposure to petroleum products, heavy cigarette smoking, light hair and ocular pigmentation, and family origin in the British Isles, Austria or Switzerland. Non-office and nonprofessional workers were more likely to develop conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (p = .05), as were those who were not college graduates (p = .07).

  16. The role of the right hemisphere in semantic control: A case-series comparison of right and left hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hannah E.; Henshall, Lauren; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Semantic control processes guide conceptual retrieval so that we are able to focus on non-dominant associations and features when these are required for the task or context, yet the neural basis of semantic control is not fully understood. Neuroimaging studies have emphasised the role of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in controlled retrieval, while neuropsychological investigations of semantic control deficits have almost exclusively focussed on patients with left-sided damage (e.g., patients with semantic aphasia, SA). Nevertheless, activation in fMRI during demanding semantic tasks typically extends to right IFG. To investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in semantic control, we compared nine RH stroke patients with 21 left-hemisphere SA patients, 11 mild SA cases and 12 healthy, aged-matched controls on semantic and executive tasks, plus experimental tasks that manipulated semantic control in paradigms particularly sensitive to RH damage. RH patients had executive deficits to parallel SA patients but they performed well on standard semantic tests. Nevertheless, multimodal semantic control deficits were found in experimental tasks involving facial emotions and the ‘summation’ of meaning across multiple items. On these tasks, RH patients showed effects similar to those in SA cases – multimodal deficits that were sensitive to distractor strength and cues and miscues, plus increasingly poor performance in cyclical matching tasks which repeatedly probed the same set of concepts. Thus, despite striking differences in single-item comprehension, evidence presented here suggests semantic control is bilateral, and disruption of this component of semantic cognition can be seen following damage to either hemisphere. PMID:26945505

  17. Effect of visual attention on postural control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Seassau, Magali; Larger, Sandrine; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2014-06-01

    We compared the effect of oculomotor tasks on postural sway in two groups of ADHD children with and without methylphenidate (MPH) treatment against a group of control age-matched children. Fourteen MPH-untreated ADHD children, fourteen MPH-treated ADHD children and a group of control children participated to the study. Eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system and postural sway measured with a force platform simultaneously. Children performed fixation, pursuits, pro- and anti-saccades. We analyzed the number of saccades during fixation, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits, the latency of pro- and anti-saccades; the occurrence of errors in the anti-saccade task and the surface and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). During the postural task, the quality of fixation was significantly worse in both groups of ADHD children with respect to control children; in contrast, the number of catch-up saccades during pursuits, the latency of pro-/anti-saccades and the rate of errors in the anti-saccade task did not differ in the three groups of children. The surface of the CoP in MPH-treated children was similar to that of control children, while MPH-untreated children showed larger postural sway. When performing any saccades, the surface of the CoP improved with respect to fixation or pursuits tasks. This study provides evidence of poor postural control in ADHD children, probably due to cerebellar deficiencies. Our study is also the first to show an improvement on postural sway in ADHD children performing saccadic eye movements.

  18. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    phase, friction causes the companion star to spiral inward rapidly where it will either be destroyed by the red giant, or it will survive when much of the envelope is spun away. If the companion star manages to survive, it will bear the marks of its ordeal in the form of contamination by carbon-poor material that it accreted while it was inside the red giant envelope. The X-ray spectrum of V471 Tauri in the middle panel shows just this effect - the carbon peak is intermediate between that of a Sun-like star and an isolated red giant star. The data indicate that about 10 percent of the star's mass has been accreted from the red giant. In the future the companion star can return the favor when it expands and dumps material back onto the white dwarf. If enough material is dumped on the white dwarf, it could cause the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. "It's a dog-eat-dog world out there," observed Drake. V471 Tau was observed for approximately one day by Chandra using the Low Energy Transmission Grating and High Resolution Camera on January 24-25, 2002. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass.

  19. Endogenous kynurenate controls the vulnerability of striatal neurons to quinolinate: Implications for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Sapko, Michael T; Guidetti, Paolo; Yu, Ping; Tagle, Danilo A; Pellicciari, Roberto; Schwarcz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation of NMDA receptors results in excitotoxic nerve cell loss, which is believed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD) and several other catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroinhibitory tryptophan metabolite, has neuroprotective properties and may serve as an endogenous anti-excitotoxic agent. This hypothesis was tested in the striatum, using mice with a targeted deletion of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a major biosynthetic enzyme of KYNA in the mammalian brain. On post-natal day (PND) 14, the striatum of mkat-2-/- mice showed a reduction in KYNA levels but contained normal concentrations of the metabolically related neurotoxins 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid (QUIN). Intrastriatal injections of QUIN, a NMDA receptor agonist, caused significantly larger lesions in these immature mutant mice than in age-matched wild-type animals. This lesion enlargement was not observed when mkat-2-/- mice were acutely pre-treated with the kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibitor UPF 648, which counteracted the striatal KYNA deficit. Moreover, no increased vulnerability to QUIN was observed in 2-month-old mkat-2-/- mice, which present with normal brain KYNA levels. Intrastriatal injections of the non-NMDA receptor agonist kainate caused similar lesion sizes in both genotypes regardless of age. These results indicate that endogenous KYNA preferentially controls the vulnerability of striatal neurons to QUIN. Our data suggest that timely pharmacological interventions resulting in an up-regulation of brain KYNA levels may benefit patients suffering from HD or other neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Exploring Metabolic Profile Differences between Colorectal Polyp Patients and Controls Using Seemingly Unrelated Regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Deng, Lingli; Wei, Siwei; Nagana Gowda, G A; Gu, Haiwei; Chiorean, Elena G; Abu Zaid, Mohammad; Harrison, Marietta L; Pekny, Joseph F; Loehrer, Patrick J; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-06-05

    Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers in the world, the development of improved and robust biomarkers to enable screening, surveillance, and therapy monitoring of CRC continues to be evasive. In particular, patients with colon polyps are at higher risk of developing colon cancer; however, noninvasive methods to identify these patients suffer from poor performance. In consideration of the challenges involved in identifying metabolite biomarkers in individuals with high risk for colon cancer, we have investigated NMR-based metabolite profiling in combination with numerous demographic parameters to investigate the ability of serum metabolites to differentiate polyp patients from healthy subjects. We also investigated the effect of disease risk on different groups of biologically related metabolites. A powerful statistical approach, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR), was used to model the correlated levels of metabolites in the same biological group. The metabolites were found to be significantly affected by demographic covariates such as gender, BMI, BMI(2), and smoking status. After accounting for the effects of the confounding factors, we then investigated potential of metabolites from serum to differentiate patients with polyps and age matched healthy controls. Our results showed that while only valine was slightly associated, individually, with polyp patients, a number of biologically related groups of metabolites were significantly associated with polyps. These results may explain some of the challenges and promise a novel avenue for future metabolite profiling methodologies.

  1. Physical fitness assessment in multiple sclerosis patients: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, E; di Cagno, A; Mancini, P; Sperandii, F; Quaranta, F; Ciminelli, E; Fagnani, F; Giombini, A; Pigozzi, F

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence to show the effectiveness of physical exercise for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic capacity, strength, balance, and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) after exercise, in ambulatory patients with mild MS and matched control healthy participants. Seventeen MS patients aged 48.09 ± 10.0 years, with mild MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale: EDSS 1.5 to 4.5) and 10 healthy sedentary age matched (41.9 ± 11.2 years) subjects volunteered for the study. MS patients underwent medical examination with resting electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, EDSS, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS. Both groups also underwent physical assessment with the Berg Balance Scale(,) test (Berg), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of forearm, lower limb, shoulder strength test, and the Borg 10-point scale test. The one-way ANOVA showed significant differences for MFIS (F1.19=9.420; p<0.01), Berg (F1.19=13.125; p<0.01), handgrip MIVC (F1.19=4.567; p<0.05), lower limbs MIVC (F1.19=7.429; p<0.01), and 6MWT (F1.19=28.061; p<0.01) between groups. EDSS, Berg test and Borg scores explained 80% of 6MWT variation. Mild grade EDSS patients exhibited impaired balance, muscle strength, and low self pace-6MWT scores, whereas RPE response after the exercise was similar to that of sedentary individuals. Both groups showed similar global physiological adjustments to exercise.

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to HeLa cells in infants with diarrhea and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Blake, P A; Trabulsi, L R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the possible role of Escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to HeLa cells in causing diarrhea in infants in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (P less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotavirus (19%) was in patients, even though the study was conducted during the coldest months of the year. Most (80%) of the E. coli colonies with localized adherence were of traditional enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes. Little difference was found between patients and controls in the rate of isolation of E. coli with diffuse adherence (31 and 32%, respectively) or aggregative adherence (10 and 8%, respectively). A genetic probe used to detect a plasmid-mediated adhesin which confers expression of localized adherence proved to be 100% sensitive and 99.9% specific in detecting E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells. Although E. coli strains with localized adherence have now been shown to be enteric pathogens in several parts of the world, the role of strains showing diffuse adherence and aggregative adherence is still uncertain. PMID:2563383

  3. 3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH ON PHOTO RIGHT AND DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD LOBBY, SHOWING WINDOW DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD LOBBY, SHOWING WINDOW DETAILS, VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 15. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 2 AND SINK WITH UNUSUAL VANITY WINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND UNDERSIDE OF STEEL DECKING. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  7. 13. DETAIL OF END POST UPPER CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF END POST - UPPER CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING PORTAL STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONAL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  8. 14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD - VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONALS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  9. 11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS AND GUARDRAILS. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  10. Building 736, second floor, view to southwest showing original window ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 736, second floor, view to southwest showing original window on the left, and electrical controls and entry ladder on the right - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Electrical Distribution Centers, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. 6. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1. HANDCONTROLLED GATE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1. HAND-CONTROLLED GATE VALVE SHOWN ON NOZZLE TO PELTON-DOBLE IMPULSE WHEEL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. 12. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 2 SMALL PELTONDOBLE IMPULSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 2 SMALL PELTON-DOBLE IMPULSE WHEEL, HAND-CONTROLLED GATE VALVE, AND NOZZLE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  13. 68. Credit FM. Detail showing operators. Note cooling duct (now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Credit FM. Detail showing operators. Note cooling duct (now removed), governor (now removed), hand-operated needle valve controls (now removed). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  14. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING BANKS OF ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS, CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING BANKS OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL RELAYS, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Interlocking Control Building, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, GOVERNORS AND CONTROL VALVES AT LEFT, AND EXCITERS AT BACK LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 1, SHOWING ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 1, SHOWING ORIGINAL 20 HP WEST HOIST MOTOR, NO. 2 CONTROL. GATE HAND BRAKE IN FOREGROUND, BANK OF ELECTRICAL CONTROL. PANELS, AND WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY (RIGHT FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  17. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  18. Credit PSR. Interior view shows the building equipment room as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Interior view shows the building equipment room as seen looking south southwest (206°) from the doorway. The control console contains switches for chiller pumps, fans, heaters, temperature controls, and alarms - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Solid Propellant Conditioning Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 5. INSTRUMENT ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING BACKS OF CONSOLE LOCKERS. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INSTRUMENT ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING BACKS OF CONSOLE LOCKERS. Looking northeast to firing control room passageway. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 26. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 4 showing exciter, generator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 4 showing exciter, generator, air duct, water wheel housing, gate valve control and bypass, needle valve control, deflector motor, and bearing in background. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  2. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING FRONT (EAST) END AND SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING FRONT (EAST) END AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 103, ROCK WALL AND MATURE COTTONWOOD TREES IN FOREGROUND, CONTROL SUBSTATION BEHIND BUILDING 103, AND BUILDING 106 BEHIND THE COTTONWOOD TREE IN THE NORTH BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  4. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  5. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  6. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each application for developmental operation shall be accompanied by a showing that: (1) The applicant has an organized plan of development leading to a specific objective;...

  7. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  8. Psychosocial Profile and Quality of Life in Children With Type 1 Narcolepsy: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Francesca Letizia; Finotti, Elena; Pizza, Fabio; Ingravallo, Francesca; Gatta, Michela; Bruni, Oliviero; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate behavioral aspects and quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 narcolepsy (NT1). Methods: We performed a case-control study comparing 29 patients with NT1 versus sex- and age-matched patients with idiopathic epilepsy (n = 39) and healthy controls (n = 39). Behavior and quality of life were evaluated by self-administered questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory). Patient groups were contrasted and scale results were correlated with clinical and polysomnographic parameters, and cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels. Results: Young patients with NT1 showed increased internalizing problems associated with aggressive behavior. Emotional profile in patients with NT1 positively correlated with age at onset, diagnostic delay, and subjective sleepiness, whereas treatment and disease duration were associated with fewer behavioral problems (attention problems, aggressive behavior, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Psychosocial health domains of pediatric NT1 were worse than in healthy controls, whereas the physical health domains were comparable. Conclusions: Young NT1 patients show a discrete pattern of altered behavioral, thought, and mood profile in comparison with healthy controls and with idiopathic epilepsy patients thus suggesting a direct link with sleepiness. Further studies investigating behavior in patients with idiopathic hypersomnia or type 2 narcolepsy are needed to disentangle the role of REM sleep dysfunction and hypocretin deficiency in psychiatric disorders. Symptoms of withdrawal, depression, somatic complaints, thought problems, and aggressiveness were common, NT1 children perceived lower school competencies than healthy children, and their parents also reported worse psychosocial health. Our data suggest that early effective treatment and disease self-awareness should be promoted in NT1 children for their positive effect on behavior and psychosocial health

  9. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Thomas G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Eldeb, Manal; Tremblay, Jacques; Vingilis, Evelyn; Nadeau, Louise; Pruessner, Jens; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD) and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in. Methods Four age-matched groups of adult (19–39 years) males were recruited: 1) driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36); 2) non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28); 3) drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27); and 4) low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47). Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance), personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity), cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking), and neurobiological (cortisol stress response) characteristics were gathered and contrasted. Results Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls. Discussion Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of

  10. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Heiene, Reidun; Kristiansen, Veronica; Teige, Jon; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure. PMID:17480218

  11. Rate of change in cerebral oxygenation and blood pressure in response to passive changes in posture: a comparison between pure autonomic failure patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Tachtsidis, Ilias; Elwell, Clare E; Leung, Terence S; Bleasdale-Barr, Katharine; Hunt, Katharine; Toms, Nathan; Smith, Martin; Mathias, Christopher J; Delpy, David T

    2005-01-01

    The cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to head-up postural change are compromised in pure autonomic failure (PAF) patients because of sympathetic denervation. The aim of this study was to characterize the rate of change of systemic mean blood pressure (MBP) and cerebral haemodynamics in response to passive posture changes. Nine PAF patients and 9 age-matched controls took part in this study. MBP and oxy- (O2Hb), deoxy-haemoglobin (HHb), and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) on the forehead were continuously monitored non-invasively using the Portapres and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), respectively. From visual inspection of the haemoglobin difference signal (Hb(diff) = O2Hb-HHb), seven distinct phases were marked (1: supine, 2: start passive tilt, 3: head up to 60 degrees degrees, 4: end of tilt, 5: tilt reversal, 6: return to supine, 7: rest); the same time points were used for all of the other signals. For each phase, the slope was calculated using a linear regression algorithm. Significant differences were found between PAF patients and controls in the Hb(diff) slope magnitudes for phases 3 (P < .05) and 5 (P = .01), and the duration of phase 2 (P < .05). MBP slope magnitudes showed significant differences for phases 2 (P < .01) and 5 (P < .01). These differences in the rate of change suggest differences in blood vessel resistance related to sympathetic activation.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosong; Weinger, Jason G.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Xue, Feng; Sadeghpour, Safa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a major problem in elderly, affecting quality of life. Pre-clinical studies show that MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, is effective at reversing cognitive decline in aging rodents. Objective: Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50–70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated. Overall cognitive ability was determined by a composite score of tests in four major cognitive domains. Results: With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant. Due to the strong placebo effects on sleep and anxiety, the effects of MMFS-01 on sleep and anxiety could not be determined. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the potential of MMFS-01 for treating cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:26519439

  13. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  14. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  15. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008).

  16. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  17. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  18. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  19. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  20. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  1. Quantitative Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibration in Male Radio Performers and Healthy Controls Using High-Speed Videoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Warhurst, Samantha; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Rob; Yiu, Edwin; Wang, Gaowu; Madill, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls. Method Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25–52 years) and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25–52 years) were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0), open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL) were also performed (n = 19). Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients. Results Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005). No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL. Discussion A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers. PMID:24971625

  2. Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

  3. View southeast of main supervisory board showing panels 3 through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of main supervisory board showing panels 3 through 11; panel 3 at far left contains meters for monitoring power in the system; panel 4 contains controls for controlling heaters to keep track twitches free of ice and snow; panels 5, 6, and 7 date to the 1935 installation and control the catenary in the area of the station yard. These work on 120 volts direct current; panel 8 contains circuit breakers (rupture switches) which control power to individual tracks in the station area; panels 9 and 10 house controls for the West Philadelphia sub-station; panel 11 controls sub-station 13 in South Wilmington Delaware and miscellaneous meters - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  5. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  6. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  7. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  8. EFFECT OF REPETITIVE FILM SHOWINGS ON LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCTAVISH, C.L.; AND OTHERS

    A DETERMINATION OF THE INCREMENT IN LEARNING ATTRIBUTABLE SOLELY TO ONE, TWO, AND THREE REPETITIONS OF A FILM OVER AND ABOVE A SINGLE SHOWING WAS INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE 319 COLLEGE FRESHMEN WHO WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS AND WHO WERE SHOWN FOUR GENERAL SCIENCE FILMS. EACH GROUP SAW ONE OF THE FILMS ONCE, A SECOND FILM TWICE, A THIRD…

  9. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  10. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  11. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in...) The actual transmission by radio is essential to proceed beyond the present stage of the program;...

  12. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in...) The actual transmission by radio is essential to proceed beyond the present stage of the program;...

  13. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  14. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  15. State Data Show Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Schools taking part in the federal Reading First program are showing significant progress in boosting students' reading fluency and comprehension, according to state-reported data compiled and released by the U.S. Department of Education last week. In releasing for the first time detailed, multiyear data on how Reading First schools are performing…

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  17. Human platelet sulfotransferase shows seasonal rhythms.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, D; Palego, L; Mazzanti, C; Silvestri, S; Cassano, G B

    1995-04-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the possible presence of seasonal changes in platelet phenolsulfotransferase (ST) in a group of 20 healthy, drug-free subjects of both sexes between 24 and 37 years of age. Blood samples were taken four times a year in the period immediately following the equinoxes and the solstices. The results showed that both Sts underwent seasonal changes: the lowest values were found in autumn and in winter, and the highest in the summer. A positive correlation between the two STs and the length of the photoperiod was observed in winter whereas in the spring we detected a negative correlation between the TL ST and the photoperiod length. Future studies should clarify whether platelet ST of patients with mood disorders shows a similar seasonality.

  18. Male genital leiomyomas showing androgen receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Vieites, Begoña; Evgenyeva, Elena; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo; Forteza, Jeronimo

    2007-12-01

    Genital leiomyoma in men include those superficial leiomyomas arising in the scrotum and the areola. They are unusual neoplasms: few cases have been reported in the literature and they usually escape clinical diagnosis. Three cases of male genital leiomyomas are reported: two in the scrotum and one in the areola. They were all conservatively excised and the behaviour was completely benign in all cases. Histopathological examination showed the typical findings of superficial leiomyomas, with some minor differences between cases arising in the scrotum and those from the areola. Immunohistochemical findings not only confirmed the smooth muscle nature of all cases but also showed unequivocal immunostaining for androgen receptors in the leiomyomas from the scrotum. Immunostaining for androgen receptors in scrotal leiomyomas is, as far as we are aware, a previously unknown characteristic of male genital leiomyomas. This finding supports the role of steroid hormones in the growth of genital leiomyomas, similar to leiomyomas found in other locations.

  19. Kepler Systems That Show Multiple Transiting Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Holman, M. J.; Lissauer, J. J.; Ragozzine, D.; Welsh, W. F.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems that have multiple transiting planets provide unique and important insight into the formation, evolution, and dynamics of exoplanetary systems. Kepler has announced the discovery of a confirmed planetary system with multiple transiting planets (Kepler 9, Holman et al. 2010) as well as several candidate planetary systems that show multiple transiting objects (Steffen et al. 2010). Kepler 9 shows deviations from a constant period due to the ongoing dynamical interactions between the confirmed planets. From these transit timing variations (TTV) one can measure the planetary masses from the photometric data alone. The presence of several systems with multiple transiting candidates from the first quarter of data indicate that Kepler should continue to find systems with multiple transiting planets. Such systems will provide important, general information about the histories of planetary systems.

  20. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  1. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice show abnormalities in ovarian function and morphology with the progression of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka-Kanazawa, Saori; Chihara, Masataka; Nakamura, Teppei; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is known to affect reproductive function, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance is essential for a successful pregnancy. To investigate the relationship between autoimmune disease and female reproductive function, we performed a comparative analysis of the ovarian phenotypes for C57BL/6 mice, autoimmune disease-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL/+) mice and congenic MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice harboring a mutation in the Fas gene that speeds disease onset. Both MRL-background strains showed earlier vaginal opening than C57BL/6 mice. The estrous cycle became irregular by 6 and 12 months of age in MRL/lpr mice and mice of the other two strains, respectively. Histological analysis at 3 months revealed that the number of primordial follicles was smaller in MRL-background mice than in C57BL/6 mice after 3 months. In addition, MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice displayed lower numbers of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea at 3 and 6 months, and 6 and 12 months, respectively, than that in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice developed ovarian interstitial glands after 3 and 6 months, respectively. In particular, MRL/lpr mice showed numerous infiltrating lymphocytes within the ovarian interstitia, and partially stratified ovarian surface epithelia with more developed microvilli than that observed in C57BL/6 mice at 6 months. No significant differences in serum hormone levels were observed between the strains. In conclusion, MRL/lpr mice display altered ovarian development, morphology and function consistent with the progression of severe autoimmune disease, as these findings are less severe in MRL/+ counterparts.

  2. The effect of a Stroop-like task on postural control in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a secondary task on concurrent postural control was explored in twenty-one dyslexic children (mean age: 10.4 ± 0.3 years). Data were compared with twenty age-matched non-dyslexic children. As a secondary task, a modified Stroop test was used, in which words were replaced with pictures of fruits. The postural control of children was recorded in standard Romberg condition as the children were asked to name the colour of fruits appearing consecutively on a computer screen. Two conditions were tested: a congruent condition, in which the fruit was drawn in its natural ripe colour, and a non-congruent colour condition (NC), in which the fruit was drawn in three abnormal colours. A fixating condition was used as baseline. We analyzed the surface, length and mean speed of the center of pressure and measured the number of correct responses in the Stroop-like tasks. Dyslexic children were seen to be significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic ones. For both groups of children, the secondary task significantly increased postural instability in comparison with the fixating condition. The number of correct responses in the modified Stroop task was significantly higher in the non-dyslexic than in the dyslexic group. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children is in line with the cerebellar hypothesis and supports the idea of a deficit in automatic performance in such children. Furthermore, in accordance with cross domain competition model, our findings show that attentional resources are used to a greater extent by the secondary task than in controlling body stability.

  3. Developmental vision determines the reference frame for the multisensory control of action.

    PubMed

    Röder, Brigitte; Kusmierek, Anna; Spence, Charles; Schicke, Tobias

    2007-03-13

    Both animal and human studies suggest that action goals are defined in external coordinates regardless of their sensory modality. The present study used an auditory-manual task to test whether the default use of such an external reference frame is innately determined or instead acquired during development because of the increasing dominance of vision over manual control. In Experiment I, congenitally blind, late blind, and age-matched sighted adults had to press a left or right response key depending on the bandwidth of pink noise bursts presented from either the left or right loudspeaker. Although the spatial location of the sounds was entirely task-irrelevant, all groups responded more efficiently with uncrossed hands when the sound was presented from the same side as the responding hand ("Simon effect"). This effect reversed with crossed hands only in the congenitally blind: They responded faster with the hand that was located contralateral to the sound source. In Experiment II, the instruction to the participants was changed: They now had to respond with the hand located next to the sound source. In contrast to Experiment I ("Simon-task"), this task required an explicit matching of the sound's location with the position of the responding hand. In Experiment II, the congenitally blind participants showed a significantly larger crossing deficit than both the sighted and late blind adults. This pattern of results implies that developmental vision induces the default use of an external coordinate frame for multisensory action control; this facilitates not only visual but also auditory-manual control.

  4. Probabilistic Movement Models Show that Postural Control Precedes and Predicts Volitional Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Rueckert, Elmar; Čamernik, Jernej; Peters, Jan; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Human motor skill learning is driven by the necessity to adapt to new situations. While supportive contacts are essential for many tasks, little is known about their impact on motor learning. To study the effect of contacts an innovative full-body experimental paradigm was established. The task of the subjects was to reach for a distant target while postural stability could only be maintained by establishing an additional supportive hand contact. To examine adaptation, non-trivial postural perturbations of the subjects’ support base were systematically introduced. A novel probabilistic trajectory model approach was employed to analyze the correlation between the motions of both arms and the trunk. We found that subjects adapted to the perturbations by establishing target dependent hand contacts. Moreover, we found that the trunk motion adapted significantly faster than the motion of the arms. However, the most striking finding was that observations of the initial phase of the left arm or trunk motion (100–400 ms) were sufficient to faithfully predict the complete movement of the right arm. Overall, our results suggest that the goal-directed arm movements determine the supportive arm motions and that the motion of heavy body parts adapts faster than the light arms. PMID:27328750

  5. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  6. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content

    PubMed Central

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  7. Surveys show support for green 'activities'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Two independently conducted surveys on sustainability - one into the 'views and values' of NHS 'leaders', and the other questioning the public about the importance of the 'green agenda' in the NHS, and their opinions on how the service might most effectively reduce its carbon footprint, form the basis of Sustainability in the NHS: Health Check 2012, a new NHS Sustainable Development Unit (NHS SDU) publication. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, the new document also presents updated data on the 'size' of the carbon footprint of the NHS in England, showing that, although good work by a number of Trusts in the past two years has seen healthcare-generated carbon emissions start to 'level off', the biggest contributors have been the current health service spending review, and the increased national availability of renewable energy.

  8. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-04-01

    Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells' self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences.

  10. VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature

  11. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD.

  12. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  13. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  14. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  15. First K2 mutiplanatary system showing TTVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Susana C. C.

    2015-08-01

    In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modeled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses.I will show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. I will exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (~1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (~80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterize the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed and hence will help understanding evolution of these interesting systems.

  16. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Christensen, Torben R.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Nielsen, Rasmus; Munch, Kasper; Brand, Tina; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zuber, Maria T.; Bunce, Michael; Rønn, Regin; Gilichinsky, David; Froese, Duane; Willerslev, Eske

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability. PMID:17728401

  17. 32. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PIPING PLAN, SHOWING PATH OF CONDUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PIPING PLAN, SHOWING PATH OF CONDUIT FROM CONTROL BUNKER TO SHIELDING TANK. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-P-1. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 60 851 151977. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, ORIGINAL 20 HP EAST HOIST MOTOR, AND CONTROL GATES 7 AND 8 HAND BRAKES, WITH MOTOR SELECTOR SWITCH, MOTOR STARTING SWITCH, AND OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER IN BACKGROUND - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  19. Historic view of interior of powerhouse looking east; showing operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view of interior of powerhouse looking east; showing operator's platform containing control panel (center), and telephone booth (left) this booth was needed to reduce plant noise while using telephone. (photographer unknown, ca. 1920.) - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  20. 9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO LIVING ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO LIVING ROOM, AND BUILT-IN CABINETS AROUND SINK AND FLANKING 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOW. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. 7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, MODERN SIDING WINDOW ON EAST WALL (FORMER PORCH) AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL (PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. 19. DETAIL TO SOUTHEAST OF EXCITER 1 GIRARD TURBINE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL TO SOUTHEAST OF EXCITER 1 GIRARD TURBINE, SHOWING BEVEL-GEARED REGISTER GATE CONTROLS, OLD POWERHOUSE BASEMENT - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

  3. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN NEXT TO BRICKED HEATER ENCLAVE (PHOTO CENTER), AND OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 2 AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. 13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT, OPEN DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER, AND OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO LIVING ROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT, OPEN DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH ENTRANCE TO BASEMENT SHOWING WORKBENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH ENTRANCE TO BASEMENT SHOWING WORKBENCH AT PHOTO LEFT AND ONE OF TWO DOORWAYS TO MAIN BASEMENT AREA AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR OBSERVATION MIRRORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 65. Interior of wheelhouse looking to port, showing ship's wheels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Interior of wheelhouse looking to port, showing ship's wheels for steering, binnacle (in wooden box to extreme right), and searchlight control (at top of window over binnacle); handle suspended from overhead on cord operated whistle. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  9. 14. Photocopy of drawing showing data flow of radar at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of drawing showing data flow of radar at control area from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  10. 53. View from ground level in building no. 105 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View from ground level in building no. 105 showing lower radar scanner switch with incoming waveguide and control switch. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE MALLEABLE CUPOLAS AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM, OLD SHED ROOF THAT COVERED THE EARLIER MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGING CRANE, MALLEABLE FOUNDRY, AND POLLUTION CONTROL BAGHOUSE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM END OF NAVIGATION LOCK #1 WITH CHAMBER FILLED; THE CONTROL HOUSE IS ON RIGHT; VIEW IS TAKEN FROM ROOF OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 22. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE SHOWING CLUTCH AND BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE SHOWING CLUTCH AND BRAKE HANDLES, AIR VALVE FOR RAIL LOCKS, AND MOTOR CONTROLLER FOR TURNING MACHINERY, LOOKING N. PHOTOGRAPHER: SARAH J. DENNETT & ROBERT A. RYAN - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

  14. OVERVIEW OF DIVE TRAINER SIMULATOR AT SECOND FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF DIVE TRAINER SIMULATOR AT SECOND FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING CONTROL CENTER CAB. VIEW FACING WEST/NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Astronaut Daniel Brandenstein shows of Father's Day card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Brandenstein, STS 51-G mission commander, shows of Father's Day card from his daughter. The card reads 'To the world's best Dad,' and contains artwork. He is in the aft flight deck near the remote manipulator system (RMS) controls.

  16. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  17. AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last

  18. Olfactory deficits and sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease: a case–control survey

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J; Lu, Y; Wang, S; Cartwright, H; Halliday, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information about olfactory and sleep deficits preceding the onset of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Subjects: 38 community dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease (73% response rate) and 32 age matched controls (60% response rate). Methods: Using a questionnaire survey, the frequencies, timing, and relations between olfactory and sleep disturbances, drug treatment, mood, and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease were compared with those in age matched controls. Reliability of information was validated by informant interview in 9% of the sample. Interdependency of factors was assessed using Fisher's fourfold table test, and differences between populations were analysed using χ2 and unpaired t tests. Results: Microsmia was reported by 26 patients (68%) (and only one control), on average within a year of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. More patients than controls had excessive daytime somnolence (45% v 6%), restless legs (50% v 19%), and abnormal movements during sleep (34% v 0%), which generally occurred three to five years after diagnosis and were independent of mood disorders and drug treatment. Conclusions: Many patients with Parkinson's disease have microsmia at the onset of motor deficits, but some sleep disorders are a subsequent occurrence. PMID:12810790

  19. Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    100 times, and showed that Mercury's spin axis is almost, but not exactly, perpendicular to the plane of its rotation around the Sun," Margot said. Margot worked with Stanton Peale of the University of California, Santa Barbara, Raymond Jurgens and Martin Slade of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Igor Holin of the Space Research Institute in Moscow. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the NSF. Part of this work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, operated by Caltech under contract with NASA.

  20. The health watch case-control study of leukemia and benzene: the story so far.

    PubMed

    Glass, Deborah C; Gray, Christopher N; Jolley, Damien J; Gibbons, Carl; Sim, Malcolm R

    2006-09-01

    A case-control study nested in the Health Watch cohort of petroleum industry workers, investigated whether the excess of lymphohematopoetic cancers, identified among male members of the Health Watch cohort, was associated with benzene exposure. Cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 31), multiple myeloma (n = 15), and leukemia (n = 33) were identified between 1981 and 1999. Cases were age-matched to five controls. Exposure was retrospectively estimated for each occupational history using an algorithm in a relational database. Benzene exposure measurements, supplied by Australian petroleum companies, were used to estimate exposure for specific tasks. The tasks carried out within the job, the products handled, and the technology used, were identified from interviews with contemporary colleagues. More than half of the subjects started work after 1965 and had an average exposure period of 20 years. Exposure was low, 85% of the cumulative exposure estimates were <10 ppm years. Matched analyses showed that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma were not associated with benzene exposure. Leukemia risk, however, was significantly increased for the subjects with greater than 16 ppm years cumulative exposure, odds ratio (OR) 51.9 (5.6-477) or with greater than 0.8 ppm intensity of highest exposed job. Cumulative exposures were similar to those found in comparable studies. The inclusion of occasional high exposures, for example, as a result of spillages, reduced the ORs, when the exposure was treated as either a continuous or a categorical variable. Our data demonstrate a strong association between leukemia and modest benzene exposure. The choice of cut-point and reference group has a marked effect on the ORs, but does not change the overall conclusions.

  1. Association between obesity and the risk of malignant lymphoma in Japanese: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Seto, Masao; Morishima, Yasuo; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2010-05-15

    Although marked differences in anthropometric characteristics and malignant lymphoma (ML) incidence suggest that the association between obesity and ML risk in Asian and non-Asian populations may differ, few studies have investigated this association in Asian populations. Here, we conducted a sex- and age-matched case-control study in a Japanese population using 782 cases and 3,910 noncancer controls in the hospital-based Epidemiological Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anthropometric characteristics were estimated using a conditional logistic regression model that incorporated smoking and alcohol intake. Recent body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed marginally significant association with ML risk (ORs [95% CIs] per 5-unit increase in recent weight and BMI; 1.04 [0.99-1.09] and 1.11 [0.98-1.27], respectively). On the other hand, weight and BMI in early adulthood exhibited a strong association with ML risk (ORs [95% CIs] per 5-unit increase in early adulthood weight and BMI; 1.11 [1.05-1.18] and 1.33 [1.13-1.55], respectively). Further, in women, a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), defined as obesity in Asian populations, during early adulthood was significantly associated with ML risk compared to the normal range of 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2). By histological ML subtype, the point estimates of ORs for obesity relative to normal weight in early adulthood were over unity for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as a whole and significant for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In conclusion, our study in Japanese subjects suggested that early adulthood obesity is associated with the risk of NHL, particularly DLBCL.

  2. 26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing the racks for the nine horizontal control rods (HCRs) that would be inserted or withdrawn from the pile to control the rate of reaction. In this case, it is the 105-F Reactor in February 1945. The view is looking away from the pile, which is out of the picture on the left. Several of the cooling water hose reels for the rods can be seen at the end of the racks near the wall. D-8323 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. Characterization of the procera Tomato Mutant Shows Novel Functions of the SlDELLA Protein in the Control of Flower Morphology, Cell Division and Expansion, and the Auxin-Signaling Pathway during Fruit-Set and Development1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA3. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA3 or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA3 application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set. PMID:22942390

  4. Effects of home-based exercise on postural control and sensory organization in individuals with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joe; Horvat, Michael; Ray, Christopher T

    2009-12-01

    Loss of function and postural instability occur in Parkinson disease (PD). Dynamic exercise interventions are successful in improving motor control and physical function. However, most programs are based in a health facility or physical therapy setting and involve travel. With the limitations associated with PD (e.g. health care and medication cost as well as travel limitations) these therapies may be inaccessible and exclude some individuals from maintaining or increasing their function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based exercise intervention on postural control in individuals with PD. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on individuals with PD (N = 10) and healthy aged-matched controls (N = 10). Participants were assessed utilizing computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) before and after a 10-week exercise intervention. Participants were instructed on proper technique prior to the intervention, were given an illustrated home program, and were monitored weekly concerning their progress. Pre-intervention assessment demonstrated that individuals with PD had statically lower scores on a Sensory Organization Test (p < .05). Following the intervention, results indicated no statistical difference between individuals with PD and aged match controls (p > .05). This initial study indicates that a home exercise intervention is an effective method of improving postural control in individuals with PD. Results from this investigation support further study to determine the extent to which both preventative and restorative home-based programs can improve postural control.

  5. Aberrant Function of Learning and Cognitive Control Networks Underlie Inefficient Cognitive Flexibility in Anorexia Nervosa: A Cross-Sectional fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lao-Kaim, Nick P.; Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Simmons, Andrew; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa. Method Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning. Results Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how

  6. Examination of central gait control mechanisms in Parkinson's disease using movement-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Shoushtarian, Mehrnaz; Murphy, Anna; Iansek, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Gait disorders are common in people with Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology of these disorders is not fully understood. Movement-related potentials reflect supplementary motor area activity associated with the preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Our aim was to investigate movement-related potentials associated with gait disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease, as reflected by gait hypokinesia and initiation difficulties, in order to better understand the role of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Movement-related potentials were back-averaged from electroencephalography recordings performed on 11 participants with Parkinson's disease with no gait initiation difficulties, 9 participants with Parkinson's disease who suffered from gait initiation difficulties, 12 young healthy adults, and 8 healthy older adults. Participants took 3 steps forward, stepping off a force plate. Trigger signals from the force plate and electromyographic activity of the tibialis anterior muscle were used to identify gait initiation time. Participants' stride length was also measured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Movement-related potentials showed significant group differences between the healthy young adults and the 2 Parkinson's disease groups as well as the Parkinson's disease group as a whole. No significant difference was found between the participants with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. A significant inverse relationship between movement-related potentials and stride length was found in patients with Parkinson's disease who did not experience gait initiation difficulties but not in those who did have this symptom. Gait-generated movement-related potentials appear to show electrical evidence of cortical disturbances correlated with stride length reduction in patients with Parkinson's disease without gait initiation difficulties.

  7. FEN1 gene variants confer reduced risk of breast cancer in chinese women: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ye; Gong, Zhuoqing; Guo, Yan; Yang, Pengtao; Tian, Tian; Dai, Cong; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Peng; Li, Shanli; Zhu, Yuyao; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the associations of two common Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) polymorphisms (rs4246215 and rs174538) with breast cancer risk in northwest Chinese women. We conducted a case-control study with 560 breast cancer patients and 583 age-matched healthy controls from Northwest China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the associations. We found a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer associated with T allele of rs4246215 (allele model: OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.96; homozygote model: OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40–0.87; recessive model: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42–0.89), especially in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.35–0.97). Furthermore, the polymorphism showed a decreased association with larger tumor size (heterozygote model: OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.44–0.92; dominant model: OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.44–0.90). For rs174538, we did not find any difference in all genetic models. However, rs174538 was associated with lymph node metastasis (heterozygote model: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39–0.81; dominant model: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.43–0.86) and estrogen receptor status (heterozygote model: OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05–2.15; dominant model: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.01–1.98). Haplotype analysis showed that Trs4246215Grs174538 haplotype was a protective factor of breast cancer (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14–0.81). Our results suggest that FEN1 polymorphisms may reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:27801669

  8. The evaluation of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case controlled observational study.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Victoria C J; Ellis, Cathy M; Burman, Rachel; Knights, Catherine; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive paralysis. ALS is complicated by a number of non-motor symptoms including pain. Pain in ALS has been poorly studied and poorly managed. This study aimed to collate information regarding pain in ALS using standardized pain questionnaires. Forty-two patients with ALS participated in the study. Control subjects included 41 age-matched healthy volunteers and 42 age-matched patients with neurological conditions other than ALS. Data on pain were collected using the The Brief Pain Inventory and The painDetect Questionnaire. Eighty-five percent of subjects with ALS reported pain versus 50% of neurology clinic controls and 35% of healthy controls (p < 0.01). Pain in ALS included cramping, aching, tiring, sharp and tender, and was non-neuropathic. Pain impacted significantly on mood, general activity, relationships and general enjoyment of life. Fifty-four percent of people with painful ALS used regular analgesia and 29% regular opioids. Other non-motor symptoms suffered included tiredness, constipation, urinary problems, itching and drowsiness. In conclusion, these data support the fact that pain is a significant symptom in ALS which impacts on quality of life. These data can be used to educate clinicians and patients to promote better multidisciplinary management of ALS symptoms and a better quality of life.

  9. 54. View from ground level in building no. 105 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View from ground level in building no. 105 showing lower radar scanner switch at open port door. Note incoming waveguide and control switch at lower left of photograph and note several waveguides leaving top of scanner switch around the circumference of switch. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E; Dick, James R; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.

  11. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION IN MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVERS SHOWING CLOUDY SWELLING

    PubMed Central

    Fonnesu, Alberto; Severi, Clara

    1956-01-01

    Using succinate and α-ketoglutarate as substrates, oxidative phosphorylation has been measured in mitochondria isolated from livers showing cloudy swelling. This cellular change was obtained by injecting rats with S. typhi murium toxin and guinea pigs with diphtheria toxin. It has been found that phosphorylation associated with the oxidation of either of these substrates was partially inhibited in mitochondria from livers showing cloudy swelling, while the oxygen consumption was unchanged. Thus, the P:O ratios for both succinate and α-ketoglutarate were lower in mitochondria from treated animals than they were in normal mitochondria. Dephosphorylation of ATP was not significantly modified in mitochondria from livers showing cloudy swelling as compared with normal controls. No dephosphorylation of AMP and G-6-P was observed either in normal mitochondria or in mitochondria from treated animals. PMID:13331961

  12. Degenerated intervertebral disc prolapse and its association of collagen I alpha 1 Spl gene polymorphism: A preliminary case control study of Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Anjankar, Shailendra D; Poornima, Subhadra; Raju, Subodh; Jaleel, MA; Bhiladvala, Dilnavaz; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Degenerated disc disease (DDD) is a common disorder responsible for increased morbidity in a productive age group. Its etiology is multifactorial and genetic factors have been predominantly implicated. Disc prolapse results due to tear in the annulus, which is a fibrous structure composed largely of type I collagen. Functional polymorphism at the Sp1 site of the collagen I alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene has shown a positive association with DDD in Dutch and Greek populations. The purpose of this study was to assess COL1A1 Sp1 gene polymorphism in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Fifty clinically and radiologically proven patients with disc prolapse requiring surgery were included as cases and 50 healthy, age-matched volunteers served as controls. After isolating DNA from their blood sample, genotyping for COL1A1 polymorphism (rs1800012) was performed and identified as GG, GT, and TT. Results: The mean age and body mass index in cases and controls were similar. 76% of the patients were males. The most common site of disc degeneration was L4–L5 (36%), followed by L5–S1 (34%). Homozygous–GG, heterozygous GT, and homozygous TT genotypes were seen in 38 (76%), 10 (20%) and 2 (4%) cases respectively, controls had similar percentage of genotypes as well. The alleles in cases and the control group showed no significant difference (P = 0.6744) and followed the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium in the study population. Conclusion: The COL1A1 (rs1800012) is in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the present subset of Indian population. But taken as a single factor, it was not found to be associated with DDD in this preliminary study. Disc degeneration is multifactorial and also anticipated to be a result of multiple genes involvement and gene-gene interaction. PMID:26806964

  13. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  14. ESP precharger shows promise in solving ash-resistivity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1984-09-01

    Recent tests of a temperature-controlled electrode charger (TCEP) show that it may be an economical fix for both high-resistivity-related problems and increased particulate loadings resulting from application of a particular SO2 control strategy. The TCEP would reportedly be relatively easy to install in an existing precipitator. Operation of the TCEP in a low-sulfur coal flue gas stream is demonstrated as well as the pipe-manifold design of the TCEP. Several advantages to this design are presented. Two of them include: the welded pipe structure is simple to fabricate and is very durable; and the structural rigidity of the system effectively distributes the rapping force and provides effective cleaning. An economical analysis by Denver Research Institute is presented which indicates that the installation of two TCEPs in the ESP was half the cost of SO3 conditioning and less expensive than a fabric filter.

  15. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  16. Baseline OCT Measurements in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, Part I: Quality Control, Comparisons, and Variability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to investigate papilledema in single-site, mostly retrospective studies. We investigated whether spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), which provides thickness and volume measurements of the optic nerve head and retina, could reliably demonstrate structural changes due to papilledema in a prospective multisite clinical trial setting. Methods. At entry, 126 subjects in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) with mild visual field loss had optic disc and macular scans, using the Cirrus SD-OCT. Images were analyzed by using the proprietary commercial and custom 3D-segmentation algorithms to calculate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), total retinal thickness (TRT), optic nerve head volume (ONHV), and retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. We evaluated variability, with interocular comparison and correlation between results for both methods. Results. The average RNFL thickness > 95% of normal controls in 90% of eyes and the RNFL, TRT, ONH height, and ONHV showed strong (r > 0.8) correlations for interocular comparisons. Variability for repeated testing of OCT parameters was low for both methods and intraclass correlations > 0.9 except for the proprietary GCL thickness. The proprietary algorithm–derived RNFL, TRT, and GCL thickness measurements had failure rates of 10%, 16%, and 20% for all eyes respectively, which were uncommon with 3D-segmentation–derived measurements. Only 7% of eyes had GCL thinning that was less than fifth percentile of normal age-matched control eyes by both methods. Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT provides reliable continuous variables and quantified assessment of structural alterations due to papilledema. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:25370510

  17. Specific serum carotenoids are inversely associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Lu, Min-Shan; Wang, Lian; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Luo, Wei-Ping; Du, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-14

    Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95% CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95% CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95% CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95% CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95% CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.

  18. The effect of backpack weight on the standing posture and balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2006-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.

  19. 9. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing the mechanical layout ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing the mechanical layout of Test Stand 'C' Cv Cell, vacuum line, and scrubber-condenser as erected in 1977-78. JPL drawing by VTN Consolidated, Inc. Engineers, Architects, Planners, 2301 Campus Drive, Irvine, California 92664: 'JPL-ETS E-18 (C-Stand Modifications) Control Elevations & Schematics,' sheet M-5 (JPL sheet number E18/44-0), 1 September 1977. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Credit PSR. This view shows the southeast and northeast facades ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This view shows the southeast and northeast facades of building as seen when looking west (264°). The open double doors reveal the curing room, which was kept at ambient temperatures. A maximum of 10,000 pounds (4,545 Kg) of class 1.1 propellants were permitted in this room, along with a maximum of 4 people. A separate room at the west end of the building housed temperature control equipment. Note the lightning rods on roof corners - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Solid Propellant Conditioning Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  2. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  3. Human DNA methylomes of neurodegenerative diseases show common epigenomic patterns.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, J V; Heyn, H; Vidal, E; Moran, S; Sayols, S; Delgado-Morales, R; Schultz, M D; Ansoleaga, B; Garcia-Esparcia, P; Pons-Espinal, M; de Lagran, M M; Dopazo, J; Rabano, A; Avila, J; Dierssen, M; Lott, I; Ferrer, I; Ecker, J R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-19

    Different neurodegenerative disorders often show similar lesions, such as the presence of amyloid plaques, TAU-neurotangles and synuclein inclusions. The genetically inherited forms are rare, so we wondered whether shared epigenetic aberrations, such as those affecting DNA methylation, might also exist. The studied samples were gray matter samples from the prefrontal cortex of control and neurodegenerative disease-associated cases. We performed the DNA methylation analyses of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer-like neurodegenerative profile associated with Down's syndrome samples. The DNA methylation landscapes obtained show that neurodegenerative diseases share similar aberrant CpG methylation shifts targeting a defined gene set. Our findings suggest that neurodegenerative disorders might have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that subsequently evolve into different clinical entities. The identified aberrant DNA methylation changes can be used as biomarkers of the disorders and as potential new targets for the development of new therapies.

  4. Human DNA methylomes of neurodegenerative diseases show common epigenomic patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mut, J V; Heyn, H; Vidal, E; Moran, S; Sayols, S; Delgado-Morales, R; Schultz, M D; Ansoleaga, B; Garcia-Esparcia, P; Pons-Espinal, M; de Lagran, M M; Dopazo, J; Rabano, A; Avila, J; Dierssen, M; Lott, I; Ferrer, I; Ecker, J R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-01

    Different neurodegenerative disorders often show similar lesions, such as the presence of amyloid plaques, TAU-neurotangles and synuclein inclusions. The genetically inherited forms are rare, so we wondered whether shared epigenetic aberrations, such as those affecting DNA methylation, might also exist. The studied samples were gray matter samples from the prefrontal cortex of control and neurodegenerative disease-associated cases. We performed the DNA methylation analyses of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer-like neurodegenerative profile associated with Down's syndrome samples. The DNA methylation landscapes obtained show that neurodegenerative diseases share similar aberrant CpG methylation shifts targeting a defined gene set. Our findings suggest that neurodegenerative disorders might have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that subsequently evolve into different clinical entities. The identified aberrant DNA methylation changes can be used as biomarkers of the disorders and as potential new targets for the development of new therapies. PMID:26784972

  5. Dissecting online control in Developmental Coordination Disorder: a kinematic analysis of double-step reaching.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Christian; Wilson, Peter H

    2011-04-01

    In a recent study, children with movement clumsiness (or Developmental Coordination Disorder-DCD) were shown to have difficulties making rapid online corrections when reaching, demonstrated by slower and less accurate movements to double-step targets (Hyde & Wilson, 2011). These results suggest that children with DCD have difficulty using predictive estimates of limb position when making rapid adjustments to movement, in-flight. However, chronometric data alone does not provide strong evidence for this hypothesis: it remains unclear whether early (and rapid) control parameters or post-correction stages of the movement trajectory are affected. Thus, the overarching aim of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of double-step reaching in order to isolate the different control parameters that might explain the slower and less accurate double-step reaching performance of children with DCD. Participants were a new sample of 13 children with DCD aged between 8-12 years and 13 age-matched controls. Children were required to reach and touch one of three possible targets presented at the coordinates -20°, 0° and 20° on a 17 in. LCD touch-screen. For most trials (80%) the target remained stationary for the duration of movement (non-jump trials), while for the remainder (20%), the target jumped randomly to one of two peripheral locations at movement onset (jump trials). Consistent with earlier work, children with DCD were slower to initiate reaching compared to controls and showed longer MT and more errors on jump trials. Kinematic data showed that while the two groups did not differ on time to peak velocity or acceleration, children with DCD were slower to correct reach trajectory on jump trials. No group differences were observed on late kinematic markers, e.g., post-correction time. The pattern of results support and extend earlier work showing deficits in ROC in DCD. From a computational perspective, delayed corrections to the reach trajectory suggests some

  6. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (“freezing”) individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance. PMID:25191284

  7. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation). PMID:27583083

  8. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  9. Deaf Individuals Show a Leftward Bias in Numerical Bisection.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence suggests that deaf individuals conceive of numerical magnitude as a left-to-right-oriented mental number line, as typically observed in hearing individuals. When accessing this spatial representation of numbers, normally hearing individuals typically show an attentional bias to the left (pseudoneglect), resembling the attentional bias they show in physical space. Deaf individuals do not show pseudoneglect in representing external space, as assessed by a visual line bisection task. However, whether deaf individuals show attentional biases in representing numerical space has never been investigated before. Here we instructed groups of deaf and hearing individuals to quickly estimate (without calculating) the midpoint of a series of numerical intervals presented in ascending and descending order. Both hearing and deaf individuals were significantly biased toward lower numbers (i.e., the leftward side of the mental number line) in their estimations. Nonetheless, the underestimation bias was smaller in deaf individuals than in the hearing when bisecting pairs of numbers given in descending order. This result may depend on the use of different strategies by deaf and hearing participants or a less pronounced lateralization of deaf individuals in the control of spatial attention.

  10. Drosophila americana Diapausing Females Show Features Typical of Young Flies.

    PubMed

    Reis, Micael; Valer, Felipe B; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Diapause is a period of arrested development which is controlled physiologically, preprogrammed environmentally and characterized by metabolic depression that can occur during any stage of insect development. Nevertheless, in the genus Drosophila, diapause is almost always associated with the cessation of ovarian development and reproductive activity in adult females. In this work, we show that, in D. americana (a temperate species of the virilis group), diapause is a genetically determined delay in ovarian development that is triggered by temperature and/or photoperiod. Moreover, we show that in this species diapause incidence increases with latitude, ranging from 13% in the southernmost to 91% in the northernmost range of the distribution. When exposed to diapause inducing conditions, both diapausing and non-diapausing females show a 10% increase in lifespan, that is further increased by 18.6% in diapausing females, although senescence is far from being negligible.ActinD1 expression levels suggest that diapausing females are biologically much younger than their chronological age, and that the fly as a whole, rather than the ovarian developmental one, which is phenotypically more evident, is delayed by diapause. Therefore, diapause candidate genes that show expression levels that are compatible with flies younger than their chronological age may not necessarily play a role in reproductive diapause and in adaptation to seasonally varying environmental conditions [corrected].

  11. Platelets from pulmonary hypertension patients show increased mitochondrial reserve capacity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quyen L.; Corey, Catherine; White, Pamela; Watson, Annie; Gladwin, Mark T.; Simon, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates. Platelets from PH patients showed greater glycolytic rates than controls. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by significant increases in the maximal capacity for oxygen consumption, leading to enhanced respiratory reserve capacity in PH platelets. This increased platelet reserve capacity correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index in PH patients and was abolished by the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Consistent with a shift to FAO, PH platelets showed augmented enzymatic activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and electron transport chain complex II. These data extend the observation of a metabolic alteration in PH from the pulmonary vascular axis to the hematologic compartment and suggest that measurement of platelet bioenergetics is potentially useful in assessment of disease progression and severity. PMID:28289721

  12. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  13. Part 2: Adaptation of Gait Kinematics in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Demonstrates Preserved Independent Neural Control of Each Limb

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2017-01-01

    Motor adaptation, or alteration of neural control in response to a perturbation, is a potential mechanism to facilitate motor learning for rehabilitation. Central nervous system deficits are known to affect locomotor adaptation; yet we demonstrated that similar to adults following stroke, children with unilateral brain injuries can adapt step length in response to unilateral leg weighting. Here, we extend our analysis to explore kinematic strategies underlying step length adaptation and utilize dynamical systems approaches to elucidate how neural control may differ in those with hemiplegic CP across legs and compared to typically developing controls. Ten participants with hemiplegic CP and ten age-matched controls participated in this study. Knee and hip joint kinematics were analyzed during unilateral weighting of each leg in treadmill walking to assess adaptation and presence and persistence of after-effects. Peak joint angle displacement was used to represent changes in joint angles during walking. We examined baseline and task-specific variability and local dynamic stability to evaluate neuromuscular control across groups and legs. In contrast to controls, children with unilateral CP had asymmetries in joint angle variability and local dynamic stability at baseline, showing increased variability and reduced stability in the dominant limb. Kinematic variability increased and local stability decreased during weighting of ipsilateral and contralateral limbs in both groups compared to baseline. After weight removal both measures returned to baseline. Analogous to the temporal-spatial results, children with unilateral CP demonstrated similar capability as controls to adapt kinematics to unilateral leg weighting, however, the group with CP differed across sides after weight removal with dominant limb after-effects fading more quickly than in controls. The change in kinematics did not completely return to baseline in the non-dominant limb of the CP group, producing a

  14. Correlation between nutritional biomarkers and breast cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zaroukian, S; Pineault, R; Gandini, S; Lacroix, A; Ghadirian, P

    2005-06-01

    A case-control study to explore associations between retinoids, tocopherols, total and beta-carotenes and breast cancer was conducted by analysing concentrations of these biomarkers in adipose tissue, cheek cells and plasma. A total of 414 French-Canadians in Montreal with new diagnoses of breast cancer were age-matched to 429 population-based controls. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire, and biological samples from 287 cases and 112 controls were collected within 3 months of the diagnosis. Mean beta carotene concentrations in cheek cells were significantly lower among controls. Odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regression analysis were used to compare higher and lower tercile concentrations. Significant positive associations were observed in adipose tissue for retinoid [OR=2.11; 95% CI (1.09-4.08)] and beta carotene [OR=3.18; 95% CI (1.70-5.93)]; in cheek cells for beta carotene [OR=2.22; 95% CI (1.21-4.50)] and for total carotenes [OR=2.94; 95% CI (1.59-5.42)] and in plasma for beta carotene [OR=1.53; 95% CI (0.80-2.93)] and total carotenes [OR=1.04; 95% CI (0.53-2.05)]. Among the control groups, significant Pearson correlations were observed between cheek cells and adipose tissue for total carotenes (r=0.27; p=0.01) and cheek cells and plasma (r=0.22; p=0.04). In contrast to previous works, this study shows that high concentrations of retinoids and carotenes in adipose tissue and cheek cells are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, all these studies are limited by small sample size. Although our study tested a limited number of controls, important associations were observed. These results suggest that the effect of disease on biomarkers is fundamental to the interpretation of epidemiological data. We suggest either that the high levels of these biomarkers found in cancer patients in this study may be due to the disease process that affects the pharmacokinetics of the biomarker or that the disease causes a change in dietary habits

  15. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  16. Finger movement improves ankle control for gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, K; Kamata, N; Iwata, A; Minamida, F; Abe, K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of finger movement on ankle control for gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD patients). The subjects were 13 PD patients and 6 age-matched healthy adults. The subjects moved fingers before or after gait initiation, or initiated gait without finger movement. Ankle joint movement in the stance leg was recorded to estimate the duration of ankle dorsiflexion (DIF duration), which reflects the degree of disturbance in ankle control for gait initiation in PD patients. In the PD patients with prolonged D/F duration, finger movement that preceded gait initiation shortened the D/F duration, but in the PD patients without prolonged D/F duration and in healthy subjects, the effect was not found. Accordingly, finger movement that precedes gait initiation improves ankle control for gait initiation in PD patients who suffer disturbance in ankle control for gait initiation.

  17. X-31 Unloading Returning from Paris Air Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    After being flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995, the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is off-loaded from an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport after the ferry flight back to Edwards. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved

  18. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients.

  19. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  20. Female Migraineurs Show Lack of Insular Thinning with Age

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Nasim; Barmettler, Gabi; Moulton, Eric A.; Scrivani, Steven; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Spierings, Egilius L.H.; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    Gray matter loss in cortical regions is a normal ageing process for the healthy brain. There have been few studies on the process of ageing of the brain in chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we evaluated changes in the cortical thickness by age in 92 female subjects (46 migraine patients, and 46 healthy controls) using high field MRI. The results indicate that in contrast to healthy subjects migraineurs show lack of thinning in the insula by age. The functional significance of the lack of thinning is unknown, but may contribute to the overall cortical hyperexcitability of the migraine brain since the region is tightly involved in a number of majo brain networks involved in interoception, salience, nociception, and autonomic function, including the default mode network. PMID:25775358

  1. 5. Credit BG. This interior view shows the weigh room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Credit BG. This interior view shows the weigh room, looking west (240°): Electric lighting and scale read-outs (boxes with circular windows on the wall) are fitted with explosion-proof enclosures; these enclosures prevent malfunctioning electrical parts from sparking and starting fires or explosions. One marble table and scale have been removed at the extreme left of the view. Two remaining scales handle small and large quantities of propellants and additives. Marble tables do not absorb chemicals or conduct electricity; their mass also prevents vibration from upsetting the scales. The floor has an electrically conductive coating to dissipate static electric charges, thus preventing sparks which might ignite propellants. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Weigh & Control Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    SciTech Connect

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  3. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  4. Dynamic connectivity states estimated from resting fMRI Identify differences among Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Barnaly; Damaraju, Eswar; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and age matched SZ and BP patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between HCs and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average) and dynamic (windowed) connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Notably, results suggest that patients make fewer transitions to some states (states 1, 2, and 4) compared to HCs, with most such differences confined to a single state. SZ patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3). Also group differences between SZ and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states) of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1) and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3). Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  5. Dynamic connectivity states estimated from resting fMRI Identify differences among Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Barnaly; Damaraju, Eswar; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and age matched SZ and BP patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between HCs and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average) and dynamic (windowed) connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Notably, results suggest that patients make fewer transitions to some states (states 1, 2, and 4) compared to HCs, with most such differences confined to a single state. SZ patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3). Also group differences between SZ and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states) of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1) and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3). Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups. PMID:25426048

  6. Urinary melatonin-sulfate/cortisol ratio and the presence of prostate cancer: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Huang, Shu-Pin; Bao, Bo-Ying; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-01-01

    The circadian-related hormones, melatonin and cortisol, have oncostatic and immunosuppressive properties. This study examined the relationship between these two biomarkers and the presence of prostate cancer. We measured their major metabolites in urine collected from 120 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients and 240 age-matched controls from January 2011 to April 2014. Compared with patients with lower urinary melatonin-sulfate or melatonin-sulfate/cortisol (MT/C) ratio levels, those with above-median levels were significantly less likely to have prostate cancer (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35–0.99; aOR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27–0.77) or advanced stage prostate cancer (aOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.26–0.89; aOR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.17–0.62). The combined effect of both low MT/C ratios and PSA levels exceeding 10 ng/ml was an 8.82-fold greater likelihood of prostate cancer and a 32.06-fold greater likelihood of advanced stage prostate cancer, compared to those with both high MT/C ratios and PSA levels less than 10 ng/ml. In conclusion, patients with high melatonin-sulfate levels or a high MT/C ratio were less likely to have prostate cancer or advanced stage prostate. Besides, a finding of a low MT/C ratio combined with a PSA level exceeding 10 ng/ml showed the greatest potential in detecting prostate cancer and advanced stage prostate cancer. PMID:27387675

  7. Human lice show photopositive behaviour to white light.

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-10-01

    We studied the behavioural response of body lice and head lice to white light. We also evaluated the influence of starvation and the presence of other individuals on this response. Experiments were performed in a rectangular arena, half of which was illuminated and the other half kept in the dark. Two experiments were performed: in the first, a single louse was released into the arena for 60 min and the percentage of time spent in the illuminated half was recorded; in the second experiment, a group of lice was released and the number of insects in the illuminated half was recorded. The results showed that the average number of lice and time spent in the illuminated side of the arena was statistically higher than for the controls. Starvation did not influence the reaction of lice, but the number of insects in the illuminated area did increase with the size of the group. This study shows that human lice are photopositive towards white light and that this behaviour is not affected by the nutritional state of the insects. Moreover, it is enhanced by the presence of other lice.

  8. The contribution of proprioceptive information to postural control in elderly and patients with Parkinson's disease with a history of falls.

    PubMed

    Bekkers, Esther M J; Dockx, Kim; Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Mirelman, Anat; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Proprioceptive deficits negatively affect postural control but their precise contribution to postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We investigated if proprioceptive manipulations differentially affect balance, measured by force plates, during quiet standing in 13 PD patients and 13 age-matched controls with a history of falls. Perceived limits of stability (LoS) were derived from the differences between maximal center of pressure (CoP) displacement in anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) direction during a maximal leaning task. Task conditions comprised standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC): (1) on a stable surface; (2) an unstable surface; and (3) with Achilles tendon vibration. CoP displacements were calculated as a percentage of their respective LoS. Perceived LoS did not differ between groups. PD patients showed greater ML CoP displacement than elderly fallers (EF) across all conditions (p = 0.043) and tended to have higher postural sway in relation to the LoS (p = 0.050). Both groups performed worse on an unstable surface and during tendon vibration compared to standing on a stable surface with EO and even more so with EC. Both PD and EF had more AP sway in all conditions with EC compared to EO (p < 0.001) and showed increased CoP displacements when relying on proprioception only compared to standing with normal sensory input. This implies a similar role of the proprioceptive system in postural control in fallers with and without PD. PD fallers showed higher ML sway after sensory manipulations, as a result of which these values approached their perceived LoS more closely than in EF. We conclude that despite a similar fall history, PD patients showed more ML instability than EF, irrespective of sensory manipulation, but had a similar reliance on ankle proprioception. Hence, we recommend that rehabilitation and fall prevention for PD should focus on motor rather than on sensory aspects.

  9. 76 FR 64041 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ AGENCY... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Show Low Regional Airport, Show Low, AZ. Controlled...) standard instrument approach procedures at Show Low Regional Airport. The FAA is proposing this action...

  10. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  11. Map showing structural control of breccia pipes on the southern Marble Plateau, north-central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sutphin, H.B.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    Solution collapse breccia pipes, concentrated throughout the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, have been mapped in detail on the southern Marble Plateau. Within the study area, 77 of the 90 (86%) collapse structures fall within northwest-trending and northeast-trending zones that cover only 23% of the total surface area.

  12. Study of Waterhyacinths Showing Possible Resistance to 2,4-D Chemical Control Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    S -I 9 IAgharkar, S. P". and Bliaerji. I. 1930. "Studies inl the Pollination and Seed Formation of Waterh’yaciuth1 ( Eichhornia crassipes Kunth) 2...1963-h. "Obnervationi stir L’Heterostylie Chez Eichhornia crassipes , (Mart. Solims., Bull. des Seances 19 03 -4, p50 - Hlaigh, 3. C. 1936. "Notes on...the Water Hlyac inth ( Eichhornia crassipes Solis.) in Ceylon," CeL VoS~tFl 12, pp 97-107. _________191110. "lThe Propagation of Water Hyacinth

  13. site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing original front entrance, interior detail showing fireplace in elevation - Neiman House, 1930 Providence Road, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC

  14. Children with Autism Show Reduced Somatosensory Response: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Elysa J.; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S.; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S.; Dowling, Anne F.; Neuhaus, John M.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Hinkley, Leighton N. B.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2012-01-01

    Lay Abstract Autism spectrum disorders are reported to affect nearly one out of every one hundred children, with over 90% of these children showing behavioral disturbances related to the processing of basic sensory information. Behavioral sensitivity to light touch, such as profound discomfort with clothing tags and physical contact, is a ubiquitous finding in children on the autism spectrum. In this study, we investigate the strength and timing of brain activity in response to simple, light taps to the fingertip. Our results suggest that children with autism show a diminished early response in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). This finding is most evident in the left hemisphere. In exploratory analysis, we also show that tactile sensory behavior, as measured by the Sensory Profile, may be a better predictor of the intensity and timing of brain activity related to touch than a clinical autism diagnosis. We report that children with atypical tactile behavior have significantly lower amplitude somatosensory cortical responses in both hemispheres. Thus sensory behavioral phenotype appears to be a more powerful strategy for investigating neural activity in this cohort. This study provides evidence for atypical brain activity during sensory processing in autistic children and suggests that our sensory behavior based methodology may be an important approach to investigating brain activity in people with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Scientific Abstract The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison to matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, painless taps applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball

  15. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ashino, Hiromi; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Ryoji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  16. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  17. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Jiang, Wenbing; Lu, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqing; Lai, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is an active herbal ingredient possessing surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Recently, it has been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channel subtype Kv1.3. As Kv1.3 channels are mainly expressed in T cells and play a key role in psoriasis, the effects of curcumin were investigated on inflammatory factors secretion in T cells and psoriasis developed in keratin (K) 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic mouse model. Results showed that, 10 μM of curcumin significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-17,IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in T cells by 30-60% in vitro. Notably, more than 50% of T cells proliferation was inhibited by application of 100 μM curcumin. Compared with severe psoriatic symptoms observed in the negative control mice, all psoriasis indexes including ear redness, weight, thickness and lymph node weight were significantly improved by oral application of curcumin in treatment mouse group. Histological examination indicated that curcumin had anti-inflammatory function in the experimental animals. More than 50% level of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-22 and IL-23 in mouse serum was decreased by curcumin treatment as well as cyclosporine. Compared with renal fibrosis observed in the mouse group treated by cyclosporine, no obvious side effect in mouse kidney was found after treated by curcumin. Taken together, curcumin, with high efficacy and safety, has a great potential to treat psoriasis.

  18. Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg; Cvancarova, Milada; Wist, Erik; Bjoro, Trine; Dahl, Alv A.; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

  19. Influence of oral hygiene and its interaction with standard of education on the risk of oral cancer in women who neither smoked nor drank alcohol: a hospital-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Qiu, Y; Lin, L-S; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    We know of only limited data about the role of oral hygiene and the risk of oral cancer with different standards of education. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral hygiene and risk of oral cancer, with stratification by standard of education, in Chinese women. We organised a case-control study with 250 women with oral cancer and 996 age-matched controls in Fujian, China. Data were collected by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression with stratification by educational standard to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI. Tooth-brushing twice a day or more was inversely related to the risk of oral cancer in women with high school education or above (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.98), but not in those who were illiterate or had primary-middle school education. Wearing dentures showed an increased risk only in less well-educated women: the OR were 2.23 (95% CI 1.14 to 4.34) for the illiterate and 1.68 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.62) for the primary-middle school group. The loss of more than five teeth and oral ulceration were associated with increased risks of oral cancer in all three groups. There was also a multiplicative interaction between oral hygiene and standard of education for risk of oral cancer (p=0.001). Our results suggest that oral hygiene seems to have a critical role in the risk of oral cancer in Chinese women, but this effect may be modified by their educational standard.

  20. 76 FR 82113 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ AGENCY: Federal... Show Low Regional Airport, Show Low, AZ. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using... Low Regional Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules...

  1. Phonological whole-word measures in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English). Phonological whole-word measures (pMLU and Proximity) and consonant accuracy (PCC) were calculated on elicited single words. Differences were found on each measure between bilinguals and monolinguals in English, but in Spanish, only the PCC displayed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Bilinguals displayed language separation on the pMLU and the PCC but not the Proximity, indicating structural phonological differences between the Spanish and English of bilinguals but commensurate target approximations. This suggests that maintaining a consistent level of phonological proximity to the target is an important factor in phonological acquisition. The measures and their relationships are also discussed.

  2. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  3. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  5. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 16. SECOND FLOOR, EAST ROOM, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SECOND FLOOR, EAST ROOM, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS-- UP AND DOWN-- AND WALL CABINET WITH DOORS OPEN TO SHOW STAIRWAY - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA

  7. 94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on two of the piers. The view also shows the two completed cylinders in the midstream cluster of four. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered...

  9. 20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' (TN-159A-19), MEMBER 'B' IS BEAM 'B' IN TN-159A-19 AND SHOWS METHOD OF JOINING THESE MEMBERS. MEMBER 'C' SHOWS MORTISE IN BEAM 'B'. - Caleb Crosby Threshing Barn, Noeton (moved to Norris Dam State Park, Lake City), Morristown, Hamblen County, TN

  10. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  11. Population-based case–control study of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Q; Shu, X-O; Jin, F; Potter, J D; Kushi, L H; Teas, J; Gao, Y-T; Zheng, W

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the association of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in a population-based case–control study among Chinese women in Shanghai. Included in the study were 1459 cases and 1556 age-matched controls, with respective response rates of 91.1% and 90.3%. Usual soyfood intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Separate analyses were performed for all subjects and for the subset who reported no recent change in soyfood intake. The intake levels of soyfoods among women in Shanghai are high, with 96.6% women reporting soyfood consumption at least once a week. A statistically non-significant reduced risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78 95% CI = 0.52–1.16) of breast cancer was observed among those who reported eating soyfood at least once a week. Compared to those in the lowest decile intake group, women in the highest decile intake group had a 30% reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.95), but no monotonic dose–response relation was observed (P for trend, 0.28). Stratified analyses showed that the inverse association was restricted primarily among women who had a high body mass index (BMI), with an adjusted OR of 0.30 (95% CI = 0.10–0.94) observed for the highest intake group. The reduction in risk was stronger for breast cancer positive for both oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25–0.78) than those with other ER/PR status. More pronounced inverse associations were observed in analyses among those who reported no recent change in soyfood intake than those conducted in all subjects. A dose–response relation between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk was observed in this subset of women (P for trend, 0.02), with an OR of 0.46 (95%CI = 0.28–0.75) for those in the highest decile intake group. No clear monotonic dose–response relation was found between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk among regular soy eaters, but nevertheless the results suggest that regular

  12. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. INTERIOR SHOWING STAIRCASE TO SECOND FLOOR FROM MAIN LOBBY/RECEPTION AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SHOWING STAIRCASE TO SECOND FLOOR FROM MAIN LOBBY/RECEPTION AREA, VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 37. SAR2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SAR-2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD COIL CONTROL RHEOSTATS (BELOW). SCE negative no. 10331, November 1, 1923. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  16. Korean preschoolers' advanced inhibitory control and its relation to other executive skills and mental state understanding.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar advantage in a sample of seventy-six 3- and 4-year-old Koreans compared with sixty-four age-matched British children. Korean children younger than 3.5 years of age showed ceiling effects on some inhibition measures despite more stringent protocols and the link between executive function and mental state understanding was not as strong as in the British sample. The results raise key questions about the nature and development of the executive system and its relation to social understanding.

  17. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1986-10-24

    A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

  18. The sleep EEG topography in children and adolescents shows sex differences in language areas.

    PubMed

    Ringli, Maya; Kurth, Salomé; Huber, Reto; Jenni, Oskar G

    2013-08-01

    The topographic distribution of slow wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 0.75 and 4.5 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was proposed to mirror cortical maturation with a typical age-related pattern. Here, we examined whether sex differences occur in SWA topography of children and adolescents (22 age-matched subjects, 11 boys, mean age 13.4 years, range: 8.7-19.4, and 11 girls, mean age 13.4 years, range: 9.1-19.0 years). In females, SWA during the first 60 min of NREM sleep was higher over bilateral cortical areas that are related to language functions, while in males SWA was increased over the right prefrontal cortex, a region also involved in spatial abilities. We conclude that cortical areas governing functions in which one sex outperforms the other exhibit increased sleep SWA and, thus, may indicate maturation of sex-specific brain function and higher cortical plasticity during development.

  19. Fibromyalgia patients show an abnormal dopamine response to pain.

    PubMed

    Wood, Patrick B; Schweinhardt, Petra; Jaeger, Erik; Dagher, Alain; Hakyemez, Helene; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bushnell, M Catherine; Chizh, Boris A

    2007-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances. Accumulating evidence indicates that fibromyalgia may involve a dysfunction of modulatory systems in the brain. While brain dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure, motivation and motor control, recent evidence suggests that it is also involved in pain modulation. Because dopamine is implicated in both pain modulation and affective processing, we hypothesized that fibromyalgia may involve a disturbance of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fibromyalgia patients and matched healthy control subjects were subjected to deep muscle pain produced by injection of hypertonic saline into the anterior tibialis muscle. In order to determine the endogenous release of dopamine in response to painful stimulation, we used positron emission tomography to examine binding of [(11)C]-raclopride (D2/D3 ligand) in the brain during injection of painful hypertonic saline and nonpainful normal saline. Fibromyalgia patients experienced the hypertonic saline as more painful than healthy control subjects. Control subjects released dopamine in the basal ganglia during the painful stimulation, whereas fibromyalgia patients did not. In control subjects, the amount of dopamine release correlated with the amount of perceived pain but in fibromyalgia patients no such correlation was observed. These findings provide the first direct evidence that fibromyalgia patients have an abnormal dopamine response to pain. The disrupted dopaminergic reactivity in fibromyalgia patients could be a critical factor underlying the widespread pain and discomfort in fibromyalgia and suggests that the therapeutic effects of dopaminergic treatments for this intractable disorder should be explored.

  20. 56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three crib side walls, being flown by the derrick. The upper part of the fourth member, marked with an identifying tag, shows evidence of burning. Notice how well the lower members fit together. This view shows that individual timber members were worked, in part, after assembly. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  1. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. 26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL FILLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL- FILLED TRANSFORMER POTS - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  4. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  6. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BLOWER HOUSE SHOWING POWER WHEELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BLOWER HOUSE SHOWING POWER WHEELS AND RACEWAY, LOOKING SOUTH. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH SAWMILL BEHIND - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  8. 25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 14. View showing detail of truss (unidentified). Drawing courtesy Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View showing detail of truss (unidentified). Drawing courtesy Engineering Department, City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW TOWARD CARPENTER'S HALL - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 246. View showing the curvilinear alignment of the parkway on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    246. View showing the curvilinear alignment of the parkway on a ridge. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT New York, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Niantic Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  15. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES AND CLERESTORY ARRANGEMENT - Sulphur Springs Methodist Campground, Sulphur Springs Road (Sulphur Springs), Sulphur Springs, Washington County, TN

  16. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  18. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST DOWN HARRISON AVENUE - Pearce Manufacturing Company, Factory A, Harrison Avenue West at Wilkens, Latrobe, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing SWIMMERS, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FACING NORTHEAST - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  3. 5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND THE PRESSED METAL CEILING, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - 443 Seventh Street, Northwest (Commercial Building), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. 12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  11. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 25. DETAIL SHOWING BRAKING MECHANISM FOR TRAIN, NOTE HOT RAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL SHOWING BRAKING MECHANISM FOR TRAIN, NOTE HOT RAIL ON LEFT - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. 3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 13. Detail showing canopy at southeast corner; note single column ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail showing canopy at southeast corner; note single column supporting structure - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  15. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  16. 13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  18. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  19. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  20. Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

  1. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  2. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  3. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  4. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  5. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  6. 31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after the 1888-1889 and 1899-1900 reconstructions; also shows profile of bridge before 1888 (Martin Sigvart Grytbak, Wabasha St. Bridge, Formerly St. Paul Bridge, 1919); profile of Wabasha street bridge - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  7. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  9. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  10. Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

  11. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  12. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  13. 43 CFR 3430.2-1 - Initial showing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-1 Initial showing. All preference right coal lease applications shall have contained or shall have... analysis, sulfur content and BTU content of the coal, and all supporting geological and geophysical data... to be mined by surface mining methods, isopachous maps of the overburden. These maps shall show...

  14. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  15. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broadcast facilities; showing required. 73.24... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An authorization for a new AM broadcast station or increase in facilities of an existing station will be...

  16. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  17. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  18. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  19. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  20. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the upstream face and concrete base added in 1916/1917 and showing the iron grating covering upstream side of outlet structure is visible at lower photo center, view northeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. 28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED POSITION WITH THE EXTREME UPPER PORTION OF THE BASCULE RACK GEAR SHOWING IN THE LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

  6. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  8. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  9. The Dominant Ms Allele in Onion Shows Reduced Penetrance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly used source of cytoplasmic male sterility in onion is controlled by the interaction of the cytoplasm [male-sterile (S) or normal (N) male-fertile] and one nuclear male-fertility-restoration locus (Ms). Scoring of genotypes at Ms is generally done by testcrossing male-fertile to mal...

  10. 1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF COUNCIL CHAMBERS, SHOP WITH PORTION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND TRACK FILL AREA IN RIGHT HAND CORNER - Hardin City Water Works, 101 East Fourth Street, Hardin, Big Horn County, MT

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  12. 42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in foreground, aft elevation of cabin beyond; weather canopy overhead is not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  13. PERSPECTIVE FROM SOUTH SHOWING WEATHERED BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE FROM SOUTH SHOWING WEATHERED BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING. NOTE BRIDGE SITS ON ONE CONCRETEFACED ABUTMENT AND ONE STONE PIER. - Beaverkill Bridge, Spanning Beaver Kill, TR 30 (Craigie Claire Road), Roscoe, Sullivan County, NY

  14. 17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, abort button, phones, and observation window. View looking northwest. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured by Heine Chimney Co., Chicago. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Power House, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken to east of CO-172-BR-8 and looking southwesterly. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly section than CO-172-AO-4. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 11. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM WATERLINE; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM WATERLINE; SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 22. GROUND VIEW OF PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BENTS 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GROUND VIEW OF PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BENTS 1-3, STAIRWAY (RIGHT), RESTROOMS UNDER PIER (CENTER), MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. Oblique view showing western abutment, looking ENE along main line. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view showing western abutment, looking ENE along main line. Septa commuter train in foreground. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Whitford Bridge, Spanning Amtrak tracks at Whitford Road, Whitford, Chester County, PA

  8. 4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete landings, window treatments. Very obscured by unremovable vegetation. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 11, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 3. Front of Mansion, facing east, shows portico, raised section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Front of Mansion, facing east, shows portico, raised section of second story, and section (south of extreme left chimney) added c. 1914. Winter view. - Sotterly, State Route 245 & Vista Road Vicinity, Hollywood, St. Mary's County, MD

  10. 3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, WINDMILL, AND POTATO CELLAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Hjelm Farmstead, U.S. Highway 20 at New Sweden, Idaho Falls, Bonneville County, ID

  11. 3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 2), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  12. 8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL FROM THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM WITH POND A IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  13. 11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ON THE HORIZON (LEFT, CENTER), LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  14. 9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF FORMER CONCRETE FLASHBOARD STRUCTURE ON RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  15. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 1), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  16. 6. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BASE OF LIGHT TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BASE OF LIGHT TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER COBBLE PAVING (FOREGROUND) AND WINGWALL, LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  18. 22. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  19. 9. DETAIL OF THE FAN HOUSE INTERIOR, SHOWING FAN OPENINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF THE FAN HOUSE INTERIOR, SHOWING FAN OPENINGS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  20. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATOR HOUSE, SHOWING CONCRETE MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATOR HOUSE, SHOWING CONCRETE MACHINERY FOOTINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA