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Sample records for age-matched general population

  1. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  2. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  3. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  4. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  5. Medication Adherence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Glombiewski, Julia A.; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide; Braehler, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to medication is low in specific populations who need chronic medication. However, adherence to medication is also of interest in a more general fashion, independent of specific populations or side effects of particular drugs. If clinicians and researchers expect patients to show close to full adherence, it is relevant to know how likely the achievement of this goal is. Population based rates can provide an estimate of efforts needed to achieve near complete adherence in patient populations. The objective of the study was to collect normative data for medication nonadherence in the general population. Methods and Findings We assessed 2,512 persons (a representative sample of German population). Adherence was measured by Rief Adherence Index. We also assessed current medication intake and side effects. We found that at least 33% of Germans repeatedly fail to follow their doctor's recommendations regarding pharmacological treatments and only 25% of Germans describe themselves as fully adherent. Nonadherence to medication occurs more often in younger patients with higher socioeconomic status taking short-term medications than in older patients with chronic conditions. Experience with medication side effects was the most prominent predictor of nonadherence. Conclusions The major strengths of our study are a representative sample and a novel approach to assess adherence. Nonadherece seems to be commonplace in the general population. Therefore adherence cannot be expected per se but needs special efforts on behalf of prescribers and public health initiatives. Nonadherence to medication should not only be considered as a drug-specific behaviour problem, but as a behaviour pattern that is independent of the prescribed medication. PMID:23272064

  6. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  7. Characteristics of Hyperacusis in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n=66) and self-reported (n=313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n=2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  8. Exposure of the general population to gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Akland, G G

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

  9. Singing proficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Giguère, Jean-François; Peretz, Isabelle

    2007-02-01

    Most believe that the ability to carry a tune is unevenly distributed in the general population. To test this claim, we asked occasional singers (n=62) to sing a well-known song in both the laboratory and in a natural setting (experiment 1). Sung performances were judged by peers for proficiency, analyzed for pitch and time accuracy with an acoustic-based method, and compared to professional singing. The peer ratings for the proficiency of occasional singers were normally distributed. Only a minority of the occasional singers made numerous pitch errors. The variance in singing proficiency was largely due to tempo differences. Occasional singers tended to sing at a faster tempo and with more pitch and time errors relative to professional singers. In experiment 2 15 nonmusicians from experiment 1 sang the same song at a slow tempo. In this condition, most of the occasional singers sang as accurately as the professional singers. Thus, singing appears to be a universal human trait. However, two of the occasional singers maintained a high rate of pitch errors at the slower tempo. This poor performance was not due to impaired pitch perception, thus suggesting the existence of a purely vocal form of tone deafness.

  10. Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in sex workers and women from the general population in Spain.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Marshall, Vickie; Solà, Judit; Palacio, Virgilio; Almirall, Rosa; Goedert, James J; Bosch, F Xavier; Whitby, Denise

    2002-03-01

    Transmission routes of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the general population are poorly understood. Whereas sexual transmission appears to be common in homosexual men, the evidence for heterosexual transmission is less convincing. In our study, prevalence of KSHV infection was examined among women in the Spanish general population and among sex workers. Subjects consisted of 100 prostitutes and 100 women randomly sampled from the general population and age-matched to the prostitutes. Women had a personal interview and gynecologic examinations in which a blood sample, cervical cells and oral cells were obtained. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), oral and cervical samples were tested for KSHV DNA by quantitative real-time PCR. Sera were tested for antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ELISA and against KSHV by latent IFA and K8.1 ELISA. Women who were positive in either serologic assay or PCR were considered infected by KSHV. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical scrapes were evaluated using the Hybrid Capture System. The study population had an average age of 30 years and were HIV-negative. Women from the general population were largely of Spanish nationality, and 61% reported lifetime monogamy. The majority of the prostitutes (76%) were immigrants, primarily from South America. Sex workers were twice as likely to be infected with KSHV than women in the general population (16% vs. 8%, prevalence odds ratio [OR] = 2.2). KSHV was more prevalent among HPV DNA-positive women (OR = 2.5) and among women with an early age at first sexual intercourse (OR = 2.7, p < 0.05). KSHV DNA was detected by PCR in 3% of the oral cavity samples, in 2% of the cervical samples of the prostitutes and in 1% of the cervical samples of women in the general population. All PBMC samples were negative. These results suggest that in low-risk countries for KSHV, oral shedding and heterosexual contacts are potential pathways for KSHV transmission.

  11. What's more general than a whole population?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Statistical inference is commonly said to be inapplicable to complete population studies, such as censuses, due to the absence of sampling variability. Nevertheless, in recent years, studies of whole populations, e.g., all cases of a certain cancer in a given country, have become more common, and often report p values and confidence intervals regardless of such concerns. With reference to the social science literature, the current paper explores the circumstances under which statistical inference can be meaningful for such studies. It concludes that its use implicitly requires a target population which is wider than the whole population studied - for example future cases, or a supranational geographic region - and that the validity of such statistical analysis depends on the generalizability of the whole to the target population.

  12. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  13. A general consumer-resource population model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  14. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  15. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  16. Pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2017-01-01

    Human exposures to pesticides can occur in the workplace, in the household and through the ambient environment. While several articles have reviewed the impact of pesticide exposures on human respiratory health in occupational settings, to the best of our knowledge, this article is the first one to review published studies on the association between pesticide exposures and human respiratory health in the general populations. In this article, we critically reviewed evidences up to date studying the associations between non-occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations. This article also highlighted questions arising from these studies, including our recent analyses using the data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), for future research. We found few studies have addressed the impact of environmental pesticide exposures on respiratory health, especially on lung function, in general populations. In the studies using the data from CHMS Cycle 1, exposures to OP insecticides, pyrethroid insecticides, and the organochlorine pesticide DDT were associated with impaired lung function in the Canadian general population, but no significant associations were observed for the herbicide 2,4-D. Future research should focus on the potential age-specific and pesticide-specific effect on respiratory health in the general population, and repeated longitudinal study design is critical for assessing the temporal variations in pesticide exposures. Research findings from current studies of non-occupational pesticide exposures and their health impact in general population will help to improve the role of regulatory policies in mitigating pesticide-related public health problems, and thereafter providing greater benefit to the general population.

  17. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  18. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  19. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions.

  1. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Parsa, Rahul A.; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    information is also provided regarding additional factors that might contribute to the development of voice disorders.Over 3 million teachers in the United States use their voice as a primary tool of trade and are thought to be at higher risk for occupation-related voice disorders than the general population. However, estimates regarding the…

  2. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  3. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  4. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  5. Validation of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) is an eight-item instrument to assess how patients perceive their dental and facial esthetics. In this cross-sectional study we investigated dimensionality, reliability, and validity of OES scores in the adult general population in Sweden. Methods In a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 39%, N=1159 subjects, 58% female, mean age (standard deviation): 49.2 (17.4) years), dimensionality of OES was investigated using factor analytic methods to determine how many scores are needed to characterize the construct. Reliability of scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Score validity was determined by correlating the OES summary score with a global indicator of orofacial esthetics (OE). Results Factor analyses provided support that a single score can sufficiently characterize OE. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93 indicated excellent reliability. A validity coefficient of r=0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.90) indicated that OES summary scores correlated highly with a global OE assessment. Conclusions The OES is a promising instrument to measure the construct OE. Factor analyses supported that this construct can be assessed with one score, offering a feasible and acceptable standardized assessment of OE. The present study extends the OES use to the general population, an important target population for assessment of orofacial esthetics. PMID:23158767

  6. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap.

  7. Genetic Determinants of Pubertal Timing in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K.Z.; Henderson, Katherine D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is an important developmental stage during which reproductive capacity is attained. The timing of puberty varies greatly among healthy individuals in the general population and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic variation is known to influence the normal spectrum of pubertal timing, the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. Genetic analyses have identified a number of genes responsible for rare disorders of pubertal timing such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Recently, the first loci with common variation reproducibly associated with population variation in the timing of puberty were identified at 6q21 in or near LIN28B and at 9q31.2. However, these two loci explain only a small fraction of the genetic contribution to population variation in pubertal timing, suggesting the need to continue to consider other loci and other types of variants. Here we provide an update of the genes implicated in disorders of puberty, discuss genes and pathways that may be involved in the timing of normal puberty, and suggest additional avenues of investigation to identify genetic regulators of puberty in the general population. PMID:20144687

  8. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  9. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  10. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor’s law

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Cohen, Joel E.; Maritan, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Taylor’s law (TL) states that the variance V of a nonnegative random variable is a power function of its mean M; i.e., V=aMb. TL has been verified extensively in ecology, where it applies to population abundance, physics, and other natural sciences. Its ubiquitous empirical verification suggests a context-independent mechanism. Sample exponents b measured empirically via the scaling of sample mean and variance typically cluster around the value b=2. Some theoretical models of population growth, however, predict a broad range of values for the population exponent b pertaining to the mean and variance of population density, depending on details of the growth process. Is the widely reported sample exponent b≃2 the result of ecological processes or could it be a statistical artifact? Here, we apply large deviations theory and finite-sample arguments to show exactly that in a broad class of growth models the sample exponent is b≃2 regardless of the underlying population exponent. We derive a generalized TL in terms of sample and population exponents bjk for the scaling of the kth vs. the jth cumulants. The sample exponent bjk depends predictably on the number of samples and for finite samples we obtain bjk≃k/j asymptotically in time, a prediction that we verify in two empirical examples. Thus, the sample exponent b≃2 may indeed be a statistical artifact and not dependent on population dynamics under conditions that we specify exactly. Given the broad class of models investigated, our results apply to many fields where TL is used although inadequately understood. PMID:25941384

  11. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  12. Long-Term Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Strabismus after Corrective Surgery Compared to the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meiping; Yu, Huanyun; Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jinling; Zheng, Jingwei; Yu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the status of and factors associated with long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult patients with strabismus following corrective surgery. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 122 adults who underwent corrective surgery and were followed up for at least 1 year were recruited. Pre- and post-operative HRQOL were evaluated using the Chinese version of the Adult Strabismus 20 (AS-20). Demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded. Eighty-nine age-matched, normal individuals without a history of strabismus were recruited as a control group. Results AS-20 scores improved significantly in the psychosocial subscale and total scale after surgery for all122 patients, but not in the function subscale. HRQOL was better in the successful cases than in the non-successful cases (p<0.005). Subjects who recovered stereo function had better HRQOL than those who did not (p<0.01). Compared to the control population, the patients had poorer HRQOL post-operatively, with only approximately 30% of the subjects having scores within the normal threshold scores. The self-sense of a lack of ocular deviation and a successful surgical outcome were significant factors associated with post-operative HRQOL status. Conclusions HRQOL, as evaluated by AS-20 scores, improved in the patients after surgery but was worse than that in the general population. Successful surgical outcomes and a sense of good alignment were the main factors that correlated with increased post-operative HRQOL. Positive assessments of surgical results by patients may benefit post-operative HRQOL. PMID:27846304

  13. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  14. General and minority stress in an LGB population in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vinke, John

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on the influence of determinants of mental health on a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in Flanders. Our sample is drawn from the Zzzip survey, and contains 2,280 LGBs, of whom 1,565 are men and 715 are women. The traditional social stress model outlines the influence of general stressors on stress (Pearlin, 1989). Meyer (1995) has expanded Pearlin's model to include the concept of minority stress. This study focuses on aspects of personal characteristics and social structural arrangements. Our study confirms the importance of age and education as relevant determinants for mental health. Additionally, although most research establishes sex differences in depression, this study does not find significant differences in depression between men and women. In women, sexual identity is a significant determinant of depressive score, but we do not find the same in men. Finally, both general and minority stressors, especially the internal stressors, are found to have an important effect on depressive outcomes.

  15. Risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population.

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D L; Vierkant, R A; DeStefano, F; Layde, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the individual, physical, and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. METHODS: Population based case-control study in Marshfield epidemiological study area in Wisconsin, USA. Cases were men and women aged 18-69 with newly diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 206 (83.1%) of 248 eligible). Controls were a random sample of residents of the study area who had no history of diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 211 (81.5%) of 259 eligible). Cases and controls were matched by age. Telephone interviews and reviews of medical records obtained height and weight, medical history, average daily hours of exposure to selected physical and organisational work factors, and self ratings on psychosocial work scales. RESULTS: In the final logistic regression model, five work and three non-work variables were associated with risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, after adjusting for age. For each one unit of increase in body mass index (kg/m2), risk increased 8% (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03 to 1.14). Having a previous musculoskeletal condition was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.23). People reporting the least influence at work had 2.86 times the risk (95% CI, 1.10 to 7.14) than those with the most influence at work. CONCLUSIONS: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a work related disease, although some important measures of occupational exposure, including keyboard use, were not risk factors in this general population study. The mechanism whereby a weight gain of about six pounds increases the risk of disease 8% requires explanation. PMID:9404321

  16. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  17. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population. PMID:27275274

  18. Prevalence of Titin Truncating Variants in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinade, Oyediran; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. Methods and Results Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52–54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense–R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10−4, respectively). Conclusion A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families

  19. [Symptoms of sleep apnea syndrome in the general population].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón, C; Gude, F; Otero, Y; Alvarez Dobaño, J M; Golpe, A; Rodríguez Suárez, J R

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features of patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the general population. One hundred ten individuals were selected randomly from the census and given hospital appointments. Case histories were taken and complete physical examinations were made. Nighttime respiratory polysomnograms were performed. Twenty-two (20%) of the 110 subjects presented SAS. In the SAS group, 59.1% were habitual snorers and 22.7% reported daytime hypersomnolence. The SAS patients has a mean age of 59.6 +/- 8.8 years and 45.4% showed alterations of the pharynx. No differences in spirometric variables were observed. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted SAS in the multivariate analysis. We conclude that the prevalence of snoring, daytime hypersomnolence, pharyngeal alterations are higher in patients with SAS. The patients are also older. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted of SAS.

  20. [Coping with nightmares in the General population: an online study].

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Göritz, Anja S

    2014-05-01

    The present study elicited a variety of coping strategies for nightmares in the general population and asked whether these coping strategies were helpful. A large-scale online survey (N=2 872, mean age: 43 years) was carried out. About 11.5% of the participants reported nightmares once a week or more often. The results indicate that sharing of nightmares was the most prevalent coping strategy, followed by re-writing the nightmare and reading about nightmares. Seeking professional help was rarely listed, even by persons with frequent nightmares and for the majority without benefit. The findings clearly show that there is a lot of work ahead providing adequate help for persons suffering from nightmares.

  1. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  2. Latex allergy: a relevant issue in the general pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Kim, K T

    1998-01-01

    Although latex allergy is a widely recognized problem of the pediatric myelomeningocele population and of frequent users of latex products, it is often overlooked in the general pediatric population. The prevalence of latex in common household items and in medical environments increases one's exposure and thus one's possibility of sensitization to latex. Latex allergy may range from mild local reactions such as erythema to more severe systemic reactions such as asthma or anaphylaxis. The immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism of these reactions has been confirmed serologically by the presence of latex-specific immunoglobulin E with radioallergosorbent testing. Because avoidance of latex is currently the only way to prevent reactions, the identification of household items that contain latex is extremely important. However, because inadvertent exposure to latex is not uncommon, Medic-Alert bracelets and an Epi-Pen should be provided for children allergic to latex. Pediatric nurses should consider latex allergy as a possible diagnosis in situations of unexplained allergic or anaphylactic reactions and should be aware of optimal therapeutic interventions.

  3. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  4. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of influenza, is essential. AIM: To assess the organizational factors in Dutch general practice, which were associated with the influenza vaccination rate in 1994. METHOD: A retrospective questionnaire study was undertaken in 1586 of the 4758 Dutch general practices, which were randomly selected. A total of 1251 (79%) practices returned a questionnaire. The items verified were practice profile, urbanization, delegation index, use of computer-based patient records, influenza vaccination characteristics and influenza vaccination rate. RESULTS: No differences were found with regard to the percentage of single-handed practices (65%), practices situated in urban area (38%), practices with a pharmacy (12%), patients insured by the National Health Service (59%) and use of computer-based patient records (57%) when compared with national statistics. The mean overall influenza vaccination rate was 9.0% (SD 4.0%). Using a logistic regression analysis, a high vaccination rate (> or = 9%) was associated with the use of personal reminders (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 1.3-2.2), monitoring patient compliance (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.4), marking risk patients in computer-based patient records (OR 1.3, 1.0-1.6), a small number of patients per full-time practice assistant (OR 1.5, 1.1-1.9), urban areas (OR 1.6, 1.3-2.1) and single-handed practices (OR 1.5, 1.1-1.9). CONCLUSION: Improvement of vaccination rates in high-risk patients may be achievable by promoting the use of personal reminders and computer-based patient records, as well as monitoring patient compliance. In addition, the role of practice assistants with regard to preventive activities should be developed further. Practices situated in rural areas and

  5. Depression in Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Sandra; Wiltink, Jörg; Wild, Philipp S.; Sinning, Christoph R.; Lubos, Edith; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Zeller, Tanja; Munzel, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are more frequent in patients with atrial fibrillation. Data from the general population are limited. Methods and Results In 10,000 individuals (mean age 56±11 years, 49.4% women) of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study we assessed depression by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and a history of depression in relation to manifest atrial fibrillation (n = 309 cases). The median (25th/75th percentile) PHQ-9 score of depressive symptoms was 4 (2/6) in atrial fibrillation individuals versus 3 (2/6) individuals without atrial fibrillation, . Multivariable regression analyses of the severity of depressive symptoms in relation to atrial fibrillation in cardiovascular risk factor adjusted models revealed a relation of PHQ-9 values and atrial fibrillation (odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.08; P = 0.023). The association was stronger for the somatic symptom dimension of depression (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.15; P = 0.0085) than for cognitive symptoms (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98–1.11; P = 0.15). Results did not change markedly after additional adjustment for heart failure, partnership status or the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein. Both, self-reported physical health status, very good/good versus fair/bad, (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41–0.70; P<0.001) and mental health status (OR 0.61 (0.46–0.82); P = 0.0012) were associated with atrial fibrillation in multivariable-adjusted models. Conclusions In a population-based sample we observed a higher burden of depressive symptoms driven by somatic symptom dimensions in individuals with atrial fibrillation. Depression was associated with a worse perception of physical or mental health status. Whether screening and treatment of depressive symptoms modulates disease progression and outcome needs to be shown. PMID:24324579

  6. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  7. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  8. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M.; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity. PMID:28257032

  9. Diaper dermatitis: frequency and severity among a general infant population.

    PubMed

    Jordan, W E; Lawson, K D; Berg, R W; Franxman, J J; Marrer, A M

    1986-06-01

    The frequency and severity of diaper dermatitis was measured among a midwestern suburban population of 1089 infants ranging in age from 1 to 20 months. No diagnosis of specific etiology was made. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for Candida albicans, and information on family characteristics, infant diet, general health, history of rash, and diapering habits and practices was collected by questionnaire. The distribution of the severity of observed diaper rash can be described as a logarithmic-normal function, implying several multiplicative causative factors. Within the total severity range, there appear to be three subcategories of diaper rash, differing in some manner, perhaps reflecting different etiologies. The frequency of observed diaper rash was a function of the maturity of the infant, reaching a maximum around 9 to 12 months of age. The prevalence of severe rash correlated with the presence and level of fecal C. albicans. Infants diapered exclusively in disposable diapers showed less rash (P less than 0.001) than those diapered exclusively or sometimes in cloth diapers.

  10. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  11. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, p<0.001) with a relative risk of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2) and was twice more frequent for subjects 65 years of age or older compared to subjects younger than 45 years. Approximately 30% of subjects reporting insomnia had difficulties initiating sleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least

  12. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    PubMed

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  13. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  14. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  15. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  16. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    PubMed

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  17. Generalization of Carey's equality and a theorem on stationary population.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Carey, James R

    2015-09-01

    Carey's Equality pertaining to stationary models is well known. In this paper, we have stated and proved a fundamental theorem related to the formation of this Equality. This theorem will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of each captive subject, and their corresponding follow-up duration in a stationary population. We have demonstrated a numerical example of a captive cohort and the survival pattern of medfly populations. These results can be adopted to understand age-structure and aging process in stationary and non-stationary population models.

  18. A general approach for population games with application to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Alison P.

    2011-01-01

    Reconciling the interests of individuals with the interests of communities is a major challenges in designing and implementing health policies. In this paper, we present a technique based on a combination of mechanistic population-scale models from Markov decision process theory and game theory that facilitates the evaluation of game theoretic decisions at both individual and community scales. We demonstrate how nonlinear population models can be combined with game theory to inform the management of infectious diseases. To illustrate our technique, we provide solutions to several variants of the simple vaccination game including imperfect vaccine efficacy and differential waning of natural and vaccine immunity. In addition, we show how path-integral approaches can be applied to the study of models in which strategies are fixed waiting times rather than exponential random variables. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of decision problems with population-dynamic feedbacks. PMID:21277314

  19. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  20. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  1. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  2. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  3. [A general review of the discussion at the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y

    1985-03-29

    A general review of papers and discussions at the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development held December 10-14, 1984 is presented. Discussions on population and development included China's population change 1949-1982, impacts of economic change on Tianjin's population, the population factor in economic development policy-making, Japanese population and development, recent population development in Hungary, population and economy, comprehensive long-term population development in Russia, fertility rate change factors in China, Shanghai's population change, and population and economic development in Mian County, Shaanxi Province. Fertility rate changes were discussed, including multinational borderline value assumptions, recent trends in life span fertility rate in China, fertility rate in Jiangsu Province, fertility rate change in Zhejiang Province, and sterilization in Yangjiaping, Thailand. Population and employment discussions included the economic impact of world population change, the 1984 International Population Conference, changes in economically productive population and employment strategy, employed/unemployed populations in Guangdong Province, and the economic composition of China's population. Urbanization discussions covered population and development methodological problems, population growth and economic development in the Pacific region, surplus rural population transfer and economic development in China, urbanization analysis, trends and urban population distribution problems, and Laioning Province population development. Issues in migration, population distribution, and regional population included migration and development of the Great Northwest, internal migration to Beijing, Chinese population growth and economic development by major region, and current population changes of Chinese Tibetans. Under social problems of population, discussions included women's status, development and population change, Shanghai's aging trend

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  6. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  7. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  8. Hypoconnectivity of Resting-State Networks in Persons with Aphasia Compared with Healthy Age-Matched Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece W.

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is a language disorder affecting more than one million people in the US. While language function has traditionally been the focus of neuroimaging research, other cognitive functions are affected in this population, which has implications not only for those specific processes but also for the interaction of language and other cognitive functions. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a practical and informative way to explore and characterize general cognitive engagement and/or health in this population, but it is currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to explore the functional connectivity in resting state networks (RSNs) and in the semantic network in seven persons with aphasia (PWA) who were at least 6 months post onset compared with 11 neurologically healthy adults (NHA) in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of general cognitive engagement in aphasia. These preliminary results show that PWA exhibit hypoconnectivity in the semantic network and all RSNs except the visual network. Compared with NHA, PWA appear to have fewer cross- and left-hemispheric connections. However, PWA exhibit some stronger connections than NHA within the semantic network, which could indicate compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, connectivity for RSNs appear to increase with decreasing aphasia severity and decrease with increasing lesion size. This knowledge has the potential to improve aphasia therapy by furthering the understanding of lesion effects on the cognitive system as a whole, which can guide treatment target selection and promotion of favorable neural reorganization for optimal recovery of function. PMID:28293185

  9. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  10. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  11. A generalized discriminant rule when training population and test population differ on their descriptive parameters.

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Christophe; Beninel, Farid; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2002-06-01

    Standard discriminant analysis methods make the assumption that both the labeled sample used to estimate the discriminant rule and the nonlabeled sample on which this rule is applied arise from the same population. In this work, we consider the case where the two populations are slightly different. In the multinormal context, we establish that both populations are linked through linear mapping. Estimation of the nonlabeled sample discriminant rule is then obtained by estimating parameters of this linear relationship. Several models describing this relationship are proposed and associated estimated parameters are given. An experimental illustration is also provided in which sex of birds that differ morphometrically over their geographical range is to be deterrmined and a comparison with the standard allocation rule is performed. Extension to a partially labeled sample is also discussed.

  12. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  13. Sign language users' education and employment levels: keeping pace with changes in the general Australian population?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population comparability and sampling errors that may affect survey-based research. The analysis shows that sign language users are approaching parity with the general population on some measures of educational attainment, but there remains a gap in employment levels and particularly income. Sign language users aged 25-44 years show higher attainment than those in the 45-64 age group, suggesting that educational reforms in the last 30 years are having a positive impact on both education and employment levels. However, younger sign language users are still struggling to keep pace with improvements in certain employment outcomes that are seen in the general population.

  14. Possible relations between general population suicide rates and societal crime: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2008-10-01

    Crime may be associated with a less structured society, less social integration, and feelings of less security and greater distress among citizens, which characteristics may lead to mental illness and subsequent suicide. Therefore, a cross-national analysis examining the association of general population suicide rates with percent of males and females in the population victimised by different categories of crime was undertaken using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and United Nations for 42 countries. Spearman correlations were generally weak and not statistically significant. Those values were at variance with the study's hypothesis and may be explained by several factors, including methodological issues. Individual-level case-control or cohort studies of suicides and attempted suicides in the general population may permit exploration of the relation of general population suicides with experience and percent by nations of being victimised by crime.

  15. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  16. Autistic Traits in the General Population: What Mediates the Link with Depressive and Anxious Symptomatology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…

  17. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  18. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Labor Migrants, Their Wives and the General Population in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Subash; Thapa, Deependra Kaji; Buve, Anne; Hannes, Karin; Nepal, Chiranjibi; Mathei, Catharina

    2017-04-01

    Nepalese labor migrants and their wives are considered as at-risk populations for HIV infection. There may be a risk of HIV transmission from the labor migrant and their wives to the general population due to HIV-related risk behaviors, but so far empirical evidence to support this hypothesis is scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare HIV-related risk behaviors between labor migrants, their wives, and males and females from the general population in the far-western region of Nepal. This was a cross-sectional study, in which structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 261 male labor migrants, 262 wives of labor migrants, 123 males and 122 females from the general population. We found that the proportion of the labor migrants and their wives reporting having had extramarital sex in the previous year did not differ significantly with the males (11.9 vs. 13.4 %, p value 0.752) and females (2.0 vs. 1.7 %, p value 0.127) from the general population. However, the labor migrants compared with the males from the general population were 1.51 times and the wives of labor migrants compared with the females from the general population were 2.37 times more likely to have been tested for HIV. Both the males from the general population and the labor migrants are equally engaged in unprotected extramarital sex. Therefore, it is recommended that the prevention programs, including access to condoms and HIV testing, should be scaled up targeting a broader range of individuals in the far-western region of Nepal.

  19. Fitness and Activity Assessments among U.S. Army Populations: Implications for NCHS General Population Surveys,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MR J A VOGEL JAN 86 7 CLAIFUAIEDUSARi EM-Mii’ F/G 6/14 N llQI *s. L. - III IIIII llL. " MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide If necory and identify by block number) Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), Aerobic power, Muscular strength 20. Ain6...the specific test events, standards, applicable population and frequency have varied over the years. Prior to 1980 a five event fitness test was

  20. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  1. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  2. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  3. Drinking patterns and problems among primary care patients: a comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1991-01-01

    While problem drinking is believed to be over-represented in primary care practice, additional research in this area is needed. A probability sample of 394 patients attending all county-operated primary care clinics in Contra Costa County, California, were breathalyzed and interviewed regarding drinking patterns and alcohol problems. These data are compared with those obtained from a representative general population sample of over 3000 respondents living in the same county. While the clinic population reported higher rates of abstinence compared with the general population (38 versus 17%), among drinkers the clinic sample reported higher rates of heavy drinking. In the clinic sample 14% reported a physical health problem related to drinking and 22% reported three or more symptoms of alcohol dependence during the last year, compared with 3 and 10%, respectively, in the general population. The clinic sample was demographically different from those in the general population which could account, in part, for differences in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems between the two populations. The prevalence of heavy and problem drinking in this primary care practice suggests the potential of primary care settings for early identification and treatment of alcohol-misusing patients.

  4. Health and wellbeing of Victorian adults with intellectual disability compared to the general Victorian population.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed Imran; Ansari, Zahid; Vaughan, Loretta; Matters, Helen; Emerson, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Multiple measures of health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability (ID) and the general Victorian population were compared using representative population level data. The sample consisted of adults with ID (N=897) and the general Victorian population (N=34,168) living in the state of Victoria in Australia. Proxy respondents were interviewed on behalf of people with ID, while respondents from the general Victorian population were interviewed directly. The data were weighted to reflect the age/sex/geographic distribution of the population. Results revealed that adults with ID reported higher prevalence of poor social determinants of health, behavioural risk factors, depression, diabetes, poor or fair health. A higher proportion of people with ID reported blood pressure and blood glucose checks, while a lower proportion reported cervical and breast cancer screening, compared with the general Victorian population. The survey identified areas where targeted approaches may be undertaken to improve the health outcomes of people with ID and provide an important understanding of the health and wellbeing of these Victorians.

  5. HIV AND POPULATION DYNAMICS: A GENERAL MODEL AND MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD STANDARDS FOR EAST AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK

    2014-01-01

    In high-prevalence populations, the HIV epidemic undermines the validity of past empirical models and related demographic techniques. A parsimonious model of HIV and population dynamics is presented here and fit to 46,000 observations, gathered from 11 East African populations. The fitted model simulates HIV and population dynamics with standard demographic inputs and only two additional parameters for the onset and scale of the epidemic. The underestimation of the general prevalence of HIV in samples of pregnant women and the fertility impact of HIV are examples of the dynamic interactions that demographic models must reproduce and are shown here to increase over time even with constant prevalence levels. As a result, the impact of HIV on population growth appears to have been underestimated by current population projections that ignore this dynamic. PMID:12846130

  6. What is "normal" disability? An investigation of disability in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Stenzel, Nikola; Glaesmer, Heide; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-03-01

    Many studies have investigated the highly relevant association between pain and disability in clinical groups using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). To interpret these results, knowledge of disability in the general population is crucial. Moreover, to investigate criterion validity of the PDI, the influence on health care utilisation (HCU) is of special interest. In the present study, a broadened version of the PDI was psychometrically evaluated with a large representative sample of the general population. The independent impact of disability on HCU was also investigated. A representative sample of the German general population (N=2510) was screened for disability, somatic complaints, mental health (PHQ) and HCU. Following a psychometric evaluation of the PDI, data are provided about the distribution of disability in the general population. For the prediction of HCU, stepwise linear regression analysis was calculated. The psychometric evaluation of the PDI revealed a one-factor solution, high reliability, and satisfactory construct validity. Percentage scores for the distribution of disability are provided for those people reporting at least one pain/somatic symptom. These data allow a better description of disability in clinical samples. Somatic complaints, disability, unemployment or retirement, depression and anxiety explained 26% of the variance for HCU. The PDI is an economical, reliable and valid self-rating instrument for assessing disability caused by physical symptoms. HCU in the general population is determined by the number and severity of somatic complaints and also by disability. Symptoms and disability play a crucial but somewhat independent role.

  7. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  8. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  9. Ultra-rare disruptive and damaging mutations influence educational attainment in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Byrnes, Andrea; Kurki, Mitja; Zekavat, Seyedeh M.; Whelan, Christopher W.; Kals, Mart; Nivard, Michel G.; Bloemendal, Alex; Bloom, Jonathan M.; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Poterba, Timothy; Seed, Cotton; Handsaker, Robert E.; Natarajan, Pradeep; Mägi, Reedik; Gage, Diane; Robinson, Elise B.; Metspalu, Andres; Salomaa, Veikko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Purcell, Shaun M.; Sklar, Pamela; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Palotie, Aarno; Esko, Tõnu; Hultman, Christina; Neale, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive and damaging ultra-rare variants (URVs) in highly constrained (HC) genes are enriched in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. In the general population, this class of variants was associated with a decrease in years of education (YOE; −3.1 months; P-value=3.3×10−8). This effect was stronger among high brain-expressed genes and explained more YOE variance than pathogenic copy number variation, but less than common variants. Disruptive and damaging URVs in HC genes influence the determinants of YOE in the general population. PMID:27694993

  10. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  11. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. General Population: Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…

  12. Linking Theory of Mind and Central Coherence Bias in Autism and in the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Butler, David W.; Cottington, Emily M.; Jimenez, Flora

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether theory-of-mind deficits and weak central coherence might be functionally related. Found that theory-of-mind performance was inversely related to a measure of central coherence bias in the general population. Poor theory-of-mind performance was linked to weak central coherence among children with typical…

  13. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  15. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  16. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  17. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Cancer.gov

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  18. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  19. RESIDUES AND METABOLITES OF SELECTED PERSISTENT HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS IN BLOOD SPECIMENS FROM A GENERAL POPULATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Health Statistics collaborated with the National Human Monitoring Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a four-year study to assess the exposure of the general population to selected pesticides through analysis of blood serum and uri...

  20. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a Northern Mexican city

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (...

  2. Reactive attachment disorder in the general population: a hidden ESSENCE disorder.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Rachel; Pritchett, Jennifer; Marshall, Emma; Davidson, Claire; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  3. Evaluation of general response patterns as a diagnostic tool to determining contaminant impacts on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworska, J.S.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Rose, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Five General Response Patterns by fish populations exposed to stress were hypothesized by P. Colby and K. Munkittrick and D. Dixon. The authors used an individual based model of walleye and yellow perch configured for Oneida Lake, NY to test the generality of these patterns. They compared the yellow perch population responses in mean age, size at age, fraction mature at age, individual fecundity and density under 5 stress conditions. The stresses imposed were: (1) adults mortality; (2) eggs mortality (3) metabolic impacts on juveniles; (4) indirect effects from predator level -- increased predator mortality; (5) indirect effects form prey level -- reduced carrying capacity. Modeled yellow perch responses different from the responses hypothesized by Colby/Munkittrick and Dixon. Their analysis shows that the strength of predator-prey coupling must be considered when using patterns of growth, mortality and reproduction to infer the identity of stressors influencing fish populations.

  4. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the General Population: A Hidden ESSENCE Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Jennifer; Davidson, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications. PMID:23710150

  5. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population.

    PubMed

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other.

  6. Screening for prediabetes in the general child population: maternal attitude to participation.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsson, J; Ludvigsson, M; Sepa, A

    2001-12-01

    Screening to predict serious diseases in the general population has been regarded as unethical as it is supposed to make people anxious. Therefore we have evaluated whether mothers become anxious when their babies participate in a project to predict diabetes in the general child population. Out of 21 700 newborn children, 16 300 (75%) entered the ABIS project (All Babies in South-east Sweden). The parents (usually the mothers) answered a questionnaire at the child's birth and then again after 1 yr. A total of 10 868 representative birth questionnaires had been analyzed. To the question, 'How do you feel when you know that your child is participating in this study?', only 2.5% of mothers of children with type 1 diabetes in the family answered 'more anxious/much more anxious', and even fewer (1.5%) of the mothers in the general population (p < 0.01). A total of 52.5% of the general population answered 'calmer/more reassured' (29.3% 'calmer' and 23.2% 'much calmer'), while 43.3% felt unaffected. Those 1.5% of mothers who reported becoming more anxious were more likely to be in an unstable social situation (unemployed, p < 0.001; born abroad, p < 0.001; low education, p < 0.001). At the 1-yr follow-up, 4948 unselected questionnaires had been analyzed. Only 1.2% of the mothers felt 'more anxious', while the overwhelming majority felt either unaffected (58.7%) or calmer (38.6%). At this follow-up, most of those who had felt 'more anxious' at birth did not feel that way any longer, and none of those with diabetes in the family. We conclude that large-scale screening studies for the prediction of diabetes in the general population can be performed without causing increased anxiety. A few parents, most often found in the group with known social problems, might need extra information and support.

  7. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  8. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Skobić, Helena; Sinanović, Osman; Skobić Bovan, Nada; Ivanković, Ante; Pejanović Skobić, Natasa

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study was conducted on a stratified sample of 704 participants. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was determined using standardized questionnaire on alcohol consumption--Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Prevalence of alcohol abuse with high risk for alcoholism was 9.9% and prevalence of alcohol addiction was 2.1%. In student population, there were 3.9% of alcohol addicts and 11.1% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In high school population, there were 1.7% of alcohol addicts and 14.4% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In Mostar region there was a high prevalence of alcoholism and problematic drinking, especially in high school and student population. There is a need for extensive preventive measures that have to include education, early diagnosis and intervention.

  9. The frequency of different CGG-repeat alleles in the FMR-1 gene in the general population and special populations

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A. |; Chalifoux, M.; Wing, M.

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X (FRAXA) syndrome is the most common inherited form of developmental disability and was the first genetic disorder in which the mechanism of mutation is triplet repeat expansion. The normal fragile X mental retardation-1 gene has 6-52 copies of the CGG-repeat; affected males have extensive amplification, coupled with methylation and gene inactivation; and carriers have between about 55 and 200 copies. There is some overlap in the 45-55 repeat range, with some alleles showing stable and othres unstable transmission. There have been several estimates of the incidence of the FRAXA syndrome, based on testing of special populations using chromosome analysis and the range is 1/750-1/2000. Because of the high burden associated with this syndrome, and in the face of discussions about population screening, it is important to know the actual incidence of mutations in this gene, as well as the distribution of unstable repeats above 45 copes. We have initiated a general population screening to examine 50,000 newborn samples using PCR, and have developed a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method for amplifying the CGG-repeat from Guthrie spots. In the first 1600 samples examined, we found 15 alleles with greater than 45 CGG-repeats, with the highest being 61 repeats.

  10. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs) provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES), urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR). Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs. PMID:22111707

  11. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population: wine and resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-02-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

  12. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  13. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  14. GENERAL: A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Si-Yuan; Jin, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population Nc = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition.

  15. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  16. [Are Depressed People Aggressive People? Differences Between General Population and Depressive Patients].

    PubMed

    Otte, Stefanie; Lang, Fabian U; Vasic, Nenad; Shenar, Riad; Rasche, Katharina; Ramb, Charlotte; Dudeck, Manuela; Streb, Judith

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionThe study aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and aggression. Material and Methods681 depressive and non-depressive subjects of the general population as well as 132 depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II) as well as the Short Questionnaire for Gathering Factors of Aggressiveness (K-FAF). ResultsDepressive patients and depressive subjects of the general population did not merely report the highest levels of self-aggressiveness but also reached the highest scores on the scales of reactive and proactive aggression, indicating a high level of externalizing aggressiveness. DiscussionThe results support the neurobiological approach of the etiology of depressive disorders. Conclusions For future research of depressive disorders and aggression the investigation of the mediating roles of a low serotonin-level is recommended.

  17. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  18. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  19. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    PubMed

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  20. Influenza Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native People and in the United States General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Bruce, Michael G.; Redd, John T.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bresee, Joseph; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Historically, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have experienced a disproportionate burden of infectious disease morbidity compared with the general US population. We evaluated whether a disparity in influenza hospitalizations exists between AI/AN people and the general US population. Methods.  We used Indian Health Service hospital discharge data (2001–2011) for AI/AN people and 13 State Inpatient Databases (2001–2008) to provide a comparison to the US population. Hospitalization rates were calculated by respiratory year (July–June). Influenza-specific hospitalizations were defined as discharges with any influenza diagnoses. Influenza-associated hospitalizations were calculated using negative binomial regression models that incorporated hospitalization and influenza laboratory surveillance data. Results.  The mean influenza-specific hospitalization rate/100 000 persons/year during the 2001–2002 to 2007–2008 respiratory years was 18.6 for AI/AN people and 15.6 for the comparison US population. The age-adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (98.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.6–317.8) was similar to the comparison US population (58.2; CI, 34.7–172.2). By age, influenza-associated hospitalization rates were significantly higher among AI/AN infants (<1 year) (1070.7; CI, 640.7–2969.5) than the comparison US infant population (210.2; CI, 153.5–478.5). Conclusions.  American Indian/Alaska Native people had higher influenza-specific hospitalization rates than the comparison US population; a significant influenza-associated hospitalization rate disparity was detected only among AI/AN infants because of the wide CIs inherent to the model. Taken together, the influenza-specific and influenza-associated hospitalization rates suggest that AI/AN people might suffer disproportionately from influenza illness compared with the general US population. PMID:25734102

  1. Fluctuation limits of a locally regulated population and generalized Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savov, Mladen; Wang, Shi-Dong

    2015-06-01

    We consider a locally regulated spatial population model introduced by Bolker and Pacala. Based on the deterministic approximation studied by Fournier and Méléard, we prove that the fluctuation theorem holds under some mild moment conditions. The limiting process is shown to be an infinite-dimensional Gaussian process solving a generalized Langevin equation. In particular, we further consider its properties in one dimension case, which is characterized as a time-inhomogeneous Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  2. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population.

  3. Pet veterinarians have no increased risk of hepatitis E compared to the general population.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Valente-Gomes, G; Conceição-Neto, N; Nascimento, M S J

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of autochthonous hepatitis E in industrialized countries associated to genotype 3 has changed substantially the understanding about hepatitis E virus (HEV) circulation. In these countries transmission has been associated to the consumption and direct contact to swine, a well-known reservoir for HEV. More animal reservoirs for HEV might exist since antibodies to HEV have been detected in other animal species, such as dogs and cats. Given the intimate contact between these pets and humans, the potential zoonotic HEV transmission from dogs and cats deserves to be explored. To address this issue, 493 sera from pet veterinarians (373) and matched general population (120) were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using a commercial ELISA. Antibodies to HEV were found in 9.9% veterinarians and 13.3% general population. No statistically significant difference was found between these two groups showing that pet veterinarians have no increased risk to hepatitis E compared to the general population.

  4. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  5. Obstructive sleep apnoea in the general population: highly prevalent but minimal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Bjornsdottir, Erla; Olafsdottir, Kristin A; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as defined by an apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 in the middle-aged general population, and the interrelationship between OSA, sleep-related symptoms, sleepiness and vigilance.A general population sample of 40-65-year-old Icelanders was invited to participate in a study protocol that included a type 3 sleep study, questionnaire and a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT).Among the 415 subjects included in the study, 56.9% had no OSA (AHI <5), 24.1% had mild OSA (AHI 5-14.9), 12.5% had moderate OSA (AHI 15-29.9), 2.9% had severe OSA (AHI ≥30) and 3.6% were already diagnosed and receiving OSA treatment. However, no significant relationship was found between AHI and subjective sleepiness or clinical symptoms. A relationship with objective vigilance assessed by PVT was only found for those with AHI ≥30. Subjects already on OSA treatment and those accepting OSA treatment after participating in the study were more symptomatic and sleepier than others with similar OSA severity, as assessed by the AHI.In a middle-aged general population, approximately one in five subjects had moderate-to-severe OSA, but the majority of them were neither symptomatic nor sleepy and did not have impaired vigilance.

  6. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  7. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  8. HEV prevalence in the general population and among workers at zoonotic risk in Latium Region.

    PubMed

    Vulcano, A; Angelucci, M; Candelori, E; Martini, V; Patti, A M; Mancini, C; Santi, A L; Calvani, A; Casagni, L; Lamberti, A

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries. Sporadic cases in the developed world are mainly imported from endemic areas. HEV has been suggested to be a zoonotic infection, for which pigs may be the reservoir; specific swine strains of HEV have been identified. Humans are susceptible to infections with swine strains. The aim of this study was to analyse whether Italian pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers are more exposed than persons with other occupations. A total of 92 workers at zoonotic risk and 3511 controls from the general population of two Latium cities, Rome and Rieti, were tested for IgG-HEV antibodies. No significant difference in anti-HEV prevalence was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of general population was 2.9% against 3.3% of pig breeders, while there was a statistically significant difference (p = .0004) between subjects recruited in Rome (prevalence 2.5%) and those recruited in Rieti (prevalence 5.5%). Moreover, in some subgroups of general population and in a subgroup of pig breeders, the prevalence was higher than that previously reported in Italy and in other European countries. The highest value (33%) was found in male housekeepers enrolled in Rome; an analogous value was found in the employees of abattoirs (33%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission routes.

  9. Prevalence and Trends of the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Epidemic in General Population - A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Zhiquan; Xin, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and trends of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) epidemic in general population. Method Studies that reported prevalence rates of AAA from the general population were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists for the period between 1988 and 2013. Studies were included if they reported prevalence rates of AAA in general population from the community. In stratified analyses possible sources of bias, including areas difference, age, gender and diameter of aneurysms were examined. Publication bias was assessed with Egger's test method. Results 56 studies were identified. The overall pooled prevalence of AAA was 4.8% (4.3%, 5.3%). Stratified analyses showed the following results, areas difference: America 2.2% (2.2%, 2.2%), Europe 2.5% (2.4%, 2.5%), Australia 6.7% (6.5%, 7.0%), Asia 0.5% (0.3%, 0.7%); gender difference: male 6.0% (5.3%, 6.7%), female 1.6% (1.2%, 1.9%); age difference: 55–64years 1.3% (1.2%, 1.5%), 65–74 years 2.8% (2.7%, 2.9%), 75–84 years1.2%(1.1%, 1.3%), ≥85years0.6% (0.4%, 0.7%); aortic diameters difference: 30–39 mm, 3.3% (2.8%, 3.9%), 40–49 mm,0.7% (0.4%,1.0%), ≥50 mm, 0.4% (0.3%, 0.5%). The prevalence of AAA has decreased in Europe from 1988 to 2013. Hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, claudication and renal insufficiency were risk factors for AAA in Europe. Conclusion AAA is common in general population. The prevalence of AAA is higher in Australia than America and Europe. The pooled prevalence in western countries is higher than the Asia. Future research requires a larger database on the epidemiology of AAA in general population. PMID:24312543

  10. Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. Methods: Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. Results: Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P < 0.0001) and wake up time (P < 0.0001), shorter sleep duration (P < 0.01), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001). Living in areas with greater ONL also increased the dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality (P < 0.0001) and the likelihood of having a diagnostic profile congruent with a circadian rhythm disorder (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although they improve the overall safety of people and traffic, nighttime lights in our streets and cities are clearly linked with modifications in human sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL. Citation: Ohayon MM, Milesi C. Artificial outdoor nighttime lights associate with altered sleep behavior in the american general population. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1311–1320. PMID:27091523

  11. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. Methods We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Results Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. Conclusions This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants

  12. The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Ling; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Ng, Chee H.; Li, Lu; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Lok, Grace K. I.; Lu, Jian-Ping; Jia, Fu-Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of insomnia in the general population of China. A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Interne (CNKI), WanFang Data and SinoMed). Statistical analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. A total of 17 studies with 115,988 participants met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in China was 15.0% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 12.1%-18.5%). No significant difference was found in the prevalence between genders or across time period. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in population with a mean age of 43.7 years and older (11.6%; 95% CI: 7.5%-17.6%) was significantly lower than in those with a mean age younger than 43.7 years (20.4%; 95% CI: 14.2%-28.2%). The prevalence of insomnia was significantly affected by the type of assessment tools (Q = 14.1, P = 0.001). The general population prevalence of insomnia in China is lower than those reported in Western countries but similar to those in Asian countries. Younger Chinese adults appear to suffer from more insomnia than older adults. Trial Registration: CRD 42016043620 PMID:28234940

  13. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms.

  14. Health Disparities in Police Officers: Comparisons to the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Tara A.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Police officers have one of the poorest cardiovascular disease (CVD) health profiles of any occupation. The goal of this study was to determine if police officers in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study (between 2004 and 2009) had a more adverse CV profile than the general U.S. employed population. Nearly one-half (46.9%) of the officers worked a non-day shift compared to 9% of U.S. workers. The percent of officers with depression was nearly double (12.0% vs. 6.8%) and officers were nearly four times more likely to sleep less than six hours in a 24-hour period than the general population (33.0% vs. 8.0%). A higher percentage of officers were obese (40.5% vs. 32.1%), had the metabolic syndrome (26.7% vs. 18.7%), and had higher mean serum total cholesterol levels (200.8 mg/dL vs. 193.2 mg/dL) than the comparison employed populations. In addition to having higher levels of traditional CVD risk factors, police officers had higher levels of non-traditional CVD risk factors. These findings highlight the need for expanding the definition of a health disparity to include occupation. Future studies should expand this comparison to additional traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors and to other occupational groups. PMID:22900455

  15. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  16. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  17. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Maarten A.; Mathijssen, Nina M.C.; Bloem, Rolf M.

    2016-01-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with ‘groin pain’. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  18. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-02-17

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  19. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  20. The relationship between iodine intake and serum thyroglobulin in the general population.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Čeřovská, J; Zamrazil, V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship is shown between a concentration of urinary iodine and serum thyroglobulin in population studies carried out on a general population that was randomly selected from the registry of the General Health Insurance Company (individuals aged 6-98 years, 1751 males, 2420 females). The individuals were divided into subgroups with a urinary iodine concentration of <50, 50-99, 100-199, 200-299 and >/=300 microg/l. The mean and median of thyroglobulin were calculated in these subgroups. Tg concentrations were dependent on gender (malesgeneral, thyroglobulin serum concentrations higher than 40 microg/l should be an indicator for determining urinary iodine.

  1. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  2. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  3. A general ploidy model for the evolution of helping in viscous populations.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Angela Yi-Chen; Gardner, Andy

    2012-07-07

    There is growing interest in understanding how kin selection drives the evolution of social behaviours in viscous populations. A key result, that has inspired much work on this topic, is the exact cancellation of the genetic relatedness and kin competition effects of dispersal in the simplest models of population viscosity, such that a reduction in the rate of dispersal neither promotes nor inhibits the evolution of helping behaviour. This theoretical result has been demonstrated for populations characterised by haploid, diploid and haplodiploid modes of inheritance. Here we develop a model of general ploidy that recovers these three scenarios as special cases and allows examination of scenarios that have not been considered previously. Specifically, we: clarify the importance of the implicit assumption of monandry in previous models; show that the cancellation result obtains in some models of ploidy but not in others; and reveal that the cancellation result obtains for different reasons in different models of ploidy. The cancellation result therefore hinges upon a population's genetic system as well as its demography.

  4. A general mathematical framework to model generation structure in a population of asynchronously dividing cells.

    PubMed

    León, Kalet; Faro, Jose; Carneiro, Jorge

    2004-08-21

    In otherwise homogeneous cell populations, individual cells undergo asynchronous cell cycles. In recent years, interest in this fundamental observation has been boosted by the wide usage of CFSE, a fluorescent dye that allows the precise estimation by flow cytometry of the number of divisions performed by different cells in a population, and thus the generation structure. In this work, we propose two general mathematical frameworks to model the time evolution of generation structure in a cell population. The first modeling framework is more descriptive and assumes that cell division time is distributed in the cell population, due to intrinsic noise in the molecular machinery in individual cells; while the second framework assumes that asynchrony in cell division stems from randomness in the interactions individual cells make with environmental agents. We reduce these formalisms to recover two preexistent models, which build on each of the hypotheses. When confronted to kinetics data on CFSE labeled cells taken from literature, these models can fit precursor frequency distributions at each measured time point. However, they fail to fit the whole kinetics of precursor frequency distributions. In contrast, two extensions of those models, derived also from our general formalisms, fit equally well both the whole kinetics and individual profiles at each time point, providing a biologically reasonable estimation of parameters. We prove that the distribution of cell division times is not Gaussian, as previously proposed, but is better described by an asymmetric distribution such as the Gamma distribution. We show also that the observed cell asynchrony could be explained by the existence of a single transitional event during cell division. Based on these results, we suggest new ways of combining theoretical and experimental work to assess how much of noise in internal machinery of the cell and interactions with the environmental agents contribute to the asynchrony in cell

  5. Neuropathic pain in the general population: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    van Hecke, O; Austin, Sophie K; Khan, Rafi A; Smith, B H; Torrance, N

    2014-04-01

    Most patients with neuropathic pain symptoms present and are managed in primary care, with only a minority being referred for specialist clinical assessment and diagnoses. Previous reviews have focused mainly on specific neuropathic pain conditions based in specialist settings. This is the first systematic review of epidemiological studies of neuropathic pain in the general population. Electronic databases were searched from January 1966 to December 2012, and studies were included where the main focus was on neuropathic pain prevalence and/or incidence, either as part of a specific neuropathic pain-related condition or as a global entity in the general population. We excluded studies in which data were extracted from pain or other specialist clinics or focusing on specific population subgroups. Twenty-one articles were identified and underwent quality assessment and data extraction. Included studies differed in 3 main ways: method of data retrieval, case ascertainment tool used, and presentation of prevalence/incidence rates. This heterogeneity precluded any meta-analysis. We categorised comparable incidence and prevalence rates into 2 main subgroups: (1) chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics (range 3-17%), and (2) neuropathic pain associated with a specific condition, including postherpetic neuralgia (3.9-42.0/100,000 person-years [PY]), trigeminal neuralgia (12.6-28.9/100,000 PY), painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (15.3-72.3/100,000 PY), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (0.2-0.4/100,000 PY). These differences highlight the importance of a standardised approach for identifying neuropathic pain in future epidemiological studies. A best estimate of population prevalence of pain with neuropathic characteristics is likely to lie between 6.9% and 10%.

  6. Hematocrit and risk of venous thromboembolism in a general population. The Tromsø study

    PubMed Central

    Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    Background Hematocrit above the normal range for the population, such as in primary or secondary erythrocytosis, predisposes to both arterial and venous thrombosis. However, little is known about the association between hematocrit and risk of venous thromboembolism in a general population. Design and Methods Hematocrit and related hematologic variables such as hemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and baseline characteristics were measured in 26,108 subjects, who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994–1995. Incident venous thromboembolic events during follow-up were registered up to September 1st, 2007. Results There were 447 venous thromboembolic events during a median of 12.5 years of follow-up. Multivariable hazard ratios per 5% increment of hematocrit for the total population, adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking, were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.44) for total venous thromboembolism and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.10–1.71) for unprovoked venous thromboembolism. In category-based analyses, men with a hematocrit in the upper 20th percentile (≥46% in men) had a 1.5-fold increased risk of total venous thromboembolism (95% CI: 1.08–2.21) and a 2.4-fold increased risk of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (95% CI: 1.36–4.15) compared to men whose hematocrit was in the lower 40th percentile. The risk estimates were higher for men than for women both in continuous and category-based analyses. The findings for hemoglobin and red blood cell count were similar to those for hematocrit, whereas mean corpuscular volume was not associated with venous thromboembolism. Conclusions Our findings suggest that hematocrit and related hematologic variables such as hemoglobin and red blood cell count are risk factors for venous thromboembolism in a general population. PMID:19833630

  7. Screen detected high blood pressure under 40: a general practice population followed up for 21 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T; Edwards, C; Hart, M; Jones, J; Jones, M; Haines, A; Watt, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess hypertension detected under 40 in a general practice population. DESIGN--Prospective case-control study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--Former coal mining community in south Wales. Systematic case finding for hypertension and associated risk factors applied to a mean total population of 1945 from age 20 on a five year cycle through 21 years. Mean population aged 20-39, 227 men and 213 women. Case criteria: age < 40 and mean systolic pressure > or = 160 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 100 mm Hg. Age and sex matched controls randomly sampled from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean initial pressures and pressures at follow up in 1989 or preceding death, and all cardiovascular events. RESULTS--25 men and 16 women met criteria. Estimated five yearly inceptions were 26/1000 for men and 18/1000 for women. Male group mean initial blood pressure was 164/110 mm Hg for cases, falling to 148/89 mm Hg at follow up. Five male cases died at mean age 47.8, compared with two controls at 49.5. Female group mean initial pressure was 172/107 mm Hg for cases, falling to 145/86 mm Hg at follow up. One female case died aged 50, no controls. 10 male cases had non-fatal cardiovascular events at mean age 40.2, compared with two controls at mean age 50.5. Four female cases had non-fatal events at mean age 47.2, compared with one control aged 58. Male differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS--Hypertension under 40 is dangerous, commoner in men than women, rarely secondary to classic causes, and may be controlled in general practice on a whole community basis. PMID:8461729

  8. Correlates of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Judita; Winckelmans, Ellen; Plusquin, Michelle; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Gu, Yumei; Staessen, Jan A.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leads to alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis and function that might produce a decrease in mtDNA content within cells. This implies that mtDNA content might be a potential biomarker associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, data on correlates of mtDNA content in a general population are sparse. Our goal in the present study was to describe in a randomly recruited population sample the distribution and determinants of peripheral blood mtDNA content. From 2009 to 2013, we examined 689 persons (50.4% women; mean age = 54.4 years) randomly selected from a Flemish population (Flemish Study on Environment, Genes, and Health Outcomes). Relative mtDNA copy number as compared with nuclear DNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood. There was a curvilinear relationship between relative mtDNA copy number and age. mtDNA content slightly increased until the fifth decade of life and declined in older subjects (Page2 = 0.0002). mtDNA content was significantly higher in women (P = 0.007) and increased with platelet count (P < 0.0001), whereas it was inversely associated with white blood cell count (P < 0.0001). We also observed lower mtDNA content in women using estroprogestogens (P = 0.044). This study demonstrated in a general population that peripheral blood mtDNA content is significantly associated with sex and age. Blood mtDNA content is also influenced by platelet and white blood cell counts and estroprogestogen intake. Further studies are required to clarify the impact of chronic inflammation and hormone therapy on mitochondrial function. PMID:26702630

  9. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  10. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  11. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A; Heus, Pauline; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline and Embase until June 2013. Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. Most models were developed in Europe (n=167, 46%), predicted risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (n=118, 33%) over a 10 year period (n=209, 58%). The most common predictors were smoking (n=325, 90%) and age (n=321, 88%), and most models were sex specific (n=250, 69%). Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. Model performance was heterogeneous and measures such as discrimination and calibration were reported for only 65% and 58% of the external validations, respectively. Conclusions There is an excess of models predicting incident CVD in the general population. The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local

  12. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  13. Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Iyer, Srinivasan V.; Marcus, Jake; Nead, Kevin T.; Cooke, John P.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches. Methods Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Results In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09–1.24) with myocardial infarction (MI). Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07–3.78; P = 0.031) increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000. Conclusions Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation. PMID:26061035

  14. [Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Mozzillo, Giusi Rosaria; Scognamiglio, Bernadette; Russo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is an essential micronutrient for humans. Vitamin D functions are not limited to the regulation of bone; it plays many pleiotropic effects due to ubiquitous distribution of VDR (Vitamin D Receptor). The vitamin D deficiency (defined as plasma levels of 25 - OH - vitamin D < 30 ng / ml) is now a public health problem worldwide. It is therefore essential to define protocols for supplementation of vitamin D in the general population and in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and indications on the use of different Vitamins D available.

  15. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination.

  16. Correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women among the Spanish general population.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Tomás, José M

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women (PVAW) among the Spanish general population (N = 1,006). Results showed that victim-blaming attitudes were more common among respondents who were older, less educated, and who placed themselves at the bottom of the social scale. Furthermore, the odds of expressing victim-blaming attitudes were higher among respondents who thought that PVAW was common in society, considered it more acceptable, and knew women victims of partner violence in their circle of friends and family. Implications for public education are discussed.

  17. A general temporal data model and the structured population event history register.

    PubMed

    Clark, Samuel J

    2006-10-13

    At this time there are 37 demographic surveillance system sites active in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Central America, and this number is growing continuously. These sites and other longitudinal population and health research projects generate large quantities of complex temporal data in order to describe, explain and investigate the event histories of individuals and the populations they constitute. This article presents possible solutions to some of the key data management challenges associated with those data. The fundamental components of a temporal system are identified and both they and their relationships to each other are given simple, standardized definitions. Further, a metadata framework is proposed to endow this abstract generalization with specific meaning and to bind the definitions of the data to the data themselves. The result is a temporal data model that is generalized, conceptually tractable, and inherently contains a full description of the primary data it organizes. Individual databases utilizing this temporal data model can be customized to suit the needs of their operators without modifying the underlying design of the database or sacrificing the potential to transparently share compatible subsets of their data with other similar databases. A practical working relational database design based on this general temporal data model is presented and demonstrated. This work has arisen out of experience with demographic surveillance in the developing world, and although the challenges and their solutions are more general, the discussion is organized around applications in demographic surveillance. An appendix contains detailed examples and working prototype databases that implement the examples discussed in the text.

  18. Comparison of Musculoskeletal Disorder Health Claims Between Construction Floor Layers and a General Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Ryan, Daniel; Welch, Laura; Olsen, Margaret A.; Buchholz, Bryan; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compare rates of medical insurance claims for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) between workers in a construction trade and a general worker population to determine if higher physical exposures in construction lead to higher rates of claims on personal medical insurance. Methods Health insurance claims between 2006 and 2010 from floor layers were frequency matched by age, gender, eligibility time, and geographic location to claims from insured workers in general industry obtained from MarketScan. We extracted MSD claims and dates of service from six regions of the body: neck, low back, knee, lower extremity, shoulder, and distal arm, and evaluated differences in claim rates. Results Fifty-one percent of floor layers (n=1,475) experienced musculoskeletal claims compared to 39% of MarketScan members (p<0.001). Claim rates were higher for floor layers across all body regions with nearly double the rate ratios for the knee and neck regions (RR: 2.10 and 2.07). The excess risk was greatest for the neck and low back regions; younger workers had disproportionately higher rates in the knee, neck, low back, and distal arm. A larger proportion of floor layers (22%) filed MSD claims in more than one body region compared to general workers (10%; p<0.001). Conclusions Floor layers have markedly higher rates of MSD claims compared to a general worker population, suggesting shifting of medical costs for work-related MSD to personal health insurance. The occurrence of disorders in multiple body regions and among the youngest workers highlights the need for improved work methods and tools for construction workers. PMID:25224720

  19. Relationship between FEV1 and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in General Population without Airflow Limitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to determine the value of lung function measurement for predicting cardiovascular (CV) disease by evaluating the association between FEV1 (%) and CV risk factors in general population. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study of subjects above 18 years of age who underwent health examinations. The relationship between FEV1 (%) and presence of carotid plaque and thickened carotid IMT (≥0.8 mm) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression, and the relationship between FEV1 (%) and PWV (%), and serum uric acid was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Various factors were adjusted by using Model 1 and Model 2. Results. 1,003 subjects were enrolled in this study and 96.7% (n = 970) of the subjects were men. In both models, the odds ratio of the presence of carotid plaque and thickened carotid IMT had no consistent trend and statistical significance. In the analysis of the PWV (%) and uric acid, there was no significant relationship with FEV1 (%) in both models. Conclusion. FEV1 had no significant relationship with CV risk factors. The result suggests that FEV1 may have no association with CV risk factors or may be insensitive to detecting the association in general population without airflow limitation. PMID:28018129

  20. High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

    2006-02-01

    We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population.

  1. Views on abortion: a comparison of female genetic counselors and women from the general population.

    PubMed

    Woltanski, Amelia R; Cragun, Ryan T; Myers, Melanie F; Cragun, Deborah L

    2009-02-01

    While literature characterizing individual genetic counselors' abortion attitudes is sparse, the National Society of Genetic Counselors takes a clear stance for reproductive autonomy. To determine genetic counselors' views, this study compared (1) genetic counselors' abortion attitudes to those of women from the general population and (2) genetic counselors' professional abortion attitudes to their personal abortion attitudes. Genetic counselors were invited to complete an online survey. Response rate was 44.3% (709/1,601). Compared to women from the general population, female genetic counselors were significantly more likely to agree abortion should be an option in all cases (p < .001). Controlling for other possible confounders, regression analyses revealed that being a genetic counselor, religious service attendance and age were significantly predictive of abortion attitudes. Although the vast majority of genetic counselors agree that abortion should be available, they are significantly less likely to personally consider abortion under all circumstances presented (p < .001), and the percentage of genetic counselors who would consider terminating in the case of a severe birth defect is similar to studies of other women.

  2. The Promise and Peril of Genomic Screening in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael C.; Evans, James P.; Henderson, Gail E.; Berg, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Utilization of sequencing to screen the general population for preventable monogenic conditions is receiving substantial attention due to its potential to decrease morbidity and mortality. However, the selection of which variants to return is a serious implementation challenge. Procedures must be investigated to ensure optimal test characteristics and avoidance of harm from false positive test results. Methods We scanned exome sequences from 478 well-phenotyped individuals for potentially pathogenic variants in 17 genes representing 11 conditions that are among the most medically actionable Mendelian disorders in adults. We developed 5 variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity and measured their specificity in these 17 genes. Results Variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity exhibited decreased specificity, and performance was highly dependent on the genes analyzed. The most sensitive algorithm ranged from 88.8% to 99.6% specificity among the 17 genes. Conclusion For very low prevalence conditions, small reductions in specificity greatly increase false positives. This inescapable test characteristic governs the predictive value of genomic sequencing in the general population. To address this issue, test performance must be evaluated systematically for each condition so that the false negatives and false positives can be tailored for optimal outcomes, depending on the downstream clinical consequences. PMID:26540154

  3. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  4. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  5. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the “self-coldness”, composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a “self-compassion composite”, the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between “self-coldness” and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression—providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself. PMID:26430893

  6. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. Methods The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. Results In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the general population intended to donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting. PMID:27626950

  7. Evidence of ancillary trigeminal innervation of levator palpebrae in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, A M; Dong, C C; Harries, A M; Patel, A; Honey, C R; Patel, M S

    2014-02-01

    The cranial synkineses are a group of disorders encompassing a variety of involuntary co-contractions of the facial, masticatory, or extraocular muscles that occur during a particular volitional movement. The neuroanatomical pathways for synkineses largely remain undefined. Our studies explored a normal synkinesis long observed in the general population - that of jaw opening during efforts to open the eyelids widely. To document this phenomenon, we observed 186 consecutive participants inserting or removing contact lenses to identify jaw opening. Seeking electrophysiological evidence, in a second study we enrolled individuals undergoing vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, without a history of jaw-winking, ptosis, or strabismus, to record any motor responses in levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) upon stimulation of the trigeminal motor root. Stimulus was applied to the trigeminal motor root while an electrode in levator recorded the response. We found that 37 participants (20%) opened their mouth partially or fully during contact lens manipulation. In the second study, contraction of LPS with trigeminal motor stimulation was documented in two of six patients, both undergoing surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We speculate these results might provide evidence of an endogenous synkinesis, indicating that trigeminal-derived innervation of levator could exist in a significant minority of the general population. Our observations demonstrate plasticity in the human cranial nerve innervation pattern and may have implications for treating Marcus Gunn jaw-winking.

  8. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P < 0.001). In terms of individual symptoms, female gender was significantly related with higher prevalence of fatigue (P = 0.008), hypersomnia (P = 0.001), noticeable psychomotor retardation (P = 0.029) and suicidal attempts (P = 0.016) with adjustment for birth cohort effect, partner status, and employment status. In the same analysis, men with MDD appeared more vulnerable to decreased libido than women (P = 0.009). This is the first report to demonstrate gender differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects. PMID:26539012

  9. Comparative epidemiology of resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease and the general hypertensive population.

    PubMed

    Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Zebekakis, Pantelis E

    2014-01-01

    Until a few years ago, information regarding the epidemiology of resistant hypertension was obtained from indirect sources, such as cross-sectional studies on hypertension control in large cohorts from tertiary hypertension centers and outcome trials in hypertension. During the past 3 years, however, large population-based studies have provided direct epidemiologic data on resistant hypertension and estimated its prevalence at 8% to 12% of adult patients with hypertension. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), in particular, has been long considered a frequent underlying cause of resistant hypertension, however, recently, direct epidemiologic data for this entity in patients with CKD were brought to light again, suggesting an even higher prevalence of resistant hypertension (approximately 20%-35%) among such individuals. Furthermore, recent prospective cohort studies have suggested incident resistant hypertension to be associated with increased cardiovascular and renal risk in both the general hypertensive population and patients with CKD. This article discusses currently available data on epidemiology of resistant hypertension, providing a comparative overview of its prevalence, incidence, and prognosis in these two populations.

  10. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  11. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  12. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  13. Standardization of the Colombian version of the PHQ-4 in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The PHQ-4 is a widely used open access screening instrument for depression and anxiety in different health care and community settings; however, empirical evidence of its psychometric quality in Colombia is lacking. The objectives of the current study were to generate normative data and to further investigate the construct validity and factorial structure of the PHQ-4 in the general population. Methods A nationally representative face-to-face household survey was conducted in Colombia in 2012 (n = 1,500). The item characteristics of the PHQ-4 items, including the inter-item correlations and inter-subscale correlations, were investigated. To measure the scale’s reliability, the internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) was assessed. For factorial validity, the factor structure of the PHQ-4 was examined with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the PHQ-4 was 0.84. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model, which was structurally invariant between different age and gender groups. Normative data for the PHQ-4 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Women had significantly higher mean scores compared with men [1.4 (SD: 2.1) vs. 1.1 (SD: 1.9), respectively]. The results supported the discriminant validity of the PHQ-4. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of the PHQ-4 with other populations in Colombia. The evidence supports the reliability and validity of the two-factor PHQ-4 as a measure of anxiety and depression in the general Colombian population. PMID:25037706

  14. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  15. Existing General Population Models Inaccurately Predict Lung Cancer Risk in Patients Referred for Surgical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Isbell, James M.; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P.; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R.; Grogan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background atients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9-55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005-2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and SPN prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. Results 89 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into 4 subgroups based on age, smoking history and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET- non-avid lesions, or PET-avid lesions with age<50 years or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the ROC curve for the Mayo and SPN models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients ref erred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce non-therapeutic resections. PMID:21172518

  16. The utility of set-loss error scores in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ropovik, Ivan; Bobakova, Monika; Ferjencik, Jan; Filickova, Marta; Kovalcikova, Iveta; Slavkovska, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Although the measurement of cognitive performance usually relies on achievement sum scores, a growing body of research suggests that the analysis of errors made may have a predictive validity beyond that provided by the number of items correct. This study examined the validity related to one such kind of error scores--the set-loss errors--in the general population of 8- to 11-year-old children. Set-loss errors (also called rule violations) can be conceptualized as a breakdown in the adherence to task-specific rules, and in clinical populations, the propensity to make these errors has shown some specificity for identifying disorders connected with frontal lobes dysfunction. The results, however, indicate that set-loss errors derived from distinct tests could not be effectively explained by a single latent dimension; hence, they do not tap a single construct that could be called set loss or the ability to maintain set. At the same time, there were only few weak associations between various kinds of error scores as well as between the set-loss error scores and relevant constructs such as the ability to learn, attentional control, working memory, fluid and crystallized intelligence, and executive functions-related real-world behaviors, indicating an overrepresentation of construct-irrelevant variance in these kinds of scores. These indications were further accentuated by the analysis of sensitivity and specificity where any elevated number of set-loss error scores was unable to classify individuals on theoretically relevant constructs beyond chance levels. The evidence thus speaks against the use of set-loss error scores in the general population of 8- to 11-year-old children.

  17. Effects of the home environment on respiratory symptoms of a general population sample in middle Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Carrozzi, L; Paoletti, P; Vellutini, M; DiViggiano, E; Baldacci, S; Modena, P; Pedreschi, M; Mammini, U; di Pede, C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of home environment characteristics were evaluated in a multistage, stratified, cluster sample (N = 3,866) of the general population who lived in the district of Pisa (middle Italy). Each subject completed a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained questions about respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors (e.g., type of heating, fuels used for cooking and heating). Cough and asthma were significantly more frequent in men who did not smoke and who did not use natural gas for cooking and heating. Attacks of shortness of breath accompanied by wheeze, dyspnea, and cardiovascular conditions in female nonsmokers were associated with use of a stove or forced-air circulation for heating; the type of fuel used did not affect this result. Multiple logistic models, which accounted for independent effects of age, smoking status, pack-years, childhood respiratory illness, education, zone of residence, and work exposure to dusts, chemicals, or fumes, showed significantly increased odds ratios for (a) cough and phlegm in males (associated with bottled gas for cooking), (b) wheeze and shortness of breath with wheeze in females (associated with the use of a stove or forced-air circulation). These results, which confirm our previous observations in an unpolluted rural area of north Italy, indicate that characteristics of the home environment, as assessed by questionnaire, may be linked to mild adverse health effects, i.e., respiratory symptoms, in the general population. The results also identify the need to better characterize the dose-response relationship in indoor air pollution monitoring studies that include subsamples of this population.

  18. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-06-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay system in Monica10 and High-performance liquid chromatography in Inter99. Information on CVDs and causes of death was obtained from Danish registries until 31 December 2008. There were 478 cases of IHD, 316 cases of stroke, and 633 deaths during follow-up (mean follow-up 10 years). Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed a significant association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality with a HR = 0.95 (P = 0.005) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D level. We found no association between vitamin D status and incidence of IHD or stroke (HR = 1.01, P = 0.442 and HR = 1.00, P = 0.920, respectively). In this large general population study, the observed inverse association between serum vitamin D status and all-cause mortality was not explained by a similar inverse association with IHD or stroke.

  19. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McLenan, Judith; Lazzari, Carlo; McMillan, Gail; Mackie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years) referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs) to an Urgent Referral Team (URT) based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays) for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors. Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits. Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges. Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals. PMID:28050179

  20. Auditory rehabilitation of older people from the general population--the Leiden 85-plus study.

    PubMed Central

    Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Bont, L E; von Faber, M; Eekhof, J A; de Laat, J A; Hulshof, J H; van Dongen, E; Westendorp, R G

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few older people with severe hearing loss use hearing aids to reduce the negative consequences of reduced hearing in daily functioning. AIM: Assessment of a screening test and a standardised auditory rehabilitation programme for older people from the general population with untreated severe hearing loss. DESIGN OF STUDY: Intervention study and qualitative exploration. SETTING: Leiden 85-Plus Study, a prospective population-based study of 85-year-old inhabitants of Leiden, the Netherlands. METHOD: Hearing loss was measured by pure-tone audiometry in 454 subjects aged 85 years. Subjects with hearing loss above 35 dB at 1, 2, and 4 kHz who did not use hearing aids were invited to participate in a standardised programme for auditory rehabilitation. In-depth interviews were held with participants to explore arguments for participating in this programme. RESULTS: Of the 367 participants with severe hearing loss (prevalence = 81%), 66% (241/367) did not use a hearing aid. Three out of four of these participants (n = 185) declined participation in the auditory rehabilitation programme. The most common reason given for not participating was the subjects' feeling that their current hearing loss did not warrant the use of a hearing aid. Subjects who participated in the programme were found to suffer from more severe hearing loss and experienced more hearing disability. Those who did not participate in the programme felt they could cope with their disabilities and considered a hearing aid unnecessary. CONCLUSION: Untreated hearing loss is prevalent among older people from the general population. The majority of older people decline auditory rehabilitation. For these people the use of a hearing aid is not perceived as necessary in order to function on a daily basis. Older people who have expected benefits from a hearing aid have already obtained them, marginalising the benefits of a rehabilitation (and screening) programme. PMID:14694666

  1. Age-Associated Increases in Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Borlaug, Barry A.; Kane, Garvan C.; Enders, Felicity T.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    Background In contrast to the wealth of data on isolated systolic hypertension involving the systemic circulation in the elderly, much less is known about age-related change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and its prognostic impact in the general population. We sought to define the relationship between PASP and age, evaluate which factors influence PASP and determine if PASP is independently predictive of mortality in the community. Methods and Results A random sample of Olmsted County, MN general population (N=2042) underwent echocardiography and spirometry and was followed for a median of 9 years. PASP was measured from the tricuspid regurgitation velocity. Left ventricular diastolic pressure was estimated using Doppler echocardiography (E/e' ratio) and arterial stiffening was assessed using the brachial artery pulse pressure. Among 1413 (69%) subjects with measurable PASP (63±11y; 43% male), PASP (median, 25th-75th percentile) was 26 (24-30) mmHg and increased with age (r=0.31; p<0.001). Independent predictors of PASP were age, pulse pressure and mitral E/e' (all p≤0.003). Increasing PASP was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio 2.73 per 10 mmHg; p<0.001). In subjects without cardiopulmonary disease (any heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or chronic obstructive lung disease), the age-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.74 per 10 mmHg (p=0.016). Conclusions We provide the first population-based evidence of age-related increase in pulmonary artery pressure, its association with increasing left heart diastolic pressures and systemic vascular stiffening, as well as its negative impact on survival. Pulmonary artery pressure may serve as a novel cardiovascular risk factor and potential therapeutic target. PMID:19433755

  2. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  3. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  4. Classification models for subthreshold generalized anxiety disorder in a college population: Implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kanuri, Nitya; Taylor, C Barr; Cohen, Jeffrey M; Newman, Michelle G

    2015-08-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders on college campuses and often goes unidentified and untreated. We propose a combined prevention and treatment model composed of evidence-based self-help (SH) and guided self-help (GSH) interventions to address this issue. To inform the development of this stepped-care model of intervention delivery, we evaluated results from a population-based anxiety screening of college students. A primary model was developed to illustrate how increasing levels of symptomatology could be linked to prevention/treatment interventions. We used screening data to propose four models of classification for populations at risk for GAD. We then explored the cost considerations of implementing this prevention/treatment stepped-care model. Among 2489 college students (mean age 19.1 years; 67% female), 8.0% (198/2489) met DSM-5 clinical criteria for GAD, in line with expected clinical rates for this population. At-risk Model 1 (subthreshold, but considerable symptoms of anxiety) identified 13.7% of students as potentially at risk for developing GAD. Model 2 (subthreshold, but high GAD symptom severity) identified 13.7%. Model 3 (subthreshold, but symptoms were distressing) identified 12.3%. Model 4 (subthreshold, but considerable worry) identified 17.4%. There was little overlap among these models, with a combined at-risk population of 39.4%. The efficiency of these models in identifying those truly at risk and the cost and efficacy of preventive interventions will determine if prevention is viable. Using Model 1 data and conservative cost estimates, we found that a preventive intervention effect size of even 0.2 could make a prevention/treatment model more cost-effective than existing models of "wait-and-treat."

  5. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. METHODS We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. RESULTS A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. CONCLUSION Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis

  6. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    PubMed

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn's disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn's activation, none of those with Crohn's disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  7. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M.S.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Ye, A.; Kannan, K.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are urinary phthalate concentrations associated with altered semen quality parameters among males recruited from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary levels of metabolites of phthalate diesters are associated with lower total sperm counts, larger sperm head sizes, and higher percentages of morphologically abnormal sperm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY High dose experiments in rats implicate phthalates as anti-androgens. Studies involving infertile men seeking care suggest that phthalates influence measures of semen quality raising concern about the implications for men in the general population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective cohort study comprised 501 male partners in couples discontinuing contraception to become pregnant, who were recruited from 16 US counties using population-based sampling frameworks from 2005 to 2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Urine and semen samples were obtained at baseline from 473 (94%) men, of whom 378 (80%) men provided a second sample the following month. Urine was analyzed for 14 monoester metabolites of phthalate diesters by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Semen samples were analyzed for 34 quality parameters categorized as general, motility, morphology, sperm head and sperm chromatin structure. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary mono-[2-(carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isononyl phthalate (MNP) were significantly associated with lower total sperm counts and concentrations, larger sperm head sizes, higher proportions of megalo head sperm morphology, and/or other morphological changes. Urinary mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCPP) were significantly associated with lower sperm motility, and urine mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly associated with higher sperm motility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR

  8. Life expectancy in HIV-positive persons in Switzerland: matched comparison with general population

    PubMed Central

    Gueler, Aysel; Moser, André; Calmy, Alexandra; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Fux, Christoph A.; Battegay, Manuel; Cavassini, Matthias; Vernazza, Pietro; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate life expectancy over 25 years in HIV-positive people and to compare their life expectancy with recent estimates for the general population, by education. Methods: Patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study 1988–2013 were eligible. Patients alive in 2001 were matched to up to 100 Swiss residents, by sex, year of birth, and education. Life expectancy at age 20 was estimated for monotherapy (1988–1991), dual therapy (1992–1995), early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, 1996–1998), later cART (1999–2005) and recent cART (2006–2013) eras. Parametric survival regression was used to model life expectancy. Results: In all, 16 532 HIV-positive patients and 927 583 residents were included. Life expectancy at age 20 of HIV-positive individuals increased from 11.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.2–12.5] in the monotherapy era to 54.9 years (95% CI 51.2–59.6) in the most recent cART era. Differences in life expectancy across educational levels emerged with cART. In the most recent cART period, life expectancy at age 20 years was 52.7 years (95% CI 46.4–60.1) with compulsory education, compared to 60.0 years (95% CI 53.4–67.8) with higher education. Estimates for the general population were 61.5 and 65.6 years, respectively. Male sex, smoking, injection drug use, and low CD4+ cell counts at enrolment were also independently associated with mortality. Conclusion: In Switzerland, educational inequalities in life expectancy were larger among HIV-infected persons than in the general population. Highly educated HIV-positive people have an estimated life expectancy similar to Swiss residents with compulsory education. Earlier start of cART and effective smoking-cessation programs could improve HIV-positive life expectancy further and reduce inequalities. PMID:27831953

  9. Evaluation of factors associated with cadmium exposure and kidney function in the general population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingai; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Na-Young; Bae, Hye-Sun; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2013-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential toxic metal which is widely distributed in the environment. The general population is exposed to low levels of Cd and the kidney is the organ most sensitive to Cd toxicity. This study was performed to simultaneously evaluate Cd exposure, kidney function, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the general population. A total of 643 adults were interviewed to document demographic characteristics, lifestyles, past-medical history, and diet during the last 24 h. We estimated daily Cd intake based on the diet of study subjects who had not been exposed to Cd occupationally. Whole blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed to determine Cd concentrations and kidney function indices (β₂ -microglobulin [β₂-MG], N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase [NAG], metallothionein [MT]). The oxidative stress index (malondialdehyde [MDA]) was determined from the urine. The daily Cd intake from diet was established as 7.07 μg/day. The mean concentration of Cd measured in the blood was 1.22 μg/L and urine was 0.95 μg/g creatinine. The concentrations of Cd in blood and urine were higher in females than in males. The blood levels of Cd were affected by sex, age, and smoking, and urine Cd was influenced by sex, age, and blood Cd. The urine Cd was positively correlated with MT, NAG activity, and MDA in females, but with NAG only in males. The blood Cd was associated with MT in males. Increased NAG activity was observed when Cd in urine reached 1.0 μg Cd/g creatinine and was also affected by age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Urinary MT only responded to Cd in urine or blood. In summary, exposure to Cd in the general population was influenced by various factors including sex, age, and smoking habits. Such exposure might eventually cause tubular damage in the kidneys through the oxidative stress mechanism, and females might be more susceptible than males to Cd exposure under the environment.

  10. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  11. Broader autism phenotype and nonverbal sensitivity: evidence for an association in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and two tests of nonverbal sensitivity, the Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK), and the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA2). AQ score was correlated with TONCK performance and number of errors on the adult faces subtest of the DANVA2, but not adult paralanguage or postures. These findings suggest that characteristics of ASD in the general population are associated with differences in both explicit and implicit knowledge of nonverbal cues.

  12. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  13. Psychopathic Personality in the General Population: Differences and Similarities Across Gender.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Salekin, Randall T; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct subgroups of adults in a general population sample (N = 2,500; 52.6% females) based on their scores on three psychopathy dimensions. Using latent profile analysis, five groups were identified among males and females separately, including a psychopathic personality group. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that this latter group had higher levels of aggression, offending, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, internalizing problems, and maltreatment than most of the other groups. Associated features of males and females with a psychopathic personality were very similar; however, salient gender differences did emerge. Specifically, females with a psychopathic personality were more frequently exposed to sexual abuse, expressed more emotional difficulties, and engaged in higher levels of relational aggression. In conclusion, person-oriented analyses identified adults with a personality that looks like psychopathy, and furthered our understanding of gender similarities and differences in these adults.

  14. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, SP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals’ quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. Aim To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2nd round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. Results The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using

  15. Work increases the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population.

    PubMed

    Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Pelier-Cady, Marie-Christine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Raimbeau, Guy; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a general population according to employment status and to assess the proportion of cases attributable to work. CTS occurring in patients aged 20-59 years living in the French Maine and Loire region were included prospectively from 2002 to 2004. Medical and occupation history was gathered by mailed questionnaire. Incidence rates of CTS and relative risks (RRs) of CTS were computed in relation to employment status. The attributable fractions of risk of CTS to work among the exposed persons (AFEs) were calculated. A total of 1168 patients (819 women, 349 men) were included during the 3-year period. The mean incidence rate of CTS per 1000 person-years was higher in employed than unemployed persons (1.7 vs. 0.8 in women and 0.6 vs. 0.3 in men). The excess risk of CTS was statistically significant for male (RR 4.2) and female (RR 3.0) blue-collar workers and female lower-grade white-collar workers (RR 2.5). The AFE to work in general was 47% (95% confidence interval: 39-54) in women. AFEs reached higher values in female blue-collar workers [67% (65-68)] and lower-grade services, sales, and clerical white-collar workers [61% (57-64)]. The AFE in male blue-collar workers was 76% (72-80). These data show a higher incidence of CTS in the working than the non-working population and suggest that a substantial proportion of CTS cases diagnosed in lower-grade white-collar and blue-collar workers are attributable to work.

  16. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  17. Use of Nonclonal Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains to Predict Overall Survival in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Larson, Dirk R.; Therneau, Terry M.; Colby, Colin L.; Clark, Raynell J.; Mead, Graham P.; Kumar, Shaji; Melton, L. Joseph; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the free light chain (FLC) assay provides prognostic information relevant to the general population. Methods After excluding persons with a known plasma cell disorder, we studied 15,859 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents 50 years or older in whom unmasked data and samples for FLC testing were available. Baseline information was obtained between March 13, 1995, and November 21, 2003, and follow-up status and cause of death were identified through June 30, 2009. The κ and λ FLC sum (Σ FLC) was evaluated for its ability to predict overall survival. Specific causes of death were also investigated. Results In 158,003 person-years of follow-up, 4348 individuals died. A high Σ FLC was significantly predictive of worse overall survival; the risk ratio for death for those with the highest decile of Σ FLC (ie, ≥4.72 mg/dL) was 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.1-4.7) relative to the remaining study participants. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that this excess risk of death was independent of age, sex, and renal insufficiency, with a corrected risk ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.2). The increased mortality was not restricted to any particular cause of death because the observed-to-expected risk of death from most causes was significantly higher among those individuals with an antecedent Σ FLC of 4.72 mg/dL or higher, which is near the upper limit of normal for the test. Conclusion A nonclonal elevation of Σ FLC is a significant predictor of worse overall survival in the general population of persons without plasma cell disorders. PMID:22677072

  18. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; Methods: A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; Results: A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443–2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221–3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063–2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146–2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Conclusions: Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults. PMID:27563918

  19. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for resistant hypertension in elderly subjects from general population

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Alberto; Lenti, Salvatore; Schiavon, Laura; Del Monte, Alvise; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Ramazzina, Emilio; Rubello, Domenico; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    Objective In clinical practice, patient characteristics predicting resistant hypertension (RH) include higher blood pressure levels, left ventricular hypertrophy, older age, obesity, chronic kidney disease and diabetes. On the contrary little is known about the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a risk factor for RH in subjects from general population. Material and methods 580 elderly subjects aged ≥65 years were enrolled in the Risk Of Vascular complications Impact of Genetics in Old people (ROVIGO) study. RH was defined as the failure to maintain blood pressure values below 140 mmHg (systolic) and 90 mmHg (diastolic) despite therapeutic interventions that include appropriate lifestyle measures plus adherence to treatment with full doses of at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. RH was confirmed using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Hyperuricemic was defined as the subjects having SUA ≥6.8 mg/dl or taking uricosuric drugs. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) for RH was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of RH was 5.7% in the cohort and was higher in women (8.3%) than in men (3.0%, p < 0.05). Independent of chronic kidney disease (OR 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.49–10.1), hyperuricemia predicted resistant hypertension in women (odds ratio 3.11, 95% confidence intervals 1.06–9.1, p = 0.03) but not in men. Conclusions In elderly women from the general population, an SUA value of ≥6.8 mg/dl triples the risk of RH. SUA assessment should be recommended to better define the pattern of risk associated with RH. PMID:28027534

  20. Glyphosate in the general population and in applicators: a critical review of studies on exposures.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R

    2016-09-01

    The recent classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was arrived at without a detailed assessment of exposure. Glyphosate is widely used as an herbicide, which might result in exposures of the general public and applicators. Exposures were estimated from information in the open literature and unpublished reports provided by Monsanto Company. Based on the maximum measured concentration in air, an exposure dose of 1.04 × 10 (-) (6 )mg/kg body mass (b.m.)/d was estimated. Assuming consumption of surface water without treatment, the 90th centile measured concentration would result in a consumed dose of 2.25 × 10 (-) (5 )mg/kg b.m./d. Estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) of consumed doses in food provided a median exposure of 0.005 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.002-0.013). Based on tolerance levels, the conservative estimate by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for exposure of the general population via food and water was 0.088 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.058-0.23). For applicators, 90th centiles for systemic exposures based on biomonitoring and dosimetry (normalized for penetration through the skin) were 0.0014 and 0.021 mg/kg b.m./d, respectively. All of these exposures are less than the reference dose and the acceptable daily intakes proposed by several regulatory agencies, thus supporting a conclusion that even for these highly exposed populations the exposures were within regulatory limits.

  1. Psychotic Experiences and Risk of Violence Perpetration and Arrest in the General Population: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190

  2. Brominated flame retardants - Exposure and risk assessment for the general population.

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Becher, G; Hilger, B; Völkel, W

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of different substances used in numerous products to prevent fire hazards. Some of them are persistent in the environment, accumulate in the food chain and are of toxicological concern, while for others current data are limited. Meanwhile, BFRs have been found in many environmental media, foods, and biota including humans. This review presents recent findings obtained from monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure, as well as dietary exposure. In this context, concentrations in indoor and ambient air and in house dust are outlined. Furthermore, we summarize human biomonitoring data on BFR levels in blood and breast milk. Current estimates of the overall exposure of the general population using different relevant subsets are also addressed. All of these data are discussed in relation to currently available toxicological reference values used for risk assessment purposes. Obviously, the exposure of the general population varies considerably in different parts of the world and even within countries. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) show the highest intake during infancy. While the highest intake for BDE 47 for all groups was observed in the US, the total BDE 209 and HBCD intake was highest in the UK. For HBCD and all PBDEs except BDE 209, diet accounts for a large proportion of the total intake during infancy in all countries. With regard to toddlers and adults, the contribution of diet to total intake is high in Germany and the UK, while in the US, the high concentrations of PBDE in dust resulted in a notably smaller proportion of the intake being attributed to diet.

  3. The Burden and Determinants of Neck Pain in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Holm, Lena W.; Cassidy, J. David; Guzman, Jamie; Côté, Pierre; Haldeman, Scott; Ammendolia, Carlo; Carragee, Eugene; Hurwitz, Eric; Nordin, Margareta; Peloso, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To undertake a best evidence synthesis of the published evidence on the burden and determinants of neck pain and its associated disorders in the general population. Summary of Background Data The evidence on burden and determinants of neck has not previously been summarized. Methods The Bone and Joint Decade 2000−2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders performed a systematic search and critical review of literature published between 1980 and 2006 to assemble the best evidence on neck pain. Studies meeting criteria for scientific validity were included in a best evidence synthesis. Results We identified 469 studies on burden and determinants of neck pain, and judged 249 to be scientifically admissible; 101 articles related to the burden and determinants of neck pain in the general population. Incidence ranged from 0.055 per 1000 person years (disc herniation with radiculopathy) to 213 per 1000 persons (self-reported neck pain). Incidence of neck injuries during competitive sports ranged from 0.02 to 21 per 1000 exposures. The 12-month prevalence of pain typically ranged between 30% and 50%; the 12-month prevalence of activity-limiting pain was 1.7% to 11.5%. Neck pain was more prevalent among women and prevalence peaked in middle age. Risk factors for neck pain included genetics, poor psychological health, and exposure to tobacco. Disc degeneration was not identified as a risk factor. The use of sporting gear (helmets, face shields) to prevent other types of injury was not associated with increased neck injuries in bicycling, hockey, or skiing. Conclusion Neck pain is common. Nonmodifiable risk factors for neck pain included age, gender, and genetics. Modifiable factors included smoking, exposure to tobacco, and psychological health. Disc degeneration was not identified as a risk factor. Future research should concentrate on longitudinal designs exploring preventive strategies and modifiable risk

  4. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.

  5. Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in the general female population from 8 countries

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Paloma; Whitby, Denise; Benavente, Yolanda; Miley, Wendell; Labo, Nazzarena; Chichareon, Saibua; Trong, Nguyen; Shin, Hai-Rim; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Thomas, Jaiyeola; Matos, Elena; Herrero, Rolando; Muñoz, Nubia; Molano, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant global health issue because it is widespread and persistent and can cause serious liver diseases. Objectives The aim of this study is to estimate HCV prevalence in women from the general population in different geographical areas worldwide and to assess the potential role of sexual behaviour in the virus transmission. Study design Each participating centre recruited a random sample of women from the general population aged from less than 20 to more than 75 years. The study included 8,130 women from 8 countries with information on sociodemographic factors, reproductive and sexual behaviour, smoking habit and HPV DNA through individual interviews. A blood sample was also collected to perform serological tests. We estimated the prevalence ratios associated to HCV to evaluate the effect of sexual behaviour in viral transmission. Results Women were reactive to a minimum of two HCV antigens, including at least one non structural protein were considered as positive (33% of the samples were classified as positive, 40% as negative, and 27% as indeterminate (N=402), that were considered as not positive). The age-adjusted HCV seroprevalence varied significantly by regions (0.3 % in Argentina to 21.1% in Nigeria). We found no association between HCV prevalence and age, educational level, smoking habit and any of the available variables for sexual behaviour and reproductive history. Conclusions This large study showed heterogeneous distribution of HCV seroprevalence in female and provides evidence of the null impact of sexual behaviour in HCV transmission. PMID:26071344

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Social Avoidance of Recovered SARS Patients in the Hong Kong General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Yang, Xilin; Wong, Eric; Tsui, H. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general population's perceived infectivity of asymptomatic and recovered severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients and factors associated with avoidance and discriminatory attitudes, including demographic background, SARS-related perceptions and emotional response to the SARS epidemic. A population-based survey…

  7. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    PubMed

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment.

  8. FLYCHK: generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H; Chen, M; Morgan, W L; Ralchenko, Y; Lee, R W

    2005-06-17

    FLYCHK is a straightforward, rapid tool to provide ionization and population distributions of plasmas in zero dimension with accuracy sufficient for most initial estimates and in many cases applicable for more sophisticated analysis. FLYCHK solves rate equations for level population distributions by considering collisional and radiative atomic processes. The code is designed to be straightforward to use and yet is general enough to apply for most laboratory plasmas. Further, it can be applied for low-to-high Z ions and in either steady-state or time-dependent situations. Plasmas with arbitrary electron energy distributions, single or multiple electron temperatures can be studied as well as radiation-driven plasmas. To achieve this versatility and accuracy in a code that provides rapid response we employ schematic atomic structures, scaled hydrogenic cross-sections and read-in tables. It also employs the jj configuration averaged atomic states and oscillator strengths calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model for spectrum synthesis. Numerous experimental and calculational comparisons performed in recent years show that FLYCHK provides meaningful estimates of ionization distributions, well within a charge state for most laboratory applications.

  9. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Timonen, Kirsi; Lindqvist, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<0.70) in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012) showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male) with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0%) and 55 subjects (4.2%) were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28053971

  10. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy.

  11. Resilience in the General Population: Standardization of the Resilience Scale (RS-11)

    PubMed Central

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Zenger, Markus; Heinen, Ines; Dwinger, Sarah; Decker, Oliver; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to generate normative data for the RS-11 for different age groups for men and women and to further investigate the construct validity and factor structure in the general population. Methods Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany in 2006 (n = 5,036). Results Normative data for the RS-11 were generated for men and women (53.7% female) and different age levels (mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years). Men had significantly higher mean scores compared with women (60.0 [SD = 10.2] vs. 59.3 [SD = 11.0]). Results of CFA supported a one-factor model of resilience. Self-esteem (standardized β = .50) and life satisfaction (standardized β =.20) were associated with resilience. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of resilience with other populations. Results demonstrate a special importance of self-esteem in the understanding of resilience. PMID:26523927

  12. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koppes, Lando L J; Geuskens, Goedele A; Pronk, Anjoeka; Vermeulen, Roel C H; de Vroome, Ernest M M

    2014-08-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on specific populations, such as nurses. We used data on night work collected in the Dutch Labor Force Surveys of 1996 until 2009, and individually linked these with National registers on hospital admission. Among 285,723 women without breast cancer at baseline, 2,531 had a hospital admission for breast cancer during an average of 7 years of follow up in the registers. Occasional and regular night work were not associated with the risk of hospital admission for breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratios 1.04; 95 % confidence interval 0.85-1.27, and 0.87; 0.72-1.05, respectively). Working more hours per week, or more years in a job entailing night work did not show increased breast cancer risks. Hazard ratios neither differed between nurses and women with other occupations. Our results show no association of night work with incident breast cancer, and suggest that night work generally does not increase the risk of breast cancer among women in the Dutch working population.

  13. Serum levels of the hepcidin-20 isoform in a large general population: The Val Borbera study☆

    PubMed Central

    Campostrini, Natascia; Traglia, Michela; Martinelli, Nicola; Corbella, Michela; Cocca, Massimiliano; Manna, Daniele; Castagna, Annalisa; Masciullo, Corrado; Silvestri, Laura; Olivieri, Oliviero; Toniolo, Daniela; Camaschella, Clara; Girelli, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Hepcidin, a 25 amino-acid liver hormone, has recently emerged as the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Proteomic studies in limited number of subjects have shown that biological fluids can also contain truncated isoforms, whose role remains to be elucidated. We report, for the first time, data about serum levels of the hepcidin-20 isoform (hep-20) in a general population, taking advantage of the Val Borbera (VB) study where hepcidin-25 (hep-25) was measured by SELDI-TOF-MS. Detectable amount of hep-20 were found in sera from 854 out of 1577 subjects (54.2%), and its levels were about 14% of hep-25 levels. A small fraction of subjects (n = 30, 1.9%) had detectable hep-20 but undetectable hep-25. In multivariate regression models, significant predictors of hep-20 were hep-25 and age in males, and hep-25, age, serum ferritin and body mass index in females. Of note, the hep-25:hep-20 ratio was not constant in the VB population, but increased progressively with increasing ferritin levels. This is not consistent with the simplistic view of hep-20 as a mere catabolic byproduct of hep-25. Although a possible active regulation of hep-20 production needs further confirmation, our results may also have implications for immunoassays for serum hepcidin based on antibodies lacking specificity for hep-25. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22951294

  14. Methodological challenges in assessing general population reactions in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa; Wessely, Simon

    2008-12-01

    Assessing mental health needs following a disaster is important, particularly within high-risk groups such as first responders or individuals who found themselves directly caught up in the incident. Particularly following events involving widespread destruction, ingenuity and hard work are required to successfully study these issues. When considering responses among the general population following less devastating events such as a conventional terrorist attack, or following an event involving a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear agent, other variables may become more relevant for determining the population's overall psychosocial well-being. Trust, perceived risk, sense of safety, willingness to take prophylaxis and unnecessary attendance at medical facilities will all be important in determining the overall psychological, medical, economic and political impact of such attacks. Assessing these variables can help government agencies and non-governmental organizations to adjust their communication and outreach efforts. As there is often a need to provide these data quickly, telephone surveys using short time-windows for data collection or which use quota samples are often required. It is unclear whether slower, more conventional and more expensive survey methods with better response rates would produce results different enough to these quicker and cheaper methods to have a major impact on any resulting policy decisions. This empirical question would benefit from further study.

  15. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi; Lindqvist, Ari; Piirilä, Päivi

    2016-10-01

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<0.70) in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012) showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male) with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0%) and 55 subjects (4.2%) were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy. PMID:27658807

  17. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  18. Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Ian; Evans, Stephen; Rawlins, Michael D; Smeeth, Liam; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Wexler, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Background The juvenile form of Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare disorder. There are no population-based estimates of either its incidence or prevalence in any population in the world. The present study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of juvenile HD in the UK and to examine the range of pharmacological treatments used in its management. Method The records of individuals under the age of 21 who had recorded diagnoses of HD were retrieved from the General Practice Research Database from 1990 through 2010. From these data estimates of incidence and prevalence were made as well as the specific treatments used in the treatment of its physical and psychological manifestations. Results 12 incident and 21 prevalent patients with juvenile HD were identified. The 21 prevalent cases included the 12 incident cases. The minimum population-based estimate of incidence is 0.70 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.22) per million patient-years. The minimum estimate of prevalence is 6.77/million (95% CI 5.60 to 8.12) per million patient-years. Patients were most frequently prescribed antidepressants, hypnotics, antipsychotics and treatments for motor abnormalities. Conclusions In the UK, juvenile HD is an extremely rare and complex disorder. The prescribing data demonstrate that the clinical management of juvenile HD is undertaken with no formal evidence base for the efficacy or safety of the treatments used. Research into the safety and efficacy of appropriate therapies is urgently required to offset the haphazard nature of prescribing. Multinational collaboration will be necessary to enrol sufficient numbers. Exploratory studies, though, should begin now. PMID:23558730

  19. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  20. Prevalence, incidence and progression of hand osteoarthritis in the general population: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Ida K; Englund, Martin; Aliabadi, Piran; Niu, Jingbo; Clancy, Margaret; Kvien, Tore K; Felson, David T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and longitudinal course of radiographic, erosive and symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (HOA) in the general population. Methods Framingham osteoarthritis (OA) study participants obtained bilateral hand radiographs at baseline and 9-year follow-up. The authors defined radiographic HOA at joint level as Kellgren–Lawrence grade (KLG)≥2, erosive HOA as KLG≥2 plus erosion and symptomatic HOA as KLG≥2 plus pain/aching/stiffness. Presence of HOA at individual level was defined as ≥1 affected joint. The prevalence was age-standardised (US 2000 Population 40–84 years). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 58.9 (9.9) years (56.5% women). The age-standardised prevalence of HOA was only modestly higher in women (44.2%) than men (37.7%), whereas the age-standardised prevalence of erosive and symptomatic OA was much higher in women (9.9% vs 3.3%, and 15.9% vs 8.2%). The crude incidence of HOA over 9-year follow-up was similar in women (34.6%) and men (33.7%), whereas the majority of those women (96.4%) and men (91.4%) with HOA at baseline showed progression during follow-up. Incident metacarpophalangeal and wrist OA were rare, but occurred more frequently and from an earlier age in men than women. Development of erosive disease occurred mainly in those with non-erosive HOA at baseline (as opposed to those without HOA), and was more frequent in women (17.3%) than men (9.6%). Conclusions The usual female predominance of prevalent and incident HOA was less clear for radiographic HOA than for symptomatic and erosive HOA. With an ageing population, the impact of HOA will further increase. PMID:21622766

  1. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  2. Adult Celiac Disease: Patients Are Shorter Compared with Their Peers in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Ganji, Azita; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Afzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Mosanen Mozafari, Homan; Saadatniya, Hassan; Hayatbakhs, Abdolrasol; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Delay in diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) occurs frequently, although its consequences are mostly not known. One of the presented symptoms in pediatric patients with CD is the short stature. However, far too little attention has been paid to physical features including height of adult patients with CD. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether patients suffering from CD are shorter in comparison with the general population without CD. As well, we evaluated probable correlations between demographic and physical features, main complains, serum anti tTG level, and intestinal pathology damage between short (lower quartile) versus tall stature (upper quartile) patients with CD. METHODS This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on 219 adult patients diagnosed as having CD in the Celiac Disease Center, between June 2008 and June 2014 in Mashhad, Iran. The exclusion criteria were ages less than 18 and more than 60 years. Height was compared with a group of 657 age- and sex matched control cases from the healthy population. The probable influencing factors on height such as intestinal pathology, serum level of anti-tissue transglutaminase(anti-tTG), serum vitamin D, and hemoglobin level at the time of diagnosis were assessed and were compared in short (lower quartile) versus tall stature (upper quartile) patients with CD. RESULTS Both male (n=65) and female (n=154) patients with CD were shorter than their counterpart in the general population (males: 168.5±8.6 to 171.3±7.2cm, p <0.01 and females: 154.8±10.58 to 157.8±7.2 cm, p <0.01). Spearman linear correlation showed height in patient with CD was correlated with serum hemoglobin (p <0.001, r=0.285) and bone mineral density (p<0.001) and not with serum vitamin D levels (p =0.024, r=0.237), but was not correlated with anti-tTG serum levels (p=0.97). CD patients with upper and lower quartile of height in men and women had no significant difference in the anti-tTG level and degree of duodenal pathology

  3. Mapping interventions that promote mental health in the general population: A scoping review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jennifer; Holmqvist, Maxine; Wener, Pamela; Halas, Gayle; Rothney, Janet; Schultz, Annette; Goertzen, Leah; Katz, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Health policies and programs promoting mental health or preventing mental illness in the general public are under-recognized facets of primary prevention. Increasing awareness and adoption of such strategies could reduce the burden of mental illness in individuals, families, communities, and society as whole. We conducted a scoping review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL and ERIC from 2004 to 2014. Reviews were included if the authors indicated a systematic approach in their literature searches, and if they comprised interventions in Westernized countries targeting the general population. We identified 39 reviews that met the inclusion criteria. Mental health intervention approaches and outcomes varied across age groups and settings, and included functional, social, and cognitive measures. Most interventions aimed to prevent a specific mental illness or symptoms (depression, anxiety, burnout, or stress). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and educational components were common. School-based programs focused on outcomes involving social and academic development. Interventions for families, especially for young or disadvantaged parents, taught parenting skills to help improve the well-being of children and their care-givers. In the workplace, the focus was on managing stress, while programs for the elderly emphasized quality of life determinants. This review summarizes a wide variety of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness, but the literature is primarily focused on the individual or family unit. More information is required about interventions at the community and societal levels.

  4. Planning for Serious Illness by the General Public: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Venne, Rosemary; Hunter, Paulette; Surtees, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Background. While rates of advance care documentation amongst the general public remain low, there is increasing recognition of the value of informal planning to address patient preferences in serious illness. Objectives. To determine the associations between personal attributes and formal and informal planning for serious illness across age groups. Methods. This population-based, online survey was conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada, in April, 2012, using a nonclinical sample of 827 adults ranging from 18 to 88 years of age and representative of age, sex, and regional distribution of the province. Associations between key predictor variables and planning for serious illness were assessed using binary logistic regression. Results. While 16.6% of respondents had completed a written living will or advance care plan, half reported having conversations about their treatment wishes or states of health in which they would find it unacceptable to live. Lawyers were the most frequently cited source of assistance for those who had prepared advance care plans. Personal experiences with funeral planning significantly increased the likelihood of activities designed to plan for serious illness. Conclusions. Strategies designed to increase the rate of planning for future serious illness amongst the general public must account for personal readiness. PMID:25025030

  5. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2014-01-01

    The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1) testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2) applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  6. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  7. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001–2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants’ residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500 m; reference), medium (75–500 m) or high (<75 m). Participants The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results We identified a significant dose–response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (−1.0%, 95% CI −2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (−0.9%, 95% CI −2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (−4.5%, 95% CI −8.8% to −0.1%). Conclusions High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease. PMID

  8. Comparison of the residue levels of some organochlorine compounds in breast milk of the general and indigenous Canadian populations

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.; Mes, J.

    1987-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organochlorine resides to be present in mothers' milk of the general Canadian population, but there has been little work done with respect to Canada's native population. A small survey was therefore undertaken to determine organochlorine resides in breast milk of Canadian Indian and Inuit mothers as a follow-up to the recent national survey of the general population. Analyses were conducted for 14 individual isomers of PCBs, photomirex, four hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, oxychlordane, ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-chlordane, trans-nonaclor, four analogs of DDT and vie isomers of chlorobenzenes. The results were compared to those of the national survey.

  9. Generalization and dilution of association results from European GWAS in populations of non-European ancestry: the PAGE study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christopher S; Matise, Tara C; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Buyske, Steven; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Peters, Ulrike; Franceschini, Nora; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Duggan, David J; Spencer, Kylee L; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Thomas, Fridtjof; Young, Alicia; Carty, Cara; Heiss, Gerardo; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kooperberg, Charles L

    2013-09-01

    The vast majority of genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings reported to date are from populations with European Ancestry (EA), and it is not yet clear how broadly the genetic associations described will generalize to populations of diverse ancestry. The Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study is a consortium of multi-ancestry, population-based studies formed with the objective of refining our understanding of the genetic architecture of common traits emerging from GWAS. In the present analysis of five common diseases and traits, including body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and lipid levels, we compare direction and magnitude of effects for GWAS-identified variants in multiple non-EA populations against EA findings. We demonstrate that, in all populations analyzed, a significant majority of GWAS-identified variants have allelic associations in the same direction as in EA, with none showing a statistically significant effect in the opposite direction, after adjustment for multiple testing. However, 25% of tagSNPs identified in EA GWAS have significantly different effect sizes in at least one non-EA population, and these differential effects were most frequent in African Americans where all differential effects were diluted toward the null. We demonstrate that differential LD between tagSNPs and functional variants within populations contributes significantly to dilute effect sizes in this population. Although most variants identified from GWAS in EA populations generalize to all non-EA populations assessed, genetic models derived from GWAS findings in EA may generate spurious results in non-EA populations due to differential effect sizes. Regardless of the origin of the differential effects, caution should be exercised in applying any genetic risk prediction model based on tagSNPs outside of the ancestry group in which it was derived. Models based directly on functional variation may generalize more robustly, but the identification

  10. Prognostic value of basal high-sensitive cardiac troponin levels on mortality in the general population

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Noreen; Klinkenberg, Lieke J.J.; Bekers, Otto; van Loon, Luc J.C.; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Meex, Steven J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Interest in the use of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has expanded from diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction to risk assessment for morbidity and mortality. Although cTnT and cTnI were shown to have equivalent diagnostic performance in the setting of suspected acute myocardial infarction, potential prognostic differences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare the relationship between cTnT and cTnI, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (from inception through October 2016) were searched for prospective observational cohort studies reporting on the prognostic value of basal high-sensitive cTnT and/or cTnI levels on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. Data on study characteristics, participants’ characteristics, outcome parameters, and quality [according to the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) “Quality Assessment Tool For Quantitative Studies] were retrieved. Hazard ratios per standard deviation increase in basal cardiac troponin level (HR per 1-SD; retrieved from the included articles or estimated) were pooled using a random-effects model. On a total of 2585 reviewed citations, 11 studies, with data on 65,019 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects pooling showed significant associations between basal cardiac troponin levels and HR for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality [HR per 1-SD 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.20–1.38) and HR per 1-SD 1.18 (95% CI, 1.11–1.26), respectively]. Stratified analyses showed higher HRs for cTnT than cTnI [cardiovascular mortality: cTnT HR per 1-SD 1.37 (95% CI, 1.23–1.52); and cTnI HR per 1-SD 1.21 (95% CI, 1.16–1.26); all-cause mortality: cTnT HR per 1-SD 1.31 (955 CI, 1.13–1.53); and cTnI HR per 1-SD 1.14 (95% CI, 1.06–1.22)]. These differences were significant (P < 0.01) in meta

  11. Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boer, Jolanda M A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    2012-11-28

    Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch adults, aged 26-65 years, who were free of hypertension at baseline. Measurements were done at baseline and after 5 and 10 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR), with 95 % CI, for incident hypertension were obtained in tertiles of energy-adjusted protein, using time-dependent Cox regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, baseline systolic BP, dietary confounders and protein from other sources (if applicable). Mean BP was 118/76 mmHg at baseline. Protein intake was 85 (sd 22) g/d (approximately 15 % of energy) with 62 % originating from animal sources. The main sources of protein were dairy products (28 %), meat (24 %) and grain (19 %). During the follow-up, 1568 new cases of hypertension were identified (44 % of the participants). Energy-adjusted intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein was not significantly associated with hypertension risk (all HR approximately 1·00, P>0·60). Protein from grain showed a significant inverse association with incident hypertension, with a HR of 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·00, P trend = 0·04) for the upper tertile ( ≥ 18 g/d) v. the lower tertile ( < 14 g/d), whereas dairy protein and meat protein were not associated with incident hypertension. In conclusion, higher intake of grain protein may contribute to the prevention of hypertension, which warrants confirmation in other population-based studies and randomised controlled trials.

  12. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors.

  13. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001). Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l). Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61) were always accompanied by albuminuria. Conclusion Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121

  14. Comprehensive Description of Comorbidity for Autism Spectrum Disorder in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Cawthorpe, David

    2017-01-01

    Context: Few published studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and comorbidity are population based. Objective: To describe the comorbidity of ASD and disorders listed in the main classes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) in a general population. Design: Direct physician billing data for the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for the treatment of any presenting concern in the Calgary Health Zone (n = 763,449) from 1994 to 2009 were extracted. Diagnosed ICD-9 disorders (independent variable) were grouped into 17 categories using ICD-9 diagnosis codes. ASD (dependent variable) was classified under ICD-9 Code 299. Individuals with and without independent disorder classes were counted by the presence or absence of any ASD. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of the association were calculated. Main Outcome Measures: ORs of ASD comorbidities. Results: Annual rates of ASD increased 3.9-fold for males and 1.4-fold for females. Diagnosed disorders ranked by OR in the independent ICD-9 categories indicated that males with ASD had overall higher ORs (> 1.0) in 11 main ICD-9 classes, and females with ASD had higher ORs (> 1.0) in 12 main ICD-9 classes. Males with ASD had lower ORs in 4 main ICD-9 disease classes; females with ASD had lower ORs related only to the main class “complications of pregnancy and childbirth.” Five main ICD-9 classes were not significant for males or females. Conclusions: Patients with ASD have significant comorbidity of physical disorders. This finding may inform other areas of research and assessment in clinical management. PMID:28241914

  15. Occupational and environmental associations with antinuclear antibodies in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G; Schur, Peter S; Fraser, Patricia A

    2006-12-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus, and can occur many years before onset of symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibodies in the general population (i.e., people who do not have lupus or other systemic autoimmune diseases). Serum was collected from 266 population-based controls who had been frequency-matched to the age and gender distribution of lupus cases in a 60-county study area in the southeastern United States. A detailed occupational history was collected using a structured interview; information was also collected on hair dye use. Antinuclear antibodies were assayed using HEp-2 cells as substrate. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibody levels, adjusting for age, gender, and race. High-titer antinuclear antibodies (> or =1:160) were observed in 21 subjects (8%). A twofold increased prevalence of high-titer antinuclear antibodies was seen with some occupational exposures (silica dust, pesticides, and sunlight), although none of these individual estimates were statistically significant. The association seen with use of hair dyes was weaker (OR 1.4). There was a suggestion of a dose response with a combined measure based on the summation of exposures (ORs of 1.7, 2.1, and 5.9 for 1, 2, and > or = 3 exposures). These data suggest that occupational exposures may influence the expression of antinuclear antibodies. Larger studies addressing these exposures may provide insights into the mechanisms by which various environmental factors affect the development of autoantibodies and the progression to clinical disease.

  16. Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does their usefulness outweigh their risks?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Ballbè, Montse; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the perceptions of the general population about the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users and on those passively exposed to e-cigarettes and the perceptions about e-cigarette usefulness for reducing or eliminating tobacco smoking. Design, setting, and participants We analysed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the general adult (≥16 years) population of Barcelona, Spain (336 men and 400 women). The fieldwork was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the percentages, adjusted OR and their corresponding 95% CI among participants with some awareness of e-cigarettes (79.2% of the sample). Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the perception about harmfulness for e-cigarette users and for passively exposed non-e-cigarette users, as well as the perception of usefulness for smokers of cigarette cessation and reduction. Results In this sample, 40.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on users, and 27.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on passively exposed bystanders (p<0.001). Particularly, more never-smokers perceived that e-cigarettes had harmful effects on passively exposed bystanders than current smokers (34.4% vs 20.6%; OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.63). More people perceived e-cigarettes as being useful for reducing smoking than for quitting (50.6% vs 29.9%, p<0.001), as well as for reducing smoking than as being harmful to users (50.6% vs 40.1%, p=0.044). Discussion The perception that e-cigarettes are useful for reducing tobacco consumption was more prevalent than the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful to users and to those passively exposed to e-cigarettes. Advertisements and messages about the use of e-cigarettes and their harmful effects should be regulated and based on scientific evidence to avoid creating erroneous ideas about their use. PMID:26534735

  17. The associations of morningness-eveningness with anger and impulsivity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Seung-Gul; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among morningness-eveningness, impulsivity and anger in the general population. A total of 1000 community-dwelling subjects (500 males) aged 20-77 years (mean± SD age: 39.6 ± 11.6 years) completed the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderation and mediation analyses were performed to determine whether the relationship between two variables depended on the third variable, referred to as a moderator, and whether the third variable, known as a mediator, was associated with the other two variables establishing causation. The MEQ scores exhibited significant negative associations with BIS (p < 0.001) and STAXI (p < 0.001) scores, and high scores on the BIS were associated with high scores on the STAXI (p < 0.001). Impulsivity, as measured by the BIS, played a role as a moderator (p < 0.001) in the relationship between MEQ and STAXI, and anger, as measured by the STAXI, acted as moderator (p = 0.030) in the association between MEQ and BIS. However, after controlling for the interaction of the BIS and MEQ, the MEQ scores did not significantly predict STAXI scores (p = 0.070). Additionally, the effect size of the mediating effect of the BIS scores on the relationship between the MEQ and STAXI (percent mediation: 53.2%) was larger than that of the STAXI scores on the association between the MEQ and BIS (percent mediation: 31.8%). The present results demonstrate that morningness-eveningness was closely related with both impulsivity and anger in the general population. Furthermore, these findings suggest that impulsivity may exercise a great influence on the association between morningness-eveningness and anger in two ways: as a moderator by modulating this relationship based on the level of impulsivity and as a mediator by acting as an intermediary factor.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection

  19. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  20. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  1. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  2. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER): prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values < 0.9 were considered as peripheral arterial disease. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4), (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2), females 5.3% (4.6-6.0); p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44); inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68) for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16) for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58) for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58) for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65); diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83); previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15); hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18); hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19). Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87) and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94) were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight. PMID:20529387

  3. Chinese Version of the EQ-5D Preference Weights: Applicability in a Chinese General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunmei; Gong, Yanhong; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Shengchao; Yin, Xiaoxv; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Wenzhen; Cao, Shiyi; Mkandawire, Naomie; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the reliability, validity and sensitivity of Chinese version of the EQ-5D preference weights in Chinese general people, examine the differences between the China value set and the UK, Japan and Korea value sets, and provide methods for evaluating and comparing the EQ-5D value sets of different countries. Methods A random sample of 2984 community residents (15 years or older) were interviewed using a questionnaire including the EQ-5D scale. Level of agreement, convergent validity, known-groups validity and sensitivity of the EQ-5D China, United Kingdom (UK), Japan and Korea value sets were determined. Results The mean EQ-5D index scores were significantly (P<0.05) different among the UK (0.964), Japan (0.981), Korea (0.987), and China (0.985) weights. High level of agreement (intraclass correlations coefficients > 0.75) and convergent validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficients > 0.95) were found between each paired schemes. The EQ-5D index scores discriminated equally well for the four versions between levels of 10 known-groups (P< 0.05). The effect size and the relative efficiency statistics showed that the China weights had better sensitivity. Conclusions The China EQ-5D preference weights show equivalent psychometric properties with those from the UK, Japan and Korea weights while slightly more sensitive to known group differences than those from the Japan and Korea weights. Considering both psychometric and sociocultural issues, the China scheme should be a priority as an EQ-5D based measure of the health related quality of life in Chinese general population. PMID:27711169

  4. Natural course of acute neck and low back pain in the general population: the HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Vasseljen, Ottar; Woodhouse, Astrid; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Leivseth, Linda

    2013-08-01

    In this prospective cohort study we aimed to describe the natural course of acute neck and low back pain in a general population of Norway. We screened 9056 subjects aged 20-67 years who participated in a general health survey for a new episode of neck or low back pain the previous month. The screening identified 219 subjects who formed the cohort for this study. Pain intensity was reported on a numeric rating scale (0-10) at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after start of the new pain episode. The course of pain was described for neck and low back pain, different baseline pain levels, age groups, and number of pain sites at baseline. Use of medication and health care was described and associations between pain intensity and seeking health care were estimated. Pain declined rapidly within 1 month after a new pain episode, with a reduction of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-1.32) for neck pain and 1.40 (95% CI 0.82-1.99) for low back pain with little change thereafter. However, pain remained unchanged over the follow-up year for those with equal pain in the neck and low back areas at baseline and for those reporting 4 or more pain sites at baseline. Only 1 in 5 sought health care for their complaints. Still, the course of pain was comparable to effect sizes reported in interventional studies. This study thus contributes natural course reference data for comparisons of pain outcome in clinical trials and practice.

  5. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population

    PubMed Central

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. Methods We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Results The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67). Conclusions These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease. PMID:27814374

  6. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  7. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  8. The Prevalence of Paraphilic Interests and Behaviors in the General Population: A Provincial Survey.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Paraphilic sexual interests are defined as unusual or anomalous, but their actual occurrence in nonclinical samples is still unknown. This study looked at desire for and experience of paraphilic behaviors in a sample of adult men and women in the general population. A secondary goal was to compare the results of two survey modes-traditional landline telephone versus online. A total of 1,040 persons classified according to age, gender, education, ethnic background, religious beliefs, area of residency, and corresponding to the norm for the province of Quebec were interviewed. Nearly half of this sample expressed interest in at least one paraphilic category, and approximately one-third had had experience with such a practice at least once. Voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, and masochism interested both male and female respondents at levels above what is usually considered to be statistically unusual (15.9%). Interestingly, levels of interest in fetishism and masochism were not significantly different for men and women. Masochism was significantly linked with higher satisfaction with one's own sexual life. As expected, the online mode generated more acknowledgment of paraphilic interest than the telephone mode. These results call into question the current definition of normal (normophilic) versus anomalous (paraphilic) sexual behaviors.

  9. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    PubMed

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  10. Beliefs about gambling problems and recovery: results from a general population telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; Cordingley, Joanne; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony

    2011-12-01

    Respondents were asked their beliefs about gambling abuse as part of a general population telephone survey. The random digit dialing survey consisted of 8,467 interviews of adults, 18 years and older, from Ontario, Canada (45% male; mean age = 46.2). The predominant conception of gambling abuse was that of an addiction, similar to drug addiction. More than half of respondents reported that treatment was necessary and almost three-quarters of respondents felt that problem gamblers would have to give up gambling completely in order to overcome their gambling problem. Problem gamblers (past or current) were less likely than non- or social gamblers to believe that treatment was needed, and current problem gamblers were least likely to believe that abstinence was required, as compared to all other respondents. Strong agreement with conceptions of gambling abuse as disease or addiction were positively associated with belief that treatment is needed, while strong agreement with conceptions of disease or wrongdoing were positively associated with belief that abstinence is required.

  11. Participant reactions to survey research in the general population after terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Nandi, Arijit; Stuber, Jennifer; Gold, Joel; Acierno, Ron; Best, Connie L; Bucuvalas, Mike; Rudenstine, Sasha; Boscarino, Joseph A; Resnick, Heidi

    2005-10-01

    There remains concern that survey research after a disaster can precipitate or exacerbate distress among study participants. The authors surveyed 5,774 persons in three random-digit-dial telephone surveys of the general population of New York City conducted 1-2 months, 4-5 months, and 6-9 months after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. Overall, 746 (12.9%) people who finished the surveys said that the survey questions were upsetting but only 57 (1.0% overall) were still upset at the end of the interview, and 19 (0.3%) wanted assistance from a counselor. Ten persons who did not finish the survey also received counselor assistance. Persons with mental health symptoms were more likely to find the survey questions emotionally upsetting as were participants who lacked salutary resources, including health insurance and a regular health care provider. Although relatively few of those interviewed found the survey assessment disturbing, the presence of a small number of respondents who wanted mental health assistance suggests the need for a mental health backup system for research conducted soon after exposure to large-scale traumatic events.

  12. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:28005417

  13. Genome scans for Q1 and Q2 on general population replicates using Loki.

    PubMed

    Shmulewitz, D; Heath, S C

    2001-01-01

    The Markov Chain Monte Carlo linkage package Loki was used to perform a genome scan under realistic conditions (using a 10-cM marker map without marker data on unsampled individuals, analyzing each chromosome separately, and without knowing the answers) for traits Q1 and Q2 on general population replicate 1. Using this approach we detected and correctly localized MG1 for Q1 and MG3 for Q2. We then repeated the analyses on replicate 1 and the "best replicate" (42) adding more information (using marker data on everyone, fitting a polygenic effect, and analyzing multiple chromosomes jointly) to see the effect on the detection of trait loci. We found that adding more data often improves the quality of the linkage signal, and reduces the false positive rate, but did not allow the detection of trait loci missed by the initial analysis. We also investigated the convergence of the sampler by repeating one multi-chromosome analysis six times with different random number seeds. We concluded that a strategy of performing a single chromosome scan using a moderate number of sampling iterations, followed by a multi-chromosome analysis of all chromosomes with linkage signals detected in the first scan using a longer sampling run, was an effective way of performing a genome scan on this data set.

  14. Understanding support for complementary and alternative medicine in general populations: use and perceived efficacy.

    PubMed

    Stoneman, Paul; Sturgis, Patrick; Allum, Nick

    2013-09-01

    Proponents of complementary and alternative medicine argue that these treatments can be used with great effect in addition to, and sometimes instead of, conventional medicine, a position which has drawn sustained opposition from those who advocate an evidence-based approach to the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Using recent survey data from the United Kingdom, this article seeks to establish a clearer understanding of the nature of the public's relationship with complementary and alternative medicine within the general population by focusing on beliefs about the perceived effectiveness of homeopathy, in addition to its reported use. Using recent data from the United Kingdom, we initially demonstrate that reported use and perceived effectiveness are far from coterminous and argue that for a proper understanding of the motivations underpinning public support of complementary and alternative medicine, consideration of both reported use and perceived effectiveness is necessary. We go on to demonstrate that although the profile of homeopathy users differs from those who support this form of medicine, neither outcome is dependent upon peoples' levels of knowledge about science. Instead, the results suggest a far greater explanatory role for need and concerns about conventional medicine.

  15. Individual and joint prevalence of three non-motor symptoms in the US general population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglei; Huang, Xuemei; Guo, Xuguang; Peddada, Shyamal

    2014-01-01

    Background Some non-motor symptoms may precede the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by years. Methods We examined the individual and joint prevalence of depression, daytime sleepiness, and infrequent bowel movement among 10,477 participants of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2008. Results For all symptoms, the prevalence was higher in women than in men. Importantly, few participants had two or more symptoms: 1.3% at ages 20-29, 1.0% at 30-39, 1.2% at 40-49, 3.5% at 50-59, 1.7% at 60-69, 1.1% at 70-79, and 1.2% at ages ≥80 in men; the corresponding prevalence in women was 3.1%, 5.2%, 5.7%, 4.1%, 3.1%, 2.3%, and 1.2% respectively. In both men and women, depression was correlated with infrequent bowel movement and daytime sleepiness, but the latter two were mutually independent. Conclusion The presence of multiple nonmotor symptoms was uncommon in the general population and the prevalence was higher in women than in men. PMID:24985078

  16. The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of ‘musical sophistication’ which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement. PMID:24586929

  17. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-05-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed to paint fumes in their residence during pregnancy. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between exposure to paint fumes and the risk of being small for gestational age. There were no statistically significant associations between exposure to paint fumes and birth weight and risk of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth.

  18. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  19. A paradigm for the study of paranoia in the general population: the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    PubMed

    Ellett, Lyn; Allen-Crooks, Rhani; Stevens, Adele; Wildschut, Tim; Chadwick, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that paranoia is common in the general population. We report three studies that examined the Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) as a paradigm for evaluation of non-clinical paranoia. The PDG captures three key qualities that are at the heart of paranoia--it is interpersonal, it concerns threat, and it concerns the perception of others' intentions towards the self. Study 1 (n=175) found that state paranoia was positively associated with selection of the competitive PDG choice. Study 2 (n=111) found that this association was significant only when participants believed they were playing the PDG against another person, and not when playing against a computer. This finding underscores the interpersonal nature of paranoia and the concomitant necessity of studying paranoia in interpersonal context. In Study 3 (n=152), we assessed both trait and state paranoia, and differentiated between distrust- and greed-based competition. Both trait and state paranoia were positively associated with distrust-based competition (but not with greed-based competition). Crucially, we found that the association between trait paranoia and distrust-based competition was fully mediated by state paranoia. The PDG is a promising paradigm for the study of non-clinical paranoia.

  20. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  1. General Population Job Exposure Matrix Applied to a Pooled Study of Prevalent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S.; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title–based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14–2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09–2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  2. Morphinofobia: the situation among the general population and health care professionals in North-Eastern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Morphinofobia among the general population (GP) and among health care professionals (HP) is not without danger for the patients: it may lead to the inappropriate management of debilitating pain. The aim of our study was to explore among GP and HP the representation and attitudes concerning the use of morphine in health care. Methods A cross-sectional study was done among 412 HP (physicians and nurses) of the 4 hospitals and 10 community health centers of Beira Interior (Portugal)and among 193 persons of the GP randomly selected in public places. Opinions were collected through a translated self-administered questionnaire. Results A significant difference of opinion exists among GP and HP about the use of morphine. The word morphine first suggests drug to GP (36,2%) and analgesia to HP (32,9%.). The reasons for not using morphine most frequently cited are: for GP morphine use means advanced disease (56%), risk of addiction (50%), legal requirements (49,7%); for HP it means legal risks (56,3%) and adverse side effects of morphine such as somnolence - sedation (30,5%) The socio-demographic situation was correlated with the opinions about the use of morphine. Conclusions False beliefs about the use of morphine exist among the studied groups. There seems to be a need for developing information campaigns on pain management and the use of morphine targeting. Better training and more information of HP might also be needed. PMID:20569454

  3. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-12-01

    The association of asthma with occupational exposures was studied in 14,151 adults, aged 25-59 years, from the general population of the 1975 French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) Survey. Associations of asthma with specific jobs, such as personal care workers, waiters, and stock clerks, were observed, with age-, sex-, and smoking-adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low and high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure were excluded. Risks increased further with increasing specificity of the definition of asthma when considering jobs or specific agents, such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 2.23) for "ever asthma," to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14 years, to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning current job, and to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents.

  4. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M.; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-01-01

    The association of occupational exposures and asthma were studied in 14151 adults, aged 25–59 years, from the general population of the French PAARC (Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques, 1975) Survey. Associations of asthma to specific jobs such as personal care workers, waiters, stock clerks were observed, with age, sex, smoking adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low, high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when excluding subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure. Risks further increased when increasing specificity of the definition of asthma considering jobs or specific agents such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.23) for ever asthma, to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation, to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14, and to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning of current job. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents. PMID:15561990

  5. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-08-01

    The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ≳10,000 M{sub ☉} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ∼ 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ∼ 7. Most of these stars are expected to live for short times and then directly collapse to black holes, with little or no mass loss over their lives. However, we have now discovered that non-rotating primordial stars with masses close to 55,000 M{sub ☉} can instead die as highly energetic thermonuclear supernovae powered by explosive helium burning, releasing up to 10{sup 55} erg, or about 10,000 times the energy of a Type Ia supernova. The explosion is triggered by the general relativistic contribution of thermal photons to gravity in the core of the star, which causes the core to contract and explosively burn. The energy release completely unbinds the star, leaving no compact remnant, and about half of the mass of the star is ejected into the early cosmos in the form of heavy elements. The explosion would be visible in the near infrared at z ≲ 20 to Euclid and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, perhaps signaling the birth of supermassive black hole seeds and the first quasars.

  6. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  7. Psychomotor slowness is associated with self-reported sleep duration among the general population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Sallinen, Mikael; Era, Pertti; Suutama, Timo; Sulkava, Raimo; Partonen, Timo

    2011-06-01

    Short and long self-reported sleep durations have been found to be associated with several seemingly disparate health risks and impaired functional abilities, including cognitive functioning. The role of long sleep is especially poorly understood in this context. Psychomotor slowness, shown to have analogous associations with cognitive performance and health risks as self-reported long sleep duration, has not been studied together with sleep duration in epidemiological settings. We hypothesized that self-reported habitual sleep duration, especially long sleep, is associated with slow psychomotor reaction time, and that this association is independent of vigilance-related factors. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 5352 individuals, representing the general adult population. We found a U-shaped association between self-reported sleep duration and psychomotor speed, which prevailed even after controlling for several pertinent confounders. This novel finding can be interpreted to mean that self-reported sleep duration, at least in the case of long sleep, is an indicator of bodily/brain integrity and, taken together with the results of cognitive epidemiology, may provide some new insights into the mechanisms underlying the associations between habitual self-reported sleep duration, health risks and impaired functional abilities.

  8. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    PubMed

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2015-07-22

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder.

  9. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    PubMed

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications.

  10. A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Lamiece; Senior, Jane; Frisher, Martin; Edge, Dawn; Shaw, Jenny

    2014-04-01

    While the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, less is known about comparative rates of psychotropic medicine prescribing. This is the first study in a decade to determine the prevalence and patterns of psychotropic medication prescribing in prisons. It is also the first study to comprehensively adjust for age when making comparisons with the general population. Four East of England prisons, housing a total of 2222 men and 341 women were recruited to the study. On census days, clinical records were used to identify and collect data on all prisoners with current, valid prescriptions for hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antimanic, antidepressant and/or stimulant medication, as listed in chapters 4.1 to 4.4 of the British National Formulary. Data on 280,168 patients were obtained for comparison purposes from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. After adjusting for age, rates of psychotropic prescribing in prison were 5.5 and 5.9 times higher than in community-based men and women, respectively. We also found marked differences in the individual psychotropic drugs prescribed in prison and community settings. Further work is necessary to determine whether psychotropic prescribing patterns in prison reflect an appropriate balance between managing mental illness, physical health risks and medication misuse.

  11. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population.

    PubMed

    Koppen, Hille; Boele, Henk-Jan; Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Koutstaal, Bastiaan J; Horlings, Corinne Gc; Koekkoek, Bas K; van der Geest, Jos; Smit, Albertine E; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Terwindt, Gisela M; Bloem, Bas R; Kruit, Mark C; Ferrari, Michel D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-02-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n = 111; migraine without aura n = 89; non-migraine controls n = 82; age range 43-72; 72% female) from a population-based study were subjected to a range of sensitive and validated cerebellar tests that cover functions of all main parts of the cerebellar cortex, including cerebrocerebellum, spinocerebellum, and vestibulocerebellum. In addition, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to screen for cerebellar lesions. As a positive control, the same cerebellar tests were conducted in 13 patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1; age range 19-64; 69% female) all carrying a CACNA1A mutation known to affect cerebellar function. Results MRI revealed cerebellar ischemic lesions in 17/196 (8.5%) migraine patients and 3/79 (4%) controls, which were always located in the posterior lobe except for one control. With regard to the cerebellar tests, there were no differences between migraine patients with aura, migraine patients without aura, and controls for the: (i) Purdue-pegboard test for fine motor skills (assembly scores p = 0.1); (ii) block-design test for visuospatial ability (mean scaled scores p = 0.2); (iii) prism-adaptation task for limb learning (shift scores p = 0.8); (iv) eyeblink-conditioning task for learning-dependent timing (peak-time p = 0.1); and (v) body-sway test for balance capabilities (pitch velocity score under two-legs stance condition p = 0.5). Among migraine patients, those with cerebellar ischaemic lesions performed worse than those without lesions on the assembly scores of the pegboard task ( p < 0.005), but not on the primary outcome measures of the other tasks. Compared with controls and non

  12. Population-Based Assessment of Hypertension Epidemiology and Risk Factors among HIV-Positive and General Populations in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Balzer, Laura; Heller, David; Kotwani, Prashant; Chamie, Gabriel; Clark, Tamara; Ayieko, James; Mwangwa, Florence; Jain, Vivek; Byonanebye, Dathan; Petersen, Maya; Havlir, Diane; Kamya, Moses R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa has created a growing, aging HIV-positive population at risk for non-communicable diseases such as hypertension. However, the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in this population remain incompletely understood. Methods We measured blood pressure and collected demographic data on over 65,000 adults attending multi-disease community health campaigns in 20 rural Ugandan communities (SEARCH Study: NCT01864603). Our objectives were to determine (i) whether HIV is an independent risk factor for hypertension, and (ii) awareness and control of hypertension in HIV-positive adults and the overall population. Results Hypertension prevalence was 14% overall, and 11% among HIV-positive individuals. 79% of patients were previously undiagnosed, 85% were not taking medication, and 50% of patients on medication had uncontrolled blood pressure. Multivariate predictors of hypertension included older age, male gender, higher BMI, lack of education, alcohol use, and residence in Eastern Uganda. HIV-negative status was independently associated with higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Viral suppression of HIV did not significantly predict hypertension among HIV-positives. Significance The burden of hypertension is substantial and inadequately controlled, both in HIV-positive persons and overall. Universal HIV screening programs could provide counseling, testing, and treatment for hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27232186

  13. Combined effects of major depression, pain and somatic disorders on general functioning in the general adult population.

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Caniato, Riccardo N; Garcia-Alcaraz, Miguel A; Berger, Klaus

    2008-08-31

    This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in persons suffering from pain symptoms in various locations, both with and without comorbid somatic disorders and to analyze the single and combined effects of MDD, pain symptoms and somatic disorders on general functioning in the community. The 12-month prevalence of MDD, somatic disorders and pain symptoms, grouped according to location, were determined among 4181 participants from a community sample. Depression was assessed utilising the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Pain symptoms were self-reported by participants whereas medical diagnoses were validated by medical examinations. General functioning was evaluated utilising the established MOS-SF-36 scale. The prevalence of MDD was significantly increased for persons with pain in any location. In the absence of a somatic disorder, MDD prevalence was highest in persons with abdominal/chest pain (9.3%) and arm or leg pain (7.9%) and lowest in persons with back pain (6.2%). Mental and physical well-being were lowest for persons with both MDD and a somatic disorder, irrespective of pain locations. Increasing numbers of pain locations impaired mental and physical well-being across all groups, but the effect on mental well-being was most marked in participants with MDD and comorbid somatic disorders. The presence of pain increases risk of associated MDD. The number of pain locations experienced, rather than the specific location of pain, has the greatest impact on general functioning. Not only chronic pain, but pain of any type may be an indicator of MDD and decreased general functioning.

  14. [General aspects of population reproduction in the Socialist Republic of Croatia].

    PubMed

    Wertheimer-baletic, A

    1986-01-01

    The author presents a social and historical review of population growth in Yugoslavia. Aspects of population growth unique to a Marxist society are identified. Using Croatia as an example of a region with a low birth rate, the author discusses fertility, mortality, and migration as they affect overall population growth. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  15. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H.; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3–8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough. The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities. This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the

  16. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  17. Sexual assault while too intoxicated to resist: a general population study of Norwegian teenage girls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15–18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Methods Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n = 2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. Results The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Conclusion Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway – notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females’ sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk

  18. Hereditary colorectal cancer in the general population: from cancer registration to molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    de Leon, M P.; Pedroni, M; Benatti, P; Percesepe, A; Di, G; Foroni, M; Rossi, G; Genuardi, M; Neri, G; Leonardi, F; Viel, A; Capozzi, E; Boiocchi, M; Roncucci, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is one of the most common inherited disorders predisposing to cancer. The genes responsible for the disease have recently been cloned and characterised; their mutations induce a generalised genomic instability which is particularly evident at microsatellite loci (replication error (RER)+ phenotype).
AIMS—To investigate how to select individuals and families in the general population who should be screened for constitutional mutations predisposing to colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS/METHODS—Between 1984 and 1995, 1899 colorectal malignancies in 1831 patients were registered, and in 1721 of these (94%), family trees could be obtained. Patients and families were classified into five categories according to a more or less likely genetic basis: HNPCC; "suspected" HNPCC; juvenile cases; aspecific cancer aggregation; sporadic cases. In 18 families with HNPCC as well as in 18 with suspected HNPCC, microsatellite instability in tumour tissues and constitutional mutations of two DNA mismatch repair genes (MSH2 and MLH1) could be evaluated. RER status was studied with five markers (BAT40, D2S123, D18S57, D17S787, and BAT26) in paraffin embedded tissues. Germline mutations of MSH2 or MLH1 genes were assessed on DNA and RNA extracted from lymphomonocytic cells, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and direct DNA sequencing.
RESULTS—HNPCC represented 2.6% and suspected HNPCC 4.6% of all registered colorectal neoplasms. Eleven out of 18 HNPCC families (61%) showed microsatellite instability as opposed to four (of 18) suspected HNPCC (22%; p<0.02). Three germline mutations (two in MSH2 and one in MLH1 gene) were found in three different large HNPCC families, whereas no mutations were detected in suspected HNPCC.
CONCLUSIONS—In this study of cancer genetic epidemiology, data from a tumour registry were analysed and this ultimately

  19. A Nationwide Population-Based Study Identifying Health Disparities Between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the General Populations Living in Select Urban Counties

    PubMed Central

    Castor, Mei L.; Smyser, Michael S.; Taualii, Maile M.; Park, Alice N.; Lawson, Shelley A.; Forquera, Ralph A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Despite their increasing numbers, little is known about the health of American Indians/Alaska Natives living in urban areas. We examined the health status of American Indian/Alaska Native populations served by 34 federally funded urban Indian health organizations. Methods. We analyzed US census data and vital statistics data for the period 1990 to 2000. Results. Disparities were revealed in socioeconomic, maternal and child health, and mortality indicators between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the general populations in urban Indian health organization service areas and nationwide. American Indians/Alaska Natives were approximately twice as likely as these general populations to be poor, to be unemployed, and to not have a college degree. Similar differences were observed in births among mothers who received late or no prenatal care or consumed alcohol and in mortality attributed to sudden infant death syndrome, chronic liver disease, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions. We found health disparities between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the general populations living in selected urban areas and nationwide. Such disparities can be addressed through improvements in health care access, high-quality data collection, and policy initiatives designed to provide sufficient resources and a more unified vision of the health of urban American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:16571711

  20. Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population

    PubMed Central

    van Os, Jim; Reininghaus, Uli

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research indicates that weak expressions of positive psychotic symptoms (“psychotic experiences”) can be measured in the general population, and likely represent the behavioural manifestation of distributed multifactorial (genetic and non‐genetic) risk for psychosis. Psychotic experiences are a transdiagnostic phenomenon: the majority of individuals with these experiences have a diagnosis of non‐psychotic disorder, particularly common mental disorder, in which psychotic experiences predict greater illness severity and poorer treatment response. Some of the people with common mental disorder and psychotic experiences will present to mental health services meeting criteria for “clinical high risk”. Treatment of the transdiagnostic dimension of psychosis in individuals with common mental disorder who meet “clinical high risk” criteria thus may improve outcome (which cannot be interpreted as prevention of “schizophrenia”). Subthreshold psychotic experiences are transitory in about 80% of individuals, while around 20% go on to develop persistent psychotic experiences and 7% a psychotic disorder, with an annual transition rate of 0.5‐1%. Persistence is associated, on the one hand, with environmental exposures, particularly childhood trauma, and, on the other, with network‐type dynamic interactions between psychotic experiences themselves (e.g., interactions between hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation) and between symptom dimensions (e.g., interactions between affective symptoms and psychotic experiences, or interactions between subthreshold negative symptoms and psychotic experiences). The study of psychotic experiences is helping to elucidate the mechanisms by which environmental and genetic influences shape the transdiagnostic expression of psychosis proneness, that is mostly transitory but may first become persistent over time and eventually give rise to transition to a psychotic disorder. PMID:27265696

  1. Childhood maltreatment, the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and adult depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Appel, Katja; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Barnow, Sven; Lucht, Michael; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry

    2010-12-05

    Dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was found to modulate emotional memory consolidation. Recently, two studies have reported an interaction between childhood abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRH-Receptor Gene (CRHR1) connecting childhood adversities and genetic susceptibility to adult depression. We tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood maltreatment with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the CRHR1 gene not previously investigated. Caucasian subjects (n = 1,638) from the German general population (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP) were analyzed. As in the previous studies, childhood abuse and neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). The CRHR1-SNPs were genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 platform. We identified an interaction between the TAT-haplotype and childhood physical neglect. The interaction with physical neglect showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 23 of the 28 SNPs, with rs17689882 (P = 0.0013) reaching "gene-wide" significance. Although we did not replicate the specific interaction of abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRHR1 gene we confirmed the relevance of an interplay between variants within the CRHR1 gene and childhood adversities in the modulation of depression in adults. The largest effect was found for rs17689882, a SNP previously not analyzed. Relevant sample differences between this and prior studies like lower BDI-2 scores, less childhood maltreatment and higher psychosocial functioning may account for the differences in gene-environment interaction findings. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Bone Strength and Arterial Stiffness Impact on Cardiovascular Mortality in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Avramovska, Maja; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and increased arterial stiffness independently have been found to be associated with higher cardiovascular events rates in the general population (GP). We examined 558 patients from GP by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements at baseline, with 36-month follow-up period. DXA assessed bone mineral density of femoral neck (BMD FN) and lumbar spine (BMD LS). Carotid-femoral PWV was assessed by pulsed-Doppler. The aim of our study is to find correlation between bone strength and arterial stiffness and their impact on cardiovascular mortality in GP. The mean ± SD of BMD FN, BMD LS, and PWV was 0.852 ± 0.1432 g/cm2, 0.934 ± 0.1546 g/cm2, and 9.209 ± 1.9815 m/s. In multiple regression analysis we found BMD FN (βst = −6.0094, p < 0.0001), hypertension (βst = 1.7340, p < 0.0091), and diabetes (βst = 0.4595, p < 0.0046). With Cox-regression analysis, after 17 cardiovascular events, the significant covariates retained by the backward model were BMD FN (b = −2.4129, p = 0.015) and PWV (b = 0.2606, p = 0.0318). The cut-off values were PWV = 9.4 m/s, BMD FN = 0.783 g/cm2, and BMD LS = 0.992 g/cm2. The results for BMD FN and PWV hazard ratio risk were 1.116 and 1.297, respectively. BMD FN as a measure of bone strength and PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in GP. PMID:27047700

  3. Urinary BTEX, MTBE and naphthalene as biomarkers to gain environmental exposure profiles of the general population.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Rossella, Federica; Campo, Laura; Mercadante, Rosa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and naphthalene (NAP) as biomarkers of exposure to environmental pollutants. Personal air and urine samples from 108 subjects belonging to the Italian general population were compared. Urinary profiles were obtained by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX, MTBE, ETBE and NAP median airborne exposures during a 5-h sampling were 4.0, 25.3, 3.8, 9.3, 3.4, 3.4, <0.8, and 3.4 microg/m(3), respectively. Meanwhile, median urinary levels, as geometric means of three determinations were: 122, 397, 74, 127, 43, 49, <15, and 46 ng/L, respectively. Urinary benzene and toluene concentrations were 4.6- and 1.2-fold higher in smokers than in non-smokers. For most chemicals, significant positive correlations between airborne exposure (log-transformed) and the corresponding biological marker (log-transformed) were found, with Pearson's r values for correlation, ranging from 0.228 to 0.396. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary level of these chemicals was influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and urinary cotinine, with R(2) 0.733 for benzene. Urinary chemicals are useful biomarkers of environmental exposure. Given the ease of rapidly obtaining urine samples, they represent a non-invasive alternative to blood chemical analysis. The possibility of obtaining urinary exposure profiles makes this method an appealing tool for environmental epidemiology.

  4. General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population’s awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community’s behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents’ groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness. PMID:28134849

  5. Factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Shingo; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Hokama, Akira; Hoshino, Kunikazu; Maruwaka, Shuichi; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Parrott, Gretchen; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kinjo, Kozen; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical and biochemical factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population. METHODS: We enrolled 1004 subjects who underwent a medical health checkup between April 2008 and March 2009. The medical health checkup included the following tests: Height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, urinalysis, blood-cell counts, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, chest radiography, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) for visceral fat accumulation. The patients’ medical history and lifestyle factors were collected privately by nurses using a self-administered questionnaire, and they included questions regarding physical activity, sleep duration, dietary habits, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Visceral fat area (VFA) was defined as the sum of the intraperitoneal fat area at the level of the umbilicus with CT density in the range of -150 to -50 Hounsfield units. RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI) of the study subjects were 57.0 years and 24.4 kg/m2. In both male and females, VFA was significantly and positively correlated with WC (r = 0.532, P < 0.01; r = 0.612, P < 0.01). Subjects with high levels of VFA were primarily male with significantly higher age, height, body weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and hemoglobin in all subjects (P < 0.05). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that VFA had a positive relationship with age ≥ 56, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and triglyceride level ≥ 149 in males (P < 0.05), whereas it had a positive relationship with age ≥ 58, BMI ≥ 24.4 kg/m2, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 40 mg/dL, and current drinking in females (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that gender differences exist in the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with visceral fat accumulation. PMID:27158542

  6. Explaining the disability paradox: a cross-sectional analysis of the Swiss general population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disability can be broken down into difficulties in different components of functioning such as impairments and limitations in activities and participation (A&P). Previous studies have produced the seemingly surprising result that persons with severe impairments tend to report high quality of life (QoL) including perceived health regardless of their condition; the so-called “disability paradox”. We aim to study the role of contextual factors (i.e. the personal and environmental situation) in explaining the disability paradox. Methods The Swiss Health Survey provides information on the perceived health of 18,760 participants from the general population. We construct a conditional independence graph applying random forests and stability selection in order to represent the structure of impairment, A&P limitation, contextual factors, and perceived health. Results We find that impairment and A&P limitations are not directly related but only via a cluster of contextual factors. Similarly, impairment and perceived health are not directly related. On the other hand, perceived health is directly connected with A&P limitations. We hypothesize that contextual factors have a moderating and/or mediating effect on the relationship of impairment, A&P limitations, and perceived health. Conclusion The disability paradox seems to dissolve when contextual factors are put into consideration. Contextual factors may be responsible for some persons with impairments developing A&P limitations and others not. In turn, persons with impairments may only then perceive bad health when they experience A&P limitation. Political interventions at the level of the environment may reduce the number of persons who perceive bad health. PMID:22894722

  7. Perceived Stigma among Recipients of Mental Health Care in the General Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeanne V.A.; Lavorato, Dina H.; Bulloch, Andrew G.M.; Charbonneau, Manon; Gautam, Mamta; Moss, Pippa; Abbey, Susan; Stuart, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Mental Health Experiences Scale is a measure of perceived stigma, the perception of negative attitudes and behaviours by people with mental disorders. A recent Canadian survey (Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health) included this scale, providing an opportunity to describe perceived stigma in relation to diagnosis for the first time in the Canadian general population. Methods: The survey interview began with an assessment of whether respondents had utilised services for an “emotional or mental health problem” in the preceding 12 months. The subset reporting service utilisation were asked whether others “held negative opinions” about them or “treated them unfairly” for reasons related to their mental health. The analysis reported here used frequencies, means, cross-tabulation, and logistic regression, all incorporating recommended replicate sampling weights and bootstrap variance estimation procedures. Results: Stigma was perceived by 24.4% of respondents accessing mental health services. The frequency was higher among younger respondents (<55 years), those who were not working, those reporting only fair or poor mental health, and the subset who reported having received a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Sex and education level were not associated with perceived stigma. People with schizophrenia reported stigmatization only slightly more frequently than those with mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions: Stigmatization is a common, but not universal, experience among Canadians using services for mental health reasons. Stigmatization was a problem for a sizeable minority of respondents with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders as well as bipolar and psychotic disorders. PMID:27310227

  8. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries.

  9. Prognostic significance of left atrial enlargement in a general population: results of the PAMELA study.

    PubMed

    Bombelli, Michele; Facchetti, Rita; Cuspidi, Cesare; Villa, Paolo; Dozio, Dario; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the risk of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality associated with left atrium (LA) enlargement alone or combined with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 1785 representatives of the general population of Monza recruited for the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study. LA enlargement was assessed by measuring LA diameter via echocardiography. LA enlargement was defined as a LA diameter>2.3 cm/m2, whereas LVH was defined as a left ventricular mass index≥114 g/m2 and 99 g/m2 in men and women, respectively. Death certificates and hospital diagnoses were collected over an average 148 months follow-up. During follow-up, there were 175 deaths (of which 59 for cardiovascular causes) and 139 cardiovascular fatal and nonfatal events. Compared with subjects with neither LA enlargement nor LVH, subjects with isolated LA enlargement exhibited a significant increase in the adjusted risk of combined fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 2.0; confidence interval, 1-4.1; P=0.04), although not of cardiovascular death or all-cause death. The adjusted (for baseline covariates, including ambulatory blood pressure) risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death was significantly increased also in subjects with isolated LVH (hazard ratio, 2.2, 3.4, 2.1, respectively; P=0.001 for all), whereas no further increase was seen in subjects with both LA and left ventricular abnormalities. Thus, like LVH, LA enlargement is an independent long-term predictor of cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk, however, is not further increased when LA enlargement is superimposed on an increase of LV mass.

  10. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Emaus, Nina; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Bilden, Unni; Olsen, Jan Abel; Pettersen, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability) following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the “Tromsø Study” (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years). Self-reported data on psychological (threats) and physical violence (beaten/kicked), mental health (anxiety/depression), musculoskeletal pain (MSP), and granting of disability pension (DP) were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group), whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence. PMID:26317970

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Sleep Hygiene Index in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chehri, Azita; Kiamanesh, Alireza; Ahadi, Hassan; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate sleep hygiene may result in difficulties in daily functioning; therefore, reliable scales for measuring sleep hygiene are important. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI). Materials and Methods From April 2014 to May 2015, 1280 subjects, who were selected by cluster random sampling in Kermanshah province, filled out the SHI, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and insomnia severity index (ISI). A subset of the participants (20%) repeated the SHI after a four to six-week interval to measure test–retest reliability. Then, we computed the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients of SHI against PSQI, ESS and ISI, to demonstrate the construct validity of the SHI. The factor structure of the SHI was evaluated by explanatory factor analysis. Results The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.89, and SHI was found to have good test–retest reliability (r = 0.89, P < 0.01). The SHI was positively correlated with the total score of the PSQI (r = 0.60, P < 0.01), ESS (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) and ISI (r = 0.60, P < 0.01). Exploratory factor analysis extracted three factors, namely “sleep–wake cycle behaviors” (four items), “bedroom factors” (three items), and “behaviors that affect sleep” (six items). Conclusions The Persian version of the SHI can be considered a reliable tool for evaluating sleep hygiene in the general population. PMID:27822283

  12. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chao, Jane C. -J.; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cha, Tai-Lung; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary questionnaire was used to categorize the participants into 5 groups: “Healthy diet”, “Western diet”, “High-carbohydrate diet”, “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” and “High-sodium diet”. Results A total of 7282 men completed the questionnaire regarding dietary pattern, and examination of anthropometric indexes was performed and laboratory data were obtained. A high intake of a “Western diet” resulted in statistically linear declines of SC and NSM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Similarly, a greater intake of “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” was associated with a lower SC (P = 0.001). Increased intake of a “High-carbohydrate diet” was related to higher prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM (P = 0.012 and P = 0.025). Similarly, a greater intake of a “High-sodium diet” was correlated with an elevated prevalence of abnormal NSM (P = 0.035). Conclusions This study showed that a greater intake of a “Western diet” is associated with poorer SC and NSM, a “High sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks” intake is correlated with a lower SC, and high-carbohydrate food is related to elevated prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM. PMID:26218796

  13. Embrained drives to perform extraordinary roles predict schizotypal traits in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cruz, Ana L; Ali, Ola Mohamed; Asare, Gifty; Whyte, Morgan S; Walpola, Ishan; Segal, Julia; Debruille, J Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions. The task of the participant was to decide whether or not (s)he would consider performing the role at any moment of his/her life. Schizotypal traits were measured with the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ), and delusion-like ideations were assessed by the Peters et al. Delusion Inventory. Demographics and social desirability were controlled for. Participants accepting a greater percentage of extraordinary roles had higher SPQ scores. Among the three factors of the SPQ, disorganization was the one best predicted by those percentages. This correlation (r=0.40, P=7.2E−09) was significantly greater (Fisher Z-transform, P=0.003) than the correlation between the percentages of ordinary roles accepted and the SPQ scores (r=0.145, P=0.044). Reaction times revealed no suboptimal cognitive functioning in high accepters of extraordinary roles and further strengthened the drive hypothesis. Their acceptances of roles were done faster and their rejections took longer than those of low accepters (P=5E−12). Culturally embrained drives to do extraordinary roles could thus be an independent factor of the symptoms measured in the normality to schizophrenia continuum. PMID:27738648

  14. Social disparities in diabetes care: a general population study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Sandholdt, Håkon; Ellervik, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. Design A cross-sectional population study. Setting The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. Subjects We studied 907 patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. Methods We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect modification of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Results Middle age (40–65 years), low education level (i.e. basic schooling), and low household income (i.e. less than 21,400 € per year) were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. The association of socioeconomic factors with attainment of individual treatment goals varied. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had elevated blood pressure. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with treatment goals for hyperglycemia. Socioeconomic factors were inconsistently associated with pharmacotherapy. There was no difference in contacts to general practitioners according to SES. Conclusions In a country with free access to health care, the socioeconomic factors such as middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. Key points Middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care, especially for lifestyle goals. Patients with low

  15. Barriers for progress in salt reduction in the general population. An international study.

    PubMed

    Newson, R S; Elmadfa, I; Biro, Gy; Cheng, Y; Prakash, V; Rust, P; Barna, M; Lion, R; Meijer, G W; Neufingerl, N; Szabolcs, I; van Zweden, R; Yang, Y; Feunekes, G I J

    2013-12-01

    Salt reduction is important for reducing hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular events, nevertheless worldwide salt intakes are above recommendations. Consequently strategies to reduce intake are required, however these require an understanding of salt intake behaviours to be effective. As limited information is available on this, an international study was conducted to derive knowledge on salt intake and associated behaviours in the general population. An online cohort was recruited consisting of a representative sample from Germany, Austria, United States of America, Hungary, India, China, South Africa, and Brazil (n=6987; aged 18-65 years; age and gender stratified). Participants completed a comprehensive web-based questionnaire on salt intake and associated behaviours. While salt reduction was seen to be healthy and important, over one third of participants were not interested in salt reduction and the majority were unaware of recommendations. Salt intake was largely underestimated and people were unaware of the main dietary sources of salt. Participants saw themselves as mainly responsible for their salt intake, but also acknowledged the roles of others. Additionally, they wanted to learn more about why salt was bad for health and what the main sources in the diet were. As such, strategies to reduce salt intake must raise interest in engaging in salt reduction through improving understanding of intake levels and dietary sources of salt. Moreover, while some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction. These findings provide unique insights into issues surrounding salt reduction and should be used to develop effective salt reduction strategies and/or policies.

  16. A general population twin study of conduct problems and the auditory P300 waveform.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Eleonora; Michelini, Giorgia; Moruzzi, Sara; Ferrer, Giuseppina; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Ogliari, Anna; Battaglia, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Reduced amplitude of the P300 event-related potential has been consistently associated with a variety of externalising problems, including conduct disorder. The few available genetically-informative studies of these relationships, however, were conducted among adolescents/adults (i.e., at an age when conduct disorder has typically already become manifest). Among 200 general population twins with a mean age of 9 years (range 6-14 years), we studied the relationship between the P300 waveform elicited by an auditory oddball task and the DSM-oriented conduct problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist 6-18. Conduct problems scores were negatively and significantly correlated (r = -0.19, p = 0.01) with P300 amplitude; correlations between P300 amplitude and the other DSM-oriented Child Behavior Checklist scales were non-significant, except for oppositional defiant problems (p = 0.01). We found moderate heritability estimates for both P300 amplitude (0.58, CI:0.37;0.73) and conduct problems (0.52, CI:0.25;0.70). Bivariate twin analyses indicated that the covariation between these two phenotypes can be explained by additive genetic factors only, with a genetic correlation of -0.33. An association between reduced P300 amplitude and conduct problems can be substantiated already in childhood, at an age that precedes the most typical onset of conduct disorder. This relationship appears to be genetic in nature. Reduced P300 amplitude can represent a valuable marker for conduct problems, and can contribute to the early identification of children at high-risk for conduct disorder.

  17. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Khalakdina, Asheena; Vugia, Duc J; Nadle, Joelle; Rothrock, Gretchen A; Colford, John M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne). There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26) and controls (n = 62) were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults) sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]). Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other. PMID:12689343

  18. Androgenetic alopecia in policemen: higher prevalence and different risk factors relative to the general population (KCIS no. 23).

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2011-12-01

    Prevalence and risk factors of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in policemen are not known. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and risk factors of AGA between policemen and the general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by recruiting a total of 758 (78%) of 972 policemen and 740 (80%) of 924 participants in a community-based integrated screening served as a comparison group. The Norwood classification system was used to assess the degree of hair loss. Information on age, family history of androgenetic alopecia, and other possible risk factors was collected with questionnaire interviews. The association analysis between policemen and the general population was limited to participants aged 40-59 years. After controlling for other significant factors, policemen aged 40-59 years had an increased risk of developing AGA compared with the general population (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.14, 4.36, p = 0.02). Obesity measured by waist circumference and body mass index made contribution to higher risk for AGA in younger policemen (20-39 years). A statistically significant association was noted between AGA and sunlight exposure in policemen aged 40-59 years. We concluded the prevalence of AGA in policemen was twofold higher than that in the general population. Obesity at young age and sunlight exposure may be responsible for higher risk of AGA in policemen. However, further studies are warranted to confirm the current findings.

  19. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel: A Comparison between the General Elderly Population and Elderly New Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…

  20. Can Welfare Mothers Hack It in College? A Comparison of Achievement between TANF Recipients and General Population Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of a group of undergraduate students enrolled in a pilot program for welfare recipients in the form of TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Families) was compared with the achievement of general population students at an urban community college. Grades attained in a basic level, introductory Psychology course were used to measure academic…

  1. Substance Use, Health, and Functioning Characteristics of Medical Marijuana Program Participants Compared to the General Adult Population in Ontario (Canada).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Aeby, Samantha; Rudzinski, Katherine; Kurdyak, Paul; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Existent profiles of Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) participants indicate common and co-morbid chronic diseases, yet evidence on disability or functioning as well as comparisons with general populations are largely lacking. This study compared health, substance use, and functioning status among formally approved MMP participants with the general adult population in Ontario (Canada). A community-recruited sample (n = 53) of MMP participants was compared to a sub-sample (n = 510) of the representative Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor (2015 cycle) survey of Ontario general population adults (ages 18+) based on identical telephone-based interviews regarding substance use, health, and functioning measures. Means and standard deviations for all indicators were computed by sex, controlled for age and education, and compared by regression techniques. MMP participants were more likely to be male, younger, and less socio-economically integrated; they indicated more common psychoactive substance (e.g., tobacco, daily cannabis) and psychotropic medication use, as well as overall worse physical and mental health and functioning status. Marked differences between MMP participants and general population adults were observed. MMPs appear to attract individuals with complex chronic health problems; however, little is known about the impact of MMP participation on these.

  2. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  3. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  4. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population?

    PubMed

    Pacoricona Alfaro, Dibia Liz; Ehlinger, Virginie; Spilka, Stanislas; Ross, Jim; Sentenac, Mariane; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Education policies encourage inclusion of students with mild-intellectual disability (mild-ID) in community/school life. However, such policies potentially increase exposure to substance use. This article examines tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French students enrolled in special units for students with disabilities (ULIS) at mainstream junior high schools compared to those of general population of the equivalent age; and explores factors associated with substance use among ULIS students, known to present mostly mild-ID. In 2014, a questionnaire adapted from the international HBSC/WHO study was administered to 700 ULIS students (mean-age 14.2). Comparative data were gathered from 7023 junior high-school students (mean-age 13.6) in the general population. Among students <14 years-old, tobacco and alcohol use rates were similar between ULIS and general population. For students ≥14, alcohol use remained comparable, while tobacco and cannabis use were higher in general population. Among ULIS students, low perceived health/life satisfaction, divorced/separated parents and high perceived academic demands were associated with tobacco use. Bullying, not liking school very much and attending schools outside a deprived area were associated with alcohol use. Having had sexual intercourse and not perceiving one's health as excellent were associated with cannabis use. Having dated was associated with using all three substances.

  5. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  6. Mortality Rates in the General Irish Population Compared to Those with an Intellectual Disability from 2003 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; Kelly, Caraiosa; McCallion, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background:Historically, there has been higher and earlier mortality among people with intellectual disability as compared to the general population, but there have also been methodological problems and differences in the available studies. Method: Data were drawn from the 2012 National Intellectual Disability Database and the Census in Ireland. A…

  7. Population problems: a constituent of general culture in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rath, F J

    1993-03-01

    World population doubled in less than two centuries after 1650 reaching 1 billion. Between 1830 and 1930 the population doubled again. By 1975, the world population was 4 billion. Population is currently increasing at the rate of 250,000 people per day. The population problems is one of an intertwining of population, poverty, and environmental damage. Both developing and developed countries have population problems, which vary in intensity and nature. The consequences of high growth rates are reflected in population and development problems and pose a threat to long term survival of the human species. Quality of life is threatened. In 1948, UNESCO reported that using technology to provide sufficiently for food, shelter, and basic amenities only postponed the point at which problems would become acute; demographic growth cannot continue in a finite world. For example, by 2025 Nigeria could have more inhabitants than the US, and a population density of 327 people per sq kilometer. The demographic characteristics of population vary by country. There is growing awareness, however, that there is an interdependence between people and regions, and inter-relationships between demographic, economic, social, cultural, environmental, and political factors. Examples of the implications of demographic growth are given for school enrollments, landless farmers in Honduras, development strategies, and urbanization and migration. Population pressure in one country will lead to migration of the excess population to another country. Rural-urban migration already is motivated by economic gain; the economic recession in urban areas means competition for jobs, housing, welfare benefits. Political conditions can contribute to migration in the case of war or civil unrest or can halt migration because of fear of multi-ethnicity. The Malthusian checks were increased mortality; today population stabilization can be achieved through control of reproduction. The prospects for the immediate

  8. Phenotypic Manifestation of Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia During Adolescence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hannah J.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tansey, Katherine E.; Hubbard, Leon; Heron, Jon; Cannon, Mary; Holmans, Peter; Lewis, Glyn; Linden, David E. J.; Jones, Peter B.; Davey Smith, George; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Walters, James T.; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Importance Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, polygenic condition characterized by a relatively diverse phenotype and frequent comorbid conditions, such as anxiety and depression. At present, limited evidence explains how genetic risk for schizophrenia is manifest in the general population. Objective To investigate the extent to which genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with different phenotypes during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Of 14 062 children in the birth cohort, genetic data were available for 9912 adolescents. Data were collected periodically from September 6, 1990, and collection is ongoing. Data were analyzed from March 4 to August 13, 2015. Exposures Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia generated for individuals in the ALSPAC cohort using results of the second Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia genome-wide association study as a training set. Main Outcomes and Measures Logistic regression was used to assess associations between the schizophrenia PRS and (1) psychotic experiences (Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview at 12 and 18 years of age), (2) negative symptoms (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences at 16.5 years of age), (3) depressive disorder (Development and Well-Being Assessment at 15.5 years of age), and (4) anxiety disorder (Development and Well-Being Assessment at 15.5 years of age) in adolescence. Results Of the 8230 ALSPAC participants whose genetic data passed quality control checks (51.2% male, 48.8% female), 3676 to 5444 participated in assessments from 12 to 18 years of age. The PRSs created using single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a training-set P ≤ .05 threshold were associated with negative symptoms (odds ratio [OR] per SD increase in PRS, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36; R2 = 0.007) and anxiety disorder (OR per SD increase in PRS, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; R

  9. Prevalence of impairments, disabilities, handicaps and quality of life in the general population: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed Central

    Barbotte, E.; Guillemin, F.; Chau, N.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of morbidity in the general population through bibliographic research. METHODS: Articles relating to impairment, disability, handicap, quality of life and their prevalence in the general population, published between January 1990 and March 1998, were selected on the MEDLINE database. FINDINGS: The 20 articles retained out of 433 used 41 different indicators. Indicators of impairment, disability, handicap and low quality of life showed prevalence rates of 0.1-92%, 3.6-66%, 0.6-56% and 1.8-26% respectively, depending on age and the accuracy of indicators. The heterogeneity of the conceptual framework and insufficient recognition of the importance of indicator accuracy, the age factor and the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied populations impede reliable international comparison. CONCLUSION: Further standardization of indicators is therefore required. The revision of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps may make it possible to resolve some of the difficulties encountered. PMID:11731812

  10. Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure.

  11. Metabolome in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a general population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a high prevalence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and lipid abnormalities, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein. More detailed molecular information on the metabolic abnormalities may reveal clues about the pathophysiology of these changes, as well as about disease specificity. Methods We applied comprehensive metabolomics in serum samples from a general population-based study in Finland. The study included all persons with DSM-IV primary psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, n = 45; other non-affective psychosis (ONAP), n = 57; affective psychosis, n = 37) and controls matched by age, sex, and region of residence. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied to all serum samples: a global lipidomics platform based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, which covers molecular lipids such as phospholipids and neutral lipids; and a platform for small polar metabolites based on two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Results Compared with their matched controls, persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher metabolite levels in six lipid clusters containing mainly saturated triglycerides, and in two small-molecule clusters containing, among other metabolites, (1) branched chain amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and (2) proline, glutamic, lactic and pyruvic acids. Among these, serum glutamic acid was elevated in all psychoses (P = 0.0020) compared to controls, while proline upregulation (P = 0.000023) was specific to schizophrenia. After adjusting for medication and metabolic comorbidity in linear mixed models, schizophrenia remained independently associated with higher levels in seven of these eight clusters (P < 0.05 in each cluster). The metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced in persons with ONAP or affective psychosis. Conclusions Our

  12. Prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium in a general population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Viso, E; Gude, F; Rodríguez-Ares, M T

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium and to investigate their associations in a general adult population in North-Western Spain. Methods An age-stratified random sample of 1155 subjects ≥40 years was selected in O Salnés (Spain). From 937 eligible subjects, 619 (66.1%) participated (mean age (SD): 63.4 (14.5) years, range: 40–96 years, 37.0% males). An interview to collect history of systemic diseases and lifestyle details and a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation in which pinguecula and pterygium were recorded was carried out. The prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium and their relationship with lifestyle factors and ocular and systemic diseases was investigated. Results The prevalence of pinguecula was 47.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43.9–51.9). This prevalence increased significantly with aging (P=0.002) and was higher in men (56.4% 95% CI: 50.0–62.7) than in women (42.7% 95% CI: 37.8–47.8) (P=0.001). The prevalence of pterygium was 5.9% (95% CI: 4.3–7.9). This prevalence also increased significantly with aging (P=0.005) and was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–8.4) in men and 6.5% (95% CI: 4.5–9.3) in women (P=0.346). After controlling for age and sex, pinguecula was associated with alcohol intake (adjusted odds ratio (ORa): 3.08; 95% CI: 1.60–5.95), pterygium with fluorescein staining (ORa: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.08–6.46) and both disorders with outer activity (ORa: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.36–3.15 and 2.28; 95% CI: 1.04–4.98, respectively). Conclusions Pinguecula is far more common than pterygium. Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with pinguecula. Fluorescein staining is highly prevalent in subjects with pterygium. Both disorders increase with age and are associated with outer activity. PMID:21183945

  13. Perceptions of generic medication in the general population, doctors and pharmacists: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Sarah; Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Stephens, Melika H; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate negative perceptions about generic medicines and evaluate the proportions of lay people, doctors and pharmacists who hold these perceptions. Design A systematic review of observational studies. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Scopus. Eligibility criteria Quantitative data from cross-sectional and prospective studies published in English after 1980, using self-report measures to evaluate perceptions about generic medicines, presented as percentages of the total sample assessed. Results After screening 2737 articles, 52 articles were included in the final analysis. A high proportion of doctors, pharmacists and lay people had negative perceptions of generics. Lay people were significantly more likely to view generics as less effective than branded medication (35.6%, 95% CI 34.8% to 36.4%) compared to doctors (28.7%, 27.5% to 29.9%) and pharmacists (23.6%, 21.2% to 26.2%), p<0.0001. Pharmacists (33.4%, 31.0% to 35.9%) were significantly more likely to believe generics were of inferior quality compared to branded medication than were doctors (28.0%, 26.3% to 29.9%), p=0.0006, and lay people (25.1%, 24.2% to 26.0%), p<0.0001. Doctors believed generics caused more side effects than branded medication (24.4%, 22.2% to 26.9%), compared to pharmacists (17.6%, 15.3% to 20.1%) and lay people (18.8%, 17.8% to 19.8%), p<0.0001. Doctors (28.5%, 26.9% to 30.2%) and pharmacists (25.4%, 21.4% to 29.9%) had significantly more safety concerns about generics than did lay people (18.0%, 17.0% to 19.0%), p≤0.0002. A greater proportion of lay people felt negatively about generic substitution (34.0%, 33.2% to 34.9%), compared to doctors (24.1%, 22.0% to 26.4%) and pharmacists (11.0%, 9.6% to 12.7%), p<0.0001. Rates of negative perceptions of generics do not appear to have changed substantially over time in the general population or among physician groups, p≥0.431, but such negative beliefs show a decreasing trend in pharmacists over the study period

  14. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    -AD variance. Multivariable regression showed significant relationship between white matter hyperintensities volume and hypertension (P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.023), smoking (P = 0.002) and education level (P = 0.003). The only significant association with cognitive tests was with the immediate recall of the California verbal and learning memory test. No significant association was present with the APOE genotype. These results support the hypothesis that white matter hyperintensities contribute to patterns of brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia.

  15. Diastolic Left Ventricular Function in Relation to Urinary and Serum Collagen Biomarkers in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ravassa, Susana; Yang, Wen-Yi; Zürbig, Petra; López, Begoña; Wei, Fang-Fei; Pontillo, Claudia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jacobs, Lotte; González, Arantxa; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Verhamme, Peter; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Díez, Javier; Mischak, Harald; Staessen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge on the pathogenesis of diastolic heart failure predominantly rests on case-control studies involving symptomatic patients with preserved ejection fraction and relying on invasive diagnostic procedures including endomyocardial biopsy. Our objective was to gain insight in serum and urinary biomarkers reflecting collagen turnover and associated with asymptomatic diastolic LV dysfunction. We randomly recruited 782 Flemish (51.3% women; 50.5 years). We assessed diastolic LV function from the early and late diastolic peak velocities of the transmitral blood flow and of the mitral annulus. By sequencing urinary peptides, we identified 70 urinary collagen fragments. In serum, we measured carboxyterminal propeptide of procollagen type 1 (PICP) as marker of collagen I synthesis and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 1 (TIMP-1), an inhibitor of collagen-degrading enzymes. In multivariable-adjusted analyses with Bonferroni correction, we expressed effect sizes per 1-SD in urinary collagen I (uCI) or collagen III (uCIII) fragments. In relation to uCI fragments, e’ decreased by 0.183 cm/s (95% confidence interval, 0.017 to 0.350; p = 0.025), whereas E/e’ increased by 0.210 (0.067 to 0.353; p = 0.0012). E/e’ decreased with uCIII by 0.168 (0.021 to 0.316; p = 0.018). Based on age-specific echocardiographic criteria, 182 participants (23.3%) had subclinical diastolic LV dysfunction. Partial least squares discriminant analysis contrasting normal vs. diastolic LV dysfunction confirmed the aforementioned associations with the uCI and uCIII fragments. PICP and TIMP-1 increased in relation to uCI (p<0.0001), whereas these serum markers decreased with uCIII (p≤0.0006). Diastolic LV dysfunction was associated with higher levels of TIMP-1 (653 vs. 696 ng/mL; p = 0.013). In a general population, the non-invasively assessed diastolic LV function correlated inversely with uCI and serum markers of collagen I deposition, but positively with uCIII. These

  16. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  18. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  19. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  20. Epidemiology of illicit and abused drugs in the general population, emergency department drug-related episodes, and arrestees.

    PubMed

    Rouse, B A

    1996-08-01

    National trends in substance abuse are presented: the civilian noninstitutionalized general population; drug-related emergency department episodes; and booked arrestees. Major metropolitan differences are also noted. This study was based on the primary national data systems for these groups: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), and the National Institute of Justice Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) system. While the most prevalent drug differed in the three data sources, all three showed recent increases in marijuana. Despite the general decline in drug use seen in the general population, both the number of drug-related cases in the DAWN system and the drug use detected in the DUF arrestees showed recent increases.

  1. Vitamin D in the General Population of Young Adults with Autism in the Faroe Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocovská, Eva; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Weihe, Pál; Halling, Jónrit; Fernell, Elisabeth; Stóra, Tormóður; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Gillberg, I. Carina; Shea, Robyn; Billstedt, Eva; Bourgeron, Thomas; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a possible risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels were examined in a cross-sectional population-based study in the Faroe Islands. The case group consisting of a total population cohort of 40 individuals with ASD (aged 15-24 years) had significantly…

  2. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  3. Length Distribution of Ancestral Tracks under a General Admixture Model and Its Applications in Population History Inference.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xumin; Yang, Xiong; Guo, Wei; Yuan, Kai; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xu, Shuhua

    2016-01-28

    The length of ancestral tracks decays with the passing of generations which can be used to infer population admixture histories. Previous studies have shown the power in recovering the histories of admixed populations via the length distributions of ancestral tracks even under simple models. We believe that the deduction of length distributions under a general model will greatly elevate the power. Here we first deduced the length distributions under a general model and proposed general principles in parameter estimation and model selection with the deduced length distributions. Next, we focused on studying the length distributions and its applications under three typical special cases. Extensive simulations showed that the length distributions of ancestral tracks were well predicted by our theoretical framework. We further developed a new method, AdmixInfer, based on the length distributions and good performance was observed when it was applied to infer population histories under the three typical models. Notably, our method was insensitive to demographic history, sample size and threshold to discard short tracks. Finally, good performance was also observed when applied to some real datasets of African Americans, Mexicans and South Asian populations from the HapMap project and the Human Genome Diversity Project.

  4. Validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) in French psychiatric and general populations.

    PubMed

    Trousselard, Marion; Steiler, Dominique; Dutheil, Frédéric; Claverie, Damien; Canini, Frédéric; Fenouillet, Fabien; Naughton, Geraldine; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-30

    The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) has been validated in general population samples in many countries. Interest in using this measure in clinical populations is growing, particularly for tertiary prevention and mental health promotion. This paper reports validation of the French WEMWBS in healthy and chronic remitted schizophrenia populations. The French WEMWBS was administered to 319 workers, 75 students and 121 patients. For non-patients, self-reported Trait- and State-Anxiety, Mindfulness, Positive and Negative Affect and the General Health Questionnaire were completed. For patients, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, Social Adjustment Scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scale were completed. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness to intervention was assessed at 6 months. Whatever the sample, response frequencies showed normal distributions, and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α). Scree plots of eigenvalues suggested a single factor in the samples. The one-dimensional solution yielded suboptimal fit indices. Construct validity was confirmed. Significant improvement in scores was observed before and after intervention. Test-retest variation was non-significant. Impairment of insight and cognition in the assessed patients implies that attention must be paid before applying WEMWBS to all patients. Nevertheless, WEMWBS proved valid and reliable in a further European population, suggesting transcultural validity for both monitoring and evaluation of interventions in healthy as well as chronic remitted schizophrenia populations.

  5. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity (p < .0001), 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity (p < .0001), and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week (p < .0001). Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun. PMID:28138459

  6. Long-term survival after coronary bypass surgery. Comparison of various subsets of patients with general population.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D G; Bunnell, I L; Arani, D T; Schimert, G; Lajos, T Z; Lee, A B; Tandon, R N; Zimdahl, W T; Bozer, J M; Kohn, R M; Visco, J P; Dean, D C; Smith, G L

    1981-01-01

    Life-table analysis consecutive cases of isolated coronary bypass surgery at the Buffalo Hospital between 1973 and 1977 showed an estimated survival of 94 per cent at five years, equal to that of an age- and sex-matched group of the US population. Subsets of these patients divided according to sex, age, number of vessels narrowed, number of segments grafted, history of myocardial infarction, ejection fraction, and presence of unstable angina have estimated survivals not statistically less in any of these subsets than that of matched cohorts of the general population. PMID:6971646

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Night Eating in the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Allison, Kelly C.; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Recently, night eating syndrome (NES) was included into the DSM-5 as an example of “Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders.” The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460) with a wide age range (14–85 years). The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight. PMID:24828066

  8. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  9. The Identification of Attention Complaints in the General Population and Their Effect on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtissen-In de Braek, Dymphie M. J. M.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Dijkstra, Jeanette B.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide more insight into subjective attention complaints in a healthy adult and elderly population and how these affect Quality of Life (QoL). Method: A group of 1,550 healthy Dutch participants complete a postal questionnaire including items from the Maastricht Attention and Memory Checklist (MAC). The impact of attention…

  10. A General Population Twin Study of the CBCL/6-18 DSM-Oriented Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatola, Chiara A. M.; Fagnani, Corrado; Pesenti-Gritti, Paola; Ogliari, Anna; Stazi, Maria-Antonietta; Battaglia, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the contributions of genetic and environmental influences to individual variation and covariation of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) DSM-oriented scales (DOS) originally proposed by Achenbach and associates in 2001. Method: A classic twin study of 398 twin pairs ages 8 to 17 years belonging to the population-based Italian…

  11. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  12. [Male partners of cancer patients with underage children - psychological distress in comparison to the general population and the diseased partner].

    PubMed

    Götze, Heide; Weissflog, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; von Klitzing, Kai; Herzog, Wolfgang; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ernst, Jochen

    2012-02-01

    The psychological distress of men with underage children, whose female partners have cancer, was examined using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The sample (N=141) was compared with the partners who have cancer and a comparison group of men from the general population (N=154). The male partners of cancer patients were psychological strongly distressed. About half of the partners showed increased scores in anxiety and one third of the partners had a high level of depression. There was a high correlation within the couple. The male partners of cancer patients were significantly more distressed than the comparison group of men with underage children from the general population. It is very important to assess psychosocial support needs of partners of cancer patients and to provide adequate options of possible psychosocial treatment.

  13. Distributed guidelines (DiG): a software framework for extending automated health decision support to the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Edwin; Barroso, Andre

    2010-09-01

    This article presents a framework and methodology to create personal health record (PHR) systems able to transform raw health data into meaningful information for the general population. By bridging the semantic gap between an individual and his or her health data, it is expected that better care will ensue through consumer empowerment. An important challenge for the realization of this vision is the lack of available expert knowledge in a format that is concomitantly easy to codify, share, and be used by the general population. To address this challenge, we developed a novel approach to encode expert knowledge into machine-interpretable, reusable components called "consumer guidelines." Once encoded, guidelines are easily shared, extended, and modified. These guidelines can exist as distributed documents on the Internet and be executed by our processing engine (Health-Guru) to provide an individual with personalized assessment against various health risks based on the evidence data stored in a PHR.

  14. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population. PMID:18957090

  15. Inference of Super-exponential Human Population Growth via Efficient Computation of the Site Frequency Spectrum for Generalized Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The site frequency spectrum (SFS) and other genetic summary statistics are at the heart of many population genetic studies. Previous studies have shown that human populations have undergone a recent epoch of fast growth in effective population size. These studies assumed that growth is exponential, and the ensuing models leave an excess amount of extremely rare variants. This suggests that human populations might have experienced a recent growth with speed faster than exponential. Recent studies have introduced a generalized growth model where the growth speed can be faster or slower than exponential. However, only simulation approaches were available for obtaining summary statistics under such generalized models. In this study, we provide expressions to accurately and efficiently evaluate the SFS and other summary statistics under generalized models, which we further implement in a publicly available software. Investigating the power to infer deviation of growth from being exponential, we observed that adequate sample sizes facilitate accurate inference; e.g., a sample of 3000 individuals with the amount of data expected from exome sequencing allows observing and accurately estimating growth with speed deviating by ≥10% from that of exponential. Applying our inference framework to data from the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we found that a model with a generalized growth epoch fits the observed SFS significantly better than the equivalent model with exponential growth (P-value [Formula: see text]). The estimated growth speed significantly deviates from exponential (P-value [Formula: see text]), with the best-fit estimate being of growth speed 12% faster than exponential.

  16. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of HIV-1 isolates in the general population of Djibouti (Horn of Africa).

    PubMed

    Maslin, Jérôme; Rogier, Christophe; Berger, Franck; Khamil, Mohamed Ali; Mattera, Didier; Grandadam, Marc; Caron, Mélanie; Nicand, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    During a national survey in 2002 in Djibouti, serum samples were collected using a valid sampling scheme from 2423 Djiboutians representing the general population of urban and rural districts. The HIV-1 seroprevalence was 2%. The HIV-1 polymerase gene from 53 untreated patients was amplified. Phylogenetic analysis of 34 isolates revealed a majority of subtype C (73%) as well as other subtypes, including CRF02_AG recombinants (18%), subtype D (6%), and subtype A (3%).

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line JH; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  18. A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.

    PubMed

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.

  19. A Trans-Theoretical Approach to Physical Activity Profile in General Population of Mashhad.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Shaye, Zahra; Mousavi Bazzaz, Mojtaba; Vakili, Veda

    2015-03-26

    Regular physical-activity is necessity for a healthy lifestyle. Despite public health efforts, a minority of population are involved in healthy levels of physical-activity. This study provides evidence about exercise patterns and predictors of Mashhad-Iran population according to TTM change stages. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a total number of 564 participants from Mashhad in 2014 by using stages of change questionnaire. Analysis showed 23.4% of participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 18 in contemplation, 24.6% in preparation, 8.10% in action, 14.4% in maintenance and 11.5% were in termination phase. Age, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, having compeer and encouragement were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Genders, having company and using bicycle for transportation were predictors of termination phase. Tailor interventions based on the predictors to enhance the physical activity among specific subgroups would be of interest.

  20. A Trans-Theoretical Approach to Physical Activity Profile in General Population of Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Shaye, Zahra Abbasi; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Vakili, Veda

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical-activity is necessity for a healthy lifestyle. Despite public health efforts, a minority of population are involved in healthy levels of physical-activity. This study provides evidence about exercise patterns and predictors of Mashhad-Iran population according to TTM change stages. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a total number of 564 participants from Mashhad in 2014 by using stages of change questionnaire. Analysis showed 23.4% of participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 18 in contemplation, 24.6% in preparation, 8.10% in action, 14.4% in maintenance and 11.5% were in termination phase. Age, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, having compeer and encouragement were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Genders, having company and using bicycle for transportation were predictors of termination phase. Tailor interventions based on the predictors to enhance the physical activity among specific subgroups would be of interest. PMID:26153203

  1. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  2. Light and Darkness: Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection among the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, José-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus (HHEV) spreads early in life among the population in areas endemic for genotype 1 and infects mainly adults in areas endemic for genotype 3, where it would be responsible for about 10% of cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis of unknown etiology and for a number of subclinical, unrecognized infections. The overall prevalence of antibody to HHEV is high in most of the former areas and low in most of the later ones, but wide regional differences have been recorded in both cases. “Hot spots” of HHEV infection would exist for both types of strains in particular regions or among particular populations of the world. Studies on pork derivatives, shellfish bivalves, and vegetables for HHEV contamination at the sale point need to be extended for evaluating the impact of the agent on food safety, and the meaning of the finding of HHEV genotype 1 genomes in urban sewage from developed countries should be established through active surveillance. Consensus about technical issues in regard to anti-HEV testing would improve the knowledge of the HHEV epidemiology. Studies in particular regions and populations, and introduction of molecular diagnosis in the clinical setting as a routine tool, would also be required. PMID:24672733

  3. Prevalence, survival analysis and multimorbidity of chronic diseases in the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Claire E; Duz, Marco; Parkin, Timothy D H; Marshall, John F

    2016-09-01

    The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown. Using text mining of first-opinion electronic medical records from seven veterinary practices around the UK, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling, we were able to estimate the apparent prevalence among veterinarian-attended horses of nine chronic diseases, and to assess their relative effects on median life expectancy following diagnosis. With these methods we found evidence of increasing population age. Multimorbidity affected 1.2% of the study population, and had a significant effect upon survival times, with co-occurrence of two diseases, and three or more diseases, leading to 6.6 and 21.3 times the hazard ratio compared to no chronic disease, respectively. Laminitis was involved in 74% of cases of multimorbidity. The population of horses attended by UK veterinarians appears to be aging, and chronic diseases and their co-occurrence are common features, and as such warrant further investigation.

  4. Modeling Classroom Discourse: Do Models That Predict Dialogic Instruction Properties Generalize across Populations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samei, Borhan; Olney, Andrew M.; Kelly, Sean; Nystrand, Martin; D'Mello, Sidney; Blanchard, Nathan; Graesser, Art

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the effective use of dialogic instruction has a positive impact on student achievement. In this study, we investigate whether linguistic features used to classify properties of classroom discourse generalize across different subpopulations. Results showed that the machine learned models perform equally well when…

  5. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  6. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  7. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  8. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  9. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  10. General Medical Problems of Incarcerated Persons With Severe and Persistent Mental Illness: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuddeback, Gary S.; Scheyett, Anna; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Morrissey, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Persons with severe mental illness have higher rates of chronic general medical illness compared with the general population. Similarly, compared with the general population, incarcerated persons have higher rates of chronic medical illness; however, there is little information about the synergy between severe mental illness and incarceration and the general medical problems of consumers. To address this gap in the literature this study addresses the following question: are consumers with a history of incarceration at greater risk of general medical problems compared with consumers without such a history? Methods Administrative data were used to compare the medical problems of 3,690 persons with severe mental illness with a history of incarceration and 2,042 persons with severe mental illness with no such history. Results Consumers with a history of incarceration were more likely than those with no such history to have infectious, blood, and skin diseases and a history of injury. Furthermore, when analyses controlled for gender, race, age, and substance use disorders, consumers with an incarceration history were 40% more likely to have any general medical problem and 30% more likely to have multiple medical problems. Conclusions The findings presented here call for better communication among local public health and mental health providers and jails and better integration of primary care and behavioral health care among community mental health providers. Also, research on evidence-based interventions designed to divert persons with severe mental illness from the criminal justice system and facilitate community reentry for persons with severe mental illness who are released from jails and prisons should be accelerated. PMID:20044417

  11. Comparison of outpatient services between elderly people with intellectual disabilities and the general elderly population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183 national health insurance claimants aged 65 or older. A total of 1469 had a principal diagnosis of mental retardation (intellectual disability) and claimed medical outpatient services in 2007. The average number of ambulatory visits was 30.1 ± 23.1, which is much higher than in the United States and other developed countries, and the mean annual visits of the elderly with intellectual disabilities was significantly higher than the general population in Taiwan (35.2 ± 28.7 vs. 30.0 ± 23.1). Age and copayment status affected outpatient visit frequency. The mean medical expenditure per visit and the mean annual outpatient cost were 1146.5 ± 4497.7 NT$ and 34,533.7 ± 115,891.7 NT$, respectively. Male beneficiaries tended to have higher average annual medical expenses and mean medical expenses per visit than female beneficiaries. The three most frequent principal diagnoses at ambulatory visits were circulatory system diseases, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases and digestive system diseases. We conclude that the elderly with intellectual disabilities had higher demand than the general population for healthcare services, and the NHI program lowers the barrier to care for populations with special needs.

  12. The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the general population of Spain: results from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, L; Ballina, J; Gabriel, R; Laffon, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The objective of the EPISER study was to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), low back pain, hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA), and fibromyalgia in the adult Spanish population, and to assess the impact of these diseases on function and quality of life, and use of health and social resources.
METHODS—2998 subjects aged 20 years or above were randomly selected by stratified multistage cluster sampling from the censuses of 20 municipalities. Trained rheumatologists carried out structured visits at which subjects were asked about rheumatic symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics, completed validated instruments for measuring function (HAQ) and quality of life (SF-12), and underwent a standardised physical examination. Cases were defined by previously validated criteria.
RESULTS—The estimated prevalences with 95% confidence intervals were as follows: RA lifetime cumulative: 0.5% (0.3 to 0.9); low back pain: 14.8% (12.2 to 17.4); symptomatic knee OA: 10.2% (8.5 to 11.9); hand OA: 6.2% (5.9 to 6.5); fibromyalgia: 2.4% (1.5 to 3.2). Most conditions significantly impaired function and quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS—The EPISER study has internal and external validity for application of the results to the adult Spanish population. The diseases studied affect a significant proportion of the population, with various degrees of impact on disability and quality of life resulting in a significant number of physician visits, work disability, and medication use.

 PMID:11602475

  13. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. ); Sidell, F.R. ); Leffingwell, S.S. . Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control)

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  14. Is there evidence that we should screen the general population for Lynch syndrome with genetic testing? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Anya E R; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail E; Evans, James P; Adams, Michael; Coker-Schwimmer, Emmanuel; Penn, Dolly C; Van Riper, Marcia; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Jonas, Daniel E

    2017-01-01

    Background The emerging dual imperatives of personalized medicine and technologic advances make population screening for preventable conditions resulting from genetic alterations a realistic possibility. Lynch syndrome is a potential screening target due to its prevalence, penetrance, and the availability of well-established, preventive interventions. However, while population screening may lower incidence of preventable conditions, implementation without evidence may lead to unintentional harms. We examined the literature to determine whether evidence exists that screening for Lynch-associated mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations leads to improved overall survival, cancer-specific survival, or quality of life. Documenting evidence and gaps is critical to implementing genomic approaches in public health and guiding future research. Materials and methods Our 2014–2015 systematic review identified studies comparing screening with no screening in the general population, and controlled studies assessing analytic validity of targeted next-generation sequencing, and benefits or harms of interventions or screening. We conducted meta-analyses for the association between early or more frequent colonoscopies and health outcomes. Results Twelve studies met our eligibility criteria. No adequate evidence directly addressed the main question or the harms of screening in the general population. Meta-analyses found relative reductions of 68% for colorectal cancer incidence (relative risk: 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.23–0.43, three cohort studies, 590 participants) and 78% for all-cause mortality (relative risk: 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.56, three cohort studies, 590 participants) for early or more frequent colonoscopies among family members of people with cancer who also had an associated MMR gene mutation. Conclusion Inadequate evidence exists examining harms and benefits of population-based screening for Lynch syndrome. Lack of evidence highlights the need

  15. Generalized cable formalism to calculate the magnetic field of single neurons and neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Neurons generate magnetic fields which can be recorded with macroscopic techniques such as magnetoencephalography. The theory that accounts for the genesis of neuronal magnetic fields involves dendritic cable structures in homogeneous resistive extracellular media. Here we generalize this model by considering dendritic cables in extracellular media with arbitrarily complex electric properties. This method is based on a multiscale mean-field theory where the neuron is considered in interaction with a "mean" extracellular medium (characterized by a specific impedance). We first show that, as expected, the generalized cable equation and the standard cable generate magnetic fields that mostly depend on the axial current in the cable, with a moderate contribution of extracellular currents. Less expected, we also show that the nature of the extracellular and intracellular media influence the axial current, and thus also influence neuronal magnetic fields. We illustrate these properties by numerical simulations and suggest experiments to test these findings.

  16. Use and Acceptance of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among the General Population and Medical Personnel: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Frass, Michael; Strassl, Robert Paul; Friehs, Helmut; Müllner, Michael; Kundi, Michael; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased during the past decade and the attitude of the general public is mainly positive, but the debate about the clinical effectiveness of these therapies remains controversial among many medical professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the existing literature utilizing different databases, including PubMed/Medline, PSYNDEX, and PsycLit, to research the use and acceptance of CAM among the general population and medical personnel. A special focus on CAM-referring literature was set by limiting the PubMed search to “Complementary Medicine” and adding two other search engines: CAMbase (www.cambase.de) and CAMRESEARCH (www.camresearch.net). These engines were used to reveal publications that at the time of the review were not indexed in PubMed. Results A total of 16 papers met the scope criteria. Prevalence rates of CAM in each of the included studies were between 5% and 74.8%. We found a higher utilization of homeopathy and acupuncture in German-speaking countries. Excluding any form of spiritual prayer, the data demonstrate that chiropractic manipulation, herbal medicine, massage, and homeopathy were the therapies most commonly used by the general population. We identified sex, age, and education as predictors of CAM utilization: More users were women, middle aged, and more educated. The ailments most often associated with CAM utilization included back pain or pathology, depression, insomnia, severe headache or migraine, and stomach or intestinal illnesses. Medical students were the most critical toward CAM. Compared to students of other professions (ie, nursing students: 44.7%, pharmacy students: 18.2%), medical students reported the least consultation with a CAM practitioner (10%). Conclusions The present data demonstrate an increase of CAM usage from 1990 through 2006 in all countries investigated. We found geographical differences, as well as differences between

  17. Outcomes of hepatitis C screening programs targeted at risk groups hidden in the general population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective screening programs are urgently needed to provide undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with therapy. This systematic review of characteristics and outcomes of screening programs for HCV focuses on strategies to identify HCV risk groups hidden in the general population. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1991–2010, including studies that screened the general population using either a newly developed (nonintegrated) screening program or one integrated in existing health care facilities. Look-back studies, prevalence studies, and programs targeting high-risk groups in care (e.g., current drug users) were excluded. Results After reviewing 7052 studies, we identified 67 screening programs: 24 nonintegrated; 41 programs integrated in a variety of health care facilities (e.g., general practitioner); and 2 programs with both integrated and nonintegrated strategies. Together, these programs identified approximately 25,700 HCV-infected individuals. In general, higher HCV prevalence was found in programs in countries with intermediate to high HCV prevalence, in psychiatric clinics, and in programs that used a prescreening selection based on HCV risk factors. Only 6 programs used a comparison group for evaluation purposes, and 1 program used theory about effective promotion for screening. Comparison of the programs and their effectiveness was hampered by lack of reported data on program characteristics, clinical follow-up, and type of diagnostic test. Conclusions A prescreening selection based on risk factors can increase the efficiency of screening in low-prevalence populations, and we need programs with comparison groups to evaluate effectiveness. Also, program characteristics such as type of diagnostic test, screening uptake, and clinical outcomes should be reported systematically. PMID:24450797

  18. The clinical and demographic features of dizziness related to general health among the Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Al Senany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, demographic features of the newly developed Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), provide differential diagnosis of the vestibular disorders, assist in the clinical research and practice activities of health workers as well as to understand the probability of the utilization of the ADDS as a first-line evaluation tool in general clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of various ages including both male and female patients with a history of vertigo and/or dizziness were included in the study and evaluated once using the ADDS. [Results] There were more female (59.5%) than male (49.5) patients in this study. Additionally, we found that most patients (64.4%) had a central mediated problem. In addition, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has been found to have both a sensitivity and specificity of 96% that can adequately determine the possible diagnosis of vestibular disorders. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated the validity of the ADDS scale, the predominance of female involvement related to supplementary medication, vitamin D deficiency, general lifestyle factors, and fluid retention, high sensitivity and specificity, provide differential diagnosis of vestibular disorders that could be used as a first-line evaluation tool in general clinics. PMID:26644673

  19. Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Doering, Stephan; Brähler, Elmar; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. Method Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555) in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. Results Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality. PMID:24124582

  20. Cadmium exposure and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies among the general and occupational populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Carter, Sue; He, Ka

    2016-05-13

    We aimed to evaluate the association of cadmium exposure with the risk of prostate cancer in both the general and occupational populations. Online database searches were performed for studies of prostate cancer risk and cadmium exposure. Twelve cohort studies (5 in the general, 7 in occupational populations) and 9 case-control studies (3 in the general, 6 in occupational populations) were identified. Five/seven cohort studies in the general and occupational populations consist of 78,263/13, 434 participants with a mean follow-up of 12.1/43.0 years, respectively. Case-control studies include 334 cases/670 controls in the general population, and 1,315 cases/4,477 controls in occupational populations. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure in the general population, the weighted relative risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality among cohort studies, and the weighted odds ratio in case-control studies were 1.05 (95%CI [0.91, 1.22]), 0.83 (95%CI [0.35, 1.98]), and 1.27 (95%CI [0.58,2.78]), respectively. For occupational populations, the weighted OR in case-control studies was 1.17 (95%CI [0.85, 1.62]), and the weighted standardized mortality ratio in cohort studies was 98 (95%CI [75, 126]). Accumulated epidemiological evidence does not support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure may increase the risk of prostate cancer in either the general or occupational populations.

  1. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  2. Neurocognitive abilities in the general population and composite genetic risk scores for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background The genetic architecture of ADHD is complex, with rare and common variants involved. Common genetic variants (as indexed by a composite risk score) associated with clinical ADHD significantly predict ADHD and autistic-like behavioural traits in children from the general population, suggesting that ADHD lies at the extreme of normal trait variation. ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders share neurocognitive difficulties in several domains (e.g. impaired cognitive ability and executive functions). We hypothesised that ADHD composite genetic risk scores derived from clinical ADHD cases would also contribute to variation in neurocognitive abilities in the general population. Methods Children (N = 6,832) from a UK population cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), underwent neurocognitive testing. Parent-reported measures of their children's ADHD and autistic-like traits were used to construct a behavioural latent variable of ‘neurodevelopmental traits’. Composite genetic risk scores for ADHD were calculated for ALSPAC children based on findings from an independent ADHD case–control genome-wide association study. Structural equation modelling was used to assess associations between ADHD composite genetic risk scores and IQ, working memory, inhibitory control and facial emotion recognition, as well as the latent ‘neurodevelopmental trait’ measure. Results The results confirmed that neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental traits are correlated in children in the general population. Composite genetic risk scores for ADHD were independently associated with lower IQ (β = −.05, p < .001) and working memory performance (β = −.034, p = .013), even after accounting for the relationship with latent neurodevelopmental behavioural trait scores. No associations were found between composite genetic risk scores and inhibitory control or emotion recognition (p > .05). Conclusions These findings suggest that common

  3. Absence of low back pain in the general population followed fortnightly over one year with automated text messages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over one year, the majority of patients with low back pain (LBP) from the secondary care sector could not report a single week without LBP and few could report a non-episode, defined as at least one month without LBP. Presumably, non-episodes would be more common in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of this definition of ´”non-episodes”, by studying their presence over one year in the general population. Specifically, we wanted to: 1) determine the prevalence of non-episodes, 2) identify the proportion of study participants who could be classified as being in a non-episode at the end of the observation period, and 3) estimate the proportion of participants classified as having at least two separate non-episodes. Methods Danes, aged 49/50, who previously participated in a population-based study on LBP received fortnightly automated text (SMS) messages over one year. Each time, participants reported the number of days with LBP in the preceding fortnight. Fortnights with 0 days of LBP were defined as ‘zero-fortnights’ and two such fortnights in a row (one month) were defined as a ‘non-episode’. Estimates are reported as percentages with their 95% confidence intervals in brackets. Results Two hundred and ninety-three people were invited to participate. Of these, 16 declined participation and 16 were excluded because they failed to return their text message at least 20 of the 26 times, leaving 261 in the current analyses. Of these, 11% (2-22) never reported a zero-fortnight. In all, 83% (78-88) had at least one non-episode throughout the study period and the proportion of participants classified as being in a non-episode at the end of the study was 59% (53-65). The percentage of individuals with at least two non-episodes was 52% (46-58). Conclusions It is possible to differentiate people from the general population as having or not having episodes of LBP using the definition of absence of LBP over one

  4. Coagulation factor V Leiden mutation in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism and in a general northern European population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuismanen, K; Savontaus, M L; Kozlov, A; Vuorio, A F; Sajantila, A

    1999-12-06

    The R506Q point mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation) is the major underlying defect in resistance to activated protein C (APC), which predisposes to venous thrombosis. The risk of deep vein thrombosis is clearly elevated in carriers of the mutation, but the risk for pulmonary embolism has not been demonstrated to be as high. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the Leiden mutation in an autopsy series of sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases. PCR and subsequent restriction enzyme digestion were applied for genotyping 164 cases of pulmonary embolism. According to our data, the allele frequency of the Leiden mutation is not higher in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases (0.8%, 95% CI 0-1.9%) than in the general Finnish population (1.5%, 95% CI 0-3.3%). In addition to the 97 Finns, we determined the frequency of the Leiden mutation in 255 individuals from the neighbouring populations (Saami, Komi, and Karelians from Russia and Estonians), and found the Saami to have the highest frequency of the Leiden mutation (6.3%, 95% CI 3.2-9.2) in the general northern European population sample studied here.

  5. Looking for Trouble: Preventive Genomic Sequencing in the General Population and the Role of Patient Choice

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel; Conley, John M.; Davis, Arlene M.; Van Riper, Marcia; Walker, Rebecca L.; Juengst, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomics have led to calls for developing population-based preventive genomic sequencing (PGS) programs with the goal of identifying genetic health risks in adults without known risk factors. One critical issue for minimizing the harms and maximizing the benefits of PGS is determining the kind and degree of control individuals should have over the generation, use, and handling of their genomic information. In this article we examine whether PGS programs should offer individuals the opportunity to selectively opt-out of the sequencing or analysis of specific genomic conditions (the menu approach) or whether PGS should be implemented using an all-or-nothing panel approach. We conclude that any responsible scale up of PGS will require a menu approach that may seem impractical to some, but which draws its justification from a rich mix of normative, legal, and practical considerations. PMID:26147254

  6. Association between Higher Serum Cortisol Levels and Decreased Insulin Secretion in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kamba, Aya; Daimon, Makoto; Murakami, Hiroshi; Otaka, Hideyuki; Matsuki, Kota; Sato, Eri; Tanabe, Jutaro; Takayasu, Shinobu; Matsuhashi, Yuki; Yanagimachi, Miyuki; Terui, Ken; Kageyama, Kazunori; Tokuda, Itoyo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are well known to induce insulin resistance. However, the effect of GCs on insulin secretion has not been well characterized under physiological conditions in human. We here evaluated the effect of GCs on insulin secretion/ß-cell function precisely in a physiological condition. A population-based study of 1,071 Japanese individuals enrolled in the 2014 Iwaki study (390 men, 681 women; aged 54.1 ± 15.1 years), those excluded individuals taking medication for diabetes or steroid treatment, were enrolled in the present study. Association between serum cortisol levels and insulin resistance/secretion assessed by homeostasis model assessment using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels (HOMA-R and HOMA-ß, respectively) were examined. Univariate linear regression analyses showed correlation of serum cortisol levels with HOMA-ß (ß = -0.134, p <0.001) but not with HOMA-R (ß = 0.042, p = 0.172). Adjustments for age, gender, and the multiple clinical characteristics correlated with HOMA indices showed similar results (HOMA-ß: ß = -0.062, p = 0.025; HOMA-R: ß = -0.023, p = 0.394). The correlation between serum cortisol levels and HOMA-ß remained significant after adjustment for HOMA- R (ß = -0.057, p = 0.034). When subjects were tertiled based on serum cortisol levels, the highest tertile was at greater risk of decreased insulin secretion (defined as lower one third of HOMA-ß (≤70)) than the lowest tertile, after adjustment for multiple factors including HOMA- R (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.54). In conclusion, higher serum cortisol levels are significantly associated with decreased insulin secretion in the physiological cortisol range in a Japanese population. PMID:27861636

  7. Infant muscle tone and childhood autistic traits: A longitudinal study in the general population.

    PubMed

    Serdarevic, Fadila; Ghassabian, Akhgar; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; White, Tonya; Blanken, Laura M E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-02-09

    In a longitudinal population-based study of 2,905 children, we investigated if infants' neuromotor development was associated with autistic traits in childhood. Overall motor development and muscle tone were examined by trained research assistants with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between ages 2 and 5 months. Tone was assessed in several positions and items were scored as normal, low, or high tone. Parents rated their children's autistic traits with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist at 6 years. We defined clinical PDP if scores were >98th percentile of the norm population. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was clinically confirmed in 30 children. We observed a modest association between overall neuromotor development in infants and autistic traits. Low muscle tone in infancy predicted autistic traits measured by SRS (adjusted beta = 0.05, 95% CI for B: 0.00-0.02, P = 0.01), and PDP (adjusted beta = 0.08, 95% CI for B: 0.04-0.10, P < 0.001). Similar results emerged for the association of low muscle tone and clinical PDP (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.72, P = 0.01) at age 6 years. Results remained unchanged if adjusted for child intelligence. There was no association between high muscle tone and SRS or PDP. Exclusion of children with ASD diagnosis did not change the association. This large study showed a prospective association of infant muscle tone with autistic traits in childhood. Our findings suggest that early detection of low muscle tone might be a gateway to improve early diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Radiofrequency exposure in the French general population: band, time, location and activity variability.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Cardis, Elisabeth; Moissonnier, Monika; de Seze, René; Hours, Martine

    2009-11-01

    Information on the exposure of individual persons to radiofrequency (RF) fields is scarce, although such data are crucial in order to develop a suitable exposure assessment method, and frame the hypothesis and design of future epidemiological studies. The main goal of this survey is to assess individual RF exposure on a population basis, while clarifying the relative contribution of different sources to the total exposure. A total of 377 randomly selected people were analyzed. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24-hour measurements (weekday), and kept a time-location-activity diary. Electric field strengths were recorded in 12 different RF bands every 13s. Summary statistics were calculated with the robust regression on order statistics method. Most of the time, recorded field strengths were not detectable with the exposure meter. Total field, cordless phones, WiFi-microwave, and FM transmitters stood apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 46.6%, 17.2%, 14.1%, and 11.0%, respectively. The total field mean value was 0.201V/m, higher in urban areas, during daytime, among adults, and when moving. When focusing on specific channels, the highest mean exposure resulted from FM sources (0.044V/m), followed by WiFi-microwaves (0.038V/m), cordless phones (0.037V/m), and mobile phones (UMTS: 0.036V/m, UMTS: 0.037V/m). Various factors, however, contributed to a high variability in RF exposure assessment. These population-based estimates should therefore be confirmed by further surveys to better characterize the exposure situation in different microenvironments.

  9. Risk of Gastroparesis in Subjects with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Melton, L. Joseph; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and upper GI symptoms, a diagnosis of diabetic gastroparesis is often considered, but population-based data on the epidemiology of diabetic gastroparesis are lacking. We aimed to estimate the frequency of and risk factors for gastroparesis among community subjects with DM Methods In this population-based, historical cohort study, the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was used to identify 227 Olmsted County, MN residents with type 1 DM in 1995, a random sample of 360 residents with type 2 DM, and an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 639 non-diabetic residents. Using defined diagnostic criteria, we estimated the subsequent risk of developing gastroparesis in each group through 2006. The risk in DM, compared to frequency matched community controls, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results The cumulative proportions developing gastroparesis over a 10-year time period were 5.2% in type 1 DM, 1.0% in type 2 DM, and 0.2% in controls. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for gastroparesis (relative to controls) was 33 (95% CI: 4.0–274) in type 1 DM and 7.5 (95% CI: 0.8–68) in type 2 DM. The risk of gastroparesis in type 1 DM was significantly greater than in type 2 DM (HR: 4.4 [1.1, 17]). Heartburn (HR: 6.6 [1.7, 25]) at baseline was associated with diabetic gastroparesis in type 1 DM. Conclusions Gastroparesis is relatively uncommon in patients with DM, although an increased risk for gastroparesis was observed in type 1 DM. PMID:22085818

  10. Fertility rates in women with asthma, eczema, and hay fever: a general population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tata, L J; Hubbard, R B; McKeever, T M; Smith, C J P; Doyle, P; Smeeth, L; West, J; Lewis, S A

    2007-05-01

    The protective association between having older siblings and the risk of subsequent allergic disease may be due to decreased fertility among women with allergic disease. In this study, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with those in the general female population. Computerized primary-care data from the United Kingdom were used to conduct a cohort analysis of 491,516 women. General fertility rates and age-specific fertility rates for 1994-2004 were estimated. Using Poisson regression, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with rates in women without these diagnoses. Fertility rates were 53.0 and 52.3 livebirths per 1,000 person-years in women with and without asthma, respectively. The fertility rate ratio for women with asthma compared with women without asthma was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.04) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Equivalent fertility rate ratios for eczema and hay fever were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.10), respectively. The authors found no evidence that the fertility rates of women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever are lower than those of women in the general population.

  11. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. General three-state model with biased population replacement: analytical solution and application to language dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  13. General three-state model with biased population replacement: Analytical solution and application to language dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F.; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  14. Genetic, Physiological, and Lifestyle Predictors of Mortality in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Mackenbach, Johan; Vokó, Zoltán; Lhachimi, Stefan; Ikram, M. Arfan; Uitterlinden, André G.; Newman, Anne B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kocher, Thomas; Launer, Lenore J.; Franceschini, Nora; Schipper, Maarten; Hofman, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the quality of 162 variables, focusing on the contribution of genetic markers, used solely or in combination with other characteristics, when predicting mortality. Methods. In 5974 participants from the Rotterdam Study, followed for a median of 15.1 years, 7 groups of factors including age and gender, genetics, socioeconomics, lifestyle, physiological characteristics, prevalent diseases, and indicators of general health were related to all-cause mortality. Genetic variables were identified from 8 genome-wide association scans (n = 19 033) and literature review. Results. We observed 3174 deaths during follow-up. The fully adjusted model (C-statistic for 15-year follow-up [C15y] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75, 0.77) predicted mortality well. Most of the additional information apart from age and sex stemmed from physiological markers, prevalent diseases, and general health. Socioeconomic factors and lifestyle contributed meaningfully to mortality risk prediction with longer prediction horizon. Although specific genetic factors were independently associated with mortality, jointly they contributed little to mortality prediction (C15y = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.55, 0.57). Conclusions. Mortality can be predicted reasonably well over a long period. Genetic factors independently predict mortality, but only modestly more than other risk indicators. PMID:22397355

  15. Exploring the Relationship Between Callous-Unemotional Traits, Empathy Processing and Affective Valence in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Lethbridge, Emma M.; Richardson, Paul; Reidy, Lisa; Taroyan, Naira A.

    2017-01-01

    Callous–Unemotional (CU) traits are personality attributes, which are associated with a deficit of affective valence and reduced empathetic responding in high CU trait clinical populations. The aim of the research was to explore whether a similar pattern of empathy and emotional responding correlated with CU trait manifestation in the general population. A total of 124 participants completed the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Empathy Quotient, an expression recognition task, and a measure of affective response. Negative correlations with CU trait score were observed for both cognitive empathy and emotional empathy. Accuracy in the identification of fearful expressions presented a negative association with CU trait score. Self-rating of affective valence, when viewing both positive and negative images, indicated a universal reduction in emotional response associated with increased CU trait manifestation. PMID:28344681

  16. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models.

  17. Use of generalized population ratios to obtain Fe XV line intensities and linewidths at high electron densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized method for obtaining individual level population ratios is used to obtain relative intensities of extreme ultraviolet Fe XV emission lines in the range 284-500 A, which are density dependent for electron densities in the tokamak regime or higher. Four lines in particular are found to attain quite high intensities in the high-density limit. The same calculation provides inelastic contributions to linewidths. The method connects level populations and level widths through total probabilities t(ij), related to 'taboo' probabilities of Markov chain theory. The t(ij) are here evaluated for a real atomic system, being therefore of potential interest to random-walk theorists who have been limited to idealized systems characterized by simplified transition schemes.

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection in the general population: A large community-based study in Mianyang, West China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Li, Hong; Ji, Yulin; Ma, Yuanji; Hou, Fengsu; Yuan, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health problem. The objective of the current study was to reveal the seroepidemiology of HCV in the general population in Mianyang City. This study collected 438,575 blood samples from participants who had enrolled in the National Science and Technology Development Project and their demographic information, and then evaluated HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The overall anti-HCV positive rate was 0.80% (3,491/438,575) in the Mianyang general population, and it was 1.19% in rural population and 0.20% in urban. Anti-HCV positive rate increased with age, peaked at 45-54 years (2.01%), and then decreased. Anti-HCV prevalence was higher in males (0.89%) than that in females (0.73%). The prevalence of anti-HCV in participants with a history of blood transfusion, surgery, or with a previous diagnosis of hypertension was higher. The abnormal ALT levels (> 40 IU/L) were observed in 50.11% and 7.74% of anti-HCV positive and negative groups, respectively. In anti-HCV positive groups, the rate of abnormal ALT levels was higher in 55-64 age groups, male, and rural population. Though Mianyang was a low endemic area for HCV infection, the alarming fact was the large number of abnormal ALT levels in patients related to hepatitis C. This revealed delayed diagnosis and treatment of HCV infections. It is a necessity to promote early diagnosis and timely treatment of HCV infections.

  19. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001). The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  20. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in Multinational General Population Surveys*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chun-Zi; Wilsnack, Richard W.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Benson, Perry; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most gender-specific studies of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) have focused on gender differences in thresholds for hazardous drinking. This study examines gender differences in the factor structure of the AUDIT in general-population surveys. Methods General-population surveys from 15 countries provided 27,478 current drinkers’ responses to the AUDIT and related measures. We used single-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate goodness-of-fit of three hypothesized models for responses to the AUDIT by men and women in each country. Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) using a maximum likelihood robust (MLR) estimator was evaluated to identify the best fitted model. We then assessed factorial invariance within country surveys where fit indices were acceptable for both genders. Gender-specific internal consistency and concurrent validity were also evaluated in all 15 countries. Results: CFA revealed that the fit indices of 2-factor or 3-factor models were consistently better than fit indices for a 1-factor model in 14 of 15 countries. Comparisons of BIC values indicated that the 2-factor solution was the best fitted model. Factorial invariance tests in data from 3 countries indicated that the factor loadings and thresholds of the AUDIT were invariant across gender. The internal reliability and concurrent validity of AUDIT and its subscales were acceptable in both genders. Conclusions A two-factor model best describes AUDIT responses across general-population surveys in 12 of 15 countries, with acceptable internal reliability and concurrent validity, and supports a gender-invariant structure in at least three of those countries. PMID:22236536

  1. Gender and Regional Differences in Sleep Quality and Insomnia: A General Population-based Study in Hunan Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinsong; Liao, Yanhui; Kelly, Brian C.; Xie, Liqin; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Qi, Chang; Pan, Chen; Hao, Wei; Liu, Tieqiao; Zhang, Fengyu; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia and the inability to sleep affect people’s health and well-being. However, its systematic estimates of prevalence and distribution in the general population in China are still lacking. A population-based cluster sampling survey was conducted in the rural and urban areas of Hunan, China. Subjects (n = 26,851) were sampled from the general population, with a follow-up using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for interview to assess quality of sleep and Insomnia (PSQI score >5). While the overall prevalence of insomnia was 26.6%, and little difference was found between males (26.3%) and females (27.0%); the mean PSQI score was 4.26 (±2.67), and significant higher in females (4.32 ± 2.70) than males (4.21 ± 2.64, p = 0.003). Individuals in the rural areas tended to report a higher PSQI score (4.45 ± 2.81) than urban residents did (4.18 ± 2.60) (p < 0.001) and the estimates of prevalence of insomnia was 29.4% in the rural areas, significant higher than 25.5% in the urban areas (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, older age, higher level of education, being unmarried, living in the rural area, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with insomnia. Our study may provide important information for general and mental health research. PMID:28262807

  2. Accidental falls, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction: a prospective study of the general elderly population.

    PubMed

    Stenhagen, Magnus; Ekström, Henrik; Nordell, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2014-01-01

    As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=<0.001). In the linear regression analysis, one or more falls at the baseline predicted a significant reduction in the SF-12 physical component at the follow-up assessment (B-Coefficient -1.8, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.2). In conclusion, falls predict a long-term reduction in the physical component of HRQoL in the general elderly population. Over six years, fallers had a notable chronic lowered score in both HRQoL and LS, compared to non-fallers. This long-term depression of elderly fallers in these aspects may be more extent than previous assumed.

  3. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV–VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. PMID:28244280

  4. Screening for celiac disease in the general population and in high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Card, Timothy R; Kaukinen, Katri; Bai, Julio; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) occurs in approximately 1% of the Western population. It is a lifelong disorder that is associated with impaired quality of life (QOL) and an excessive risk of comorbidity and death. Objectives To review the literature on screening for CD in relation to the current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for mass screening. Methods We performed a PubMed search to identify indexed papers on CD screening with a publication date from 1900 until 1 June 2014. When we deemed an abstract relevant, we read the corresponding paper in detail. Results CD fulfills several WHO criteria for mass screening (high prevalence, available treatment and difficult clinical detection), but it has not yet been established that treatment of asymptomatic CD may reduce the excessive risk of severe complications, leading to higher QOL nor that it is cost-effective. Conclusions Current evidence is not sufficient to support mass screening for CD, but active case-finding may be appropriate, as we recognize that most patients with CD will still be missed by this strategy. Although proof of benefit is still lacking, screening for CD may be appropriate in high-risk groups. PMID:25922671

  5. Epidemiology of gallstone disease in Argentina: prevalences in the general population and European descendants.

    PubMed

    Brasca, A P; Pezzotto, S M; Berli, D; Villavicencio, R; Fay, O; Gianguzzo, M P; Poletto, L

    2000-12-01

    To assess gallstone disease prevalence in Argentina, a random sample of the Rosario City population was studied, considering already known associated factors, and analyzing ethnic groups living in the city. A total of 1,173 participants (69% response), both sexes, 20 years and older were studied. Each subject underwent an abdominal ultrasound examination, a blood test, and a standardized questionnaire. It was seen that gallstone disease prevalence (gallstones or cholecystectomy), overall was 20.5% (23.8% in women and 15.5% in men; (P = 0.0005), and was associated with age and body mass index in both sexes, and with pregnancy number and hypertriglyceridemia in women. As regards ancestors' nationalities, Italian and Spanish descendants presented higher prevalence rates for all age groups than those described in Italy and Spain. Thus far, in a subsample of 78% of nonparticipants submitted to a new home visit, presence of cholecystectomy or symptoms did not differ from participants, supporting the validity of our results.

  6. Phytoremediation of the polluted Waigang River and general survey on variation of phytoplankton population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Ou, Yuxiong; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Zhao, Yongjun; Zheng, Zheng

    2012-11-01

    The Waigang River, a major tributary of the Qinhuai River system, has suffered from long-standing pollution because of lack of management. Restoration was commenced in April 2006 to reduce pollutants and improve water quality. Four ecological areas and ten surface carriers were constructed for the culture of plants (mainly water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)) for phytoremediation. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus, total nitrogen (TN), ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N), water transparency, and variations in phytoplankton population were investigated to evaluate the effects of restoration. Over 36 months, TSS, COD, TN, and NH(3)-N levels decreased by 91.1, 55.3, 91.5, and 86.5 %, respectively. Transparency increased from 25 cm in 2006 to 165 cm in 2009. Improvements in water quality significantly enhanced the diversity of phytoplankton, which were harmed by pollution stress. Our results show that the water hyacinth and ryegrass cultured in the ecological areas and the surface carriers can be used to restore other heavily polluted rivers with conditions similar to those of the Waigang River, especially in the initial stages of restoration.

  7. Exposure to manganese: health effects on the general population, a pilot study in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos-Burgoa, C; Rios, C; Mercado, L A; Arechiga-Serrano, R; Cano-Valle, F; Eden-Wynter, R A; Texcalac-Sangrador, J L; Villa-Barragan, J P; Rodriguez-Agudelo, Y; Montes, S

    2001-02-01

    To support a risk assessment of manganese exposure in two communities living within a manganese mining district a cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of the adult population of long-term residents. One community was exposed to a point source from an ore primary refining plant. Manganese is an essential mineral for human life. It is also the fourth in importance for industrial metal making. Data were collected on socioeconomic living conditions, emission sources, environmental media concentrations (air, water, soil, dust, food), respiratory symptomatology, and a neuropsychological examination (Mini-Mental Screening test, the Hooper Visual Organization test, the Ardila-Ostroski, and others). We examined 73 subjects (52 women), most of low socioeconomic status. Environmental air concentrations were 2 to 3 times higher than those in other urban concentrations. Manganese blood concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 88 microg/L, with a median concentration of 15, the upper quartile starting at 20 microg/L; the upper 10% was above 25 microg/L. Lead and manganese were highly correlated; there was an inverse relation to hemoglobin. Reduced levels of plasma lipid peroxidation were associated with blood manganese. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified B-Mn as increasing the risk of deficient cognitive performance 12 times (Mini-Mental score of less than 17).

  8. Tubular and glomerular kidney effects in the Chinese general population with low environmental cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyue; Sun, Hong; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a well-known nephrotoxic agent, has received a great deal of attention from the Chinese public because of reports of its presence in rice. But very few studies have assessed the renal risk of Cd exposure in children. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine whether biologic measures of Cd exposure were associated with biomarkers of early kidney damage in children, adolescents and adults. A total of 1235 subjects (2-86.8 years old) participated in this study and provided samples of blood and urine. As a result, the median urinary Cd level was 0.38 μg g(-1) creatinine in adult men and 0.42 μg g(-1) creatinine in adult women, similar to reference values observed in the United States (median: 0.32-0.40 μg L(-1) in adults). Multiple linear regressions showed Cd in urine to be significantly positively associated with effects on renal tubule biomarkers (as indicated by increased levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β2-microglobulin) after adjusting for age, body mass index, blood lead, and urinary density, in all age groups including children. We also found positive associations between blood Cd and renal tubule biomarkers in children. In conclusion, adverse tubular renal effects might have occurred at the current low Cd levels in the study population, including children. These findings are particularly relevant assessing health risks associated with low environmental exposures to Cd.

  9. Trinucleotide repeats at the FRAXF locus: Frequency and distribution in the general population

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Walker, M.

    1996-08-09

    FRAXF the third X-chromosomal fragile site to be cloned, has been shown to harbor a polymorphic compound triplet array: (GC-CGTC){sub n} (GCC){sub n}. Expansion and methylation of the GCC-repeat and the neighboring CpG-rich region result in chromosomal fragility. DNAs from 500 anonymous consecutive newborn males were examined to determine the incidence of various repeat numbers. The range of repeats was from 10-38, with the most common alleles having 14 (52.7%), 12 (16.6%), 21 (9.0%), and 22 (5.2%) triplets. Based on the distribution of repeat numbers, we suggest that the 21-repeat allele resulted from hairpin formation involving 7 GCC-repeats in a 14-repeat allele, accompanied by polymerase slippage. Examination of dinucleotide repeats near the FRAXF repeat will be important in testing this hypothesis. Since the clinical phenotype, if any, of FRAXF is unknown, this database will also be valuable for comparisons with repeat numbers in individuals from special populations. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Design Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18–84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Measures Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable ‘healthy lifestyle behaviour’. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. Results The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the

  11. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Moses, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 × 10(-8)). However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 × 10(-5)) add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD etiology, PRKCB1, and CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10(-6)), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10(-6)) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second

  12. Performance Scores in General Practice: A Comparison between the Clinical versus Medication-Based Approach to Identify Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Lary, Olivier; Boisnault, Philippe; Naiditch, Michel; Szidon, Philippe; Duhot, Didier; Bourgueil, Yann; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Context From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men) or 60 (for women), and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. Methods A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs), the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG) for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. Results We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement = 96%, kappa = 0.69). The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval) per doctor was 33.7% (31.5–35.9) for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4–41.4) for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3–39.4) and 43.8% (41.4–46.3) on the basis of treatment criteria. Conclusion The two approaches yield very “similar” scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the

  13. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health

  14. Associations of carotid intima-media thickness, tobacco smoking and overweight with hearing disorder in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    John, U; Baumeister, S E; Kessler, C; Völzke, H

    2007-11-01

    It has been argued that smoking or overweight might contribute to hearing disorder by atherogenic narrowing of the nutrient arteries to the cochlea. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker for generalized atherosclerosis. We analyzed a subgroup (n=2619) from a general population sample in north-eastern Germany aged 45-81 years (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Assessments included self-statements about hearing disorder and medical examinations of CIMT. Using ordinal logistic regression for data analysis and after adjustment for cigarettes per day, waist circumference, diabetes, exposure to noise, age and sex, we found CIMT remained a predictor of hearing disorder (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2). Cigarettes per day and waist circumference were related to CIMT but not to hearing disorder. The findings suggest a positive association between CIMT and hearing disorder.

  15. Brain tissue volumes in the general population of the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Forsberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Jesper; Kjartansson, Olafur; Oskarsdottir, Bryndis; Jonsson, Palmi V; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Zijdenbos, Alex; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-02-15

    Imaging studies have reported conflicting findings on how brain structure differs with age and sex. This may be explained by discrepancies and limitations in study population and study design. We report a study on brain tissue volumes in one of the largest cohorts of individuals studied to date of subjects with high mean age (mean ± standard deviation (SD) 76 ± 6 years). These analyses are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired at baseline on 4303 non-demented elderly, and 367 who had a second MRI, on average 2.5 ± 0.2 years later. Tissue segmentation was performed with an automatic image analysis pipeline. Total brain parenchymal (TBP) volume decreased with increasing age while there was an increase in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in both sexes. A reduction in both normal white matter (NWM)- and gray matter (GM) volume contributed to the brain shrinkage. After adjusting for intra-cranial volume, women had larger brain volumes compared to men (3.32%, p < 0.001) for TBP volume in the cross-sectional analysis. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant age-sex interaction in TBP volume with a greater rate of annual change in men (-0.70%, 95%CI: -0.78% to -0.63%) than women (-0.55%, 95%CI: -0.61% to -0.49%). The annual change in the cross-sectional data was approximately 40% less than the annual change in the longitudinal data and did not show significant age-sex interaction. The findings indicate that the cross-sectional data underestimate the rate of change in tissue volumes with age as the longitudinal data show greater rate of change in tissue volumes with age for all tissues.

  16. Clinical value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in health screening of general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Richter, Antje; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor; Pickuth, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and angiography (WB-MRA) has become increasingly popular in population-based research. We evaluated retrospectively the frequency of potentially relevant incidental findings throughout the body. Materials and methods 22 highly health-conscious managers (18 men, mean age 47±9 years) underwent WB-MRI and WB-MRA between March 2012 and September 2013 on a Discovery MR750w wide bore 3 Tesla device (GE Healthcare) using T1 weighted, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) acquisitions according to a standardized protocol. Results A suspicious (pararectal) malignancy was detected in one patient which was confirmed by an endorectal sonography. Incidental findings were described in 20 subjects, including hydrocele (11 patients), benign bony lesion (7 patients) and non-specific lymph nodes (5 patients). Further investigations were recommended in 68% (ultrasound: 36%, computed tomography: 28%, mammography: 9%, additional MRI: 9%). WB-MRA were negative in 16 subjects. Vascular normal variations were reported in 23%, and a 40% left proximal common carotid artery stenosis were described in one subject. Conclusions WB-MRI and MRA lead to the detection of clinically relevant diseases and unexpected findings in a cohort of healthy adults that require further imaging or surveillance in 68%. WB-MR imaging may play a paramount role in health screening, especially in the future generation of (epi)genetic based screening of malignant and atherosclerotic disorders. Our study is the first which involved a highly selected patient group using a high field 3-T wide bore magnet system with T1, STIR, MRA and whole-body DWI acquisitions as well. PMID:25810696

  17. Pancreatic Steatosis Demonstrated at MR Imaging in the General Population: Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, Friederike; Mayerle, Julia; Völzke, Henry; Reeder, Scott B.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Lerch, Markus M.; Hosten, Norbert; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Meffert, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between pancreatic fat content and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods From the prospective population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), 1367 volunteers (563 men, 678 women; median age, 50 years) underwent whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 1.5 T, which included multiecho chemical shift–encoded acquisition of the abdomen. SHIP was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated after correction for T1 bias, T2* bias, multipeak spectral complexity of fat, and noise bias. On the basis of oral glucose tolerance test results, participants were grouped into those with normal glucose tolerance (n = 740), those with prediabetes (n = 431), and those with confirmed type 2 diabetes but without medication (n = 70). PDFF was assessed in the pancreatic head, body, and tail. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to investigate possible relationships of PDFF with demographic factors, behavioral factors, and laboratory data associated with the metabolic syndrome. Results In all subjects, the mean unadjusted pancreatic fat content was 4.4% (head, 4.6%; body, 4.9%; tail, 3.9%; being unequally distributed, P < .001). There was no significant difference in pancreatic PDFF among subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes (P = .980). Pancreatic PDFF showed a positive association with age and body mass index and a negative association with serum lipase activity (P < .001). Conclusion The presence of pancreatic fat is not related to prediabetes or diabetes, which suggests that it has little clinical relevance for an individual’s glycemic status. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25658037

  18. Infraclavicular axillary vein cannulation using ultrasound in a mechanically ventilated general intensive care population.

    PubMed

    Glen, H; Lang, I; Christie, L

    2015-09-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is commonly undertaken in the ICU. The use of ultrasound (US) to facilitate CVC insertion is standard and is supported by guidelines. Because the subclavian vein cannot be insonated where it underlies the clavicle, its use as a CVC site is now less common. The axillary vein, however, can be seen on US just distal to the subclavian vein and placement of a CVC at this site gives a result which is functionally indistinguishable from a subclavian CVC. We evaluated placement of US-guided axillary CVCs in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. Data were collected for 125 consecutive US-guided axillary CVC procedures in ventilated patients in an adult intensive care setting. All lines were inserted using real-time US guidance with an out-of-plane technique. One hundred and twenty-five procedures occurred in 119 patients. Successful line placement was achieved in 117 out of 125 (94%) procedures. Complications included four procedures that required repeating due to catheter malposition and one arterial puncture. The median number of attempts per procedure was one (IQR 1 to 2). Thirty-nine (31%) patients had a body mass index of 30 or above, 43 (34%) patients had a coagulopathy and 70 (56%) patients had significant ventilator dependence (FiO2 of 0.5 or above, or positive end expiratory pressure 10 cmH20 or above). The technique of US-guided axillary CVC access can be undertaken successfully in ventilated intensive care patients, even in challenging circumstances. Taken together with existing work on the utility and safety of this technique, we suggest that it be adopted more widely in the intensive care population.

  19. The Stability of Problem Behavior Across the Preschool Years: An Empirical Approach in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Basten, Maartje; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; van de Schoot, Rens; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Ende, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the stability of internalizing and externalizing problems from age 1.5 to 6 years, while taking into account developmental changes in the presentation of problems. The study comprised a population-based cohort of 7,206 children (50.4 % boys). At ages 1.5, 3, and 6 years, mothers reported on problem behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). At each age we performed latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 scales. Latent transition analysis (LTA) was applied to study the stability of problem behavior. Profiles of problem behavior varied across ages. At each age, 82-87 % of the children did not have problems whereas approximately 2 % showed a profile of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. This profile was more severe (with higher scores) at 6 years than at earlier ages. A predominantly internalizing profile only emerged at 6 years, while a profile with externalizing problems and emotional reactivity was present at each age. LTA showed that, based on profiles at 1.5 and 3 years, it was difficult to predict the type of profile at 6 years. Children with a profile of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems early in life were most likely to show problem behavior at 6 years. This study shows that the presentation of problem behavior changes across the preschool period and that heterotypic continuity of problems is very common among preschoolers. Children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems were most likely to show persisting problems. The use of evidence-based treatment for these young children may prevent psychiatric problems across the life course.

  20. Rock climbing injury rates and associated risk factors in a general climbing population.

    PubMed

    Backe, S; Ericson, L; Janson, S; Timpka, T

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to examine injury rates and associated risk factors in a representative sample of climbers. A random sample (n=606) of the Swedish Climbing Association members was sent a postal survey, with an effective response rate of 63%. Self-reported data regarding climbing history, safety practices and retrospective accounts of injury events (recall period 1.5 years) were obtained. Descriptive statistical methods were used to calculate injury incidences, and a two-step method including zero-inflated Poisson's regression analysis of re-injuries was used to determine the combination of risk factors that best explained individual injury rates. Overall, 4.2 injuries per 1000 climbing hours were reported, overuse injuries accounting for 93% of all injuries. Inflammatory tissue damages to fingers and wrists were the most common injury types. The multivariate analysis showed that overweight and practicing bouldering generally implied an increased primary injury risk, while there was a higher re-injury risk among male climbers and a lower risk among the older climbers. The high percentage of overuse injuries implies that climbing hours and loads should be gradually and systematically increased, and climbers regularly controlled for signs and symptoms of overuse. Further study of the association between body mass index and climbing injury is warranted.

  1. Effectiveness of facemasks to reduce exposure hazards for airborne infections among general populations

    PubMed Central

    Lai, A. C. K.; Poon, C. K. M.; Cheung, A. C. T.

    2012-01-01

    Facemasks are widely used as a protective measure by general public to prevent inhalation of airborne pathogens including seasonal, swine and other forms of influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), etc. However, scientific data on effectiveness of facemasks in reducing infections in the community are extremely limited and even inconsistent. In this work, two manikins labelled as ‘source’ and ‘susceptible’ were used to measure the protection provided by facemasks under various emission scenarios. The source was modified to generate polydisperse ultrafine particles, whereas the susceptible was modified to mimic a realistic breathing pattern. The facemask was challenged by both pseudo-steady and highly transient emissions generated by an expiratory process where parameters, such as separation distance between manikins, emission velocity and expiratory duration, were controlled and measured systematically. Performances of four different types of facemask fits, varying from ideal to normal wearing practice, were also investigated. Under the pseudo-steady concentration environment, facemask protection was found to be 45 per cent, while under expiratory emissions, protection varied from 33 to 100 per cent. It was also observed that the separation between the source and the manikin was the most influential parameter affecting facemask protection. PMID:21937487

  2. Application of a neural network for gentamicin concentration prediction in a general hospital population.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, B W; Mayo, P R; Jamali, F

    1997-02-01

    Neural network (NN) computation is computer modeling based in part on simulation of the structure and function of the brain. These modeling techniques have been found useful as pattern recognition tools. In the present study, data including age, sex, height, weight, serum creatinine concentration, dose, dosing interval, and time of measurement were collected from 240 patients with various diseases being treated with gentamicin in a general hospital setting. The patient records were randomly divided into two sets: a training set of 220 patients used to develop relationships between input and output variables (peak and trough plasma concentrations) and a testing set (blinded from the NN) of 20 to test the NN. The network model was the back-propagation, feed-forward model. Various networks were tested, and the most accurate networks for peak and trough (calculated as mean percent error, root mean squared error of the testing group, and tau value between observed and predicted values) were reported. The results indicate that NNs can predict gentamicin serum concentrations accurately from various input data over a range of patient ages and renal function and may offer advantages over traditional dose prediction methods for gentamicin.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  4. Effects of Nighttime Light Radiance on the Sleep of the General Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to verify if the exposure to greater nighttime radiance is associated with changes in the sleep/wake schedule and with greater sleep disturbances. Methods: The target population was the adults (18 years and older) living in California, USA. This represents 24 million of inhabitants. A total of 3,104 subjects participated in the survey (participation rate 85.6%). The participants were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The interviews covered several topics including sleeping habits, sleep quality, sleep disturbances, physical symptoms related to menopause. Chronic insomnia was defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep for at least 3 months. Global nighttime light emissions have been collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) sensors. We extracted the radiance calibrated nighttime lights corresponding to the date of the interviews for a three by three window centered on each coordinate corresponding to an interview address. Results: Dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and/or quality was associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p=0.02). Similarly, excessive sleepiness accompanied with impaired functioning was significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Confusional arousals were also significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Bedtime hour was linearly increasing with the intensity of nighttime radiance: the later the bedtime, the greater the nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Similarly, wakeup time became progressively later as the nighttime radiance increased (p (is) less than 0.0001). Both associations remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Circadian Rhythm Disorders were the

  5. Producing selenium-enriched eggs and meat to improve the selenium status of the general population.

    PubMed

    Fisinin, Vladimir I; Papazyan, Tigran T; Surai, Peter F

    2009-01-01

    The role of selenium (Se) in human health and diseases has been discussed in detail in several recent reviews, with the main conclusion being that selenium deficiency is recognised as a global problem which urgently needs resolution. Since selenium content in plant-based food depends on its availability from soil, the level of this element in food and feeds varies among regions. In general, eggs and meat are considered to be good sources of selenium in human diet. When considering ways to improve human selenium intake, there are several potential options. These include direct supplementation, soil fertilisation and supplementation of food staples such as flour, and production of functional foods. Analysing recent publications related to functional food production, it is evident that selenium-enriched eggs can be used as an important delivery system of this trace mineral for humans. In particular, developments and commercialisation of organic forms of selenium have initiated a new era in the availability of selenium-enriched products. It has been shown that egg selenium content can easily be manipulated to give increased levels, especially when organic selenium is included in hens' diet at levels that provide 0.3-0.5 mg/kg selenium in the feed. As a result, technology for the production of eggs delivering approximately 50% (30-35 microg) of the human selenium RDA have been developed and successfully tested. Currently companies all over the world market selenium-enriched eggs including the UK, Ireland, Mexico, Columbia, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, Turkey, Russia and the Ukraine. Prices for enriched eggs vary from country to country, typically being similar to free-range eggs. Selenium-enriched chicken, pork and beef can also be produced when using organic selenium in the diet of poultry and farm animals. The scientific, technological and other advantages and limitations of producing designer/modified eggs as functional foods are discussed in this review.

  6. Change in pulmonary diffusion capacity in a general population sample over 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Storebø, Michael L.; Eagan, Tomas M. L.; Eide, Geir E.; Gulsvik, Amund; Thorsen, Einar; Bakke, Per S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (ΔDLCO) over a 9-year period and its predictors. Methods A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18–73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75%) were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ΔDLCO and the covariables. Results At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD)] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4) and 7.8 (1.6) mmol·min−1·kPa−1 in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD) ΔDLCO was −0.24 (1.31) mmol·min−1·kPa−1. ΔDLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ΔDLCO. Conclusions In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1. PMID:27600696

  7. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Why the cohort was set up? CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. Cohort participants CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18–69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. Data collection phases At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Main types of data collected Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. Control of selection effects To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Data access Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. PMID:27884936

  8. Frequency and determinants of Hepatitis B and C virus in general population of Farash Town, Islamabad

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Munazza; Ahmed, Farah; Zafar, Humaira; Farman, Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are rapidly spreading in the developing countries. Both of them are blood borne and are transmitted through un-screened blood transfusion, inadequately sterilized needles and equipment. According to WHO’s criteria of endemicity, Pakistan has high disease burden of Hepatitis B and C. The present study was planned to determine the frequency and to identify the risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus in the general community of Farash town. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Al Nafees Medical Hospital Lab, from January 2013 to December 2013. Both the genders and all age groups were included in the study. All the patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had given a written consent. Data was collected through questionnaire and was analyzed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results: Three-hundred and forty five patients were studied. Among these 92 (27%) were males and 253(73%) were female, 33% of them had hepatitis C, 9% had hepatitis B. History of injections was reported in all of the patients. Visit to community barbers was present in 58.6% and 41% cases of hepatitis B and C. History of dental procedures was obtained in 7(24%) and 15(13%) patients of hepatitis B and C. Conclusion: Major contributors for Hepatitis B and C in Farash town are use of unsterilized therapeutic injections and visit to community barbers. Education of the barbers regarding sterilization may help in reducing the burden of infection in this community. PMID:26870103

  9. Whether the Autism Spectrum Quotient consists of two different subgroups? Cluster analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient in general population.

    PubMed

    Kitazoe, Noriko; Fujita, Naofumi; Izumoto, Yuji; Terada, Shin-Ichi; Hatakenaka, Yuhei

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the individuals in the general population with high scores on the Autism Spectrum Quotient constituted a single homogeneous group or not. A cohort of university students (n = 4901) was investigated by cluster analysis based on the original five subscales of the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Based on the results of the analysis, the students could be divided into six clusters: the first with low scores on all the five subscales, the second with high scores on only the 'attention to detail' subscale, the third and fourth with intermediate scores on all the subscales, the fifth with high scores on four of the five subscales but low scores on the 'attention to detail' subscale and the sixth with high scores on all the five subscales. The students with high total Autism Spectrum Quotient scores (n = 166) were divided into two groups: one with high scores on four subscales but low scores on the 'attention to detail' subscale and the other with high scores on all the five subscales. The results of this study suggested that individuals from the general population with high Autism Spectrum Quotient scores may consist of two qualitatively different groups.

  10. The association between family history of mental disorder and delusional-like experiences: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Daniel; Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James D; Chan, Raymond C K; McGrath, John J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that isolated delusional-like experiences (DLE) are common in the general population. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that these experiences are more common in those with a family history of mental disorders. We had the opportunity to explore the association between family history of a wide range of mental disorders and DLE in an Australian general population survey. The Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 examined 8,841 adult community residents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate various DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses and to assess DLE. The participants were asked to report mental disorders in their first-degree relatives. The influence of family history of mental disorders on DLE endorsement was assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the respondents. A family history of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug abuse/dependence was each significantly associated with endorsement of DLE, and these associations remained significant when we adjusted for the presence of mental illness in the respondents. When we examined a more restrictive definition of DLE, only a family history of depression and schizophrenia remained significantly associated with DLE. DLE are associated with a family history of a wide range of mental disorders. These findings suggest that familial factors associated with DLE may be shared with a wide range of common mental disorders.

  11. The genetics of pubertal timing in the general population: recent advances and evidence for sex-specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Widén, Elisabeth; Palmert, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To overview advances in the genetics of puberty based on studies in the general population, describe evidence for sex-specific genetic effects on pubertal timing, and briefly review possible mechanisms mediating sexually dimorphic genetic effects. Recent findings Pubertal timing is highly polygenic, and many loci are conserved among ethnicities. A number of identified loci underlie both pubertal timing and related traits such as height and body mass index (BMI). It is increasingly apparent that understanding the factors modulating the onset of puberty is important because the timing of this developmental stage is associated with a wider range of adult health outcomes than previously appreciated. While most of the genetic effects underlying the timing of puberty are common between boys and girls, some effects show sex-specificity and many are epigenetically modulated. Several potential mechanisms, including hormone-independent ones, may be responsible for observed sex differences. Summary Studies of pubertal timing in the general population have provided new knowledge about the genetic architecture of this complex trait. Increasing attention paid to sex-specific effects may provide key insights into the sexual dimorphism in pubertal timing and even into the associations between puberty and adult health risks by identifying common underlying biological pathways. PMID:26574646

  12. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kotaro; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3) and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:28243100

  13. Rifapentine for latent tuberculosis infection treatment in the general population and human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: summary of evidence.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Júlia Souza; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Sanchez, Mauro Niskier

    2015-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfection are challenges in the control of tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to assess and summarize evidence available in the literature regarding the treatment of LTBI in both the general and HIV-positive population, in order to support decision making by the Brazilian Tuberculosis Control Program for LTBI chemoprophylaxis. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Trip database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and the Brazilian Theses Repository to identify systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials, clinical guidelines, evidence-based synopses, reports of health technology assessment agencies, and theses that investigated rifapentine and isoniazid combination compared to isoniazid monotherapy. We assessed the quality of evidence from randomized clinical trials using the Jadad Scale and recommendations from other evidence sources using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations approach. The available evidence suggests that there are no differences between rifapentine + isoniazid short-course treatment and the standard 6-month isoniazid therapy in reducing active tuberculosis incidence or death. Adherence was better with directly observed rifapentine therapy compared to self-administered isoniazid. The quality of evidence obtained was moderate, and on the basis of this evidence, rifapentine is recommended by one guideline. Available evidence assessment considering the perspective of higher adherence rates, lower costs, and local peculiarity context might support rifapentine use for LTBI in the general or HIV-positive populations. Since novel trials are ongoing, further studies should include patients on antiretroviral therapy.

  14. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    PubMed Central

    Köck, R.; Werner, P.; Friedrich, A.W.; Fegeler, C.; Becker, K.; Bindewald, O.; Bui, T.T.; Eckhoff, C.; Epping, R.; Kähmann, L.; Meurer, M.; Steger, J.; von Auenmüller, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact. PMID:26862431

  15. The demanding attention of tuberculosis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: High incidence compared with general population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Su-Mi; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Ki; Kim, Si-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Cho, Byung-Sik; Eom, Ki-Seong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Je; Min, Chang-Ki; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Jung, Jung Im

    2017-01-01

    Background The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is expected to be relatively high in an intermediate TB burden country. This single-center retrospective study was conducted to investigate risk factors and the incidence of TB after allogeneic HSCT. Methods From January 2004 to March 2011, 845 adult patients were enrolled. Starting April 2009, patients were given isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis based on interferon-γ release assay results. The incidence of TB was analyzed before and after April 2009, and compared it with that of the general population in Korea. Results TB was diagnosed in 21 (2.49%) of the 845 allogeneic HSCT patients. The median time to the development of TB was 386 days after transplantation (range, 49–886). Compared with the general population, the standardized incidence ratio of TB was 9.10 (95% CI; 5.59–14.79). Extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was associated with the development of TB (P = 0.003). Acute GVHD, conditioning regimen with total body irradiation and conditioning intensity were not significantly related. INH prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of TB (P = 0.548). Among 21 TB patients, one patient had INH prophylaxis. Conclusion Allogeneic HSCT recipients especially those who suffer from extensive chronic GVHD are at a high risk of developing TB. INH prophylaxis did not statistically change the incidence of TB, however, further well-designed prospective studies are needed. PMID:28278166

  16. BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

    2015-02-01

    Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population.

  17. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of China: A meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CAO, XIAO-LAN; ZHONG, BAO-LIANG; XIANG, YU-TAO; UNGVARI, GABOR S.; LAI, KELLY Y. C.; CHIU, HELEN F. K.; CAINE, ERIC D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this meta-analysis is to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of Mainland China. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, China Journals Full-Text Databases, Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wan Fang Data. Statistical analysis used the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria for the analysis; five reported on the prevalence of suicidal ideation and seven on that of suicide attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalence figures of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 3.9% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 2.5%–6.0%) and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.7%–0.9%), respectively. The estimated female-male ratio for lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was 1.7 and 2.2, respectively. Only the difference of suicide attempts between the two genders was statistically significant. Conclusion This was the first meta-analysis of the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of Mainland China. The pooled lifetime prevalence of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are relatively low; however, caution is required when assessing these self-report data. Women had a modestly higher prevalence for suicide attempts than men. The frequency for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in urban regions was similar to those in rural areas. PMID:26060259

  18. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P < 0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P < 0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the

  19. The overlooked potential of generalized linear models in astronomy - III. Bayesian negative binomial regression and globular cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Hilbe, J. M.; Buelens, B.; Riggs, J. D.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Killedar, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the third in a series illustrating the power of generalized linear models (GLMs) for the astronomical community, we elucidate the potential of the class of GLMs which handles count data. The size of a galaxy's globular cluster (GC) population (NGC) is a prolonged puzzle in the astronomical literature. It falls in the category of count data analysis, yet it is usually modelled as if it were a continuous response variable. We have developed a Bayesian negative binomial regression model to study the connection between NGC and the following galaxy properties: central black hole mass, dynamical bulge mass, bulge velocity dispersion and absolute visual magnitude. The methodology introduced herein naturally accounts for heteroscedasticity, intrinsic scatter, errors in measurements in both axes (either discrete or continuous) and allows modelling the population of GCs on their natural scale as a non-negative integer variable. Prediction intervals of 99 per cent around the trend for expected NGC comfortably envelope the data, notably including the Milky Way, which has hitherto been considered a problematic outlier. Finally, we demonstrate how random intercept models can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type. Bayesian variable selection methodology allows for automatically identifying galaxy types with different productions of GCs, suggesting that on average S0 galaxies have a GC population 35 per cent smaller than other types with similar brightness.

  20. Subgenotype diversity of hepatitis B virus American genotype F in Amerindians from Venezuela and the general population of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Devesa, M; Loureiro, C L; Rivas, Y; Monsalve, F; Cardona, N; Duarte, M C; Poblete, F; Gutierrez, M F; Botto, C; Pujol, F H

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the evaluation of the genetic diversity found in HBV circulating among Venezuelan Amerindians and the general population in Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the S region in 194 isolates showed that genotype F is highly predominant in Colombia and Venezuela. This might be related to the genetic background of the population. F3 is the main subgenotype which circulates in both countries. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 complete genome sequences of HBV American genotypes confirms the presence of two genotypes F and H, and 4 F subgenotypes. In Venezuela, subgenotypes F1, F2, and F3 circulate in East and West Amerindians, while only F3 was found among South Amerindians. Japreira community derived from Yucpa Amerindians around 150 years ago. However, several Japreira HBV sequences were forming a clade that can be classified as subgenotype 2b, differing from Yucpa sequences that belong mainly to subgenotype F3. The apparent absence of correlation between the phylogenetic groupings of HBV isolates with the ethnical origin in aboriginal populations might be suggesting a recent origin of HBV American subgenotypes, or a genetic drift effect.

  1. A trans-theoretical approach to alcohol abuse profile in the general population of an islamic country - Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, V; Shojaee, P; Yaghmaei, A; Abbasi Shaye, Z

    2015-01-01

    Background:From a public health perspective, alcohol-related problems have enormous social and individual consequences. Objectives:The aim of the present study was to apply the TTM on the general population of Mashhad city to evaluate the change levels and possible relative factors regarding alcohol abuse. Methods:: In a cross-sectional design, a total number of 564 people from the General Population of Mashhad, Iran participated. Stages of change questionnaire based on trans-theoretical model (TTM) and the checklist including socio-demographic characteristics as well as possible related factors were used. SPSS 11.5 software was used for all statistical analyses. Results: Among 564 people who took part in this survey, 245 (43.43%) had the history of alcohol consumption or they were current alcohol users. The analysis showed that 19.2% of the participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 3.3% in contemplation, 1.2% in preparation, 2.9% in action, 2% in maintenance and 71.4% were in termination phase. Age, job, smoking, and hookah smoking were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Marital status, job, and smoking were predictors of termination phase. Conclusion: This picture is from an Islamic holy city where assumed religious beliefs have cramped drinking patterns. According to harm of alcohol abuse, it is necessary to tailor the intervention for target populations. Factors identified as predictors of alcohol abuse such as age, marital status and occupation, as well as being cigarette and hookah smokers should be taken into account in the design of future interventions.

  2. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use. Method We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors. Results The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese. Conclusion Our findings indicated

  3. A "suicide pill" for older people: attitudes of physicians, the general population, and relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and 87 relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. The general population and relatives were more in favor than physicians. Fifteen percent of the general population and 36% of the relatives thought a suicide pill should be made available.

  4. Characteristics of subjects with comorbidity of symptoms of generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders and the corresponding threshold and subthreshold conditions in an Arab general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, Jude U.; Awadalla, Abdel W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is controversy about differential meaningfulness between comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)/ major depressive disorder (MDD), the corresponding “pure” disorders and subthreshold conditions. We compared subjects who met DSM-IVTR criteria of symptoms and functional impairment for comorbid GAD/MDD, versus those with GAD, MDD, subthreshold conditions, and without significant symptoms. The comparison measures were socio-demographics, clinical severity, and quality of life (QOL). Material/Methods Participants (N=3155: 55.1% female, aged 16–87 yrs) were a general population sample of Kuwaitis who self-completed DSM-IVTR criteria-based questionnaires and the WHOQOL-BREF in 2006/7. We scrutinized the questionnaires and classified them into categories. Results Of the 273 GAD and 210 MDD cases, the prevalence of comorbidity among cases with GAD was 30.8%, and 40% among MDD. Of the 398 subthreshold GAD and 194 subthreshold MDD cases, 58 had subthreshold anxiety/depression comorbidity. Comorbid threshold GAD/MDD cases were significantly older, and more likely to be women, divorced and unemployed, compared with GAD and MDD. In all measures, the threshold GAD/MDD comorbidity was the severest condition. There was a monotonic decrease in QOL with increasing anxiety-depression symptoms. For the predictors of subjective QOL, the GAD/MDD comorbidity group differed markedly from the others. Conclusions The high prevalence of comorbidity and subthreshold conditions supports the recommendation to assess them routinely, regardless of the primary reason for consultation. Our findings support a dimensional model with comorbid GAD/MDD at the higher end of a continuum, and differing from the “pure” conditions by a later onset and predictors of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22367127

  5. Sleep Misperception and Chronic Insomnia in the General Population: The Role of Objective Sleep Duration and Psychological Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, María Jose; Sauder, Katherine A.; Basta, Maria; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sleep misperception is considered by some investigators a common characteristic of chronic insomnia, whereas others propose it as a separate diagnosis. The frequency and the determinants of sleep misperception in general population samples are unknown. In this study we examined the role of objective sleep duration, a novel marker in phenotyping insomnia, and psychological profiles on sleep misperception in a large, general population sample. Methods 142 insomniacs and 724 controls selected from a general random sample of 1,741 individuals (age ≥ 20 years) underwent a polysomnographic evaluation, completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, and were split into two groups based on their objective sleep duration: “normal sleep duration” (≥ 6 hours) and “short sleep duration” (< 6 hours). Results The discrepancy between subjective and objective sleep duration was determined by two independent factors. Short sleepers reported more sleep than they objectively had and insomniacs reported less sleep than controls with similar objective sleep duration. The additive effect of these two factors resulted in underestimation only in insomniacs with normal sleep duration. Insomniacs with normal sleep duration showed a MMPI-2 profile of high depression and anxiety, and low ego strength, whereas insomniacs with short sleep duration showed a profile of a medical disorder. Conclusions Underestimation of sleep duration is prevalent among insomniacs with objective normal sleep duration. Anxious-ruminative traits and poor resources for coping with stress appear to mediate the underestimation of sleep duration. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective sleep measures in phenotyping insomnia. PMID:20978224

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Kathryn E; Sim, Julius; Jordan, Joanne L; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2016-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common and associated with poor general health. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of CWP or assess how this is influenced by sociodemographic factors. This study therefore aimed to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of CWP in the adult general population and explore variation in prevalence by age, sex, geographical location, and criteria used to define CWP. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and AMED were searched using a search strategy combining key words and related database-specific subject terms to identify relevant cohort or cross-sectional studies published since 1990. Included articles were assessed for risk of bias. Prevalence figures for CWP (American College of Rheumatology criteria) were stratified according to geographical location, age, and sex. Potential sources of variation were investigated using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-five articles met the eligibility criteria. Estimates for CWP prevalence ranged from 0% to 24%, with most estimates between 10% and 15%. The random-effects pooled prevalence was 10.6% (95% confidence intervals: 8.6-12.9). When only studies at low risk of bias were considered pooled, prevalence increased to 11.8% (95% confidence intervals: 10.3-13.3), with reduced but still high heterogeneity. Prevalence was higher in women and in those aged more than 40 years. There was some limited evidence of geographic variation and cultural differences. One in 10 adults in the general population report chronic widespread pain with possible sociocultural variation. The possibility of cultural differences in pain reporting should be considered in future research and the clinical assessment of painful conditions.

  7. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population: one-year data collected with SMS Track

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was previously assumed that low back pain (LBP) is a disorder that can be classified as acute, subacute and chronic. Lately, the opinion seems to have veered towards a concept of it being a more recurrent or cyclic condition. Interestingly, a recent review of the literature indicated that LBP in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population. Methods In all, 293 49/50-yr old Danes, who previously participated in a population-based study on LBP were invited to respond to 26 fortnightly text-messages over one year, each time asking them the number of days they had been bothered by LBP in the past two weeks. The course patterns for these individuals were identified through manual analysis, by observing the interplay between non-episodes and episodes of LBP. A non-episode of LBP was defined as a period of at least one month without LBP as proposed by de Vet et al. A fortnight with at least one day of pain was defined as a pain fortnight (FN). At least one pain FN surrounded by a non-episode on each side was defined as an episode of LBP. After some preliminary observations of the spread of data, episodes were further classified as brief (consisting of only one pain FN) or longer (if there were at least 2 pain FNs in a row). An episode of at least 6 pain FNs in a row (i.e. 3 months) was defined as a long-lasting episode. Results In all, 261 study subjects were included in the analyses, for which 7 distinct LBP subsets could be identified. These could be grouped into three major clusters; those

  8. [Differences in risk factors for disease and health problems between monks and the general population in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    van Meel, D; de Vrij, J H; Kunst, A E; Mackenbach, J P

    1992-08-08

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the austerely living Trappist and Benedictine monks have a lower prevalence of a number of risk factors and health problems than the general Dutch population. A written questionnaire was submitted to monks of 7 monasteries. The response was 67 per cent (134 monks). The data were compared with data from the national Health Interview Survey of 1989, which used an almost identical questionnaire. Adjustment was made for differences in age and education. Monks consume less alcohol and tobacco and have a more austere diet. Their average Quetelet index is lower. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is lower. On the other hand, monks more often report a number of other chronic diseases, physical complaints, and problems with activities of daily life. They more often have contact with general practitioners and with consultants. The lower prevalence of a number of risk factors among monks reflects their austere way of life. It is not certain whether the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases can be attributed to this way of life. The fact that, in general, health problems are more prevalent among monks suggests that changes in lifestyle do not necessarily lead to compression of morbidity.

  9. Providing information and detecting concerns about health in general practice populations using a computer system in the waiting area.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, I; Tongue, B

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and practical problems for general practice exist following the increased emphasis placed upon preventive care in the 1990 contract for general practitioners. In particular, the risk that questionable systematic activity is encouraged while opportunistic prevention is discouraged, suggests the need for better targeted and more efficient methods of health promotion. This paper describes computer software which provides a broad range of information about health on a patient-dedicated terminal in general practice waiting areas. The software is interactive and monitors both the level of use of the component parts of the database and specific information sought but not found. In this way the system generates an indicator of 'health concerns' in the practice population. Experience of the system at four contrasting sites in Merseyside is reported. Data from the first year suggest that site-specific differences in use and perceived need are emerging, and could lead to an information source which evolves in response to local demand. In addition, the system should provide a resource for opportunistic prevention in primary care and a way of monitoring the emergence of new concerns about health. PMID:1807326

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections among the general population and blood donors in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is a serious public health problem affecting billions of people globally. Limited information is available on this issue in Morocco. This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the aim of determining the seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among the general population and among blood donors. Methods Blood samples from volunteers, have been screened with ELISA tests for detecting the hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV. Within the seroreactive patients for HCV in the general population, RT-PCR was performed by the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas Amplicor. Results HCV and HBV-seropositivity was documented in 1.58% and 1.81% out of 41269 and 23578 participants respectively from the general population. Two patients were found to be co-infected. HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 70.9% of the 195 anti-HCV positive subjects. The anti-HCV prevalence was not different among males and females (P = 0.3). It increased with age; the highest prevalence was observed among subjects with >50 years old (3.12%). Various risk factors for acquiring HCV infection were identified; age, dental treatment, use of glass syringes and surgical history. In addition to these factors, gender and sexual risk behaviors were found to be associated with higher prevalence of hepatitis B. The HBV positivity was significantly higher among males than females participants in all age groups (P < 0.01). The peak was noticed among males aged 30–49 years (2.4%). None of the 152 persons younger than 20 years had HBsAg or anti-HCV. The prevalence of anti-HCV and HBsAg among 169605 blood donors was 0.62% and 0.96% respectively. Conclusions Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis B and C prevalence and risk factors; it confirmed the intermediate endemicity for HCV infection and pointed to a decreasing trend of HBV incidence, which might reclassify Morocco in low HBV endemicity area. This could be

  11. Chromium in the environment: an evaluation of exposure of the UK general population and possible adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, A L; Levy, L S; Shuker, L K

    2000-01-01

    Chromium in the hexavalent form, Cr(VI), has long been recognized as a carcinogen and there is concern as to the effects of continuous low-level exposure to chromium both occupationally and environmentally. This review summarizes the available exposure data and known health effects and evaluates the potential risk to human health in the United Kingdom. Chromium emissions to the environment in the United Kingdom are predominantly derived from fuel combustion, waste incineration, and industrial processes. The less toxic trivalent form of chromium [Cr(III)] is dominant in most environmental compartments, and any Cr(VI), the more toxic form, that is emitted to the environment can be reduced to Cr(III). Food is a major source of exposure to chromium, and estimated daily oral intakes for infants (1 yr), children (11 yr), and adults are 33-45, 123-171, and 246-343 micrograms/person/d, respectively. Soil ingestion, particularly common in young children, can contribute to oral intake. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure for the general population. Average daily inhalation intakes in infants can range from 0.004 microgram/d for rural infants to 0.14 microgram/d for urban infants who are passively exposed to tobacco smoke, whereas adults who live in industrialized areas and smoke may take up between 2 and 12 micrograms/d. The most serious health effect associated with Cr(VI) is lung cancer, which has been associated with some occupational exposure scenarios, whereas Cr(III) is an essential nutrient with a broad safety range and low toxicity. The human body has effective detoxification mechanisms that can reduce ingested or inhaled Cr(VI) to Cr(III). In conclusion, there is no clear evidence to relate exposure to environmental levels of chromium with adverse health effects in either the general UK population or subgroups exposed to chromium around industrialized or contaminated sites. It can be expected that an improved understanding of the relevance of possible long

  12. Cross-sectional association between exposure to particulate matter and inflammatory markers in the Japanese general population: NIPPON DATA2010.

    PubMed

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Okamura, Tomonori; Nitta, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Takebayashi, Toru; Ueda, Kayo; Kadota, Aya; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    A suggestive mechanism behind the association between particulate matter and cardiovascular disease is inflammatory response. Earlier population-based studies investigating the association between particulate matter and inflammatory biological markers, in particular C-reactive protein (CRP), showed inconsistent results. In addition, evidence from the Asian population, in which CRP levels are typically lower than those observed in Western populations, was sparse. We examined the cross-sectional association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter and inflammatory markers, including high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count, in a representative population of Japanese community dwellers (NIPPON DATA2010). We analysed data from 2360 participants (1002 men and 1358 women), aged 20 years or older, who resided in 300 randomly selected districts (222 public health centre areas) throughout Japan. We used background concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM, defined as particles with a 100% cut-off level at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and co-pollutants within the public health centre area. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of elevated hs-CRP (> 0.3 mg/dl) or WBC (> 9000/μl). Since smoking is an important confounding factor, we firstly included this in the models, and additionally conducted the analyses after excluding current smokers. The one-month average concentration of SPM was positively associated with hs-CRP (OR per 10 μg/m(3) increase in SPM = 1.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-2.04), and high exposure to SPM on the day of blood draw was associated with increased WBC count, after excluding current smokers (OR = 1.13, 1.01-1.28). Similar association patterns were observed for ozone. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter was associated with inflammatory markers in the general Japanese population. Systemic inflammation may play a role in the link between

  13. Slight instability of a FMR-1 allele over three generations in a family from the general population

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, M.J.; Parma, J.; Cochaux, P.

    1996-08-09

    We report on a family segregating a FMR-1 allele within the {open_quotes}grey zone{close_quotes} of triplet repeat length (n = 51). The allele showed a 1-unit increment when transmitted through a female meiosis and a 1-unit increment when transmitted through a male of the next generation. At the following generation, a pregnant woman had amniocentesis performed. The latter showed she transmitted the allele unchanged (n = 53) to her male fetus. This family was not ascertained through an affected subject, and there was no family history of mental retardation. Thus our observation reflects the natural history of an unstable allele in the general population. Systematic analysis of such alleles may help refine our understanding of the grey zone of triplet repeat length. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  15. Empathizing, systemizing, and autistic traits: latent structure in individuals with autism, their parents, and general population controls.

    PubMed

    Grove, Rachel; Baillie, Andrew; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2013-05-01

    The search for genes involved in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may have been hindered by the assumption that the different symptoms that define the condition can be attributed to the same causal mechanism. Instead the social and nonsocial aspects of ASC may have distinct causes at genetic, cognitive, and neural levels. It has been posited that the core features of ASC can be explained by a deficit in empathizing alongside intact or superior systemizing; the drive to understand and derive rules about a system. First-degree relatives also show some mild manifestations that parallel the defining features of ASC, termed the broader autism phenotype. Factor analyses were conducted to assess whether the latent structure of empathizing, systemizing, and autistic traits differs across samples with a high (individuals on the spectrum), medium (first-degree relatives) or low (general population controls) genetic vulnerability to autism. Results highlighted a two-factor model, confirming an empathizing and a systemizing factor. The relationship between these two factors was significantly stronger in first-degree relatives and the autism group compared with controls. The same model provided the best fit among the three groups, suggesting a similar latent structure irrespective of genetic vulnerability. However, results also suggest that although these traits are relatively independent in the general population, they are substantially correlated in individuals with ASC and their parents. This implies that there is substantially more overlap between systemizing and empathizing among individuals with an increased genetic liability to autism. This has potential implications for the genetic, environmental, and cognitive explanations of autism spectrum conditions.

  16. JAK2V617F somatic mutation in the general population: myeloproliferative neoplasm development and progression rate

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Camilla; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Kofoed, Klaus F.; Birgens, Henrik S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical significance of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm has been the target of intensive research in recent years. However, there is considerably uncertainty about prognosis in JAK2V617F positive individuals without overt signs of myeloproliferative disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased JAK2V617F somatic mutation burden is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm progression rate in the general population. Among 49,488 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, 63 (0.1%) tested positive for the JAK2V617F mutation in the time period 2003–2008. Of these, 48 were available for re-examination in 2012. Level of JAK2V617F mutation burden was associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm progression rate, consistent with a biological continuum of increasing JAK2V617F mutation burden across increasing severity of myeloproliferative neoplasm from no disease (n=8 at re-examination) through essential thrombocythemia (n=20) and polycythemia vera (n=13) to primary myelofibrosis (n=7). Among those diagnosed with a myeloproliferative neoplasm only at re-examination in 2012, in the preceding years JAK2V617F mutation burden increased by 0.55% per year, erythrocyte volume fraction increased by 1.19% per year, and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume increased by 1.25% per year, while there was no change in platelet count or erythropoietin levels. Furthermore, we established a JAK2V617F mutation burden cut-off point of 2% indicative of disease versus no disease; however, individuals with a mutation burden below 2% may suffer from a latent form of myeloproliferative disease revealed by a slightly larger spleen and/or slightly higher lactic acid dehydrogenase concentration compared to controls. Of all 63 JAK2V617F positive individuals, 48 were eventually diagnosed with a myeloproliferative neoplasm. PMID:24907356

  17. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, A; Goldberg, M; Bonenfant, S; Martin, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) applicable to the general population are usually constructed by using only the expertise of specialists. Aims: To construct a population based JEM for chemical agents from data based on a sample of French workers for surveillance purposes. Methods: The SUMEX job-exposure matrix was constructed from data collected via a cross-sectional survey of a sample of French workers representative of the main economic sectors through the SUMER-94 survey: 1205 occupational physicians questioned 48 156 workers, and inventoried exposure to 102 chemicals. The companies' economic activities and the workers' occupations were coded according to the official French nomenclatures. A segmentation method was used to construct job groups that were homogeneous for exposure prevalence to chemical agents. The matrix was constructed in two stages: consolidation of occupations according to exposure prevalence; and establishment of exposure indices based on individual data from all the subjects in the sample. Results: An agent specific matrix could be constructed for 80 of the chemicals. The quality of the classification obtained for each was variable: globally, the performance of the method was better for less specific and therefore more easy to assess agents, and for exposures specific to certain occupations. Conclusions: Software has been developed to enable the SUMEX matrix to be used by occupational physicians and other prevention professionals responsible for surveillance of the health of the workforce in France. PMID:15208374

  18. Hepatitis B virus infection in general population in Madagascar: evidence for different epidemiological patterns in urban and in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Boisier, P.; Rabarijaona, L.; Piollet, M.; Roux, J. F.; Zeller, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    To describe the features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Madagascar, a randomized sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken in the general population > or = 1 year old of two provinces which represents 45% of the total population. In the 921 sera tested, the prevalence of HBV markers was 20.5% for HBsAg, 38.2% for anti-HBc and 6.9% for HBeAg. HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence rates were significantly higher in males. A large difference in HBsAg prevalence was observed between urban (5.3%) and rural areas (26.0%). The same contrast in prevalence was noticed for the other HBV markers. In rural areas, HBV infection was more frequently acquired early in infancy, which suggests predominantly perinatal or postnatal transmission. The presence of HBV markers was not significantly associated with a history of blood transfusion, surgery or parenteral injection. High infectivity carriers represented 5.3% and the overall frequency of chronic carriers was 10.4%. These results place Madagascar among areas of high endemicity. PMID:8760960

  19. Selective contribution of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors to cardiac autonomic dysfunction in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, D; Zentai, C; Perz, S; Rathmann, W; Haastert, B; Meisinger, C; Löwel, H

    2006-04-01

    Both cardiac autonomic dysfunction adn cardiovascular risk factors are related to and excess risk of mortality. We sought to determine whether the major cardiovascular risk factors are associated with diminished heart rate variability (HRV), prolonged QTc interval, or increased QT dispersion (QTD). Male (n = 1030) and female (n = 957) subjects, aged 55-74 years, who participated in the population-based MONICA Augsburg survey 1989/90 were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and low physical activity. Lowest quartiles for time domain indexes of HRV (SD of R-R intervals [SDNN], max-min difference), QTc > 440 ms, and QTD > 60 ms determined from 12-lead resting ECG were used as cutpoints. In men, after adjustment for age and alcohol consumption, significant independent determinants for the lowest quartiles of SDNN were diabetes, obesity, and smoking. Independent contributors to prolonged QTc were hypertension, obesity, smoking, and low physical activity, whereas for increased QTD it was only hypertension. In women, diabetes was the only contributor to low SDNN, and hypertension was the only determinant of prolonged QTc. In conclusion, diabetes is the primary determinant of reduced HRV in the general population, while hypertension is the primary contributor to prolonged QTc in both sexes. However, obesity and smoking contribute to autonomic dysfunction in men but not women. Thus, a selectivity and sex-related differences exist among the various cardiovascular risk factors as to their influence on autonomic dysfunction.

  20. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-04-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates.

  2. Prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in the adult population of Spain, 2008-2010: the ENRICA study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L; Guallar-Castillón, P; León-Muñoz, L M; Graciani, A; Banegas, J R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2012-04-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity (AO) in the adult population of Spain based on measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. The data are taken from the ENRICA study, a cross-sectional study carried out between June 2008 and October 2010 in 12,883 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized population on Spain aged 18 years and older. Anthropometry was performed under standardized conditions in the households by trained interviewers. Overweight was considered as body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg m(-2) , and obesity as BMI ≥ 30 kg m(-2) . AO was defined as waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. The prevalence of obesity was 22.9% (24.4% in men and 21.4% in women). About 36% of adults had AO (32% of men and 39% of women). The frequency of obesity and of AO increased with age and affected, respectively, 35 and 62% of persons aged 65 and over. The frequency of obesity and AO decreased with increasing educational level. For example, 29% of women with primary education or less had obesity vs. only 11% of those with university studies. The prevalence of obesity was very high in the Canary Islands and in the south of Spain.

  3. Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS): normative scores in the general population and effect sizes in placebo-controlled SSRI trials.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jonathan R T; Tharwani, Haresh M; Connor, Kathryn M

    2002-01-01

    The Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) was developed as a self-rating for use in diagnosing and measuring symptom severity and treatment outcome in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 630 subjects were identified by random digit dialing and evaluated for a history of trauma. Prevalence rates of PTSD and subthreshold PTSD with impairment were 2.2 and 4.1%, respectively. In this general population sample, 438 subjects endorsed at least one trauma, and four groups were generated: A) threshold PTSD (n = 13), B) subthreshold PTSD with impairment (n = 26), C) subthreshold PTSD without impairment (n = 78), and D) no PTSD (n = 321). Mean (SD) DTS score in the entire population was 11.0 +/- 18.1. Differences were found in four of the five pairwise between-group contrasts. In a second sample of 447 clinical trial participants from three SSRI vs. placebo studies, we assessed treatment effect size according to different measures. In all three clinical trials, effect size with the DTS was equal to, or better than, those found for the Impact of Event Scale (IES), Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and Structured Interview for PTSD (SIP). These results further affirm the utility of the DTS as a self-rating measure of PTSD symptom severity and in evaluating treatment response.

  4. Measuring compulsive buying behaviour: psychometric validity of three different scales and prevalence in the general population and in shopping centres.

    PubMed

    Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-02-28

    Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group.

  5. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention