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Sample records for age-matched general population

  1. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  2. [Does population ecology have general laws?].

    PubMed

    Turchin, P V

    2002-01-01

    There is a widespread opinion among ecologists that ecology lacks general laws. In this paper the author argues that this opinion is mistaken. Taking the case of population dynamics, the author points out that there are several very general law-like propositions that provide the theoretical basis for most population dynamics models that were developed to address specific issues. Some of these foundational principles, like the law of exponential growth, are logically very similar to certain law of physics (Newton's law of intertia, for example, is almost a direct analogue of exponential growth). The author discusses two other principles (population self-limitation and resource-consumer oscillations), as well as the more elementary postulates that underlie them. None of the "laws" that the author proposes for population ecology are new. Collectively ecologists have been using these general principles in guiding development of their models and experiments since the days of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause.

  3. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  4. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  5. Exposure of the general population to gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Akland, G G

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

  6. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  7. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  8. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  9. A general consumer-resource population model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  10. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  11. How do medical students value health on the EQ-5D? Evaluation of hypothetical health states compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    Barbist, Maria-Theresa; Renn, Daniela; Noisternig, Bianca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Höfer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical students gain a particular perspective on health problems during their medical education. This article describes how medical students value 10 hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D compared to the general population. Methods Based on a sample of 161 medical students (male: 41%) we compared valuations of 10 hypothetical EQ-5D health states collected in face to face interviews with the valuations of the general population. Self-reported health on the EQ-5D was also collected. Results Every third health state was valuated higher by the medical students compared to data of the general population. The differences were independent of the severity of the hypothetical health state. Concerning the self-reported health, the majority of the students (66%) reported no problems in the five EQ-5D domains (EQ-5D VAS M = 87.3 ± 9.6 SD). However, when compared to an age-matched sample the medical students show significantly more problems in the area of pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. Conclusion Medical students have a tendency to value health states higher than the general public. Medical professionals should be continuously aware that their assessment of the patients health state can differ from the valuations of the general population. PMID:19077240

  12. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  13. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  14. Population characteristics and the distribution of general medical practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, M J; Klein, R E

    1979-01-01

    By applying the logic of the Resource Allocation Working Party to the analysis of the distribution of general medical practitioners, the relevant Family Practitioner Committee (FPC) populations were weighted according to known patterns of use related to specific characteristics--namely, age, sex, marital state, and socioeconomic group. Comparative weightings were also calculated using standardised mortality ratios. Adjusting the populations to take account of differential use has relatively little impact on national variations in list sizes but an appreciable effect on particular FPCs, notably East and West Sussex, Dorset, and the Isle of Wight. Inequalities in the distribution of general practitioners are increased considerably, however, if figures taking account of the inflation of list sizes and cross-boundary flows are used. To formulate and monitor policy about the distribution of general practitioners more sensitive measures of population and its likely demand for services must be developed. PMID:427409

  15. Generalized population models and the nature of genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Der, Ricky; Epstein, Charles L; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2011-09-01

    The Wright-Fisher model of allele dynamics forms the basis for most theoretical and applied research in population genetics. Our understanding of genetic drift, and its role in suppressing the deterministic forces of Darwinian selection has relied on the specific form of sampling inherent to the Wright-Fisher model and its diffusion limit. Here we introduce and analyze a broad class of forward-time population models that share the same mean and variance as the Wright-Fisher model, but may otherwise differ. The proposed class unifies and further generalizes a number of population-genetic processes of recent interest, including the Λ and Cannings processes. Even though these models all have the same variance effective population size, they encode a rich diversity of alternative forms of genetic drift, with significant consequences for allele dynamics. We characterize in detail the behavior of standard population-genetic quantities across this family of generalized models. Some quantities, such as heterozygosity, remain unchanged; but others, such as neutral absorption times and fixation probabilities under selection, deviate by orders of magnitude from the Wright-Fisher model. We show that generalized population models can produce startling phenomena that differ qualitatively from classical behavior - such as assured fixation of a new mutant despite the presence of genetic drift. We derive the forward-time continuum limits of the generalized processes, analogous to Kimura's diffusion limit of the Wright-Fisher process, and we discuss their relationships to the Kingman and non-Kingman coalescents. Finally, we demonstrate that some non-diffusive, generalized models are more likely, in certain respects, than the Wright-Fisher model itself, given empirical data from Drosophila populations.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions.

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions. PMID:26986362

  18. Defining forgiveness: christian clergy and general population perspectives.

    PubMed

    Macaskill, Ann

    2005-10-01

    The lack of any consensual definition of forgiveness is a serious weakness in the research literature (McCullough, Pargament, & Thoresen, 2000). As forgiveness is at the core of Christianity, this study returns to the Christian source of the concept to explore the meaning of forgiveness for practicing Christian clergy. Comparisons are made with a general population sample and social science definitions of forgiveness to ensure that a shared meaning of forgiveness is articulated. Anglican and Roman Catholic clergy (N = 209) and a general population sample (N = 159) completed a postal questionnaire about forgiveness. There was agreement on the existence of individual differences in forgiveness. Clergy and the general population perceived reconciliation as necessary for forgiveness while there was no consensus within psychology. The clergy suggest that forgiveness is limitless and that repentance is unnecessary, while the general population suggests that there are limits and that repentance is necessary. Psychological definitions do not conceptualize repentance as necessary for forgiveness, and the question of limits has not been addressed, although, within therapy, the implicit assumption is that forgiveness is limitless.

  19. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  20. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    PubMed Central

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  1. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  2. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap. PMID:12812323

  3. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap.

  4. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  5. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  6. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor's law.

    PubMed

    Giometto, Andrea; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Cohen, Joel E; Maritan, Amos

    2015-06-23

    Taylor's law (TL) states that the variance V of a nonnegative random variable is a power function of its mean M; i.e., V = aM(b). TL has been verified extensively in ecology, where it applies to population abundance, physics, and other natural sciences. Its ubiquitous empirical verification suggests a context-independent mechanism. Sample exponents b measured empirically via the scaling of sample mean and variance typically cluster around the value b = 2. Some theoretical models of population growth, however, predict a broad range of values for the population exponent b pertaining to the mean and variance of population density, depending on details of the growth process. Is the widely reported sample exponent b ≃ 2 the result of ecological processes or could it be a statistical artifact? Here, we apply large deviations theory and finite-sample arguments to show exactly that in a broad class of growth models the sample exponent is b ≃ 2 regardless of the underlying population exponent. We derive a generalized TL in terms of sample and population exponents b(jk) for the scaling of the kth vs. the jth cumulants. The sample exponent b(jk) depends predictably on the number of samples and for finite samples we obtain b(jk) ≃ k = j asymptotically in time, a prediction that we verify in two empirical examples. Thus, the sample exponent b ≃ 2 may indeed be a statistical artifact and not dependent on population dynamics under conditions that we specify exactly. Given the broad class of models investigated, our results apply to many fields where TL is used although inadequately understood.

  7. Event-Specific Drinking in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Cunningham, John Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It has been well established that college students engage in heavy drinking during specific social events; however, within the general population, evidence of event-specific drinking has been largely indirect. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the temporal variability in daily alcohol consumption in the winter holiday months among residents of a large metropolitan area. Method: A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was conducted of residents who drank alcohol at least once per month. During a 5-week period beginning December 1, 2009, the number of drinks consumed on each day within the past week was collected for 578 participants. Results: Weekly variation in alcohol consumption peaked on Fridays and Saturdays and was particularly high on Christmas and New Year’s Eve. Mean drink consumption was significantly higher on Christmas and New Year’s Eve compared with most weekends within the sampling period. Conclusions: The present findings provide the first direct evidence, with temporal specificity, that alcohol consumption within the general population is highly event specific. Targeted intervention strategies similar to those used within college student samples may be appropriate for reducing or preventing alcohol-related harmful events on a population level. PMID:25343654

  8. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  9. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  10. High prevalence of celiac disease in Italian general population.

    PubMed

    Volta, U; Bellentani, S; Bianchi, F B; Brandi, G; De Franceschi, L; Miglioli, L; Granito, A; Balli, F; Tiribelli, C

    2001-07-01

    The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding of increased gamma/delta intraepithelial lymphocytes in all and the heterodimer DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 in two of them was consistent with potential celiac disease. Only one patient had an overt malabsorption syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and severe weakness. In eight subjects atypical symptoms of celiac disease, such as dyspepsia and depression, were present, whereas the remaining subjects were silent. Celiac disease was more frequent in younger age groups. Our cross-sectional design study demonstrates that celiac disease prevalence in the Italian general population is 4.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.8-7.8), increasing up to 5.7 per 1000 (95% CI 3.5-8.8) with the inclusion of potential cases. PMID:11478502

  11. Risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population.

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D L; Vierkant, R A; DeStefano, F; Layde, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the individual, physical, and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. METHODS: Population based case-control study in Marshfield epidemiological study area in Wisconsin, USA. Cases were men and women aged 18-69 with newly diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 206 (83.1%) of 248 eligible). Controls were a random sample of residents of the study area who had no history of diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 211 (81.5%) of 259 eligible). Cases and controls were matched by age. Telephone interviews and reviews of medical records obtained height and weight, medical history, average daily hours of exposure to selected physical and organisational work factors, and self ratings on psychosocial work scales. RESULTS: In the final logistic regression model, five work and three non-work variables were associated with risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, after adjusting for age. For each one unit of increase in body mass index (kg/m2), risk increased 8% (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03 to 1.14). Having a previous musculoskeletal condition was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.23). People reporting the least influence at work had 2.86 times the risk (95% CI, 1.10 to 7.14) than those with the most influence at work. CONCLUSIONS: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a work related disease, although some important measures of occupational exposure, including keyboard use, were not risk factors in this general population study. The mechanism whereby a weight gain of about six pounds increases the risk of disease 8% requires explanation. PMID:9404321

  12. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  13. Prevalence of Titin Truncating Variants in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinade, Oyediran; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. Methods and Results Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52–54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense–R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10−4, respectively). Conclusion A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families

  14. General Allee effect in two-species population biology.

    PubMed

    Livadiotis, G; Elaydi, S

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a general framework for the notion of the strong Allee effect in population models, including competition, mutualistic, and predator-prey models. The study is restricted to the strong Allee effect caused by an inter-specific interaction. The main feature of the strong Allee effect is that the extinction equilibrium is an attractor. We show how a 'phase space core' of three or four equilibria is sufficient to describe the essential dynamics of the interaction between two species that are prone to the Allee effect. We will introduce the notion of semistability in planar systems. Finally, we show how the presence of semistable equilibria increases the number of possible Allee effect cores.

  15. Transvestic fetishism in the general population: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    We used a random sample of 2,450 18-60 year-olds in the general population of Sweden to study the prevalence as well as the social, sexual, and health correlates of transvestic fetishism (sexual arousal from cross-dressing). Almost three percent (2.8%) of men and 0.4% of women reported at least one episode of transvestic fetishism. Separation from parents, same-sex sexual experiences, being easily sexually aroused, pornography use, and higher masturbation frequency were significantly associated with transvestic fetishism. A positive attitude to this sexual practice and paraphilia indicators--sexual arousal from using pain, exposing genitals to a stranger, and spying on others having sex--were particularly strong correlates to the dependent variable. PMID:15859369

  16. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab HH; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam CGN; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred FJ; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10−4), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (β=1.786, P-value=2.56 × 10−4) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (β=−0.465, P-value=0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values=0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  17. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population.

  18. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. PMID:24445165

  19. Latex allergy: a relevant issue in the general pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Kim, K T

    1998-01-01

    Although latex allergy is a widely recognized problem of the pediatric myelomeningocele population and of frequent users of latex products, it is often overlooked in the general pediatric population. The prevalence of latex in common household items and in medical environments increases one's exposure and thus one's possibility of sensitization to latex. Latex allergy may range from mild local reactions such as erythema to more severe systemic reactions such as asthma or anaphylaxis. The immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism of these reactions has been confirmed serologically by the presence of latex-specific immunoglobulin E with radioallergosorbent testing. Because avoidance of latex is currently the only way to prevent reactions, the identification of household items that contain latex is extremely important. However, because inadvertent exposure to latex is not uncommon, Medic-Alert bracelets and an Epi-Pen should be provided for children allergic to latex. Pediatric nurses should consider latex allergy as a possible diagnosis in situations of unexplained allergic or anaphylactic reactions and should be aware of optimal therapeutic interventions. PMID:9987254

  20. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  1. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    PubMed

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (P<0.001), but not in HP; B-Pb levels in women (34.8microg/l) did not differ from those of HP men (36.5microg/l), but were significantly (P<0.001) higher than those of GP women (25.8microg/l). B-Pb levels were not influenced by smoking. B-Cd levels in the homeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (P<0.001) influenced by smoking in both groups, but, surprisingly, the values in GP smokers (men=0.96microg/l, women=0.93microg/l) were lower than those in HP nonsmokers (men=1.06microg/l, women=1.18microg/l). A positive correlation was found between cadmium and lead in both men (P<0.05) and women (P<0.01). Our results indicate that the homeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a

  2. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  3. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  4. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  5. Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Generalization is a critical concept in all research designed to generate knowledge that applies to all elements of a unit (population) while studying only a subset of these elements (sample). Commonly applied criteria for generalizing focus on experimental design or representativeness of samples of the population of units. The criteria…

  6. Early detection of cancer in the general population: a blinded case–control study of p53 autoantibodies in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O; Dawnay, A; Burnell, M; Zaikin, A; Pedersen, A E; Jacobs, I; Menon, U; Wandall, H H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population. Methods: Informative p53 peptides were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case–control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer. Results: The 50 640 women randomised to the multimodal group were followed up for a median of 6.8 (inter-quartile range 5.9–8.4) years. Colorectal cancer notification was received in 101 women with serial samples of whom 97 (297 samples) had given consent for secondary studies. They were matched 1 : 1 with 97 controls (296 serial samples). The four most informative peptides identified 25.8% of colorectal cancer patients with a specificity of 95%. The median lead time was 1.4 (range 0.12–3.8) years before clinical diagnosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in the general population, autoantibody signatures are detectable during preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification. PMID:23169294

  7. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    PubMed

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  8. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  9. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, p<0.001) with a relative risk of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2) and was twice more frequent for subjects 65 years of age or older compared to subjects younger than 45 years. Approximately 30% of subjects reporting insomnia had difficulties initiating sleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least

  10. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  11. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    PubMed

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  12. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    PubMed

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. PMID:26597780

  13. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  14. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  15. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  16. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  18. The magnetosheath electron population at lunar distance - General features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Reasoner, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the electron population in the earth's magnetosheath at lunar distance. The data used were collected by the Apollo 14 charged particle lunar environment experiment (CPLEE) during four inbound (dusk) and three outbound (dawn) passages of the moon through the magnetosheath. The magnetotail has a diameter of 52 earth radii, while the bow-shock cross section is about 91 earth radii. The average boundary locations computed from the complete data set are consistent with the prediction of fluid dynamics. The electron characteristics for the two least-disturbed passages are presented in detail. An examination of the energy spectra shows that a high-energy (200-2000 eV) tail is superimposed on the expected low-energy (40-200 eV) magnetosheath distribution. It is argued that the high-energy magnetosheath electron population originates at the bow shock, rather than from the plasma sheet.

  19. ECOLOGICAL THEORY. A general consumer-resource population model.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J; Dobson, Andrew P; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M

    2015-08-21

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  20. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  1. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  2. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  4. [Schizotypy and verbal memory in the adolescent general population].

    PubMed

    Martinena Palacio, Patricia; Navarro, J Blas; Medina Pradas, Cristina; Baños Yeste, Iris; Sabanés, Arantxa; Vicens Vilanova, Jordi; Alvarez, Eva M; Barrantes Vidal, Neus; Subirá, Susana; Obiols, Jordi E

    2006-08-01

    The following study examines the relationship between verbal memory deficits and schizotypal traits measured psychometrically from a non- clinical adolescent population. In this transversal analytical study participated 139 subjects. They were secondary school students, with ages ranging from 13 to 16 years old (mean= 14, 35; Sta.Dev.= 0, 548). After administrating the scales O-LIFE (psychometrical schizotypy), CVLT (verbal memory), and Letters and Numbers subtest of WAIS-III (working memory), data was analyzed utilizing Pearson correlations and mean comparison test. Results showed lack of relations between schizotypy measures and working memory. Nonetheless, some of the O-LIFE dimensions correlated with verbal memory. These findings support partly the literature reviewed. Yet, more work focused on schizotypy and cognitive deficits as risk factors are suggested.

  5. Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a general practice population.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J. G.; Schmidt, H.; Rosborg, J.; Lund, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C reactive protein for acute maxillary sinusitis. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Danish general practice in cooperation with the otorhinolaryngology and neuroradiology department at Aalborg County Hospital. SUBJECTS--174 patients aged 18-65 years who were suspected by the general practitioner of having acute maxillary sinusitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The independent association of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and concentration of C reactive protein in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis defined as purulent or mucopurulent antral aspirate. RESULTS--Only raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.01) and raised C reactive protein (P = 0.007) were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis. The combination of the two variables had a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.57. CONCLUSION--Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are useful diagnostic criteria for acute maxillary sinusitis. PMID:7627042

  6. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  7. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Results Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Conclusion Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide. PMID:25866521

  8. Multiple Biomarkers and Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Wild, Philipp S.; Wilde, Sandra; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Schulz, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Sinning, Christoph R.; Kunde, Jan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different biological pathways have been related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Novel biomarkers capturing inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurohumoral activation have not been investigated comprehensively in AF. Methods and Results In the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 5000), mean age 56±11 years, 51% males, we measured ten biomarkers representing inflammation (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen), cardiac and vascular function (midregional pro adrenomedullin [MR-proADM], midregional pro atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [Nt-proBNP], sensitive troponin I ultra [TnI ultra], copeptin, and C-terminal pro endothelin-1), and oxidative stress (glutathioneperoxidase-1, myeloperoxidase) in relation to manifest AF (n = 161 cases). Individuals with AF were older, mean age 64.9±8.3, and more often males, 71.4%. In Bonferroni-adjusted multivariable regression analyses strongest associations per standard deviation increase in biomarker concentrations were observed for the natriuretic peptides Nt-proBNP (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 99.5% confidence interval [CI] 2.14–3.90; P<0.0001), MR-proANP (OR 2.45, 99.5% CI 1.91–3.14; P<0.0001), the vascular function marker MR-proADM (OR 1.54, 99.5% CI 1.20–1.99; P<0.0001), TnI ultra (OR 1.50, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.90; P<0.0001) and. fibrinogen (OR 1.44, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.75; P<0.0001). Based on a model comprising known clinical risk factors for AF, all biomarkers combined resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 0.665 (99.3% CI 0.441–0.888) and an integrated discrimination improvement of >13%. Conclusions In conclusion, in our large, population-based study, we identified novel biomarkers reflecting vascular function, MR-proADM, inflammation, and myocardial damage, TnI ultra, as related to AF; the strong association of natriuretic peptides was confirmed. Prospective studies need to examine whether risk prediction of AF can be enhanced beyond clinical risk

  9. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  10. General population and HIV prevention: from risk to action.

    PubMed

    Paicheler, G

    1999-11-01

    Since knowledge about AIDS transmission now appears to be very good, many observers are surprised that more people do not practice behavior, like safer sex, designed to minimize risk of contracting the disease. Still, previous studies have not shown that there is a direct link between knowledge and behavior. New models, based on people's concrete experiences, are therefore needed. The goal of this qualitative research, based on 61 in-depth interviews conducted in France, is to describe how people understand the threat of AIDS and how they face the risk of transmission in their sex lives. In order to understand preventive actions, we must study how information is interpreted and how knowledge is integrated, so that people perceive general or personal risk. We must also specify the way in which people distinguish between aspects of risk perception and vulnerability; feelings of personal control, constructed on the basis of social experiences; characteristics of situations; and finally, the dynamics of action. The proposed risk management model accounts for these diverse factors in elucidating the great diversity of actions reported. This dynamic, non-linear model is designed to capture both the impact of perceptive and cognitive elements on action and vice versa.

  11. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  12. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andrew C.; Hann, Mark; Ashcroft, Daren M.

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England. Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS) statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations. Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin. PMID:25126140

  13. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    PubMed

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management. PMID:24465792

  14. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  15. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  16. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  17. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  18. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  19. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  20. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  1. Comparison of stage at diagnosis of cancer in patients on dialysis versus the general population

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Shilpa; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Kayani, Zainab Z.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Shahinian, Vahakn B.

    2008-01-01

    Background The frequent medical encounters in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis may allow early detection of malignancies despite generally low rates of cancer screening in this population. It is therefore unclear whether dialysis patients are disadvantaged in terms of cancer diagnosis. To address this issue, we compared stage at diagnosis of cancer in a population-based sample of ESRD patients versus the general population. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to identify ESRD patients with incident cancers from 1992 through 1999. Modified Poisson regression models were used to predict non-localized stage of cancer at diagnosis in ESRD patients versus the general population adjusting for demographics, cancer site, region, year of diagnosis and comorbidity. Two general population comparisons were used: standardized SEER public use data and Medicare non-ESRD controls matched 3:1 to ESRD patients. Results A total of 1629 ESRD patients with incident cancer were identified. Overall, the likelihood of non-localized stage at diagnosis was not significantly different for ESRD patients versus the standardized SEER general population (RR 0.90; 95%CI: 0.81-1.01) or matched Medicare controls (RR 0.97; 95%CI: 0.89-1.07). When analyzed by cancer site, colorectal cancers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed earlier in the ESRD group, whereas prostate cancers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, with the notable exception of prostate cancer, ESRD patients are not more likely to present with later stage malignancies compared to the general population. PMID:17702737

  2. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience. PMID:23724577

  3. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  4. Personality comparison of airline pilot incumbents, applicants, and the general population norms on the 16PF.

    PubMed

    Wakcher, Sandra; Cross, Kara; Blackman, Melinda C

    2003-06-01

    Personality comparisons using Cattell's 16PF were made between 137 pilot incumbents, 81 pilot applicants, and the general population norms. No significant differences were found between the scores on the personality factors for the Pilot Incumbents and the Pilot Applicants. Further, the incumbents and applicants who had previous military training versus those who did not had highly similar personalities. However, on nearly every personality factor a significant difference was found between the general population norms and the sample of Pilot Incumbents and Applicants. The Pilot Incumbent/Applicant group scored significantly more intelligent, emotionally stable, and mature in comparison to the general population norms. We believe that it is the high-risk nature of this occupation that leads applicants, wishing to pursue this field, to assess very carefully their own person-job fit and self-select themselves, thus ultimately producing this very distinct "pilot personality profile" described in 1995 by Bartram.

  5. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  6. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  7. [Smoking habits in France among general practitioners and the general male population over a twenty-five year period (1966-1991)].

    PubMed

    Fréour, P; Tessier, J F

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys are presented regarding smoking habits among two populations: the general practitioners in France since 1966 to 1991 and the general population of adult men in the same period of time. We add some European and foreign surveys in the same groups of population. These data show a regular and rather slow reduction of percentage of smokers during the last 25 years. We can see, in general, the behaviour of the general practitioners are in advance comparing with the general population of ten to twenty years. If we compare the French data with the foreign one we can see that France is not in a very good situation regarding the decreasing tendency of smoking among the general practitioners and in the general population. This study justify the strengthening of the fight against smoking among adults and doctors. We remind that the very roots of the tabagism are in the youth: specific studies might take in account this core problem. PMID:8319110

  8. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  9. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  10. Atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis in general practice and the open population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pols, D. H. J.; Wartna, J. B.; Moed, H.; van Alphen, E. I.; Bohnen, A. M.; Bindels, P. J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether significant differences exist between the self-reported prevalence of atopic disorders in the open population compared with physician diagnosed prevalence of atopic disorders in general practice. Methods Medline (OvidSP), PubMed Publisher, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register databases were systematically reviewed for articles providing data on the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in a GP setting. Studies were only included when they had a cross-sectional or cohort design and included more than 100 children (aged 0-18 years) in a general practice setting. All ISAAC studies (i.e. the open population) that geographically matched a study selected from the first search, were also included. A quality assessment was conducted. The primary outcome measures were prevalence of eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis in children aged 0-18 years. Results The overall quality of the included studies was good. The annual and lifetime prevalences of the atopic disorders varied greatly in both general practice and the open population. On average, the prevalence of atopic disorders was higher in the open population. Conclusion There are significant differences between the self-reported prevalence of atopic disorders in the open population compared with physician diagnosed prevalence of atopic disorders in general practice. Data obtained in the open population cannot simply be extrapolated to the general practice setting. This should be taken into account when considering a research topic or requirements for policy development. GPs should be aware of the possible misclassification of allergic disorders in their practice. Key PointsEpidemiological data on atopic disorders in children can be obtained from various sources, each having its own advantages and limitations.On average, the prevalence of atopic disorders is higher in the open population.GPs should take into account the possible

  11. A general modeling framework for genome ancestral origins in multiparental populations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaozhi; P Boer, Martin; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2014-09-01

    The next generation of QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping populations have been designed with multiple founders, where one to a number of generations of intercrossing are introduced prior to the inbreeding phase to increase accumulated recombinations and thus mapping resolution. Examples of such populations are Collaborative Cross (CC) in mice and Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) lines in Arabidopsis. The genomes of the produced inbred lines are fine-grained random mosaics of the founder genomes. In this article, we present a novel framework for modeling ancestral origin processes along two homologous autosomal chromosomes from mapping populations, which is a major component in the reconstruction of the ancestral origins of each line for QTL mapping. We construct a general continuous time Markov model for ancestral origin processes, where the rate matrix is deduced from the expected densities of various types of junctions (recombination breakpoints). The model can be applied to monoecious populations with or without self-fertilizations and to dioecious populations with two separate sexes. The analytic expressions for map expansions and expected junction densities are obtained for mapping populations that have stage-wise constant mating schemes, such as CC and MAGIC. Our studies on the breeding design of MAGIC populations show that the intercross mating schemes do not matter much for large population size and that the overall expected junction density, and thus map resolution, are approximately proportional to the inverse of the number of founders.

  12. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  13. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Cancer.gov

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  14. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  15. Comparison of chronic analgesic drugs prevalence in Parkinson's disease, other chronic diseases and the general population.

    PubMed

    Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Grolleau, Sabrina; Thalamas, Claire; Bourrel, Robert; Allaria-Lapierre, Valérie; Loï, Robert; Micallef-Roll, Joelle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently experienced pain. Nevertheless, there are no epidemiological data about frequency of pain in PD. We compare pain prevalence using analgesic prescription in PD patients, in the general population and in two samples of painful patients: diabetics and osteoarthritis patients in France. Data were obtained from the French System of Health Insurance for the year 2005. Medications (antiparkinsonian, antidiabetics drugs and osteoarthritis drugs) were used for identification of PD, diabetic and osteoarthritis patients. We estimated the prevalence of analgesic drugs prescription (at least one analgesic drug) and the prevalence of chronic analgesic drugs prescription (more than 90 DDD of analgesic drug). The study included 11,466 PD patients. PD patients significantly received more prescription of analgesics than the general population (82% versus 77%,) and fewer than patients with osteoarthritis (82% versus 90%). No significant difference was found between PD and diabetic patients. The chronic prescription of analgesic drugs was more prevalent in PD patients (33%) than in the general population (20%) and in diabetic patients (26%) and similar to that in osteoarthritis patients. PD patients were more exposed than the general population and diabetics to opiates, acetaminophen, and adjuvant analgesics chronic use.

  16. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  17. RESIDUES AND METABOLITES OF SELECTED PERSISTENT HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS IN BLOOD SPECIMENS FROM A GENERAL POPULATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Health Statistics collaborated with the National Human Monitoring Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a four-year study to assess the exposure of the general population to selected pesticides through analysis of blood serum and uri...

  18. DEARS Particulate Matter Relationships for Personal, Indoor, Outdoor, and Central Site Settings for a General Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis provides the initial summary of PM2.5 mass concentrations relationships for all seasons and participants for a general population in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). The summary presented highlights the utility of the new methodol...

  19. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  20. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the Internet: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-04-01

    Internet Web sites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. There is a paucity of studies examining the role of the Internet in general population suicide rates. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the prevalence of Internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Web sites. The prevalence of Internet users was significantly and positively correlated with general population suicide rates in both sexes. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of Internet users was independently associated with general population suicide rates in males, and this independent relationship in females approached statistical significance. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research. PMID:20465349

  1. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. General Population: Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…

  2. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a Northern Mexican city

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (...

  4. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  5. Evaluation of general response patterns as a diagnostic tool to determining contaminant impacts on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworska, J.S.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Rose, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Five General Response Patterns by fish populations exposed to stress were hypothesized by P. Colby and K. Munkittrick and D. Dixon. The authors used an individual based model of walleye and yellow perch configured for Oneida Lake, NY to test the generality of these patterns. They compared the yellow perch population responses in mean age, size at age, fraction mature at age, individual fecundity and density under 5 stress conditions. The stresses imposed were: (1) adults mortality; (2) eggs mortality (3) metabolic impacts on juveniles; (4) indirect effects from predator level -- increased predator mortality; (5) indirect effects form prey level -- reduced carrying capacity. Modeled yellow perch responses different from the responses hypothesized by Colby/Munkittrick and Dixon. Their analysis shows that the strength of predator-prey coupling must be considered when using patterns of growth, mortality and reproduction to infer the identity of stressors influencing fish populations.

  6. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  7. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  8. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  9. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Eduardo M.; Gall, Henning; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Lahousse, Lies; Loth, Daan W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Felix, Janine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors. Methods Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women) from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg. Results Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0). Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2). Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70), and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1). Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension. Conclusion In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders. PMID:26102085

  10. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  11. Parathyroid hormone and risk of heart failure in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanbo; Wang, Wei; Ma, Jianghong; Lin, Baisong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inconsistent findings have been reported on the association between the parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and risk of heart failure. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between circulating level of PTH and risk of heart failure in the general population by conducting a meta-analysis. We made a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Embase, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases published until January 2016. Only prospective observational studies reporting the association between circulating level of PTH and risk of heart failure in the general population were selected. Pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the highest versus lowest PTH category. Six studies with 25,207 participants identified. Higher circulating level of PTH was associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HR: 1.38; 95% CI 1.09–1.74) in a random effect model. Subgroup analyses revealed that the risk of heart failure was more pronounced among men (HR: 1.75; 95% CI 1.38–2.22) than in both genders. However, the risk increment was not statistically significant (HR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.76–1.66) in the middle-aged population. Higher PTH level is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of heart failure in the general population. PMID:27749533

  12. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population: wine and resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-02-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

  13. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the Greek general population: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Spantideas, Nikolaos; Drosou, Eirini; Bougea, Anastasia; Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Population-based data regarding the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Greece are very poor. This study estimated the prevalence of GERD symptoms and their risk factors in the Greek adult population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by a randomly selected population of 340 subjects. The question regarding “heartburn, chest pain, indigestion, or stomach acid coming up” as included in the Reflux Symptom Index was used for prevalence assessment. Results The monthly prevalence of GERD symptoms was found to be 52.0% in the Greek general population, with no statistically significant difference between the two sexes (P>0.05). The age group of 65–79 years showed a higher prevalence rate of GERD. Symptom severity was found to be mild (59.3%) or moderate (27.1%). The number of cigarettes smoked daily (but not smoking duration) as well as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed daily (but not the duration of alcohol drinking) were found to be related to GERD symptoms. No reported concomitant disease or medication was found to be related with GERD symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the Greek general population was found to be 52.0%. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but not concomitant disease or medications were found to be related with GERD symptoms. PMID:27382324

  15. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  16. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    PubMed

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians.

  17. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  18. GENERAL: A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Si-Yuan; Jin, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population Nc = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition.

  19. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  20. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  1. The spectrum of the liver disease in the general population: lesson from the Dionysos Study.

    PubMed

    Tiribelli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Differently for what happened for the heart and the cardiovascular diseases, no data were available on the prevalence of the liver disorders in the general population. Based on these considerations we started planning a cohort study aimed to obtain data on how frequent liver disease was in the general population. Two comparable town in Northern Italy (Campogalliano, Modena, and Cormons, Gorizia) were selected on the basis of number of inhabitants, census and socio-economic background, and 6.917 were screened with an overall compliance of 70%, a percentage adequate to validate this type of study. In each patient a semi-quantitative, color-illustrated, food questionnaire including detailed questions on the use of alcoholic beverages was obtained in addition to a detailed physical examination to detect liver and the biliary diseases. Blood sample for ALT, AST, GGT, MCV and platelet count, and HBV and HCV markers were also taken.

  2. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  3. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    PubMed

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  4. Long-term survival following intensive care: subgroup analysis and comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Plenderleith, L; Ridley, S A

    2003-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the very long-term survival of critically ill patients with that of the general population, and examine the association among age, sex, admission diagnosis, APACHE II score and mortality. In a retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively gathered data, 2104 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital in Glasgow from 1985 to 1992, were followed until 1997. Vital status at five years was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched Scottish population. Five-year mortality for the ICU patients was 47.1%, 3.4 times higher than that of the general population. For those surviving intensive care the five-year mortality was 33.4%. Mortality was greater than that of the general population for four years following intensive care unit admission (95% confidence interval included 1.0 at four years). Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for mortality in those admitted to ICU were age, APACHE II score on admission and diagnostic category. Mortality was higher for those admitted with haematological (87.5%) and neurological diseases (61.7%) and septic shock (62.9%). A risk score was produced: Risk Score = 10 (age hazard ratio + APACHE II hazard ratio + diagnosis hazard ratio). None of the patients with a risk score > 100 survived more than five years and for those who survived to five years the mean risk score was 57. Long-term survival following intensive care is not only related to age and severity of illness but also diagnostic category. The risk of mortality in survivors of critical illness matches that of the normal population after four years. Age, severity of illness and diagnosis can be combined to provide an estimate of five-year survival.

  5. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used. PMID:18054079

  6. Influenza Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native People and in the United States General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Bruce, Michael G.; Redd, John T.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bresee, Joseph; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Historically, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have experienced a disproportionate burden of infectious disease morbidity compared with the general US population. We evaluated whether a disparity in influenza hospitalizations exists between AI/AN people and the general US population. Methods.  We used Indian Health Service hospital discharge data (2001–2011) for AI/AN people and 13 State Inpatient Databases (2001–2008) to provide a comparison to the US population. Hospitalization rates were calculated by respiratory year (July–June). Influenza-specific hospitalizations were defined as discharges with any influenza diagnoses. Influenza-associated hospitalizations were calculated using negative binomial regression models that incorporated hospitalization and influenza laboratory surveillance data. Results.  The mean influenza-specific hospitalization rate/100 000 persons/year during the 2001–2002 to 2007–2008 respiratory years was 18.6 for AI/AN people and 15.6 for the comparison US population. The age-adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (98.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.6–317.8) was similar to the comparison US population (58.2; CI, 34.7–172.2). By age, influenza-associated hospitalization rates were significantly higher among AI/AN infants (<1 year) (1070.7; CI, 640.7–2969.5) than the comparison US infant population (210.2; CI, 153.5–478.5). Conclusions.  American Indian/Alaska Native people had higher influenza-specific hospitalization rates than the comparison US population; a significant influenza-associated hospitalization rate disparity was detected only among AI/AN infants because of the wide CIs inherent to the model. Taken together, the influenza-specific and influenza-associated hospitalization rates suggest that AI/AN people might suffer disproportionately from influenza illness compared with the general US population. PMID:25734102

  7. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. PMID:26826550

  8. Awareness to sun exposure and use of sunscreen by the general population.

    PubMed

    Al Robaee, Ahmad A

    2010-11-01

    Sun exposure has a pathogenic effect on the development of skin cancer, whose prevalence increases worldwide. Educational programs are carried out to change high risk sun exposure behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Saudi population regarding sun exposure and the risk of skin cancers, as well as to study their sun-protective attitudes and practices. A cross-sectional population-based survey using specially devised questionnaire on a stratified random sample of general population in Qassim Province between January and March 2010. One thousand three hundred and seventy six persons participated in the study. A high sun exposure of more than 10 hours per week was reported by 661 persons (48%). Fifty six percent of respondents were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer but the rate of sun screen use was only 8.3%. Socio-demographic factors more likely to be associated with sunscreen use were: females, higher social class, higher levels of education, type 4 skin and married individuals. This study has indicated a low rate of sunscreen use by our population despite reasonably good knowledge about the hazards of sun exposure. This necessitates the need for health education program. We hope that the results of our study will be used for setting up a sun policy for Saudi general public.

  9. Frequency of dissociative identity disorder in the general population in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, G; Doğan, O; Sar, V; Yargiç, L I; Tutkun, H

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder in the general population. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was administered to 994 subjects in 500 homes who constituted a representative sample of the population of Sivas City, Turkey. The mean DES score was 6.7+/-6.1 (mean +/- SD). Of the 62 respondents who scored above 17 on the DES, 32 (51.6%) could be contacted during the second phase of the study. They were matched for age and gender with a group of respondents who scored below 10 on the scale, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) was then administered to both groups. Seventeen subjects (1.7%) received a diagnosis of dissociative disorder according to the structured interview. In the third phase, eight of 17 subjects who had a dissociative disorder on the structured interview could be contacted for a clinical evaluation. They were matched with a nondissociative control group and interviewed by a clinician blind to the structured interview diagnosis. Four of eight subjects were diagnosed clinically with dissociative identity disorder, yielding a minimum prevalence of 0.4%. Dissociative identity disorder is not rare in the general population. Self-rating instruments and structured interviews can be used successfully for screening these cases. Our data, derived from a population with no public awareness about dissociative identity disorder and no exposure to systematic psychotherapy, suggest that dissociative identity disorder cannot be considered simply an iatrogenic artifact, a culture-bound syndrome, or a phenomenon induced by media influences.

  10. Sequence-based genotyping of hepatitis B virus in general population

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali; Moezzi, Ma’soumeh; Imani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. HBV has eight genotypes (A to H) which is the reflection of its genome with their characteristic geographical distribution. Each genotype could have different pathogenic and therapeutic characteristics. There have been few records on HBV genotyping in general population from our region. This study aimed to determine hepatitis B genotypes using sequencing in the general population of Shahrekord, a Southwestern region of Iran. Methods: A total of 3000 serum samples (cluster sampling method) were enrolled from general population tested for HBsAg using ELISA. Using appropriate extraction kit, HBV DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive samples and each was subjected to nested PCR for detection of HBV DNA. Finally, using sequencing, the samples were used for HBV genotyping. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistics, chi square, and Fisher’s exact test. P-value < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: Out of 3000 serum samples, 40 (1.3%) were positive for HBsAg. HBV DNA was detected in 10 out of 40 (25%) of the samples studied. Genotype D was the predominant HBV type found in all of these 10 HBV positive samples. Conclusion: Genotype D is probably the predominant HBV type in our region. PMID:26000259

  11. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  12. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  13. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  14. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A; Masclee, Ad A M; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M A E

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  15. Is chrysotile asbestos exposure a significant health risk to the general population?

    PubMed

    Valić, F; Beritic-Stahuljak, D

    1993-06-01

    The main unresolved issues concerning environmental exposure to chrysotile asbestos of the general population are discussed. A review of the results of the measurement of airborne chrysotile fibres in buildings is presented showing that the results have been consistently low with the exception of buildings with damaged friable asbestos-containing material. Quantitative risk assessments are presented indicating that the lifetime risk is small compared to many other environmental risks. Possible adverse health effects of paraoccupational exposures in the case of high domestic airborne asbestos levels cannot be excluded. Both on the basis of electron microscopy analyses of asbestos exposures at locations with heavy traffic, and the very shallow slopes in the exposure-response relationships for increased lung cancer risk, the conclusion is drawn that exposure to airborne asbestos-containing friction materials has not been proven to pose a significant health risk to the general population. Reviewing animal ingestion studies published and all the available epidemiological studies related to asbestos in drinking water, the conclusion is drawn that the carcinogenic risk in the general population is low even in the case of drinking water containing elevated concentrations of chrysotile asbestos.

  16. Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. PMID:26168229

  17. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings. PMID:24084761

  18. Pet veterinarians have no increased risk of hepatitis E compared to the general population.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Valente-Gomes, G; Conceição-Neto, N; Nascimento, M S J

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of autochthonous hepatitis E in industrialized countries associated to genotype 3 has changed substantially the understanding about hepatitis E virus (HEV) circulation. In these countries transmission has been associated to the consumption and direct contact to swine, a well-known reservoir for HEV. More animal reservoirs for HEV might exist since antibodies to HEV have been detected in other animal species, such as dogs and cats. Given the intimate contact between these pets and humans, the potential zoonotic HEV transmission from dogs and cats deserves to be explored. To address this issue, 493 sera from pet veterinarians (373) and matched general population (120) were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using a commercial ELISA. Antibodies to HEV were found in 9.9% veterinarians and 13.3% general population. No statistically significant difference was found between these two groups showing that pet veterinarians have no increased risk to hepatitis E compared to the general population. PMID:24610550

  19. Prevalence and Trends of the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Epidemic in General Population - A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Zhiquan; Xin, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and trends of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) epidemic in general population. Method Studies that reported prevalence rates of AAA from the general population were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists for the period between 1988 and 2013. Studies were included if they reported prevalence rates of AAA in general population from the community. In stratified analyses possible sources of bias, including areas difference, age, gender and diameter of aneurysms were examined. Publication bias was assessed with Egger's test method. Results 56 studies were identified. The overall pooled prevalence of AAA was 4.8% (4.3%, 5.3%). Stratified analyses showed the following results, areas difference: America 2.2% (2.2%, 2.2%), Europe 2.5% (2.4%, 2.5%), Australia 6.7% (6.5%, 7.0%), Asia 0.5% (0.3%, 0.7%); gender difference: male 6.0% (5.3%, 6.7%), female 1.6% (1.2%, 1.9%); age difference: 55–64years 1.3% (1.2%, 1.5%), 65–74 years 2.8% (2.7%, 2.9%), 75–84 years1.2%(1.1%, 1.3%), ≥85years0.6% (0.4%, 0.7%); aortic diameters difference: 30–39 mm, 3.3% (2.8%, 3.9%), 40–49 mm,0.7% (0.4%,1.0%), ≥50 mm, 0.4% (0.3%, 0.5%). The prevalence of AAA has decreased in Europe from 1988 to 2013. Hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, claudication and renal insufficiency were risk factors for AAA in Europe. Conclusion AAA is common in general population. The prevalence of AAA is higher in Australia than America and Europe. The pooled prevalence in western countries is higher than the Asia. Future research requires a larger database on the epidemiology of AAA in general population. PMID:24312543

  20. The seduction of general practice and illegitimate birth of an expanded role in population health care.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Docherty, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    To reduce health inequalities and improve quality in health care, health policy initiatives in countries including New Zealand and the United Kingdom are expecting general practice to share responsibilities for a population approach to health care. This is giving increased emphasis to preventative care, including health promotion. Reasoned debate on this policy is overdue, not least in New Zealand, where clinicians within general practice appear to have been seduced by the lack of clarity in health policy into accepting this policy without question. They appear to disregard implications of the policy for redefining the nature and scope of their discipline (and of public health), including their own role as providers of personal care. This paper suggests that a population health approach is inappropriate in general practice when this approach weakens personal care and involves health promotion activity of unknown safety and effectiveness. The example of intentional weight loss to reduce overweight is used to illustrate these issues. We argue for a restricted range of general practice services.

  1. General and specific components of depression and anxiety in an adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur resulting in a debate about common and distinct features of depression and anxiety. Methods An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a bifactor modelling approach were used to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14). The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A three-factor confirmatory factor analysis is reported which identified a) mood and social-cognitive symptoms of depression, b) worrying symptoms, and c) somatic and information-processing symptoms as distinct yet closely related constructs. Subsequent bifactor modelling supported a general distress factor which accounted for the communality of the depression and anxiety items. Specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal thoughts and restlessness-fatigue indicated distinct psychopathological constructs which account for unique information over and above the general distress factor. The general distress factor and the hopelessness-suicidal factor were more severe in females but the restlessness-fatigue factor worse in males. Measurement precision of the general distress factor was higher and spanned a wider range of the population than any of the three first-order factors. Conclusions The general distress factor provides the most reliable target for epidemiological analysis but specific factors may help to refine valid phenotype dimensions for aetiological research and assist in prognostic modelling of future psychiatric episodes. PMID:22151586

  2. Genetic Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contributes to Neurodevelopmental Traits in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Methods Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Results Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). Conclusions These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. PMID:24673882

  3. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. Methods We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Results Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. Conclusions This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants

  4. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-10-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of [euro ]75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands.

  5. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  6. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. PMID:27046393

  7. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in a general Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Sagot, Clémence; Deville, Marine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne

    2012-11-01

    Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol, in order to evaluate the baseline contamination of a general population in Belgium. Bisphenol A and triclosan were detected in respectively 97.7% and 74.6% of the samples examined demonstrating that the general Belgian population is extensively exposed to both chemicals. On the other hand, 4-nonylphenol was not detected in any urine samples analyzed, suggesting either low exposure, inadequate biomarker, or that urine is an inappropriate biological matrix for assessing exposure to nonylphenol commercial mixtures. Geometric mean concentration was determined for bisphenol A at 2.55 μg/l and for triclosan at 2.70 μg/l. No significant difference was observed between levels and gender for both bisphenol A and triclosan. When classified by age, the 20-39 year group showed the highest triclosan levels, while all age groups seemed to be similarly exposed to bisphenol A. Both bisphenol A and triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with creatinine excretion in our healthy population, questioning the relevance of the creatinine adjustment in reporting these chemical levels. Bisphenol A levels in urine of people living in the same home and collected on the same time were fairly correlated, confirming the assumption that dietary intake would be the primary route of exposure. Triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with bisphenol A levels.

  8. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection. PMID:22298707

  9. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  10. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  11. The relationship between iodine intake and serum thyroglobulin in the general population.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Čeřovská, J; Zamrazil, V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship is shown between a concentration of urinary iodine and serum thyroglobulin in population studies carried out on a general population that was randomly selected from the registry of the General Health Insurance Company (individuals aged 6-98 years, 1751 males, 2420 females). The individuals were divided into subgroups with a urinary iodine concentration of <50, 50-99, 100-199, 200-299 and >/=300 microg/l. The mean and median of thyroglobulin were calculated in these subgroups. Tg concentrations were dependent on gender (malesgeneral, thyroglobulin serum concentrations higher than 40 microg/l should be an indicator for determining urinary iodine.

  12. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  13. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  14. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Maarten A.; Mathijssen, Nina M.C.; Bloem, Rolf M.

    2016-01-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with ‘groin pain’. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  15. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study.

    PubMed

    Röling, Maarten A; Mathijssen, Nina M C; Bloem, Rolf M

    2016-08-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with 'groin pain'. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  16. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  17. Alcohol consumption among the elderly in a general population, Erie County, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Mirand, A L; Welte, J W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Relatively few studies of drinking among the elderly have been completed despite the growing proportional representation of the elderly in the US population. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of and to observe whether active or health-oriented lifestyles are associated with heavy drinking among the elderly. METHODS. Random-digit dialing telephone interviews were conducted with 2325 Erie County, New York, general population residents aged 60 years or older. RESULTS. The prevalence of heavy drinking was 6%. Adjusted analyses showed positive associations between heavy drinking and being male, having suburban residency, and currently using cigarettes. Negative relationships were observed between heavy drinking and socioeconomic status, rural residency, and degree of health orientation. Age and level of active lifestyle were not significant contributors to the model. CONCLUSIONS. Of the studied variables, health orientation offers the greatest opportunity to address heavy drinking among the elderly. PMID:8669522

  18. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  19. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention.

  20. [Anxiety and depression in the general population: normal values in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale].

    PubMed

    Hinz, A; Schwarz, R

    2001-05-01

    For the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) psychometric properties were tested and standardised values were calculated on the basis of a representative sample of the German adult population with 2037 persons. The main result was the evidence of age and gender differences for anxiety and depression. Females were more anxious than males. For both dimensions of the HADS a nearly linear age dependency was found which was more pronounced for depression (r = 0.36) than for anxiety (r = 0.14). Standardised values are given for different age and gender groups, and the results of regression analyses are presented. The psychometric properties were satisfying or good, the two-dimensional factorial structure could be replicated. By means of the standardised values and regression coefficients it is now possible to compare patient groups of different age and gender distributions with the general population. PMID:11417357

  1. Correlates of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Judita; Winckelmans, Ellen; Plusquin, Michelle; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Gu, Yumei; Staessen, Jan A.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leads to alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis and function that might produce a decrease in mtDNA content within cells. This implies that mtDNA content might be a potential biomarker associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, data on correlates of mtDNA content in a general population are sparse. Our goal in the present study was to describe in a randomly recruited population sample the distribution and determinants of peripheral blood mtDNA content. From 2009 to 2013, we examined 689 persons (50.4% women; mean age = 54.4 years) randomly selected from a Flemish population (Flemish Study on Environment, Genes, and Health Outcomes). Relative mtDNA copy number as compared with nuclear DNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood. There was a curvilinear relationship between relative mtDNA copy number and age. mtDNA content slightly increased until the fifth decade of life and declined in older subjects (Page2 = 0.0002). mtDNA content was significantly higher in women (P = 0.007) and increased with platelet count (P < 0.0001), whereas it was inversely associated with white blood cell count (P < 0.0001). We also observed lower mtDNA content in women using estroprogestogens (P = 0.044). This study demonstrated in a general population that peripheral blood mtDNA content is significantly associated with sex and age. Blood mtDNA content is also influenced by platelet and white blood cell counts and estroprogestogen intake. Further studies are required to clarify the impact of chronic inflammation and hormone therapy on mitochondrial function. PMID:26702630

  2. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  3. Are MAO-A deficiency states in the general population and in putative high-risk populations highly uncommon?

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K; Eisenhofer, G; Greenberg, B D; George, T; Berlin, F; Zametkin, A; Ernst, M; Breakefield, X O

    1998-01-01

    Lack of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) due to either Xp chromosomal deletions or alterations in the coding sequence of the gene for this enzyme are associated with marked changes in monoamine metabolism and appear to be associated with variable cognitive deficits and behavioral changes in humans and in transgenic mice. In mice, some of the most marked behavioral changes are ameliorated by pharmacologically-induced reductions in serotonin synthesis during early development, raising the question of possible therapeutic interventions in humans with MAO deficiency states. At the present time, only one multi-generational family and a few other individuals with marked MAO-A deficiency states have been identified and studied in detail. Although MAO deficiency states associated with Xp chromosomal deletions were identified by distinct symptoms (including blindness in infancy) produced by the contiguous Norrie disease gene, the primarily behavioral phenotype of individuals with the MAO mutation is less obvious. This paper reports a sequential research design and preliminary results from screening several hundred volunteers in the general population and from putative high-risk groups for possible MAO deficiency states. These preliminary results suggest that marked MAO deficiency states are very rare.

  4. Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological associations in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M

    2000-12-27

    Hallucinations are perceptual phenomena involved in many fields of pathology. Although clinically widely explored, studies in the general population of these phenomena are scant. This issue was investigated using representative samples of the non-institutionalized general population of the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy aged 15 years or over (N=13,057). These surveys were conducted by telephone and explored mental disorders and hallucinations (visual, auditory, olfactory, haptic and gustatory hallucinations, out-of-body experiences, hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations). Overall, 38.7% of the sample reported hallucinatory experiences (19.6% less than once in a month; 6.4% monthly; 2.7% once a week; and 2.4% more than once a week). These hallucinations occurred, (1) At sleep onset (hypnagogic hallucinations 24.8%) and/or upon awakening (hypnopompic hallucinations 6.6%), without relationship to a specific pathology in more than half of the cases; frightening hallucinations were more often the expression of sleep or mental disorders such as narcolepsy, OSAS or anxiety disorders. (2) During the daytime and reported by 27% of the sample: visual (prevalence of 3.2%) and auditory (0.6%) hallucinations were strongly related to a psychotic pathology (respective OR of 6.6 and 5.1 with a conservative estimate of the lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders in this sample of 0.5%); and to anxiety (respective OR of 5.0 and 9.1). Haptic hallucinations were reported by 3.1% with current use of drugs as the highest risk factor (OR=9.8). In conclusion, the prevalence of hallucinations in the general population is not negligible. Daytime visual and auditory hallucinations are associated with a greater risk of psychiatric disorders. The other daytime sensory hallucinations are more related to an organic or a toxic disorder.

  5. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A; Heus, Pauline; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline and Embase until June 2013. Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. Most models were developed in Europe (n=167, 46%), predicted risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (n=118, 33%) over a 10 year period (n=209, 58%). The most common predictors were smoking (n=325, 90%) and age (n=321, 88%), and most models were sex specific (n=250, 69%). Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. Model performance was heterogeneous and measures such as discrimination and calibration were reported for only 65% and 58% of the external validations, respectively. Conclusions There is an excess of models predicting incident CVD in the general population. The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local

  6. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, P<.001) and anxiety (r(s)=.69, P<.001), and somewhat with self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=.30, P<.001) and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=.24, P<.001). Extraversion correlated negatively with symptoms of depression (r(s)=-.47, P<.001), anxiety (r(s)=-.36, P<.001), self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=-.17, P<.001), and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=-.14, P=.004). In multiple regression models, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education, BDI scores were significantly associated with neuroticism, extraversion, and age, whereas BAI scores were associated only with neuroticism. Neuroticism is strongly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and intraversion is moderately associated with depressive symptoms in the urban general population. The relationship of these personality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  7. Generalizing the Nomological Network of Psychopathy across Populations Differing on Race and Conviction Status

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, David D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy has shown good construct validity in samples of Caucasian inmates. However, little is known about how well the nomological network surrounding psychopathy generalizes to non-Caucasian and non-incarcerated populations. Using longitudinal and concurrent data from the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, this study demonstrates that the validity of total-and facet-level psychopathy is preserved in African American and non-incarcerated samples. Specifically, similar patterns of association were obtained for child variables (child psychopathy, SES, risk status, parenting, delinquency, peer delinquency, and impulsivity) and adult variables (children, education, incarceration, unemployment, personality, substance use, and APD) across ethnicity and arrest status. PMID:21842962

  8. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Background The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. Methods A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood and prolonged hoarseness) and self-reported lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake and body mass index) were included in the analysis. Results A total of 49 706 individuals completed the questionnaire. 16 per cent reported at least one RAS. Prolonged coughing (8.4%) and shortness of breath (8%) were most prevalent, while coughing up blood was least prevalent (0.1%). More men than women reported RAS (p<0.001). Odds of reporting RAS increased with age (Ptrend<0.001). In men and women, former and current smoking was associated with reporting at least one RAS (former smoking: ORmen=1.42, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.56; ORwomen=1.25, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36; current smoking: ORmen=2.58, 95% CI 2.35 to 2.83; ORwomen=2.45, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.68). Individuals who were underweight or obese were significantly more likely to report at least one RAS. Odds of reporting at least one RAS increased with increasing alcohol intake for both genders (Ptrend<0.001). Conclusions RAS are common in the general population. Men experience more symptoms than women, and prevalence increases with age. Being a former or current smoker and being underweight or obese are positively associated with experiencing RAS. The likelihood of experiencing RAS increases with increasing alcohol intake. Future research should investigate healthcare seeking for RAS among individuals with

  9. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. PMID:24997168

  10. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination.

  11. Comparison of Musculoskeletal Disorder Health Claims Between Construction Floor Layers and a General Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Ryan, Daniel; Welch, Laura; Olsen, Margaret A.; Buchholz, Bryan; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compare rates of medical insurance claims for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) between workers in a construction trade and a general worker population to determine if higher physical exposures in construction lead to higher rates of claims on personal medical insurance. Methods Health insurance claims between 2006 and 2010 from floor layers were frequency matched by age, gender, eligibility time, and geographic location to claims from insured workers in general industry obtained from MarketScan. We extracted MSD claims and dates of service from six regions of the body: neck, low back, knee, lower extremity, shoulder, and distal arm, and evaluated differences in claim rates. Results Fifty-one percent of floor layers (n=1,475) experienced musculoskeletal claims compared to 39% of MarketScan members (p<0.001). Claim rates were higher for floor layers across all body regions with nearly double the rate ratios for the knee and neck regions (RR: 2.10 and 2.07). The excess risk was greatest for the neck and low back regions; younger workers had disproportionately higher rates in the knee, neck, low back, and distal arm. A larger proportion of floor layers (22%) filed MSD claims in more than one body region compared to general workers (10%; p<0.001). Conclusions Floor layers have markedly higher rates of MSD claims compared to a general worker population, suggesting shifting of medical costs for work-related MSD to personal health insurance. The occurrence of disorders in multiple body regions and among the youngest workers highlights the need for improved work methods and tools for construction workers. PMID:25224720

  12. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. Methods The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. Results In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the general population intended to donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting. PMID:27626950

  13. Blood lead levels in the general population of Taiwan, Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Liou, S H; Wu, T N; Chiang, H C; Yang, G Y; Wu, Y Q; Lai, J S; Ho, S T; Guo, Y L; Ko, Y C; Chang, P Y

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental lead exposure of the general population in Taiwan. A total of 2919 residents of Taiwan were selected by multistage sampling methods. The participants were characterized by questionnaires and 10 ml venous blood was collected for blood lead measurement. A quality assurance/quality control program was designed during the analysis of blood lead levels. The mean blood lead level of 2719 residents without occupational lead exposure was 8.29 +/- 5.92 micrograms/dl. After adjustment for age and sex distribution to the Taiwan general population, the mean blood lead level was 8.10 micrograms/dl. Adjusted for an 11% underestimation of blood lead levels among the six laboratories, the mean blood lead level was estimated to be 8.99 micrograms/dl. This study also found that blood lead levels were associated with personal characteristics, i.e., gender, ethnic group, education level; lifestyle factors, i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, sources of drinking water; and residential location, i.e., levels of urbanization, distance of house from the road. However, age, floor of residence, milk consumption, betel nut consumption, and Chinese herbal drug consumption were not found to be associated with blood lead levels. These results show that blood lead levels in Taiwan residents were not higher than in most developed and developing countries. Environmental lead pollution does not seem to be a serious problem in Taiwan.

  14. Prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations in a general population: A group comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kråkvik, Bodil; Larøi, Frank; Kalhovde, Anne Martha; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Kompus, Kristiina; Salvesen, Øyvind; Stiles, Tore C; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar

    2015-10-01

    The present study was specifically designed to investigate the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in the general population, and sought to compare similarities and differences regarding socio-demographics, mental health and severe life events between individuals who have never experienced AVH with those who had. The study also aimed to compare those who sought professional help for their experience of AVH with those who had not sought help. Through a postal questionnaire, 2,533 participants ages 18 and over from a national survey completed the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale and other measures examining AVH characteristics and other areas related to AVH. In total, 7.3% of the sample reported a life-time prevalence of AVH. Those with AVH were more likely to be single and unemployed, reported higher levels of depression and anxiety, and experienced a higher number of severe life events compared with those without AVH. Only 16% of those who experienced AVH in the general population sought professional help for these experiences. Compared to those who did not seek professional help, participants that had were more likely to experience AVH with a negative content, experience them on a daily basis, undergo negative reactions when experiencing AVH, and resist AVH. In conclusion, the prevalence of AVH was found to be relatively high. The results also revealed higher levels of reduced mental health for individuals who sought professional help, followed by those who did not, compared with those who had never experienced AVH. PMID:26079977

  15. Increased condom use without other major changes in sexual behavior among the general population in Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Arber, F; Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Paccaud, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study is part of a continuous evaluation of the Swiss AIDS prevention strategy from 1987 through 1994. METHODS: Annual telephone surveys of samples representative of the general population aged 17 through 45 years have been conducted since 1987 to monitor behavioral change. RESULTS: No major changes in level of sexual activity (lifetime number of partners, frequency of sexual encounters in the past week) or potential exposure to risk of HIV transmission (acquisition of a new steady partner during the year or of casual partners in the last 6 months) were observed. Systematic condom use with a new steady partner increased between 1988 and 1994, from 40% to 64% among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 57% to 72% among those aged 31 to 45. Systematic condom use with casual partners increased from 8% to 56% between 1987 and 1994 among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 22% to 42% between 1989 and 1994 among those aged 31 to 45. Condom use was higher among those with multiple partners. CONCLUSIONS: A general-population approach to AIDS prevention was able to achieve large-scale improvements in condom-based protection against HIV infection without inducing other major changes in sexual behavior. PMID:9146432

  16. The Promise and Peril of Genomic Screening in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael C.; Evans, James P.; Henderson, Gail E.; Berg, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Utilization of sequencing to screen the general population for preventable monogenic conditions is receiving substantial attention due to its potential to decrease morbidity and mortality. However, the selection of which variants to return is a serious implementation challenge. Procedures must be investigated to ensure optimal test characteristics and avoidance of harm from false positive test results. Methods We scanned exome sequences from 478 well-phenotyped individuals for potentially pathogenic variants in 17 genes representing 11 conditions that are among the most medically actionable Mendelian disorders in adults. We developed 5 variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity and measured their specificity in these 17 genes. Results Variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity exhibited decreased specificity, and performance was highly dependent on the genes analyzed. The most sensitive algorithm ranged from 88.8% to 99.6% specificity among the 17 genes. Conclusion For very low prevalence conditions, small reductions in specificity greatly increase false positives. This inescapable test characteristic governs the predictive value of genomic sequencing in the general population. To address this issue, test performance must be evaluated systematically for each condition so that the false negatives and false positives can be tailored for optimal outcomes, depending on the downstream clinical consequences. PMID:26540154

  17. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the “self-coldness”, composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a “self-compassion composite”, the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between “self-coldness” and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression—providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself. PMID:26430893

  18. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P < 0.001). In terms of individual symptoms, female gender was significantly related with higher prevalence of fatigue (P = 0.008), hypersomnia (P = 0.001), noticeable psychomotor retardation (P = 0.029) and suicidal attempts (P = 0.016) with adjustment for birth cohort effect, partner status, and employment status. In the same analysis, men with MDD appeared more vulnerable to decreased libido than women (P = 0.009). This is the first report to demonstrate gender differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects. PMID:26539012

  19. Evidence of ancillary trigeminal innervation of levator palpebrae in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, A M; Dong, C C; Harries, A M; Patel, A; Honey, C R; Patel, M S

    2014-02-01

    The cranial synkineses are a group of disorders encompassing a variety of involuntary co-contractions of the facial, masticatory, or extraocular muscles that occur during a particular volitional movement. The neuroanatomical pathways for synkineses largely remain undefined. Our studies explored a normal synkinesis long observed in the general population - that of jaw opening during efforts to open the eyelids widely. To document this phenomenon, we observed 186 consecutive participants inserting or removing contact lenses to identify jaw opening. Seeking electrophysiological evidence, in a second study we enrolled individuals undergoing vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, without a history of jaw-winking, ptosis, or strabismus, to record any motor responses in levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) upon stimulation of the trigeminal motor root. Stimulus was applied to the trigeminal motor root while an electrode in levator recorded the response. We found that 37 participants (20%) opened their mouth partially or fully during contact lens manipulation. In the second study, contraction of LPS with trigeminal motor stimulation was documented in two of six patients, both undergoing surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We speculate these results might provide evidence of an endogenous synkinesis, indicating that trigeminal-derived innervation of levator could exist in a significant minority of the general population. Our observations demonstrate plasticity in the human cranial nerve innervation pattern and may have implications for treating Marcus Gunn jaw-winking. PMID:24120706

  20. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  1. Vitamin D Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective General Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Runa Vavia; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether vitamin D affects the development and deterioration of COPD or is a consequence of the disease lacks clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent and incident COPD in the general population. Methods We included a total of 12,041 individuals from three general population studies conducted in 1993–94, 1999–2001, and 2006–2008, respectively, with vitamin D measurements. Information on COPD was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register and The Danish Registry of Causes of Death. Results There were 85 prevalent and 463 incident cases of COPD (median follow-up 9.7 years). We found a statistically significant inverse association between vitamin D status and prevalent COPD with odds ratio = 0.89 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.79, 1.0), but no statistically significant association with incident COPD with a hazard ratio = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.0), respectively, per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D status, when adjusted for possible confounders. Conclusions We found a statistically significant inverse cross-sectional association between vitamin D status and COPD, but no association between vitamin D status and incident COPD. PMID:24594696

  2. Electric current perception of the general population including children and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Schroettner, J; Cech, R

    2005-01-01

    Although the 50 Hz electric current perception threshold is a key parameter for limiting electric touch currents in electrical technology and for limiting indirect effects of external electromagnetic fields, the data available mainly reflect men's perception ability; with only sparse data for women and almost none for children or the elderly. Measurements with 240 children aged 9 - 16 years, and 123 elderly people, allow this gap of knowledge to be filled. Taking into account the demographic age distribution, it was possible to generate a probability distribution representing the perception ability of the overall general population, and thus to provide a more established basis for deriving safety limits. The results show that the existing limit values for electric touch currents are considerably too high if compared with results derived from the new data with the same criteria. On the other hand, it appeared that children do not exhibit such a high sensitivity to electricity as assumed to date. Therefore, former rule-of-thumb estimates to account for higher sensitivities of children lie on the safe side. The presented assessment of the general population's electric current perception ability should stimulate a critical review of the existing regulations.

  3. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P < 0.001). In terms of individual symptoms, female gender was significantly related with higher prevalence of fatigue (P = 0.008), hypersomnia (P = 0.001), noticeable psychomotor retardation (P = 0.029) and suicidal attempts (P = 0.016) with adjustment for birth cohort effect, partner status, and employment status. In the same analysis, men with MDD appeared more vulnerable to decreased libido than women (P = 0.009). This is the first report to demonstrate gender differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects.

  4. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  5. Chrysotile biopersistence in the lungs of persons in the general population and exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A M; Nolan, R P

    1994-01-01

    Lung burden analysis was performed on 126 autopsy cases of persons who died in New York City from 1966 through 1968. Of the 126 cases, 107 were probably non-occupationally exposed, judging by occupational history and asbestos body content of lung. Fifty-three of the 107 cases contained short chrysotile fibers/fibrils, < 5 microns in length, present in 3-fold greater amounts than were found in laboratory background controls. The fiber concentrations ranged from 1.8 to 15.7 x 10(6) f/gm/dry lung tissue, and the proportion of fibers > or = 5 microns in length was only 0.34% of the total chrysotile population found. Other inorganic particles present included fragments of amphiboles. In contrast to these data, the lung parenchyma of persons occupationally exposed to asbestos commonly showed the presence of other fiber types, especially amosite and crocidolite, at very much higher concentrations and greater fiber length. Any chrysotile present would usually be in fiber bundle form, with both fibers and fibrils > 5 microns in length. Comparison of the lung fiber content of occupationally exposed persons with that of the general population showed marked qualitative and quantitative differences. Fibers are durable, and are retained in a range of concentrations. Their length and dose, among other factors, which control their biological potential are different in the two populations; the risk factors for chrysotile-induced disease are not the same. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C PMID:7882940

  6. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  7. Ploidy frequencies in plants with ploidy heterogeneity: fitting a general gametic model to empirical population data

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Jan; Herben, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Genome duplication (polyploidy) is a recurrent evolutionary process in plants, often conferring instant reproductive isolation and thus potentially leading to speciation. Outcome of the process is often seen in the field as different cytotypes co-occur in many plant populations. Failure of meiotic reduction during gametogenesis is widely acknowledged to be the main mode of polyploid formation. To get insight into its role in the dynamics of polyploidy generation under natural conditions, and coexistence of several ploidy levels, we developed a general gametic model for diploid–polyploid systems. This model predicts equilibrium ploidy frequencies as functions of several parameters, namely the unreduced gamete proportions and fertilities of higher ploidy plants. We used data on field ploidy frequencies for 39 presumably autopolyploid plant species/populations to infer numerical values of the model parameters (either analytically or using an optimization procedure). With the exception of a few species, the model fit was very high. The estimated proportions of unreduced gametes (median of 0.0089) matched published estimates well. Our results imply that conditions for cytotype coexistence in natural populations are likely to be less restrictive than previously assumed. In addition, rather simple models show sufficiently rich behaviour to explain the prevalence of polyploids among flowering plants. PMID:23193129

  8. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs. PMID:23719553

  9. Standardization of the Colombian version of the PHQ-4 in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The PHQ-4 is a widely used open access screening instrument for depression and anxiety in different health care and community settings; however, empirical evidence of its psychometric quality in Colombia is lacking. The objectives of the current study were to generate normative data and to further investigate the construct validity and factorial structure of the PHQ-4 in the general population. Methods A nationally representative face-to-face household survey was conducted in Colombia in 2012 (n = 1,500). The item characteristics of the PHQ-4 items, including the inter-item correlations and inter-subscale correlations, were investigated. To measure the scale’s reliability, the internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) was assessed. For factorial validity, the factor structure of the PHQ-4 was examined with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the PHQ-4 was 0.84. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model, which was structurally invariant between different age and gender groups. Normative data for the PHQ-4 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Women had significantly higher mean scores compared with men [1.4 (SD: 2.1) vs. 1.1 (SD: 1.9), respectively]. The results supported the discriminant validity of the PHQ-4. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of the PHQ-4 with other populations in Colombia. The evidence supports the reliability and validity of the two-factor PHQ-4 as a measure of anxiety and depression in the general Colombian population. PMID:25037706

  10. Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Burdorf, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Veulemans, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hartog, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM), and a population specific JEM were compared with passive diffuse dosimeter results and measurements in urine. Urine samples from the end of the shift were analysed for metabolites of toluene, xylene, several glycol ethers, trichloroethylene, and chromium. Passive dosimeter date, metabolites of specific solvents, and urinary chromium concentrations were available for 89, 267, and 156 subjects, respectively. The alternative methods and measurements in urine were compared by means of the Cohen's kappa statistic and by computing the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of the alternative methods against measurements in urine. RESULTS: Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. The kappa coefficients were < 0.4, so agreement between the various methods and measurements in urine was poor. Sensitivity of the methods ranged from 0.21 to 0.85, whereas specificity ranged from 0.34 to 0.94. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.19 to 0.58, with the highest values for job specific questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low.   PMID:10448321

  11. Existing General Population Models Inaccurately Predict Lung Cancer Risk in Patients Referred for Surgical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Isbell, James M.; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P.; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R.; Grogan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background atients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9-55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005-2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and SPN prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. Results 89 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into 4 subgroups based on age, smoking history and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET- non-avid lesions, or PET-avid lesions with age<50 years or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the ROC curve for the Mayo and SPN models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients ref erred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce non-therapeutic resections. PMID:21172518

  12. Retinal Microvasculature Is Associated With Long-Term Survival in the General Adult Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Unal; Ikram, M Kamran; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-02-01

    Retinal vascular diameters are associated with (sub)clinical cardiovascular disease and short-term cardiovascular mortality, but their association with long-term mortality is uncertain. We studied the association of retinal vascular diameters with cause-specific mortality in the general adult Dutch population during 25 years of follow-up. From 1990 to 1993, arteriolar and venular diameters were measured semiautomatically on digitized images in 5674 persons (mean age 68.0 years, 59% women) from the population-based Rotterdam study. Follow-up for mortality was complete till March 2015. Associations between vascular diameters and mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and the fellow vessel diameter. During 85 770 person-years (mean±SD: 15.1±6.67), 3794 (66.8%) persons died, of whom 1034 due to cardiovascular causes. We found that narrower arterioles and wider venules were associated with higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD decrease 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and increase 1.07 [1.03-1.12], respectively). For arterioles, these associations were strongest for cardiovascular mortality, whereas venules showed consistent associations for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Importantly, these associations remained unchanged after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up as immortal person-time. We found evidence for effect modification with stronger associations in persons <70 years (venules only) and smokers (P value for interaction<0.01). We replicated our findings in another independent cohort from the Rotterdam Study of 3106 persons with 19 880 person-years of follow-up and 144 deaths (hazard ratio for venules 1.22 [1.00-1.49]). Markers of retinal microvasculature are associated with long-term mortality in the general adult Dutch population. PMID:26628677

  13. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  14. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  15. Effects of the home environment on respiratory symptoms of a general population sample in middle Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Carrozzi, L; Paoletti, P; Vellutini, M; DiViggiano, E; Baldacci, S; Modena, P; Pedreschi, M; Mammini, U; di Pede, C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of home environment characteristics were evaluated in a multistage, stratified, cluster sample (N = 3,866) of the general population who lived in the district of Pisa (middle Italy). Each subject completed a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained questions about respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors (e.g., type of heating, fuels used for cooking and heating). Cough and asthma were significantly more frequent in men who did not smoke and who did not use natural gas for cooking and heating. Attacks of shortness of breath accompanied by wheeze, dyspnea, and cardiovascular conditions in female nonsmokers were associated with use of a stove or forced-air circulation for heating; the type of fuel used did not affect this result. Multiple logistic models, which accounted for independent effects of age, smoking status, pack-years, childhood respiratory illness, education, zone of residence, and work exposure to dusts, chemicals, or fumes, showed significantly increased odds ratios for (a) cough and phlegm in males (associated with bottled gas for cooking), (b) wheeze and shortness of breath with wheeze in females (associated with the use of a stove or forced-air circulation). These results, which confirm our previous observations in an unpolluted rural area of north Italy, indicate that characteristics of the home environment, as assessed by questionnaire, may be linked to mild adverse health effects, i.e., respiratory symptoms, in the general population. The results also identify the need to better characterize the dose-response relationship in indoor air pollution monitoring studies that include subsamples of this population.

  16. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-06-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay system in Monica10 and High-performance liquid chromatography in Inter99. Information on CVDs and causes of death was obtained from Danish registries until 31 December 2008. There were 478 cases of IHD, 316 cases of stroke, and 633 deaths during follow-up (mean follow-up 10 years). Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed a significant association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality with a HR = 0.95 (P = 0.005) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D level. We found no association between vitamin D status and incidence of IHD or stroke (HR = 1.01, P = 0.442 and HR = 1.00, P = 0.920, respectively). In this large general population study, the observed inverse association between serum vitamin D status and all-cause mortality was not explained by a similar inverse association with IHD or stroke. PMID:23015273

  17. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  18. Generalized Laminar Population Analysis (gLPA) for Interpretation of Multielectrode Data from Cortex.

    PubMed

    Głąbska, Helena T; Norheim, Eivind; Devor, Anna; Dale, Anders M; Einevoll, Gaute T; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-01-01

    Laminar population analysis (LPA) is a method for analysis of electrical data recorded by linear multielectrodes passing through all lamina of cortex. Like principal components analysis (PCA) and independent components analysis (ICA), LPA offers a way to decompose the data into contributions from separate cortical populations. However, instead of using purely mathematical assumptions in the decomposition, LPA is based on physiological constraints, i.e., that the observed LFP (low-frequency part of signal) is driven by action-potential firing as observed in the MUA (multi-unit activity; high-frequency part of the signal). In the presently developed generalized laminar population analysis (gLPA) the set of basis functions accounting for the LFP data is extended compared to the original LPA, thus allowing for a better fit of the model to experimental data. This enhances the risk for overfitting, however, and we therefore tested various versions of gLPA on virtual LFP data in which we knew the ground truth. These synthetic data were generated by biophysical forward-modeling of electrical signals from network activity in the comprehensive, and well-known, thalamocortical network model developed by Traub and coworkers. The results for the Traub model imply that while the laminar components extracted by the original LPA method overall are in fair agreement with the ground-truth laminar components, the results may be improved by use of gLPA method with two (gLPA-2) or even three (gLPA-3) postsynaptic LFP kernels per laminar population. PMID:26834620

  19. Generalized Laminar Population Analysis (gLPA) for Interpretation of Multielectrode Data from Cortex.

    PubMed

    Głąbska, Helena T; Norheim, Eivind; Devor, Anna; Dale, Anders M; Einevoll, Gaute T; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-01-01

    Laminar population analysis (LPA) is a method for analysis of electrical data recorded by linear multielectrodes passing through all lamina of cortex. Like principal components analysis (PCA) and independent components analysis (ICA), LPA offers a way to decompose the data into contributions from separate cortical populations. However, instead of using purely mathematical assumptions in the decomposition, LPA is based on physiological constraints, i.e., that the observed LFP (low-frequency part of signal) is driven by action-potential firing as observed in the MUA (multi-unit activity; high-frequency part of the signal). In the presently developed generalized laminar population analysis (gLPA) the set of basis functions accounting for the LFP data is extended compared to the original LPA, thus allowing for a better fit of the model to experimental data. This enhances the risk for overfitting, however, and we therefore tested various versions of gLPA on virtual LFP data in which we knew the ground truth. These synthetic data were generated by biophysical forward-modeling of electrical signals from network activity in the comprehensive, and well-known, thalamocortical network model developed by Traub and coworkers. The results for the Traub model imply that while the laminar components extracted by the original LPA method overall are in fair agreement with the ground-truth laminar components, the results may be improved by use of gLPA method with two (gLPA-2) or even three (gLPA-3) postsynaptic LFP kernels per laminar population.

  20. Generalized Laminar Population Analysis (gLPA) for Interpretation of Multielectrode Data from Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Helena T.; Norheim, Eivind; Devor, Anna; Dale, Anders M.; Einevoll, Gaute T.; Wójcik, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Laminar population analysis (LPA) is a method for analysis of electrical data recorded by linear multielectrodes passing through all lamina of cortex. Like principal components analysis (PCA) and independent components analysis (ICA), LPA offers a way to decompose the data into contributions from separate cortical populations. However, instead of using purely mathematical assumptions in the decomposition, LPA is based on physiological constraints, i.e., that the observed LFP (low-frequency part of signal) is driven by action-potential firing as observed in the MUA (multi-unit activity; high-frequency part of the signal). In the presently developed generalized laminar population analysis (gLPA) the set of basis functions accounting for the LFP data is extended compared to the original LPA, thus allowing for a better fit of the model to experimental data. This enhances the risk for overfitting, however, and we therefore tested various versions of gLPA on virtual LFP data in which we knew the ground truth. These synthetic data were generated by biophysical forward-modeling of electrical signals from network activity in the comprehensive, and well-known, thalamocortical network model developed by Traub and coworkers. The results for the Traub model imply that while the laminar components extracted by the original LPA method overall are in fair agreement with the ground-truth laminar components, the results may be improved by use of gLPA method with two (gLPA-2) or even three (gLPA-3) postsynaptic LFP kernels per laminar population. PMID:26834620

  1. The impact of changes in county public health expenditures on general health in the population.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy T; Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria S; Navab, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001-2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the 'poor or fair health' category to the 'good, very good or excellent health' category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the 'good, very good or excellent' categories of health status rather than the 'poor or fair' categories.

  2. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  3. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  4. Natural carcinogenic fiber and pleural plaques assessment in a general population: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Pomara, Cristoforo; Bracci, Massimo; Mangano, Dario; Ricceri, Vincenzo; Musumeci, Andrea; Ferrante, Margherita; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Fenga, Concettina; Santarelli, Lory; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-10-01

    Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla's general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were observed in

  5. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    PubMed Central

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn’s disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn’s activation, none of those with Crohn’s disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  6. Evaluation of factors associated with cadmium exposure and kidney function in the general population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingai; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Na-Young; Bae, Hye-Sun; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2013-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential toxic metal which is widely distributed in the environment. The general population is exposed to low levels of Cd and the kidney is the organ most sensitive to Cd toxicity. This study was performed to simultaneously evaluate Cd exposure, kidney function, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the general population. A total of 643 adults were interviewed to document demographic characteristics, lifestyles, past-medical history, and diet during the last 24 h. We estimated daily Cd intake based on the diet of study subjects who had not been exposed to Cd occupationally. Whole blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed to determine Cd concentrations and kidney function indices (β₂ -microglobulin [β₂-MG], N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase [NAG], metallothionein [MT]). The oxidative stress index (malondialdehyde [MDA]) was determined from the urine. The daily Cd intake from diet was established as 7.07 μg/day. The mean concentration of Cd measured in the blood was 1.22 μg/L and urine was 0.95 μg/g creatinine. The concentrations of Cd in blood and urine were higher in females than in males. The blood levels of Cd were affected by sex, age, and smoking, and urine Cd was influenced by sex, age, and blood Cd. The urine Cd was positively correlated with MT, NAG activity, and MDA in females, but with NAG only in males. The blood Cd was associated with MT in males. Increased NAG activity was observed when Cd in urine reached 1.0 μg Cd/g creatinine and was also affected by age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Urinary MT only responded to Cd in urine or blood. In summary, exposure to Cd in the general population was influenced by various factors including sex, age, and smoking habits. Such exposure might eventually cause tubular damage in the kidneys through the oxidative stress mechanism, and females might be more susceptible than males to Cd exposure under the environment.

  7. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    PubMed

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn's disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn's activation, none of those with Crohn's disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  8. A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in two American Indian population samples and in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Shay-Lee; Elias, Brenda; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K

    2014-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts differ when comparing two American Indian reservation samples to the U.S. general population. Data were from the baseline nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) and the representative American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP; N = 3,084). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. American Indians from these Northern Plains and Southwest tribes appeared significantly less likely to have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime when compared with the general population, odds ratio (OR) of 0.49 (99% CI [0.36, 0.66]) and 0.36 (99% CI [0.25, 0.51]), respectively. However, members of the Northern Plains tribe were more likely to have attempted suicide in their lifetime compared with the general population (OR = 1.96, 99% CI [1.45, 2.65]). Suicide attempts without suicidal ideation were more common in the two American Indian samples than in the general population. In contrast, correlates of suicidal behavior appear quite similar when comparing the groups. Increased attention is needed to determine why rates of ideation and attempts may differ in American Indians when compared with the general population.

  9. Time orientation and health-related behaviour: Measurement in general population samples

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Rachel A.; Weinman, John; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Research on health behaviour and time orientation has been hindered by a lack of consensus about appropriate measurement. Study 1 assessed the reliability of the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC) and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) in a general population sample (n = 300). Although more reliable, the CFC was less readable. Study 2 assessed the validity of a shortened ZTPI, measuring future and present orientation, and the full CFC. The measures had good discrimination to distinguish interpersonal differences. Construct validity of present, but not future, orientation as measured by the ZTPI, was evidenced by its mediation of the association between socioeconomic status and expectations of participating in diabetes screening. The CFC mediated this relationship more weakly. Further investigation of present orientation in understanding health-related behaviour is warranted. PMID:20204997

  10. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  11. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, SP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals’ quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. Aim To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2nd round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. Results The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using

  12. Acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of the risk between physicians and the general population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P < 0.0001) and hyperlipidemia (21.36% versus 12.93%, P < 0.0001) but a lower risk of AMI than did the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.72) after adjusting for DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and area. Between medical specialty, age, and area subgroups, differences in the risk for having an AMI were nonsignificant. Medical center physicians had a lower risk (AOR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20-0.85) than did local clinic physicians. Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment.

  13. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

  14. Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M. A.; Bosetti, C.; Brown, P. H.; Burn, J.; Cook, N. R.; Ford, L. G.; Jacobs, E. J.; Jankowski, J. A.; La Vecchia, C.; Law, M.; Meyskens, F.; Rothwell, P. M.; Senn, H. J.; Umar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence supports an effect of aspirin in reducing overall cancer incidence and mortality in the general population. We reviewed current data and assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population. Methods The effect of aspirin for site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, cardiovascular events was collated from the most recent systematic reviews. Studies identified through systematic Medline search provided data regarding harmful effects of aspirin and baseline rates of harms like gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcer. Results The effects of aspirin on cancer are not apparent until at least 3 years after the start of use, and some benefits are sustained for several years after cessation in long-term users. No differences between low and standard doses of aspirin are observed, but there were no direct comparisons. Higher doses do not appear to confer additional benefit but increase toxicities. Excess bleeding is the most important harm associated with aspirin use, and its risk and fatality rate increases with age. For average-risk individuals aged 50–65 years taking aspirin for 10 years, there would be a relative reduction of between 7% (women) and 9% (men) in the number of cancer, myocardial infarction or stroke events over a 15-year period and an overall 4% relative reduction in all deaths over a 20-year period. Conclusions Prophylactic aspirin use for a minimum of 5 years at doses between 75 and 325 mg/day appears to have favourable benefit–harm profile; longer use is likely to have greater benefits. Further research is needed to determine the optimum dose and duration of use, to identify individuals at increased risk of bleeding, and to test effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening–eradication before starting aspirin prophylaxis. PMID:25096604

  15. Prognostic Value of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Knez, Judita; Herbots, Lieven; Zhang, Zhenyu; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background New techniques of Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) enable the measurement of myocardial velocities and provide information about left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Recent studies explored the prognostic role of TDI‐derived indexes. However, these studies considered only total mortality and did not provide information on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Therefore, we investigated in continuous and categorical analyses whether Doppler diastolic indexes contained any prognostic information over and beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a general population. Methods and Results We measured early and late diastolic peak velocities of mitral inflow (E and A) by conventional Doppler, and the mitral annular velocities (e' and a') by TDI in 793 participants (mean age 50.9 years). We calculated multivariable‐adjusted hazard ratios for conventional and TDI Doppler indexes, while accounting for family cluster and cardiovascular risk factors. Median follow‐up was 4.8 years (5th to 95th percentile, 3.0 to 5.4). With adjustments applied for covariables, e' velocity was a significant predictor of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular (n=59; P=0.004) and cardiac events (n=40; P=0.001). TDI e' yielded a net reclassification improvement of 54.2% for cardiovascular and 64.0% for cardiac events. Hazard ratios of all cardiovascular (2.21; P=0.042) and cardiac (4.50; P=0.002) events were significantly elevated in participants with increased LV filling pressure compared with subjects with normal diastolic function. Conclusions TDI e' velocity is a significant predictor of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in a general population. Furthermore, we observed an increase in all cardiovascular events in the diastolic dysfunction group characterized by elevated LV filling pressure. PMID:24780207

  16. Background levels of key biomarkers of chemical exposure within the UK general population--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Levy, L S; Jones, K; Cocker, J; Assem, F L; Capleton, A C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomarkers is now an accepted measure of chemical uptake (possibly exposure) in risk assessment. However, information on background exposures and biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general UK population is limited. This study aims to determine reference ranges for eleven biomarkers of chemical exposure, measurable in urine, within the general adult UK population. The study will involve 400 volunteers throughout the UK and is currently underway. Described here is a pilot study, carried out during August and September 2005 to test the study methodology. The initial results of the postal survey and urinary concentrations for cadmium (UCd) and mercury (UHg) are reported. A total of 78 individuals were recruited by post from the UK Electoral Register, to take part in the pilot study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and provide a urine sample. The overall response rate was 16%, of which 60.3% were female and 39.7% male. Those living in suburban areas accounted for 60% of respondents, current smokers 12.8% and vegetarians 1.3%. Levels of UCd were higher in females compared to males and smoking status influenced levels; smokers displayed higher levels of UCd than individuals who had previously smoked or who had never smoked. The mean, median and range of UHg was 1.12, 0.55 (

  17. Brominated flame retardants - Exposure and risk assessment for the general population.

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Becher, G; Hilger, B; Völkel, W

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of different substances used in numerous products to prevent fire hazards. Some of them are persistent in the environment, accumulate in the food chain and are of toxicological concern, while for others current data are limited. Meanwhile, BFRs have been found in many environmental media, foods, and biota including humans. This review presents recent findings obtained from monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure, as well as dietary exposure. In this context, concentrations in indoor and ambient air and in house dust are outlined. Furthermore, we summarize human biomonitoring data on BFR levels in blood and breast milk. Current estimates of the overall exposure of the general population using different relevant subsets are also addressed. All of these data are discussed in relation to currently available toxicological reference values used for risk assessment purposes. Obviously, the exposure of the general population varies considerably in different parts of the world and even within countries. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) show the highest intake during infancy. While the highest intake for BDE 47 for all groups was observed in the US, the total BDE 209 and HBCD intake was highest in the UK. For HBCD and all PBDEs except BDE 209, diet accounts for a large proportion of the total intake during infancy in all countries. With regard to toddlers and adults, the contribution of diet to total intake is high in Germany and the UK, while in the US, the high concentrations of PBDE in dust resulted in a notably smaller proportion of the intake being attributed to diet.

  18. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; Methods: A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; Results: A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443–2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221–3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063–2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146–2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Conclusions: Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults. PMID:27563918

  19. Environmental heavy metal exposure and chronic kidney disease in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Rhu, Seungho; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are common heavy metal toxins and cause toxicological renal effects at high levels, but the relevance of low-level environmental exposures in the general population is controversial. A total of 1,797 adults who participated in the KNHANES (a cross-sectional nationally representative survey in Korea) were examined, and 128 of them (7.1%) had chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study assessed the association between Pb, Hg, Cd exposure, and CKD. Blood Pb and Cd levels were correlated with CKD in univariate logistic regression model. However, these environmental heavy metals were not associated with CKD after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and these metals in multivariate logistic regression models. We stratified the analysis according to hypertension or diabetes. In the adults with hypertension or diabetes, CKD had a significant association with elevated blood Cd after adjustment, but no association was present with blood Pb and Hg. The corresponding odds ratio [OR] of Cd for CKD were 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.19, P=0.026) in adults with hypertension and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.14-3.25, P=0.014) in adults with diabetes. Environmental low level of Pb, Hg, Cd exposure in the general population was not associated with CKD. However, Cd exposure was associated with CKD, especially in adults with hypertension or diabetes. This finding suggests that environmental low Cd exposure may be a contributor to the risk of CKD in adults with hypertension or diabetes.

  20. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Léger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ≥18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (≥2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

  1. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  2. Psychotic Experiences and Risk of Violence Perpetration and Arrest in the General Population: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190

  3. Acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of the risk between physicians and the general population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P < 0.0001) and hyperlipidemia (21.36% versus 12.93%, P < 0.0001) but a lower risk of AMI than did the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.72) after adjusting for DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and area. Between medical specialty, age, and area subgroups, differences in the risk for having an AMI were nonsignificant. Medical center physicians had a lower risk (AOR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20-0.85) than did local clinic physicians. Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment. PMID:25802869

  4. DEARS particulate matter relationships for personal, indoor, outdoor, and central site settings for a general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodes, Charles E.; Lawless, Phil A.; Thornburg, Jonathan W.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.

    2010-04-01

    This analysis provides the initial summary of PM 2.5 mass concentrations relationships for all seasons and participants for a general population in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). The summary presented highlights the utility of the new methodologies applied, in addition to summarizing the particulate matter (PM) data. Results include the requirement to adjust the exposure data for monitor wearing compliance and measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, even though the study design specified a non-smoking household. A 40% wearing compliance acceptance level was suggested as necessary to balance minimizing exposure misclassification (from poor compliance) and having sufficient data to conduct robust statistical analyses. An ETS threshold level equivalent to adding more than 1.5 μg m -3 to the collected sample was found to be necessary to detect changes in the personal exposure factor ( Fpex). It is not completely clear why such a large threshold level was necessary. Statistically significant spatial PM 2.5 gradients were identified in three of the six DEARS neighborhoods in Wayne County. These were expected, given the number of strong, localized PM sources in the Detroit (Michigan) metro area. Some residential outdoor bias levels compared with the central site at Allen Park exceeded 15%. After adjusting for ETS biases, the outdoor contributions to the personal exposure were typically larger by factors from 1.75 to 2.2 compared with those of the non-outdoor sources. The outdoor contribution was larger in the summer than in the winter, which is consistent with the fractions of time spent outdoors in the summer vs. the winter (6.7% vs. 1.1% of the time). Mean personal PM 2.5 cloud levels for the general population DEARS cohort ranged from 1.5 to 3.8 (after ETS adjustment) and were comparable to those reported previously. The personal exposure collections indoors were typically at least 13 times greater than those contributed outdoors.

  5. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.

  6. Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Ian; Evans, Stephen; Rawlins, Michael D; Smeeth, Liam; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Wexler, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Background The juvenile form of Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare disorder. There are no population-based estimates of either its incidence or prevalence in any population in the world. The present study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of juvenile HD in the UK and to examine the range of pharmacological treatments used in its management. Method The records of individuals under the age of 21 who had recorded diagnoses of HD were retrieved from the General Practice Research Database from 1990 through 2010. From these data estimates of incidence and prevalence were made as well as the specific treatments used in the treatment of its physical and psychological manifestations. Results 12 incident and 21 prevalent patients with juvenile HD were identified. The 21 prevalent cases included the 12 incident cases. The minimum population-based estimate of incidence is 0.70 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.22) per million patient-years. The minimum estimate of prevalence is 6.77/million (95% CI 5.60 to 8.12) per million patient-years. Patients were most frequently prescribed antidepressants, hypnotics, antipsychotics and treatments for motor abnormalities. Conclusions In the UK, juvenile HD is an extremely rare and complex disorder. The prescribing data demonstrate that the clinical management of juvenile HD is undertaken with no formal evidence base for the efficacy or safety of the treatments used. Research into the safety and efficacy of appropriate therapies is urgently required to offset the haphazard nature of prescribing. Multinational collaboration will be necessary to enrol sufficient numbers. Exploratory studies, though, should begin now. PMID:23558730

  7. A walk-in screening of dementia in the general population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Wang, Ling-Chun; Ma, Tzu-Chiao; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased in its prevalence due to the increasing aged population. Currently there is no updated data on the prevalence of dementia including its very mild stage in Taiwan. Under the extensive coverage of Mentality Protection Center (MPC), Fo Guang Shan, Taiwan, the volunteers of MPC have conducted the medicine-related services and the screening of dementia by AD8 (ascertainment of dementia 8) that can screen the dementia even at its very mild stage in general population in all Taiwan. From 2011 to 2013, in total, 2,171 participants, 368 in the northern, 549 in the central, 877 in the southern, and 377 in the eastern part, were recruited with the mean age being 66.9 ± 10.2 years old. The ratio of suspected dementia patients, AD8 score greater than or equal to 2, was 13.6% of all recruited participants with their mean AD8 score being 2.9 ± 1.3, mean age being 69.4 ± 10.8 years old, and female predominance being 73.0%. Although this is a screening study, it has extensive coverage of all Taiwan and the use of AD8 is capable of screening very mild dementia. A further study with a randomized sampling to examine the prevalence and incidence of dementia including its very mild stage is encouraged. PMID:24883363

  8. FLYCHK: generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H; Chen, M; Morgan, W L; Ralchenko, Y; Lee, R W

    2005-06-17

    FLYCHK is a straightforward, rapid tool to provide ionization and population distributions of plasmas in zero dimension with accuracy sufficient for most initial estimates and in many cases applicable for more sophisticated analysis. FLYCHK solves rate equations for level population distributions by considering collisional and radiative atomic processes. The code is designed to be straightforward to use and yet is general enough to apply for most laboratory plasmas. Further, it can be applied for low-to-high Z ions and in either steady-state or time-dependent situations. Plasmas with arbitrary electron energy distributions, single or multiple electron temperatures can be studied as well as radiation-driven plasmas. To achieve this versatility and accuracy in a code that provides rapid response we employ schematic atomic structures, scaled hydrogenic cross-sections and read-in tables. It also employs the jj configuration averaged atomic states and oscillator strengths calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model for spectrum synthesis. Numerous experimental and calculational comparisons performed in recent years show that FLYCHK provides meaningful estimates of ionization distributions, well within a charge state for most laboratory applications.

  9. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hatsushi; Koike, Tomoyuki; Ohara, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Shigeyuki; Ariizumi, Ken; Abe, Yasuhiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Imatani, Akira; Inomata, Yoshifumi; Kato, Katsuaki; Shibuya, Daisuke; Aida, Shigemitsu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan. METHODS: In Japan, mature adults are offered regular check-ups for the prevention of gastric cancer. A notice was sent by mail to all inhabitants aged > 40 years. A total of 160 983 Japanese (60 774 male, 100 209 female; mean age 61.9 years) who underwent a stomach check up were enrolled in this study. In addition, from these 160 983 subjects, we randomly selected a total of 82 894 (34 275 male, 48 619 female; mean age 62.4 years) to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal pain. The respective subjects were prospectively asked to complete questionnaires concerning the symptoms of heartburn, dysphagia, and abdominal pain for a 1 mo period. RESULTS: The respective prevalences of the symptoms in males and females were: heartburn, 15.8% vs 20.7%; dysphagia, 5.4% vs 7.8%; and abdominal pain, 6.6% vs 9.6%. Among these symptoms, heartburn was significantly high compared with the other symptoms, and the prevalence of heartburn was significantly more frequent in females than in males in the 60-89-year age group. Dysphagia was also significantly more frequent in female patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of typical GERD symptoms (heartburn) was high, at about 20% of the Japan population, and the frequency was especially high in females in the 60-89 year age group. PMID:18322948

  10. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L.; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women. PMID:26351582

  11. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy. PMID:27658807

  12. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy.

  13. Resilience in the General Population: Standardization of the Resilience Scale (RS-11)

    PubMed Central

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Zenger, Markus; Heinen, Ines; Dwinger, Sarah; Decker, Oliver; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to generate normative data for the RS-11 for different age groups for men and women and to further investigate the construct validity and factor structure in the general population. Methods Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany in 2006 (n = 5,036). Results Normative data for the RS-11 were generated for men and women (53.7% female) and different age levels (mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years). Men had significantly higher mean scores compared with women (60.0 [SD = 10.2] vs. 59.3 [SD = 11.0]). Results of CFA supported a one-factor model of resilience. Self-esteem (standardized β = .50) and life satisfaction (standardized β =.20) were associated with resilience. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of resilience with other populations. Results demonstrate a special importance of self-esteem in the understanding of resilience. PMID:26523927

  14. Rare coding TTN variants are associated with electrocardiographic QT interval in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Ashish; Bakshy, Kiranmayee; Xu, Linda; Nandakumar, Priyanka; Lee, Dongwon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Grove, Megan L.; Arking, Dan E.; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that noncoding variants mapping around a specific set of 170 genes encoding cardiomyocyte intercalated disc (ID) proteins are more enriched for associations with QT interval than observed for genome-wide comparisons. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%, we had identified 28 such ID protein-encoding genes. Here, we assessed whether coding variants at these 28 genes affect QT interval in the general population as well. We used exome sequencing in 4,469 European American (EA) and 1,880 African American (AA) ancestry individuals from the population-based ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Study cohort to focus on rare (allele frequency <1%) potentially deleterious (nonsynonymous, stop-gain, splice) variants (n = 2,398 for EA; n = 1,693 for AA) and tested their effects on standardized QT interval residuals. We identified 27 nonsynonymous variants associated with QT interval (FDR 5%), 22 of which were in TTN. Taken together with the mapping of a QT interval GWAS locus near TTN, our observation of rare deleterious coding variants in TTN associated with QT interval show that TTN plays a role in regulation of cardiac electrical conductance and coupling, and is a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. PMID:27321809

  15. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koppes, Lando L J; Geuskens, Goedele A; Pronk, Anjoeka; Vermeulen, Roel C H; de Vroome, Ernest M M

    2014-08-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on specific populations, such as nurses. We used data on night work collected in the Dutch Labor Force Surveys of 1996 until 2009, and individually linked these with National registers on hospital admission. Among 285,723 women without breast cancer at baseline, 2,531 had a hospital admission for breast cancer during an average of 7 years of follow up in the registers. Occasional and regular night work were not associated with the risk of hospital admission for breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratios 1.04; 95 % confidence interval 0.85-1.27, and 0.87; 0.72-1.05, respectively). Working more hours per week, or more years in a job entailing night work did not show increased breast cancer risks. Hazard ratios neither differed between nurses and women with other occupations. Our results show no association of night work with incident breast cancer, and suggest that night work generally does not increase the risk of breast cancer among women in the Dutch working population.

  16. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  17. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  18. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  19. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  20. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  1. Planning for Serious Illness by the General Public: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Venne, Rosemary; Hunter, Paulette; Surtees, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Background. While rates of advance care documentation amongst the general public remain low, there is increasing recognition of the value of informal planning to address patient preferences in serious illness. Objectives. To determine the associations between personal attributes and formal and informal planning for serious illness across age groups. Methods. This population-based, online survey was conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada, in April, 2012, using a nonclinical sample of 827 adults ranging from 18 to 88 years of age and representative of age, sex, and regional distribution of the province. Associations between key predictor variables and planning for serious illness were assessed using binary logistic regression. Results. While 16.6% of respondents had completed a written living will or advance care plan, half reported having conversations about their treatment wishes or states of health in which they would find it unacceptable to live. Lawyers were the most frequently cited source of assistance for those who had prepared advance care plans. Personal experiences with funeral planning significantly increased the likelihood of activities designed to plan for serious illness. Conclusions. Strategies designed to increase the rate of planning for future serious illness amongst the general public must account for personal readiness. PMID:25025030

  2. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    PubMed Central

    Clamor, Annika; Warmuth, A. Malika; Lincoln, Tania M.

    2015-01-01

    Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP)) may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N = 104; Mage = 27.7 years, SD = 11.2, range 18–70). Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses. PMID:26199758

  3. Generalization and dilution of association results from European GWAS in populations of non-European ancestry: the PAGE study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christopher S; Matise, Tara C; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Buyske, Steven; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Peters, Ulrike; Franceschini, Nora; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Duggan, David J; Spencer, Kylee L; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Thomas, Fridtjof; Young, Alicia; Carty, Cara; Heiss, Gerardo; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kooperberg, Charles L

    2013-09-01

    The vast majority of genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings reported to date are from populations with European Ancestry (EA), and it is not yet clear how broadly the genetic associations described will generalize to populations of diverse ancestry. The Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study is a consortium of multi-ancestry, population-based studies formed with the objective of refining our understanding of the genetic architecture of common traits emerging from GWAS. In the present analysis of five common diseases and traits, including body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and lipid levels, we compare direction and magnitude of effects for GWAS-identified variants in multiple non-EA populations against EA findings. We demonstrate that, in all populations analyzed, a significant majority of GWAS-identified variants have allelic associations in the same direction as in EA, with none showing a statistically significant effect in the opposite direction, after adjustment for multiple testing. However, 25% of tagSNPs identified in EA GWAS have significantly different effect sizes in at least one non-EA population, and these differential effects were most frequent in African Americans where all differential effects were diluted toward the null. We demonstrate that differential LD between tagSNPs and functional variants within populations contributes significantly to dilute effect sizes in this population. Although most variants identified from GWAS in EA populations generalize to all non-EA populations assessed, genetic models derived from GWAS findings in EA may generate spurious results in non-EA populations due to differential effect sizes. Regardless of the origin of the differential effects, caution should be exercised in applying any genetic risk prediction model based on tagSNPs outside of the ancestry group in which it was derived. Models based directly on functional variation may generalize more robustly, but the identification

  4. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors.

  5. Occupational and environmental associations with antinuclear antibodies in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G; Schur, Peter S; Fraser, Patricia A

    2006-12-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus, and can occur many years before onset of symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibodies in the general population (i.e., people who do not have lupus or other systemic autoimmune diseases). Serum was collected from 266 population-based controls who had been frequency-matched to the age and gender distribution of lupus cases in a 60-county study area in the southeastern United States. A detailed occupational history was collected using a structured interview; information was also collected on hair dye use. Antinuclear antibodies were assayed using HEp-2 cells as substrate. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibody levels, adjusting for age, gender, and race. High-titer antinuclear antibodies (> or =1:160) were observed in 21 subjects (8%). A twofold increased prevalence of high-titer antinuclear antibodies was seen with some occupational exposures (silica dust, pesticides, and sunlight), although none of these individual estimates were statistically significant. The association seen with use of hair dyes was weaker (OR 1.4). There was a suggestion of a dose response with a combined measure based on the summation of exposures (ORs of 1.7, 2.1, and 5.9 for 1, 2, and > or = 3 exposures). These data suggest that occupational exposures may influence the expression of antinuclear antibodies. Larger studies addressing these exposures may provide insights into the mechanisms by which various environmental factors affect the development of autoantibodies and the progression to clinical disease.

  6. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001). Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l). Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61) were always accompanied by albuminuria. Conclusion Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121

  7. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40–1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. Citation: Koyanagi A, Stickley A. The association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms in the general population: a global perspective. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1875–1885. PMID:26085291

  8. Association of Problem Gambling with Type of Gambling Among Italian General Population.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Salvadori, Stefano; Gori, Mercedes; Lewis, Isabella; Jarre, Paolo; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    The origin of gambling disorders is uncertain; however, research has shown a tendency to focus on specific types of games as a potential important risk factor. The principal aim of this study is to examine the relationships between types of gambling practices and gambling disorder. The data were extracted from IPSAD-Italia(®) 2010-2011 (Italian Population Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs), a survey among the Italian general population which collects socio-cultural information, information about the use of drugs, legal substances and gambling habits. In order to identify the "problem gambler" we used the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Three groups are considered in this analysis: no-risk gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk/problem gamblers. Type of gambling practice was considered among two types of gambler: one-game players and multi-games players. 1.9 % of multi-game players were considered problem gamblers, only 0.6 % of one-game players were problem gamblers (p < 0.001). The percentage of players who were low and moderate-risk gamblers was approximately double among multi-game players, with 14.4 % low-risk and 5.8 % moderate-risk; compared with 7.7 % low-risk and 2.5 % moderate risk among one-game players. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher level of gambling severity was associated with multi-game players (OR = 2.23, p < 0.0001). Video-poker/slot-machines show the highest association with gambling severity among both one-game players and multi-game players, with scores of OR equal to 4.3 and 4.5 respectively. These findings suggest a popular perception of risk associated with this type of gambling for the development of gambling problems.

  9. Association of Problem Gambling with Type of Gambling Among Italian General Population.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Salvadori, Stefano; Gori, Mercedes; Lewis, Isabella; Jarre, Paolo; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    The origin of gambling disorders is uncertain; however, research has shown a tendency to focus on specific types of games as a potential important risk factor. The principal aim of this study is to examine the relationships between types of gambling practices and gambling disorder. The data were extracted from IPSAD-Italia(®) 2010-2011 (Italian Population Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs), a survey among the Italian general population which collects socio-cultural information, information about the use of drugs, legal substances and gambling habits. In order to identify the "problem gambler" we used the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Three groups are considered in this analysis: no-risk gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk/problem gamblers. Type of gambling practice was considered among two types of gambler: one-game players and multi-games players. 1.9 % of multi-game players were considered problem gamblers, only 0.6 % of one-game players were problem gamblers (p < 0.001). The percentage of players who were low and moderate-risk gamblers was approximately double among multi-game players, with 14.4 % low-risk and 5.8 % moderate-risk; compared with 7.7 % low-risk and 2.5 % moderate risk among one-game players. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher level of gambling severity was associated with multi-game players (OR = 2.23, p < 0.0001). Video-poker/slot-machines show the highest association with gambling severity among both one-game players and multi-game players, with scores of OR equal to 4.3 and 4.5 respectively. These findings suggest a popular perception of risk associated with this type of gambling for the development of gambling problems. PMID:26475172

  10. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Åke

    2016-02-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a random sample (n = 2,739) was patch tested to PPD. Overall, 5,286 individuals (50.9%) reported having used hair colorants at least once in their lifetime (78% female, 20% male), and 35% had used hair colorants during the last 12 months. Hair colorant avoidance because of any skin problem during the lifetime was reported by 6%. Black henna tattoos had been used by 5.5% during their lifetime. The prevalence of PPD contact allergy was 0.8% (95% confidence interval 0.6-1.0%), with no statistically significant association with gender or hair dye use. The prevalence of PPD in black henna tattoo users was 3.2% versus 0.6% in nonusers (P < 0.001). A clinically relevant positive patch test reaction to PPD related to hair coloring products was found in 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2%). A significant association with PPD contact allergy was observed for subjects who had black henna tattoos in their lifetime, with an age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 9.33 (95% confidence interval 3.45-25.26, P < 0.001). Black henna tattoos are an important risk factor for PPD contact allergy. PMID:26802237

  11. Tension-type headache in Parma's adult general population: a focus on age of onset.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian C; Torelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the age of onset for tension-type headache in a population-based sample in the Parma, distinguishing its different subtypes and considering definite and probable diagnoses. Age of headache onset is a useful clinical feature for differential diagnosis between primary headaches and between primary and secondary headache forms. A total of 904 subjects representative of the Parma's adult general population were interviewed face to face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire specially designed for the diagnosis of primary headaches according to the ICHD-II criteria. In the majority of subjects diagnosed with definite tension-type headache, age of onset was 39 years or less, while mean age of onset was 29.7 years (SD 16.3 years, range 5-79 years), the median being 25 years. Both infrequent and frequent episodic definite tension-type headache first occurred in the majority of cases in the second, third and fourth decades. Subjects with chronic definite tension-type headache reported a later onset in life (i.e. fourth, fifth and sixth decades). In our study, mean age of onset for probable tension-type headache was 23.7 years (SD 9.2 years, range 10-40 years) and the median was 22 years. In no case did we find significant gender differences. Our study results are similar to most of those reported in the literature. Further research needs to be done in the Italian epidemiological context, given the lack of literature reports on this topic.

  12. Dairy intake, blood pressure, and incident hypertension in a general Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Engberink, Mariëlle F; Geleijnse, Johanna M; de Jong, Nynke; Smit, Henriette A; Kok, Frans J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2009-03-01

    Diet and lifestyle are important for maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). The role of dairy in the prevention of hypertension, however, is not yet clear. We studied the relation of dairy intake with BP in 21,553 Dutch participants aged 20-65 y who did not use antihypertensive medication. In addition, the risk of hypertension was examined in 3454 of these participants with a 5-y follow-up. Dairy consumption was assessed at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative FFQ that included 178 foods and beverages. Baseline BP and odds ratios (OR) (95% CI) for incident hypertension were calculated in categories of energy-adjusted dairy intake with adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, and dietary intakes. Participants had a median intake of 344 g/d (approximately 2.3 servings) for total dairy and 174 g/d (approximately 1.2 servings) for low-fat dairy. Mean BP was 120/76 mm Hg. Intake of total dairy, specific dairy groups (i.e. low-fat, high-fat, fermented) and dairy products (i.e. cheese, yogurt) were not consistently related to BP. Of 3454 participants who were followed, 713 developed hypertension. The risk of hypertension tended to be inversely related to low-fat dairy intake, with multivariate OR (95% CI) of 1.00, 0.78 (0.61, 1.00), 0.81 (0.63, 1.03), and 0.82 (0.64, 1.06; P-trend: 0.24) in consecutive quartiles. We conclude that variations in BP in a general middle-aged Dutch population cannot be explained by overall dairy intake. A beneficial effect of low-fat dairy on risk of hypertension, however, cannot be excluded, which warrants further investigation in prospective population-based studies.

  13. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated With QT Prolongation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Tu, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Lin, Hung-Ju; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is independently associated with QT prolongation among patients with diabetes. It has not yet been determined whether this association remains valid in the general population. We designed an observational study to explore this association. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 31 116 consecutive participants in our health management program. Heart rate–corrected QT (QTc) interval was derived from 12-lead electrocardiography and by Bazett’s formula. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and classified as none, mild, moderate, or severe, according to the ultrasonographic criteria. A multivariable linear regression model was fitted for the association between QTc interval and potential predictors (including demographic, anthropometric, biochemical factors, and comorbidities). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were fitted to assess the association between the severity of NAFLD and QTc prolongation, with the adjustment of significant predictors derived from multivariable linear regression. The mean QTc interval was 421.3 ms (SD 45.4 ms). In the multivariable linear regression analyses, mild, moderate, and severe NAFLD were associated with increases of 2.55, 6.59, and 12.13 ms, respectively, in QTc interval compared with no NAFLD (all P<0.001). In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, mild, moderate, and severe NAFLD were associated with an increased risk for QTc prolongation, with odds ratios of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.21, P<0.05), 1.61 (95% CI: 1.36 to 1.9, P<0.001), and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.16 to 2.24, P<0.01), respectively, in women, and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.21, P<0.05), 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and 1.87 (95% CI: 1.16 to 2.24, P<0.001), respectively, in men, after adjusting for predictors known to be associated with the QTc interval. The association remained significant among subgroups with or without diabetes. Conclusions The severity of NAFLD

  14. The associations of morningness-eveningness with anger and impulsivity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Seung-Gul; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among morningness-eveningness, impulsivity and anger in the general population. A total of 1000 community-dwelling subjects (500 males) aged 20-77 years (mean± SD age: 39.6 ± 11.6 years) completed the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderation and mediation analyses were performed to determine whether the relationship between two variables depended on the third variable, referred to as a moderator, and whether the third variable, known as a mediator, was associated with the other two variables establishing causation. The MEQ scores exhibited significant negative associations with BIS (p < 0.001) and STAXI (p < 0.001) scores, and high scores on the BIS were associated with high scores on the STAXI (p < 0.001). Impulsivity, as measured by the BIS, played a role as a moderator (p < 0.001) in the relationship between MEQ and STAXI, and anger, as measured by the STAXI, acted as moderator (p = 0.030) in the association between MEQ and BIS. However, after controlling for the interaction of the BIS and MEQ, the MEQ scores did not significantly predict STAXI scores (p = 0.070). Additionally, the effect size of the mediating effect of the BIS scores on the relationship between the MEQ and STAXI (percent mediation: 53.2%) was larger than that of the STAXI scores on the association between the MEQ and BIS (percent mediation: 31.8%). The present results demonstrate that morningness-eveningness was closely related with both impulsivity and anger in the general population. Furthermore, these findings suggest that impulsivity may exercise a great influence on the association between morningness-eveningness and anger in two ways: as a moderator by modulating this relationship based on the level of impulsivity and as a mediator by acting as an intermediary factor.

  15. Practical prediction model for the risk of 2-year mortality of individuals in the general population.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander; Gautam, Shiva; Brown, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to validate a prediction model and risk-stratification tool of 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population suitable for office practice use. A risk indicator (R) derived from data in the literature was based on only 6 variables: to calculate R for an individual, starting with 0, for each year of age above 60, add 0.14; for a male, add 0.9; for diabetes mellitus, add 0.7; for albuminuria > 30 mg/g of creatinine, add 0.7; for stage ≥ 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD), add 0.9; for cardiovascular disease (CVD), add 1.4; or for both CKD and CVD, add 1.7. We developed a univariate logistic regression model predicting 2-year individual mortality rates. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set (1999-2004 with deaths through 2006) was used as the target for validation. These 12,515 subjects had a mean age of 48.9 ± 18.1 years, 48% males, 9.5% diabetes, 11.7% albuminuria, 6.8% CVD, 5.4% CKD, and 2.8% both CKD and CVD. Using the risk indicator R alone to predict mortality demonstrated good performance with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.84. Dividing subjects into low-risk (R=0-1.0), low intermediate risk (R > 1.0-3.0), high intermediate risk (R > 3.0-5.0) or high-risk (R > 5.0) categories predicted 2-year mortality rates of 0.52%, 1.44%, 5.19% and 15.24%, respectively, by the prediction model compared with actual mortality rates of 0.29%, 2.48%, 5.13% and 13.40%, respectively. We have validated a model of risk stratification using easily identified clinical characteristics to predict 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population. The model demonstrated performance adequate for its potential use for clinical practice and research decisions.

  16. Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does their usefulness outweigh their risks?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Ballbè, Montse; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the perceptions of the general population about the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users and on those passively exposed to e-cigarettes and the perceptions about e-cigarette usefulness for reducing or eliminating tobacco smoking. Design, setting, and participants We analysed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the general adult (≥16 years) population of Barcelona, Spain (336 men and 400 women). The fieldwork was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the percentages, adjusted OR and their corresponding 95% CI among participants with some awareness of e-cigarettes (79.2% of the sample). Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the perception about harmfulness for e-cigarette users and for passively exposed non-e-cigarette users, as well as the perception of usefulness for smokers of cigarette cessation and reduction. Results In this sample, 40.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on users, and 27.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on passively exposed bystanders (p<0.001). Particularly, more never-smokers perceived that e-cigarettes had harmful effects on passively exposed bystanders than current smokers (34.4% vs 20.6%; OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.63). More people perceived e-cigarettes as being useful for reducing smoking than for quitting (50.6% vs 29.9%, p<0.001), as well as for reducing smoking than as being harmful to users (50.6% vs 40.1%, p=0.044). Discussion The perception that e-cigarettes are useful for reducing tobacco consumption was more prevalent than the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful to users and to those passively exposed to e-cigarettes. Advertisements and messages about the use of e-cigarettes and their harmful effects should be regulated and based on scientific evidence to avoid creating erroneous ideas about their use. PMID:26534735

  17. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  18. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  19. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  20. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER): prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values < 0.9 were considered as peripheral arterial disease. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4), (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2), females 5.3% (4.6-6.0); p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44); inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68) for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16) for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58) for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58) for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65); diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83); previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15); hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18); hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19). Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87) and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94) were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight. PMID:20529387

  1. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  2. Untreated hypertension in the UK household population - Who are missed by the general health checks?

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jakob; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension is an age-related, long-term condition and a leading risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. Due to its asymptomatic nature it can often be left undiagnosed. Long-term treatment is available, but blood pressure can also be reduced through health behaviour changes in weight control, smoking cessation, higher physical activity levels, reduced salt and alcohol intake, and healthful diets if discovered early. This paper investigates the prevalence and characteristics of those with untreated (compared to treated) hypertension who did not have a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD); a group who is in effect missed by general health checks. Untreated hypertension was studied in 8933 individuals aged 40-74 years representative of the UK household population, who were interviewed and underwent a physical health examination in their home, 2010-2012. The prevalence of untreated hypertension without a history of CVD was 7% for men, 2% for women, and 5% overall. Untreated hypertension was particularly high among the 55-64 year age group. Age and sex-adjusted analyses found strong positive associations with male gender, smoking, self-reported good-excellent health, full fat dairy preference, white bread preference, higher alcohol consumption, and living alone. Strong negative associations were found for possessing 5 + prescription drugs, statins or antiplatelets, being diagnosed with diabetes or possessing antidiabetics, and long-term limiting illness status. Notably, many reported their health as good to excellent. A fact which emphasises the importance of motivating individuals to take part in the general health checks for an asymptomatic condition such as hypertension. PMID:27413665

  3. Sleep Hygiene Pattern and Behaviors and Related Factors among General Population in West Of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Chehri, Azita; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Akram; Rezaei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep hygiene was found as an important predictor for sleep quality. People’s sleep hygiene can have a major role in their daily function. The purpose of the study was to determine sleep hygiene patterns and sleep hygiene behaviors and factors affecting them in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1829 men and 1262 women were selected randomly from 50 clusters of different parts of the city. The inclusion criteria were age between 12 and 65 years and living in Kermanshah. The exclusion criteria were psychiatric disorder and known general medical conditions that affecting sleep. The data collection instruments were demographic questionnaire and Sleep Hygiene Questionnaire, consisted of 13 items about biological rhythm and bed room environment and behaviors that affecting sleep. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Results: The highest percentage was obtained for irregular woke and went up from day to day or at weekend and holidays (74.8%). Only 213 (6.9%) participants were classified as having good sleep hygiene (score 12-14). The mean age of very poor, poor, moderate, and good sleepers was 34.8 ± 14.4, 33.7 ± 17.4, 36.5 ± 13.8, and 35 ± 13.7years, respectively. There were significant differences between the age of poor and moderate sleepers and also sleep hygiene patterns with respect to sex, education level and job. Conclusion: Poor sleep hygiene were more frequent in Iranian peoples and the major problem in sleep hygiene in our study was inappropriate sleep schedule. PMID:27045403

  4. Mapping interventions that promote mental health in the general population: A scoping review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jennifer; Holmqvist, Maxine; Wener, Pamela; Halas, Gayle; Rothney, Janet; Schultz, Annette; Goertzen, Leah; Katz, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Health policies and programs promoting mental health or preventing mental illness in the general public are under-recognized facets of primary prevention. Increasing awareness and adoption of such strategies could reduce the burden of mental illness in individuals, families, communities, and society as whole. We conducted a scoping review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL and ERIC from 2004 to 2014. Reviews were included if the authors indicated a systematic approach in their literature searches, and if they comprised interventions in Westernized countries targeting the general population. We identified 39 reviews that met the inclusion criteria. Mental health intervention approaches and outcomes varied across age groups and settings, and included functional, social, and cognitive measures. Most interventions aimed to prevent a specific mental illness or symptoms (depression, anxiety, burnout, or stress). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and educational components were common. School-based programs focused on outcomes involving social and academic development. Interventions for families, especially for young or disadvantaged parents, taught parenting skills to help improve the well-being of children and their care-givers. In the workplace, the focus was on managing stress, while programs for the elderly emphasized quality of life determinants. This review summarizes a wide variety of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness, but the literature is primarily focused on the individual or family unit. More information is required about interventions at the community and societal levels. PMID:26896634

  5. Chinese Version of the EQ-5D Preference Weights: Applicability in a Chinese General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunmei; Gong, Yanhong; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Shengchao; Yin, Xiaoxv; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Wenzhen; Cao, Shiyi; Mkandawire, Naomie; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the reliability, validity and sensitivity of Chinese version of the EQ-5D preference weights in Chinese general people, examine the differences between the China value set and the UK, Japan and Korea value sets, and provide methods for evaluating and comparing the EQ-5D value sets of different countries. Methods A random sample of 2984 community residents (15 years or older) were interviewed using a questionnaire including the EQ-5D scale. Level of agreement, convergent validity, known-groups validity and sensitivity of the EQ-5D China, United Kingdom (UK), Japan and Korea value sets were determined. Results The mean EQ-5D index scores were significantly (P<0.05) different among the UK (0.964), Japan (0.981), Korea (0.987), and China (0.985) weights. High level of agreement (intraclass correlations coefficients > 0.75) and convergent validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficients > 0.95) were found between each paired schemes. The EQ-5D index scores discriminated equally well for the four versions between levels of 10 known-groups (P< 0.05). The effect size and the relative efficiency statistics showed that the China weights had better sensitivity. Conclusions The China EQ-5D preference weights show equivalent psychometric properties with those from the UK, Japan and Korea weights while slightly more sensitive to known group differences than those from the Japan and Korea weights. Considering both psychometric and sociocultural issues, the China scheme should be a priority as an EQ-5D based measure of the health related quality of life in Chinese general population. PMID:27711169

  6. Natural course of acute neck and low back pain in the general population: the HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Vasseljen, Ottar; Woodhouse, Astrid; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Leivseth, Linda

    2013-08-01

    In this prospective cohort study we aimed to describe the natural course of acute neck and low back pain in a general population of Norway. We screened 9056 subjects aged 20-67 years who participated in a general health survey for a new episode of neck or low back pain the previous month. The screening identified 219 subjects who formed the cohort for this study. Pain intensity was reported on a numeric rating scale (0-10) at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after start of the new pain episode. The course of pain was described for neck and low back pain, different baseline pain levels, age groups, and number of pain sites at baseline. Use of medication and health care was described and associations between pain intensity and seeking health care were estimated. Pain declined rapidly within 1 month after a new pain episode, with a reduction of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-1.32) for neck pain and 1.40 (95% CI 0.82-1.99) for low back pain with little change thereafter. However, pain remained unchanged over the follow-up year for those with equal pain in the neck and low back areas at baseline and for those reporting 4 or more pain sites at baseline. Only 1 in 5 sought health care for their complaints. Still, the course of pain was comparable to effect sizes reported in interventional studies. This study thus contributes natural course reference data for comparisons of pain outcome in clinical trials and practice.

  7. Impact of food consumption habits on the pesticide dietary intake: comparison between a French vegetarian and the general population.

    PubMed

    Van Audenhaege, Marieke; Heraud, Fanny; Menard, Celine; Bouyrie, Juliette; Morois, Sophie; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Lesterle, Sebastien; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to compare the pesticide residue dietary intake of the French general population and the vegetarian population, separated into five specific diets: omnivorous (OMN), lacto-vegetarian (LV), ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV), pesco-lacto-vegetarian (PLV) and vegan (VG). Theoretical Maximum Daily Intakes (TMDIs) based on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) were calculated as a percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Among the 421 pesticides studied, only 48 had TMDI above ADI for at least one population subgroup. An excessive exposure was noticed for 44, 43, 42, 41 and 30 pesticides in the OLV, VG, OMN, LV and PLV groups, respectively, versus 29 in the general population. Meat and egg products consumption was responsible for higher intakes of organochlorine pesticides in the general population than in the vegetarian population (TMDI = 348% versus 146-183% ADI for aldrin). However, as the limited consumption of animal-origin commodities was largely offset by a higher fruit, vegetable and cereal intake in the vegetarian diets, vegetarians appear to be preferentially exposed to pesticides, for which fruit, vegetables and cereals are the main contributors, such as tri-allate, chlorpyrifos-methyl and diazinon. This study illustrates that consumption habits have a real impact on pesticide exposure in terms of intake levels, number and type of pesticides, representing a potential risk of dietary exposure. Except for organochlorine compounds, the vegetarian population may be more exposed to pesticide residues than the general population due to specific dietary habits. Thus, this population should be considered for risk assessment of pesticide residues. PMID:19707917

  8. A paradigm for the study of paranoia in the general population: the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    PubMed

    Ellett, Lyn; Allen-Crooks, Rhani; Stevens, Adele; Wildschut, Tim; Chadwick, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that paranoia is common in the general population. We report three studies that examined the Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) as a paradigm for evaluation of non-clinical paranoia. The PDG captures three key qualities that are at the heart of paranoia--it is interpersonal, it concerns threat, and it concerns the perception of others' intentions towards the self. Study 1 (n=175) found that state paranoia was positively associated with selection of the competitive PDG choice. Study 2 (n=111) found that this association was significant only when participants believed they were playing the PDG against another person, and not when playing against a computer. This finding underscores the interpersonal nature of paranoia and the concomitant necessity of studying paranoia in interpersonal context. In Study 3 (n=152), we assessed both trait and state paranoia, and differentiated between distrust- and greed-based competition. Both trait and state paranoia were positively associated with distrust-based competition (but not with greed-based competition). Crucially, we found that the association between trait paranoia and distrust-based competition was fully mediated by state paranoia. The PDG is a promising paradigm for the study of non-clinical paranoia.

  9. Are teachers at higher risk of HIV infection than the general population in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Yaro, Seydou; Fao, Paulin; Defer, Marie-Christine; Ilboudo, François; Langani, Youssouf; Meda, Nicolas; Robert, Annie

    2013-08-01

    In order to assess the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among teachers in Burkina Faso, we carried out a national survey in 336 primary and secondary schools from urban and rural areas. Among 2088 teachers who agreed to participate, 1498 (71.7%) provided urine for HIV testing. The crude prevalence of HIV among teachers was 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-3.6), with no difference between teachers from primary schools (2.9%, 95%CI: 2.1-4.0) and those from secondary schools (2.5%, 95%CI: 0.5-4.5). Age- and area-standardized HIV prevalence was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.4-1.2) in male teachers, 2.5 times lower than among men in the general population (as assessed from a concomitant Demographic Health Survey), and it was 3.5% (95%CI: 2.5-5.2) in female teachers, 1.7 times higher than in Demographic Health Survey women. This finding calls for the implementation of specific HIV prevention programmes in the education sector targeting women more specifically.

  10. Morphinofobia: the situation among the general population and health care professionals in North-Eastern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Morphinofobia among the general population (GP) and among health care professionals (HP) is not without danger for the patients: it may lead to the inappropriate management of debilitating pain. The aim of our study was to explore among GP and HP the representation and attitudes concerning the use of morphine in health care. Methods A cross-sectional study was done among 412 HP (physicians and nurses) of the 4 hospitals and 10 community health centers of Beira Interior (Portugal)and among 193 persons of the GP randomly selected in public places. Opinions were collected through a translated self-administered questionnaire. Results A significant difference of opinion exists among GP and HP about the use of morphine. The word morphine first suggests drug to GP (36,2%) and analgesia to HP (32,9%.). The reasons for not using morphine most frequently cited are: for GP morphine use means advanced disease (56%), risk of addiction (50%), legal requirements (49,7%); for HP it means legal risks (56,3%) and adverse side effects of morphine such as somnolence - sedation (30,5%) The socio-demographic situation was correlated with the opinions about the use of morphine. Conclusions False beliefs about the use of morphine exist among the studied groups. There seems to be a need for developing information campaigns on pain management and the use of morphine targeting. Better training and more information of HP might also be needed. PMID:20569454

  11. General population job exposure matrix applied to a pooled study of prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T; Eisen, Ellen A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-03-15

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title-based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14-2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09-2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  12. Understanding support for complementary and alternative medicine in general populations: use and perceived efficacy.

    PubMed

    Stoneman, Paul; Sturgis, Patrick; Allum, Nick

    2013-09-01

    Proponents of complementary and alternative medicine argue that these treatments can be used with great effect in addition to, and sometimes instead of, conventional medicine, a position which has drawn sustained opposition from those who advocate an evidence-based approach to the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Using recent survey data from the United Kingdom, this article seeks to establish a clearer understanding of the nature of the public's relationship with complementary and alternative medicine within the general population by focusing on beliefs about the perceived effectiveness of homeopathy, in addition to its reported use. Using recent data from the United Kingdom, we initially demonstrate that reported use and perceived effectiveness are far from coterminous and argue that for a proper understanding of the motivations underpinning public support of complementary and alternative medicine, consideration of both reported use and perceived effectiveness is necessary. We go on to demonstrate that although the profile of homeopathy users differs from those who support this form of medicine, neither outcome is dependent upon peoples' levels of knowledge about science. Instead, the results suggest a far greater explanatory role for need and concerns about conventional medicine.

  13. The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of ‘musical sophistication’ which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement. PMID:24586929

  14. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  15. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  16. Uric acid levels predict future blood pressure and new onset hypertension in the general Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Takase, H; Kimura, G; Dohi, Y

    2014-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that uric acid levels predict new-onset hypertension in the Japanese general population. Normotensive individuals who visited our hospital for a yearly health checkup (n=8157, men=61.0% and age=50.7±12.2 years) were enrolled in the present study. After baseline evaluation, participants were followed up for a median of 48.3 months (range 4.9-101.0 months), with the endpoint being the development of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) > or = 140 mm Hg, diastolic BP > or = 90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medication. The impact of uric acid and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline on future BP and development of hypertension was assessed. During follow-up, 19.0% of women (n=605) and 29.5% of men (n=1469) participants developed hypertension. Incident hypertension was increased across the quartiles for baseline uric acid levels (P<0.0001), and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significant and independent association between the uric acid level and the onset of hypertension in both men and women participants (P<0.05). Furthermore, uric acid was independently and positively correlated with future BP (P<0.05). Thus, uric acid is an independent predictor of new-onset hypertension in both women and men.

  17. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  18. Prevalence of bulimic behaviors and bulimia among a sample of the general population.

    PubMed

    Warheit, G J; Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Biafora, F A

    1993-03-01

    Data are presented on the prevalence of bulimic symptoms and bulimia among a sample of adults residing in north-central Florida (n = 2,075). The data were gathered between 1984 and 1986. The sample included 1,736 whites and 339 blacks, of whom 1,040 were females and 1,035 were males. A current diagnosis of bulimia was made using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM-III), of the American Psychiatric Association. Females had significantly higher rates than did males on nine of the 10 bulimic symptoms. Blacks had symptom rates equal to or greater than whites on eight of the 10 items, and those in the lowest socioeconomic groups (SES) had rates greater than those in the highest SES group on nine of the 10 symptoms. Eight persons, 0.4% of the total sample, met the DSM-III criteria for a diagnosis of bulimia. These included six white females and two black males. Five of the females were aged 18-29 years; one was over 45. Five of the females were in the lower middle SES group; one was in the upper middle SES group. Both of the black males were aged 30-44, and both were in the lowest SES group. The data emphasize the need to distinguish between bulimic type symptoms and bulimia when estimating the prevalence of eating-related problems in the general population. PMID:8465808

  19. Beliefs about gambling problems and recovery: results from a general population telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; Cordingley, Joanne; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony

    2011-12-01

    Respondents were asked their beliefs about gambling abuse as part of a general population telephone survey. The random digit dialing survey consisted of 8,467 interviews of adults, 18 years and older, from Ontario, Canada (45% male; mean age = 46.2). The predominant conception of gambling abuse was that of an addiction, similar to drug addiction. More than half of respondents reported that treatment was necessary and almost three-quarters of respondents felt that problem gamblers would have to give up gambling completely in order to overcome their gambling problem. Problem gamblers (past or current) were less likely than non- or social gamblers to believe that treatment was needed, and current problem gamblers were least likely to believe that abstinence was required, as compared to all other respondents. Strong agreement with conceptions of gambling abuse as disease or addiction were positively associated with belief that treatment is needed, while strong agreement with conceptions of disease or wrongdoing were positively associated with belief that abstinence is required.

  20. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-08-01

    The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ≳10,000 M{sub ☉} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ∼ 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ∼ 7. Most of these stars are expected to live for short times and then directly collapse to black holes, with little or no mass loss over their lives. However, we have now discovered that non-rotating primordial stars with masses close to 55,000 M{sub ☉} can instead die as highly energetic thermonuclear supernovae powered by explosive helium burning, releasing up to 10{sup 55} erg, or about 10,000 times the energy of a Type Ia supernova. The explosion is triggered by the general relativistic contribution of thermal photons to gravity in the core of the star, which causes the core to contract and explosively burn. The energy release completely unbinds the star, leaving no compact remnant, and about half of the mass of the star is ejected into the early cosmos in the form of heavy elements. The explosion would be visible in the near infrared at z ≲ 20 to Euclid and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, perhaps signaling the birth of supermassive black hole seeds and the first quasars.

  1. The General Relativistic Instability Supernova of a Supermassive Population III Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-08-01

    The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses gsim10,000 M ⊙ in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ~ 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ~ 7. Most of these stars are expected to live for short times and then directly collapse to black holes, with little or no mass loss over their lives. However, we have now discovered that non-rotating primordial stars with masses close to 55,000 M ⊙ can instead die as highly energetic thermonuclear supernovae powered by explosive helium burning, releasing up to 1055 erg, or about 10,000 times the energy of a Type Ia supernova. The explosion is triggered by the general relativistic contribution of thermal photons to gravity in the core of the star, which causes the core to contract and explosively burn. The energy release completely unbinds the star, leaving no compact remnant, and about half of the mass of the star is ejected into the early cosmos in the form of heavy elements. The explosion would be visible in the near infrared at z <~ 20 to Euclid and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, perhaps signaling the birth of supermassive black hole seeds and the first quasars.

  2. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  3. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-05-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed to paint fumes in their residence during pregnancy. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between exposure to paint fumes and the risk of being small for gestational age. There were no statistically significant associations between exposure to paint fumes and birth weight and risk of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth.

  4. The occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon in a general population: the Framingham Study.

    PubMed

    Brand, F N; Larson, M G; Kannel, W B; McGuirk, J M

    1997-11-01

    The prevalence and predisposing conditions for primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) were examined in The Framingham Study based on 16 years of follow-up of a cohort of 4182 men and women. The association with atypical chest pain and migraine headache was also investigated. Over the 16 years of follow-up there were 130 men and 171 women who developed primary RP. The prevalence in women (9.6%) was somewhat higher than in men (8.1%) and 81.4% of the RP was primary. Secondary RP was equally prevalent in men (18.6%) and women (19.7%). The most common causes of secondary RP were beta-blocker use (34.2%), carpal tunnel syndrome (10.5%) and rheumatoid arthritis (7.2%). Primary RP cases differed from noncases by having lower systolic blood pressure (p < or = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), and more coronary disease (p = 0.009), smoking (p < or = 0.01) and higher blood sugars (p < or = 0.009). Atypical chest pain was present more often than noted previously in The Framingham Study general population survey, and was equally prevalent in primary and secondary RP and in the two sexes. Associated migraine was more prevalent in women (14.4%) than men (5.0%). Vibrating tool use with associated RP occurred in 14.6%.

  5. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP. PMID:23884906

  6. Scoring the Icecap-a capability instrument. Estimation of a UK general population tariff.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Terry N; Huynh, Elisabeth; Peters, Tim J; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Clemens, Sam; Moody, Alison; Coast, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a best-worst scaling (BWS) study to value the Investigating Choice Experiments Capability Measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), a new capability measure among adults, in a UK setting. A main effects plan plus its foldover was used to estimate weights for each of the four levels of all five attributes. The BWS study was administered to 413 randomly sampled individuals, together with sociodemographic and other questions. Scale-adjusted latent class analyses identified two preference and two (variance) scale classes. Ability to characterize preference and scale heterogeneity was limited, but data quality was good, and the final model exhibited a high pseudo-r-squared. After adjusting for heterogeneity, a population tariff was estimated. This showed that 'attachment' and 'stability' each account for around 22% of the space, and 'autonomy', 'achievement' and 'enjoyment' account for around 18% each. Across all attributes, greater value was placed on the difference between the lowest levels of capability than between the highest. This tariff will enable ICECAP-A to be used in economic evaluation both within the field of health and across public policy generally.

  7. PCDD/PCDF, dl-PCB and PBDE serum levels of Slovak general population.

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; Conka, Kamil; Fabišiková, Anna; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová; Dömötörová, Milena; Drobná, Beáta; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2012-09-01

    Blood serum specimens from 81 non-occupationally exposed adults residing in four areas close to municipal and waste incinerators as well as metallurgical industry plant and 44 adult subjects coming from control area of Slovakia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). The concentration of total WHO(98)TEQ PCDD/F/dl-PCBs in whole group of donors from areas where known sources causing dioxin contamination are present was significantly higher than in control group of donors (p<0.001). Correlation between the age of donors and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels was confirmed (Spearman's r(PCDD/Fs)=0.543, r(dl-PCBs)=0.521, p<0.001). Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the PBDE congeners in human serum of Slovak general population. The total concentration (congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) in control group was approximately 1.5-times higher in comparison to that of residents coming from areas with supposed environmental pollution. The most abundant congeners in all samples were BDE-47 and BDE-153 with median values of 0.24 ng g(-1) lipid and 0.23ngg(-1) lipid, respectively. The positive association between PBDE values and age of donors was not found.

  8. Migraine and tension-type headache in a general population: psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, B K

    1992-12-01

    In a cross-sectional study of headache disorders in a representative general population, the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was assessed in relation to various psychosocial factors. The random sample comprised 1000 25-64 year old men and women of whom 740 attended the investigation. The headache disorders were classified on the basis of a clinical interview, a physical and a neurological examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society. None of the sociodemographic variables: marital status, cohabitation, educational level, occupational category or employment status were significantly associated with migraine or tension-type headache. In the univariate analyses tension-type headache was significantly associated with a high Neuroticism score on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire whereas migraine was not. Variables on work conditions and psychosocial factors significantly associated with the headache disorders in univariate analyses were subjected to multivariate analysis. Migraine was significantly associated with exposure to chemicals and fumes at work in women and poor self-appraisal of health in men. In the univariate analyses tension-type headache was significantly related to a series of psychosocial variables. In the multivariate analyses it remained associated with a current feeling of fatigue in both sexes, time-pressure at work in women and exposure to fumes in men.

  9. Population-Based Assessment of Hypertension Epidemiology and Risk Factors among HIV-Positive and General Populations in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Balzer, Laura; Heller, David; Kotwani, Prashant; Chamie, Gabriel; Clark, Tamara; Ayieko, James; Mwangwa, Florence; Jain, Vivek; Byonanebye, Dathan; Petersen, Maya; Havlir, Diane; Kamya, Moses R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa has created a growing, aging HIV-positive population at risk for non-communicable diseases such as hypertension. However, the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in this population remain incompletely understood. Methods We measured blood pressure and collected demographic data on over 65,000 adults attending multi-disease community health campaigns in 20 rural Ugandan communities (SEARCH Study: NCT01864603). Our objectives were to determine (i) whether HIV is an independent risk factor for hypertension, and (ii) awareness and control of hypertension in HIV-positive adults and the overall population. Results Hypertension prevalence was 14% overall, and 11% among HIV-positive individuals. 79% of patients were previously undiagnosed, 85% were not taking medication, and 50% of patients on medication had uncontrolled blood pressure. Multivariate predictors of hypertension included older age, male gender, higher BMI, lack of education, alcohol use, and residence in Eastern Uganda. HIV-negative status was independently associated with higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Viral suppression of HIV did not significantly predict hypertension among HIV-positives. Significance The burden of hypertension is substantial and inadequately controlled, both in HIV-positive persons and overall. Universal HIV screening programs could provide counseling, testing, and treatment for hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27232186

  10. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuske, Barbara; Hamilton, David F.; Pattle, Sam B.; Simpson, A. Hamish R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. Purpose Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989–2015). Study Selection Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. Data Synthesis 144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1–31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4–38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age <15) and older patients (age > 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). Conclusion This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density. PMID:27144648

  11. Age characteristics of mesothelioma incidence in the general population of the province of Padova, 1965-1976.

    PubMed

    Zambon, P; Simonato, L; Mastrangelo, G; Saia, B; Chieco-Bianchi, L

    1983-10-31

    Twenty-four incidental cases of mesothelioma, diagnosed in the province of Padova during the period 1965-1976, were analyzed according to age characteristics. The results show that the incidence rate increases in the general population under study at the same rate as in other populations occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to carcinogenic fibers according to the time since first exposure. This finding suggests a similar neoplastic process independent of age, in different environmental situations.

  12. Use of Electrocardiography to Predict Future Development of Hypertension in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Murai, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac muscle responds to increased afterload by developing hypertrophy. During the early stages of hypertension, the heart can be transiently, but frequently, exposed to increased afterload. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) assessed by electrocardiography (ECG) can be used to predict future development of hypertension. Sokolow–Lyon voltage and Cornell product were calculated using ECG in 5770 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a physical checkup (age 52.7 ± 11.3 years). LVH was defined as a Sokolow–Lyon voltage of >3.8 mV or a Cornell product of >2440 mm × ms. After baseline examination, participants were followed up with the endpoint being the development of hypertension. During the median follow-up period of 1089 days (15,789 person-years), hypertension developed in 1029 participants (65.2/1000 person-years). A Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of hypertension in participants with LVH than in those without LVH as assessed by Sokolow–Lyon voltage or Cornell product (P < 0.0001 for both). The hazard ratios for incident hypertension in participants with LVH defined by Sokolow–Lyon voltage and Cornell product were 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.90, P < 0.01) and 1.34 (95% CI 1.09–1.65, P < 0.01), respectively, after adjustment for possible risk factors. Furthermore, in multivariable Cox hazard analysis, where Sokolow–Lyon voltage and Cornell product were taken as continuous variables, both indices were independent predictors of future hypertension (P < 0.0001). Both Sokolow–Lyon voltage and Cornell product are novel predictors of future development of hypertension in the general population. PMID:27124047

  13. How absorption selected galaxies trace the general high-redshift galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise

    2015-08-01

    Strong absorption lines seen in quasar spectra arise when the lines of sight to the quasars intersect intervening galaxies. The associated metal absorption lines from the strongest absorption lines, the damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), allow us to trace the metallicity of galaxies back to redshifts z>5. Typical metallicities range from 0.1-100% solar metallicities with a huge scatter at any given redshift. Understanding the nature of galaxies that host DLAs is one strategy to probe the early phase and origin of stars in the outskirts of present-day galaxy disks.The search for emission from the elusive high-redshift DLA galaxies has reached a mature state now that we have determined how to best identify the absorbing galaxies. From a growing number of emission-line detections from DLA galaxies at redshifts ranging between 0.1 and 3, we can analyse galaxies in both absorption and emission, and probe the gas-phase metallicities in the outskirts and halos of the galaxies.By combining information for galaxies seen in emission and absorption, I will show that there is a relation between DLA metallicities and the host galaxy luminosities similar to the well-known the mass-metallicity relation for luminosity selected galaxies. This implies that DLA galaxies are drawn from the general population of low- to intermediate mass galaxies. We can determine a metallicity gradient in the extended halo of the galaxies out to ~40 kpc, and this allows us to reproduce observed galaxy correlation functions derived from conventional samples of luminosity selected galaxies.

  14. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. Methods and results After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from “Tor Vergata” University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector. The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Most plasma and erythrocyte PUFA were also reduced significantly in HD patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that many classes of PUFAs are lacking in HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient. PMID:24655786

  15. Prognostic Value of Obesity on Both Overall Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Garcia, Isabel; Simarro-Rueda, Marta; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Divisón-Garrote, Juan Antonio; Artigao-Ródenas, Luis Miguel; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Martínez-St. John, Damian Robert James; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity represents an important health problem and its association with cardiovascular risk factors is well-known. The aim of this work was to assess the correlation between obesity and mortality (both, all-cause mortality and the combined variable of all-cause mortality plus the appearance of a non-fatal first cardiovascular event) in a general population sample from the south-east of Spain. Materials and Methods This prospective cohort study used stratified and randomized two-stage sampling. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] as a predictive variable of mortality and cardiovascular events was assessed after controlling for age, sex, cardiovascular disease history, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides ratio, total cholesterol and smoking with the Cox regression model. Results The mean follow-up time of the 1,248 participants was 10.6 years. The incidence of all-cause mortality during this period was 97 deaths for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 80–113) and the incidence of all-cause mortality+cardiovascular morbidity was 143 cases for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 124–163). A BMI ≥35 kg/m2 yielded a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.11–3.42) in comparison to non-obese subjects (BMI <30 kg/m2). For the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality, a BMI ≥35 kg/m2 had a hazard ratio of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.15–2.93) compared to non-obese subjects. Conclusions A BMI ≥35 kg/m2 is an important predictor of both overall mortality and of the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality. PMID:25992570

  16. Weight-Loss Strategies Used by the General Population: How Are They Perceived?

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Chantal; Péneau, Sandrine; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. Result Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. Conclusion Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet. PMID:24852440

  17. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chao, Jane C. -J.; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cha, Tai-Lung; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary questionnaire was used to categorize the participants into 5 groups: “Healthy diet”, “Western diet”, “High-carbohydrate diet”, “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” and “High-sodium diet”. Results A total of 7282 men completed the questionnaire regarding dietary pattern, and examination of anthropometric indexes was performed and laboratory data were obtained. A high intake of a “Western diet” resulted in statistically linear declines of SC and NSM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Similarly, a greater intake of “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” was associated with a lower SC (P = 0.001). Increased intake of a “High-carbohydrate diet” was related to higher prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM (P = 0.012 and P = 0.025). Similarly, a greater intake of a “High-sodium diet” was correlated with an elevated prevalence of abnormal NSM (P = 0.035). Conclusions This study showed that a greater intake of a “Western diet” is associated with poorer SC and NSM, a “High sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks” intake is correlated with a lower SC, and high-carbohydrate food is related to elevated prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM. PMID:26218796

  18. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children in a General Population Sample: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Fedok, Fred; Vlasic, Vukmir; Graff, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Assess the prevalence based on clinically meaningful criteria (i.e., blood pressure) and identify risk factors of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a representative sample of elementary school children. Design: A random sample of the local elementary school children (K-5) were assessed using a two-phased strategy. In phase I a brief questionnaire was completed by a parent of each child in local elementary schools (N = 5,740), with a response rate of 78.5%. In phase II, randomly selected children and their parent spent a night in our sleep laboratory (N = 700) with a response rate of 70.0%. Setting: University sleep laboratory Participants: Children enrolled in local elementary schools. Intervention: None Measurement & Results: Each child was assessed with a full polysomnogram and completed a history/physical examination including an electrocardiogram, otolaryngology examination, and pulmonary evaluation. The prevalence of moderate SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5) was 1.2%. The independent risk factors included nasal abnormalities and minority associated only with mild (1 < AHI < 5) SDB and snoring and waist circumference associated with all levels of SDB. Tonsil size, based on visual inspection, was not an independent risk factor. Conclusion: The prevalence of AHI ≥ 5 was 1.2% in a representative sample of elementary school children. Risk factors for SDB included waist circumference, nasal abnormalities (e.g., chronic sinusitis/rhinitis), and minority. The strong linear relationship between waist circumference and BMI across all degrees of severity of SDB suggests that, as in adults, metabolic factors may be among the most important risk factors for SDB in children. Citation: Bixler EO; Vgontzas AN; Lin HM; Liao D; Calhoun S; Vela-Bueno A; Fedok F; Vlasic V. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. SLEEP 2009;32(6):731-736. PMID:19544748

  19. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries.

  20. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Emaus, Nina; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Bilden, Unni; Olsen, Jan Abel; Pettersen, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability) following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the “Tromsø Study” (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years). Self-reported data on psychological (threats) and physical violence (beaten/kicked), mental health (anxiety/depression), musculoskeletal pain (MSP), and granting of disability pension (DP) were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group), whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence. PMID:26317970

  1. Association between processing speed and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population: focusing on sex differences.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is growing that persons along the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e., those who also display subclinical psychotic symptoms, exhibit deficits across a broad range of neuropsychological domains. Because sex differences in the association between cognitive deficits and psychosis have thus far been mostly neglected, we believe that ours is the first study specifically focused upon those differences when examining the relationship between subclinical psychosis and processing speed. Using a sample of 213 persons from the general population from Zurich, Switzerland, psychotic symptoms were assessed with three different questionnaires including the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies, and the Paranoia Checklist. Processing speed was assessed with the WAIS digit-symbol coding test. Two higher-order psychosis domains were factor-analytically derived from the various psychosis subscales and then subjected to a series of linear regression analyses. The results demonstrate that in both men and women associations between subclinical psychosis domains and processing speed were weak to moderate (β ranging from -0.18 to -0.27; all p<0.05). However, we found no sex-differences in the interrelation of subclinical psychosis and processing speed (ΔR(2)<0.005; p>0.30). In conclusion, it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves only at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) and not across the sub-threshold range. The small magnitude of the effects reported herein conforms to the etiopathology of the disorder. Since schizophrenia and related disorders from the spectrum are assumed to be multifactorial diseases, it follows that many etiological components of small effect are involved. PMID:26070411

  2. Assessing sub-clinical psychosis phenotypes in the general population--a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that expression of a psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of its clinical detection. To date, however, no conceptual certainty has been reported for the validity and reliability of sub-clinical psychosis. Our main objectives were to assess the prevalence rates and severity of various psychosis symptoms in a representative community sample. Furthermore, we wanted to analyze which latent factors are depicted by several currently used psychosis questionnaires. We also examined how those latent factors for sub-clinical psychosis are linked to psychosocial factors, normal personality traits, and coping abilities related to chronic stress. Most of the eight subscales from the Paranoia Checklist and the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies had a very similar type of distribution, i.e., an inverse Gaussian (Wald) distribution. This supported the notion of a continuity of psychotic symptoms, which we would expect to find for continuously distributed symptoms within the general population. Sub-clinical psychosis can be reduced to two different factors - one representing odd beliefs about the world and odd behavior, and the other one representing anomalous perceptions (such as hallucinations). Persons with odd beliefs and behavior are under greater burden and more susceptible to psychosocial risks than are persons with anomalous perceptions. These sub-clinical psychosis syndromes are also related to stable personality traits. In conclusion, we obtained strong support for the notion that there is no natural cut-off separating psychotic illness from good health. Sub-clinical psychosis of any kind is not trivial because it is associated with various types of social disability. PMID:25523751

  3. Embrained drives to perform extraordinary roles predict schizotypal traits in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cruz, Ana L; Ali, Ola Mohamed; Asare, Gifty; Whyte, Morgan S; Walpola, Ishan; Segal, Julia; Debruille, J Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions. The task of the participant was to decide whether or not (s)he would consider performing the role at any moment of his/her life. Schizotypal traits were measured with the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ), and delusion-like ideations were assessed by the Peters et al. Delusion Inventory. Demographics and social desirability were controlled for. Participants accepting a greater percentage of extraordinary roles had higher SPQ scores. Among the three factors of the SPQ, disorganization was the one best predicted by those percentages. This correlation (r=0.40, P=7.2E−09) was significantly greater (Fisher Z-transform, P=0.003) than the correlation between the percentages of ordinary roles accepted and the SPQ scores (r=0.145, P=0.044). Reaction times revealed no suboptimal cognitive functioning in high accepters of extraordinary roles and further strengthened the drive hypothesis. Their acceptances of roles were done faster and their rejections took longer than those of low accepters (P=5E−12). Culturally embrained drives to do extraordinary roles could thus be an independent factor of the symptoms measured in the normality to schizophrenia continuum. PMID:27738648

  4. Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population

    PubMed Central

    van Os, Jim; Reininghaus, Uli

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research indicates that weak expressions of positive psychotic symptoms (“psychotic experiences”) can be measured in the general population, and likely represent the behavioural manifestation of distributed multifactorial (genetic and non‐genetic) risk for psychosis. Psychotic experiences are a transdiagnostic phenomenon: the majority of individuals with these experiences have a diagnosis of non‐psychotic disorder, particularly common mental disorder, in which psychotic experiences predict greater illness severity and poorer treatment response. Some of the people with common mental disorder and psychotic experiences will present to mental health services meeting criteria for “clinical high risk”. Treatment of the transdiagnostic dimension of psychosis in individuals with common mental disorder who meet “clinical high risk” criteria thus may improve outcome (which cannot be interpreted as prevention of “schizophrenia”). Subthreshold psychotic experiences are transitory in about 80% of individuals, while around 20% go on to develop persistent psychotic experiences and 7% a psychotic disorder, with an annual transition rate of 0.5‐1%. Persistence is associated, on the one hand, with environmental exposures, particularly childhood trauma, and, on the other, with network‐type dynamic interactions between psychotic experiences themselves (e.g., interactions between hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation) and between symptom dimensions (e.g., interactions between affective symptoms and psychotic experiences, or interactions between subthreshold negative symptoms and psychotic experiences). The study of psychotic experiences is helping to elucidate the mechanisms by which environmental and genetic influences shape the transdiagnostic expression of psychosis proneness, that is mostly transitory but may first become persistent over time and eventually give rise to transition to a psychotic disorder. PMID:27265696

  5. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jørgensen, T; Wright, C M

    2007-01-01

    Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with “significant undernutrition”, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 2–6 and 6–11 months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456

  6. Explaining the disability paradox: a cross-sectional analysis of the Swiss general population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disability can be broken down into difficulties in different components of functioning such as impairments and limitations in activities and participation (A&P). Previous studies have produced the seemingly surprising result that persons with severe impairments tend to report high quality of life (QoL) including perceived health regardless of their condition; the so-called “disability paradox”. We aim to study the role of contextual factors (i.e. the personal and environmental situation) in explaining the disability paradox. Methods The Swiss Health Survey provides information on the perceived health of 18,760 participants from the general population. We construct a conditional independence graph applying random forests and stability selection in order to represent the structure of impairment, A&P limitation, contextual factors, and perceived health. Results We find that impairment and A&P limitations are not directly related but only via a cluster of contextual factors. Similarly, impairment and perceived health are not directly related. On the other hand, perceived health is directly connected with A&P limitations. We hypothesize that contextual factors have a moderating and/or mediating effect on the relationship of impairment, A&P limitations, and perceived health. Conclusion The disability paradox seems to dissolve when contextual factors are put into consideration. Contextual factors may be responsible for some persons with impairments developing A&P limitations and others not. In turn, persons with impairments may only then perceive bad health when they experience A&P limitation. Political interventions at the level of the environment may reduce the number of persons who perceive bad health. PMID:22894722

  7. Longitudinal associations between lifestyle and vitamin D: A general population study with repeated vitamin D measurements.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Pisinger, Charlotta; Hannemann, Anke; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-02-01

    Several lifestyle factors have been found to be associated with vitamin D status in cross-sectional studies, but it is not clear whether a change in these factors can actually affect the vitamin D level. We investigated the association between repeated measurements of physical activity, body mass index (BMI), diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits, and corresponding levels of vitamin D during 5 years of follow-up of a large general population sample. We included 4185 persons who participated and had vitamin D (serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH-D) measurements in the Inter99 study at baseline (1999-2001) and 5-year follow-up. In a subsample, 25-OH-D was also measured at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. We used mixed models to examine the association between repeated measurements of lifestyle factors and 25-OH-D levels. In multivariable analyses of repeated measurements, the difference in 25-OH-D was -0.32 ng/ml (95 % CI -0.37, -0.28) per 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI; 4.50 ng/ml (95 % CI 3.84, 5.15) for persons moderately/vigorously physically active versus sedentary; 1.82 ng/ml (95 % CI 1.09, 2.56) for persons with healthy versus unhealthy dietary habits; 0.05 ng/ml (95 % CI 0.03, 0.07) per 1 standard drink/weak increase in alcohol consumption; and 0.86 ng/ml (95 % CI 0.36, 1.35) for never smokers versus daily smokers. Our study shows that lower BMI, a higher level of physical activity, a healthier diet and possibly a higher alcohol intake, and not smoking, are associated with higher 25-OH-D levels.

  8. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries. PMID:26016598

  9. Association between dietary factors and plasma fetuin-A concentrations in the general population.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Janke, Jürgen; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob

    2015-10-28

    Circulating fetuin-A, a novel marker for hepatic fat accumulation, has been related to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in a growing number of prospective studies. However, little is known about dietary determinants of fetuin-A concentrations in the general population. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of energy, energy-providing nutrients, alcohol and major food groups and plasma fetuin-A concentrations in the Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, and plasma concentrations of fetuin-A were measured in 558 adults (18-81 years). After multivariable adjustment for lifestyle factors and body fatness, higher energy intake was nonsignificantly associated with higher fetuin-A concentrations (per 2092 kJ/d (500 kcal/d) 3·7 µg/ml, 95 % CI -0·5, 7·8 µg/ml). There was no clear association between energy-providing nutrients and fetuin-A concentrations. Higher alcohol intake was associated with lower fetuin-A concentrations (P trend 0·003): mean fetuin-A concentrations were 324 (95 % CI 313, 335) µg/ml in non-drinkers, and with 293 (95 % CI 281, 306) µg/ml significantly lower in participants who drank ≥30 g alcohol per d. Mean fetuin-A concentrations decreased across quintiles of milk and dairy product intake (lowest quintile 319 (95 % CI 309, 330) µg/ml; highest quintile 304 (95 % CI 293, 314) µg/ml; P trend 0·03), and each 150-g increment in milk/dairy products per d was associated with 5·6 (95 % CI -9·6, -1·5) µg/ml lower fetuin-A. Dietary intakes of vegetables, meat or fish were not associated with fetuin-A concentrations. Because of the preventive potential of our findings, further exploration is warranted. PMID:26316198

  10. Association of birthweight with diabetes and insulin sensitivity or secretion in the Japanese general population

    PubMed Central

    Oya, Junko; Nakagami, Tomoko; Kurita, Moritoshi; Yamamoto, Yayoi; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Endo, Yasuhiro; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Low birthweight (birthweight <2,500 g) has been considered to be a risk factor for diabetes in data from Western countries, and its percentage is increasing in Japan. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between birth weight and diabetes, as well as both insulin resistance and secretion. Materials and Methods The participants were 847 adults who underwent health check-ups. The participants were divided by birthweight into four groups (low birthweight and tertiles 1–3 above it). We assessed the effect of birthweight on diabetes using a logistic regression model. Multivariable liner regression analyses were carried out to examine whether birthweight is independently associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and β-cell function. Results The prevalence of diabetes tended to increase with decreasing birthweight. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes with low birthweight was 3.52 (1.04–11.96) as compared with the reference category, tertile 2. Univariable linear regression analyses showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was negatively associated with birthweight, and this association remained after adjusting for age, sex, current body mass index and family history of diabetes. There was no significant association between homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and birthweight. Conclusions Low birthweight was inversely associated with diabetes and insulin resistance in the Japanese general population. Longitudinal data analyses are required to examine the causal relationship between bodyweight and diabetes or insulin resistance in adulthood. PMID:26221521

  11. Bone Strength and Arterial Stiffness Impact on Cardiovascular Mortality in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Avramovska, Maja; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and increased arterial stiffness independently have been found to be associated with higher cardiovascular events rates in the general population (GP). We examined 558 patients from GP by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements at baseline, with 36-month follow-up period. DXA assessed bone mineral density of femoral neck (BMD FN) and lumbar spine (BMD LS). Carotid-femoral PWV was assessed by pulsed-Doppler. The aim of our study is to find correlation between bone strength and arterial stiffness and their impact on cardiovascular mortality in GP. The mean ± SD of BMD FN, BMD LS, and PWV was 0.852 ± 0.1432 g/cm2, 0.934 ± 0.1546 g/cm2, and 9.209 ± 1.9815 m/s. In multiple regression analysis we found BMD FN (βst = −6.0094, p < 0.0001), hypertension (βst = 1.7340, p < 0.0091), and diabetes (βst = 0.4595, p < 0.0046). With Cox-regression analysis, after 17 cardiovascular events, the significant covariates retained by the backward model were BMD FN (b = −2.4129, p = 0.015) and PWV (b = 0.2606, p = 0.0318). The cut-off values were PWV = 9.4 m/s, BMD FN = 0.783 g/cm2, and BMD LS = 0.992 g/cm2. The results for BMD FN and PWV hazard ratio risk were 1.116 and 1.297, respectively. BMD FN as a measure of bone strength and PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in GP. PMID:27047700

  12. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Khalakdina, Asheena; Vugia, Duc J; Nadle, Joelle; Rothrock, Gretchen A; Colford, John M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne). There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26) and controls (n = 62) were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults) sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]). Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other. PMID:12689343

  13. [Anxiety and depression among the epileptics in general population in Benin (Western Africa)].

    PubMed

    Nubukpo, P; Houinato, D; Preux, P-M; Avodé, G; Clément, J-P

    2004-01-01

    patients reported they had one fit during the two Years before the survey; roughly one half (48%) had 2 to 5 fits and 41.5% of them had more than 10 fits; only 14% say they have had an EEG. Presence of an Anti Epileptic Drug (77.5%) reduces anxiety and depression. Considering a severity threshold of 5 for anxiety and 2 for depression (8), proportions of epileptic patients displaying a severe anxiety (79.8%) or a severe depression (89.6%) are significantly higher (p<0.0001) than in control subjects (12.3% and 46.9%). Comparison of average scores confirms the difference (p<0.0001) between cases (5.8 2.0 and 2.3 1.9) and controls (4.7 2.4 and 2.0 2.1) regarding anxiety and depression. Neither the sex, nor age, nor life environment (urban/rural), nor frequency of fits hold significant influence over an-xiety and depression. However, results in this survey include higher average rates of anxiety and depression for women (6.3 1.8) than men (5.5 1.8), though such statement is only nearly significant (p=0.06). Results of the survey confirm the other works on this topic about characteristics of depression for epileptic patients, though results here are higher than usual. Anxiety and depression are common troubles found in epileptic patient, both often occurring at the same time. Two distinct theories about this fact are opposed, first explain the connection of anxiety and depression with epilepsy because of the social and cultural burden upon an epileptic patient in those countries, the second theory is about depression and epilepsy sharing some neuroaminergical dysfunctions; these facts were not considered in this survey. When taking into account the thresholds of seriousness on Goldberg's scale, proportion of controls displaying a probably deeper depression is high (46.9%) compared to usual hospital prevalence rates (4 to 25%) found in Western Africa where survey in general population are scarce. It could either be a bias in the selection or the confirmation that family and

  14. HCV seropositivity in inmates and in the general population: an averaging approach to establish priority prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Roux, P; Sagaon-Teyssier, L; Lions, C; Fugon, L; Verger, P; Carrieri, M P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite the fact that a considerable portion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive individuals are viraemic, the risk of transmitting HCV to others is context dependent. Prison is a particularly risky environment as HCV prevention tools are often unavailable. Using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in centres for HCV testing in southeastern France, we aimed to compare the patterns of risk factors in HCV-positive inmates with those in the general population. Setting 26 centres for HIV/HCV testing in southeastern France (23 in the general population and 3 in prison). Primary outcome measure HCV seropositivity measured with ELISA test. Methods A propensity score method to ensure that the general and inmate populations could be compared and a multimodel averaging to estimate the degree (strong, weak, none) of the association of a number of specific factors with HCV seropositivity in each group. Results Among the 52 082 participants, HCV infection prevalence was 1.5% and 5.2% in the general (n=46 125) and inmate (n=5957) populations, respectively. In both populations, ‘drug injection without snorting’ and ‘drug injection with snorting’ were very strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among inmates, ‘drug snorting alone’ (OR (95% CI) 2.21 (1.39 to 3.52) was also a strong correlate while tattoos, piercings (OR (95% CI) 1.22 (0.92 to 1.61)) and the sharing of toiletry items (OR (95% CI) 1.44 (0.84 to 2.47)) were weak correlates. Conclusions The pattern of risk factors associated with HCV seropositivity is different between the general and prison populations, injection and snorting practices being more prevalent in the latter. Access to prevention measures in prisons is not only a public health issue but also a human right for inmates who deserve equity of care and prevention. PMID:25331969

  15. Population problems: a constituent of general culture in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rath, F J

    1993-03-01

    World population doubled in less than two centuries after 1650 reaching 1 billion. Between 1830 and 1930 the population doubled again. By 1975, the world population was 4 billion. Population is currently increasing at the rate of 250,000 people per day. The population problems is one of an intertwining of population, poverty, and environmental damage. Both developing and developed countries have population problems, which vary in intensity and nature. The consequences of high growth rates are reflected in population and development problems and pose a threat to long term survival of the human species. Quality of life is threatened. In 1948, UNESCO reported that using technology to provide sufficiently for food, shelter, and basic amenities only postponed the point at which problems would become acute; demographic growth cannot continue in a finite world. For example, by 2025 Nigeria could have more inhabitants than the US, and a population density of 327 people per sq kilometer. The demographic characteristics of population vary by country. There is growing awareness, however, that there is an interdependence between people and regions, and inter-relationships between demographic, economic, social, cultural, environmental, and political factors. Examples of the implications of demographic growth are given for school enrollments, landless farmers in Honduras, development strategies, and urbanization and migration. Population pressure in one country will lead to migration of the excess population to another country. Rural-urban migration already is motivated by economic gain; the economic recession in urban areas means competition for jobs, housing, welfare benefits. Political conditions can contribute to migration in the case of war or civil unrest or can halt migration because of fear of multi-ethnicity. The Malthusian checks were increased mortality; today population stabilization can be achieved through control of reproduction. The prospects for the immediate

  16. Mortality Rates in the General Irish Population Compared to Those with an Intellectual Disability from 2003 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; Kelly, Caraiosa; McCallion, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background:Historically, there has been higher and earlier mortality among people with intellectual disability as compared to the general population, but there have also been methodological problems and differences in the available studies. Method: Data were drawn from the 2012 National Intellectual Disability Database and the Census in Ireland. A…

  17. Can Welfare Mothers Hack It in College? A Comparison of Achievement between TANF Recipients and General Population Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of a group of undergraduate students enrolled in a pilot program for welfare recipients in the form of TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Families) was compared with the achievement of general population students at an urban community college. Grades attained in a basic level, introductory Psychology course were used to measure academic…

  18. Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population: Effects on Work Performance, Attendance, and Future Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the frequency and adverse effects of voice disorders on job performance and attendance in teachers and the general population, 2,401 participants from Iowa and Utah ([n.sub.1] = 1,243 teachers and [n.sub.2] = 1,279 nonteachers) were randomly selected and were interviewed by telephone using a voice disorder questionnaire. Teachers were…

  19. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  20. Should There Be Separate Parent and Teacher-Based Categories of ODD? Evidence from a General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkvold, Linda; Lundervold, Astri; Lie, Stein Atle; Manger, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a general population of boys and girls, as reported by parents and teachers, and to investigate differences in prevalence estimates, depending on how parents' and teachers' ratings were combined. Method: Data were collected from 7007 children (aged 7-9) who…

  1. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  2. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  3. Prevalence of impairments, disabilities, handicaps and quality of life in the general population: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed Central

    Barbotte, E.; Guillemin, F.; Chau, N.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of morbidity in the general population through bibliographic research. METHODS: Articles relating to impairment, disability, handicap, quality of life and their prevalence in the general population, published between January 1990 and March 1998, were selected on the MEDLINE database. FINDINGS: The 20 articles retained out of 433 used 41 different indicators. Indicators of impairment, disability, handicap and low quality of life showed prevalence rates of 0.1-92%, 3.6-66%, 0.6-56% and 1.8-26% respectively, depending on age and the accuracy of indicators. The heterogeneity of the conceptual framework and insufficient recognition of the importance of indicator accuracy, the age factor and the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied populations impede reliable international comparison. CONCLUSION: Further standardization of indicators is therefore required. The revision of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps may make it possible to resolve some of the difficulties encountered. PMID:11731812

  4. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    the OH-PCBs, regardless of their PCB precursors. As PCP is one of the dominating organic contaminants within the general female Norwegian population, future research on human concentrations, exposure routes and potential health effects of PCP is encouraged. Continued monitoring of human OH-PCB levels should also be performed as they could be present at levels almost as high as the PCBs and they are expected to be more toxic than their mother substances.

  5. Plasma vitamins A, C and E in the general population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; New, A L; Lee, B L; Ong, C N

    1998-03-01

    The National University of Singapore Heart Study measured cardiovascular risk factors, including selected plasma vitamins, on a random sample of the general population aged 30 to 69 years. Plasma vitamins A and E were normal and similar by ethnic group. Mean plasma vitamin A levels were: Chinese (males 0.68 and females 0.52 mg/L), Malays (males 0.67 and females 0.54 mg/L), and Indians (males 0.66 and females 0.51 mg/L). Mean plasma vitamin E levels were: Chinese (males 12.6 and females 12.6 mg/L), Malays (males 13.6 and females 13.3 mg/L), and Indians (males 12.9 and females 12.8 mg/L). No person had plasma vitamin A deficiency (< 0.01 mg/L) and only 0.1% had vitamin E deficiency (< 5.0 mg/L). In contrast, plasma vitamin C was on the low side and higher in Chinese than Malays and Indians. Mean plasma vitamin C levels were: Chinese (males 6.3 and females 8.4 mg/L), Malays (males 5.1 and females 6.4 mg/L), and Indians (males 5.7 and females 6.9 mg/L). Likewise, the proportions with plasma vitamin C deficiency (< 2.0 mg/L) were lower in Chinese (males 14.4 and females 0.7%), than Malays (males 19.7 and females 7.2%), and Indians (males 17.8 and females 11.0%). Relatively low levels of plasma vitamin C may contribute to the high rates of coronary heart disease and cancer in Singapore. In particular, lower plasma vitamin C in Malays and Indians than Chinese may contribute to their higher rates of coronary heart disease. However, plasma vitamin C does not seem to be involved in the higher rates of cancer in Chinese than Malays and Indians. The findings suggest a relatively low intake of fresh fruits and a higher intake is recommended. Also, food sources of vitamin C may be destroyed by the high cooking temperatures of local cuisines, especially the Malay and Indian ones. PMID:9663300

  6. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  7. Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure.

  8. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    -AD variance. Multivariable regression showed significant relationship between white matter hyperintensities volume and hypertension (P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.023), smoking (P = 0.002) and education level (P = 0.003). The only significant association with cognitive tests was with the immediate recall of the California verbal and learning memory test. No significant association was present with the APOE genotype. These results support the hypothesis that white matter hyperintensities contribute to patterns of brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia.

  9. Metabolome in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a general population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a high prevalence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and lipid abnormalities, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein. More detailed molecular information on the metabolic abnormalities may reveal clues about the pathophysiology of these changes, as well as about disease specificity. Methods We applied comprehensive metabolomics in serum samples from a general population-based study in Finland. The study included all persons with DSM-IV primary psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, n = 45; other non-affective psychosis (ONAP), n = 57; affective psychosis, n = 37) and controls matched by age, sex, and region of residence. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied to all serum samples: a global lipidomics platform based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, which covers molecular lipids such as phospholipids and neutral lipids; and a platform for small polar metabolites based on two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Results Compared with their matched controls, persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher metabolite levels in six lipid clusters containing mainly saturated triglycerides, and in two small-molecule clusters containing, among other metabolites, (1) branched chain amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and (2) proline, glutamic, lactic and pyruvic acids. Among these, serum glutamic acid was elevated in all psychoses (P = 0.0020) compared to controls, while proline upregulation (P = 0.000023) was specific to schizophrenia. After adjusting for medication and metabolic comorbidity in linear mixed models, schizophrenia remained independently associated with higher levels in seven of these eight clusters (P < 0.05 in each cluster). The metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced in persons with ONAP or affective psychosis. Conclusions Our

  10. Perceptions of generic medication in the general population, doctors and pharmacists: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Sarah; Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Stephens, Melika H; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate negative perceptions about generic medicines and evaluate the proportions of lay people, doctors and pharmacists who hold these perceptions. Design A systematic review of observational studies. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Scopus. Eligibility criteria Quantitative data from cross-sectional and prospective studies published in English after 1980, using self-report measures to evaluate perceptions about generic medicines, presented as percentages of the total sample assessed. Results After screening 2737 articles, 52 articles were included in the final analysis. A high proportion of doctors, pharmacists and lay people had negative perceptions of generics. Lay people were significantly more likely to view generics as less effective than branded medication (35.6%, 95% CI 34.8% to 36.4%) compared to doctors (28.7%, 27.5% to 29.9%) and pharmacists (23.6%, 21.2% to 26.2%), p<0.0001. Pharmacists (33.4%, 31.0% to 35.9%) were significantly more likely to believe generics were of inferior quality compared to branded medication than were doctors (28.0%, 26.3% to 29.9%), p=0.0006, and lay people (25.1%, 24.2% to 26.0%), p<0.0001. Doctors believed generics caused more side effects than branded medication (24.4%, 22.2% to 26.9%), compared to pharmacists (17.6%, 15.3% to 20.1%) and lay people (18.8%, 17.8% to 19.8%), p<0.0001. Doctors (28.5%, 26.9% to 30.2%) and pharmacists (25.4%, 21.4% to 29.9%) had significantly more safety concerns about generics than did lay people (18.0%, 17.0% to 19.0%), p≤0.0002. A greater proportion of lay people felt negatively about generic substitution (34.0%, 33.2% to 34.9%), compared to doctors (24.1%, 22.0% to 26.4%) and pharmacists (11.0%, 9.6% to 12.7%), p<0.0001. Rates of negative perceptions of generics do not appear to have changed substantially over time in the general population or among physician groups, p≥0.431, but such negative beliefs show a decreasing trend in pharmacists over the study period

  11. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  13. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliana Dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the "Physical Health" domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen's work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil's economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  15. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  16. Vitamin D in the General Population of Young Adults with Autism in the Faroe Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocovská, Eva; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Weihe, Pál; Halling, Jónrit; Fernell, Elisabeth; Stóra, Tormóður; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Gillberg, I. Carina; Shea, Robyn; Billstedt, Eva; Bourgeron, Thomas; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a possible risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels were examined in a cross-sectional population-based study in the Faroe Islands. The case group consisting of a total population cohort of 40 individuals with ASD (aged 15-24 years) had significantly…

  17. Predictive Value of Antiviral Effects in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the General Korean Population with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Jun; Oh, In Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jung Wook; Lee, Chang Kyun; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Ju-Seog; Kim, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The benefit of oral antiviral therapy in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the general population is not well understood. We used a novel prediction method to estimate the risk of HCC in the Korean population based on various treatment guidelines. Methods The 5-year risk of HCC following antiviral therapy was calculated using an HCC risk prediction model. A virtual cohort that represented Koreans (>40 years old) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was established using the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antiviral indications tested were the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines as well as a new extended indication (serum HBV DNA >2,000 IU/mL regardless of serum aminotransferase level). Results A total of 993,872 subjects were infected with HBV in the general Korean population. Over a 5-year period, 2,725 HCC cases were predicted per 100,000 persons (0.55%/yr). When the cohort was treated based on the Korean NHI, the EASL, and the newly extended indications, HCC risks decreased to 2,531 (−7.1%), 2,089 (−23.3%), and 1,122 (−58.8%) cases per 100,000 persons, respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusions Simulated risk prediction suggests that extending of oral antiviral indication may reduce the HCC risk in the general population. PMID:27282260

  18. Differing trends in the incidence of vascular comorbidity in MS and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, John; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; Blanchard, James; Patten, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although the adverse effects of vascular comorbidities are increasingly recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS), the epidemiology of these conditions remains poorly understood. Methods: Using population-based administrative data, we identified 44,452 Canadians with MS and 220,849 age-, sex- and geographically matched controls. We applied validated definitions to estimate the incidence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) from 1995 to 2005. Results: Of the MS cases, 31,757 (71.4%) were in female participants, with a mean (SD) age at the index date of 43.8 (13.7) years. Over time, the age-standardized incidence of diabetes rose more in the MS population (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.08) than in the matched population (IRR per year 1.02; 95% CI 1.01–1.03). Temporal trends in the age-standardized incidence of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and IHD were similar in both populations. Among those aged 20–44 years, the incidence of IHD was higher in the MS population (IRR 1.59; 95% CI 1.19–2.11). The increased incidence of IHD in the MS population was attenuated among those aged 60 years and older (IRR 1.01; 95% CI 0.97–1.06). Conclusions: The incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are rising within the MS population. Programs to systematically prevent and treat these conditions are needed. PMID:27104065

  19. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys.

    PubMed

    Huber, Manuel B; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-03-21

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%-0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥ 20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  20. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    -AD variance. Multivariable regression showed significant relationship between white matter hyperintensities volume and hypertension (P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.023), smoking (P = 0.002) and education level (P = 0.003). The only significant association with cognitive tests was with the immediate recall of the California verbal and learning memory test. No significant association was present with the APOE genotype. These results support the hypothesis that white matter hyperintensities contribute to patterns of brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia. PMID:26912649

  1. Long-term survival after coronary bypass surgery. Comparison of various subsets of patients with general population.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D G; Bunnell, I L; Arani, D T; Schimert, G; Lajos, T Z; Lee, A B; Tandon, R N; Zimdahl, W T; Bozer, J M; Kohn, R M; Visco, J P; Dean, D C; Smith, G L

    1981-01-01

    Life-table analysis consecutive cases of isolated coronary bypass surgery at the Buffalo Hospital between 1973 and 1977 showed an estimated survival of 94 per cent at five years, equal to that of an age- and sex-matched group of the US population. Subsets of these patients divided according to sex, age, number of vessels narrowed, number of segments grafted, history of myocardial infarction, ejection fraction, and presence of unstable angina have estimated survivals not statistically less in any of these subsets than that of matched cohorts of the general population. PMID:6971646

  2. Prevalence and correlates of night eating in the German general population.

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Allison, Kelly C; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Recently, night eating syndrome (NES) was included into the DSM-5 as an example of "Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders." The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460) with a wide age range (14-85 years). The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Night Eating in the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Allison, Kelly C.; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Recently, night eating syndrome (NES) was included into the DSM-5 as an example of “Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders.” The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460) with a wide age range (14–85 years). The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight. PMID:24828066

  4. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  5. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of the general US population and selected subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Orban, J E; Stanley, J S; Schwemberger, J G; Remmers, J C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Environmental Protection Agency's National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) was conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1987 to (1) estimate average concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population, (2) identify differences in average concentrations among subpopulations, and (3) compare average concentrations with those from the FY 1982 NHATS. METHODS. Population estimates of the average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were established on the basis of 865 human adipose tissue specimens collected in FY 1987. Average levels among subpopulations were compared. RESULTS. The average concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the adipose tissue of the US population was 5.38 pg/g, increasing from 1.98 pg/g in children under 14 years of age to 9.40 pg/g in adults over 45. The effect of age was significant for nine compounds. Regional differences in the levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofurans were statistically significant, but there were no significant differences associated with sex or race. CONCLUSIONS. The survey provides a baseline of average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population. PMID:8129062

  6. Population problems: A constituent of general culture in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Ferdinand J. C. M.

    1993-03-01

    Present world population growth is unprecedented. In Third World countries, the mere satisfaction of basic human needs is jeopardized; in the industrialized countries population pressure is felt differently, and to varying degrees; and some problems are common to rich and poor countries — for example, a galloping urbanization exacerbating the already critical social, economic and environmental problems of cities. Contrary to Malthus' time, the population debate is no longer confined to an elite. Moreover, demographic events in one part of the world are increasingly affecting other parts. Increased political awareness and maturity will encourage more and more people to participate in discussions on the factual and moral aspects of the problem. The question arises as to how society will prepare its citizens to take part in these discussions and the ensuing decision-making. "Population" must become an integral part of the socialization process, of which education is an essential element. In a time when the involvement of the average citizen in the national and international affairs of States and societies will be greater than ever before, adequate information and education will help to avoid the debate's being dominated by prejudice and sentiment instead of by insight.

  7. The Identification of Attention Complaints in the General Population and Their Effect on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtissen-In de Braek, Dymphie M. J. M.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Dijkstra, Jeanette B.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide more insight into subjective attention complaints in a healthy adult and elderly population and how these affect Quality of Life (QoL). Method: A group of 1,550 healthy Dutch participants complete a postal questionnaire including items from the Maastricht Attention and Memory Checklist (MAC). The impact of attention…

  8. First report on HLA-DPA1 gene allelic distribution in the general Lebanese population

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Joseph; Shammaa, Dina; Abbas, Fatmeh; Mahfouz, Rami A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims HLA-DPA1 is an important marker in bone marrow and organ transplantation and a highly emerging screening parameter in histocompatibility laboratories. Being highly polymorphic, it has another significant value in detecting population origins and migrations. This is the first study to assess DPA1 allele frequencies in an Arab population. Methods The HLA DPA1 alleles were identified using the One-Lambda assays on a Luminex reverse SSO DNA typing system. Our study included 101 individuals coming from different Lebanese geographical areas representing the different communities and religious sects of the country. Results We compared the results of this study to 16 different populations and found very interesting similarities and differences between Lebanese people and individuals of European ancestry. Conclusion This study is the first to describe the different allelic frequencies of HLA-DPA1 in the Lebanese population and will serve as a template that can be later used for disease association studies both at the level of the country and internationally. PMID:27014585

  9. The Structure of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in the General Population at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuker, Karin T.; Schjolberg, Synnve; Lie, Kari Kveim; Donders, Rogier; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children in the population fit the three-factor structure of ASD as described in the DSM-IV, and cluster together in individual subjects. This study analysed questionnaire data on ASD symptoms filled in by mothers of 11,332 18-month-old children that was collected in the…

  10. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: General population training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to: Describe the Paducah Plant Earthquake Preparedness Program, characterize the earthquake threat for the region, describe the actions which should be taken by the plant population during and after an earthquake to reduce the risk of injury, and explain the program which exists to help the plant prepare for and rapidly respond/recover from the effects of an earthquake.

  11. Delivering Transition Skills to Special Populations across the Curriculum. General Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Texas State Univ., Denton. Div. of Occupational and Vocational Education.

    This handbook was created to help teachers develop in special populations the skills necessary to make the transition from school to work a successful experience. It is aimed at teachers of students who have mild to moderate disabilities and who are expected to graduate from high school. The handbook contains four sections. Section one includes a…

  12. Distributed Guidelines (DiG): A Software Framework for Extending Automated Health Decision Support to the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Yaqub, Edwin; Barroso, Andre

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a framework and methodology to create personal health record (PHR) systems able to transform raw health data into meaningful information for the general population. By bridging the semantic gap between an individual and his or her health data, it is expected that better care will ensue through consumer empowerment. An important challenge for the realization of this vision is the lack of available expert knowledge in a format that is concomitantly easy to codify, share, and be used by the general population. To address this challenge, we developed a novel approach to encode expert knowledge into machine-interpretable, reusable components called “consumer guidelines.” Once encoded, guidelines are easily shared, extended, and modified. These guidelines can exist as distributed documents on the Internet and be executed by our processing engine (Health-Guru) to provide an individual with personalized assessment against various health risks based on the evidence data stored in a PHR. PMID:20808608

  13. Distributed guidelines (DiG): a software framework for extending automated health decision support to the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Edwin; Barroso, Andre

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a framework and methodology to create personal health record (PHR) systems able to transform raw health data into meaningful information for the general population. By bridging the semantic gap between an individual and his or her health data, it is expected that better care will ensue through consumer empowerment. An important challenge for the realization of this vision is the lack of available expert knowledge in a format that is concomitantly easy to codify, share, and be used by the general population. To address this challenge, we developed a novel approach to encode expert knowledge into machine-interpretable, reusable components called "consumer guidelines." Once encoded, guidelines are easily shared, extended, and modified. These guidelines can exist as distributed documents on the Internet and be executed by our processing engine (Health-Guru) to provide an individual with personalized assessment against various health risks based on the evidence data stored in a PHR.

  14. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population. PMID:18957090

  15. Medically Unexplained and Explained Physical Symptoms in the General Population: Association with Prevalent and Incident Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Eck van der Sluijs, Jonna; ten Have, Margreet; Rijnders, Cees; van Marwijk, Harm; de Graaf, Ron; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have shown that Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are related to common mental disorders. It is unknown how often common mental disorders occur in subjects who have explained physical symptoms (PHY), MUS or both, in the general population, what the incidence rates are, and whether there is a difference between PHY and MUS in this respect. Aim To study the prevalence and incidence rates of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders in groups with PHY, MUS and combined MUS and PHY compared to a no-symptoms reference group in the general population. Method Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of the general population aged 18-64 years. We selected subjects with explained physical symptoms only (n=1952), with MUS only (n=177), with both MUS and PHY (n=209), and a reference group with no physical symptoms (n=4168). The assessment of common mental disorders was through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between group membership and the prevalence and first-incidence rates of comorbid mental disorders, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. Results MUS were associated with the highest prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and combined MUS and PHY with the highest prevalence rates of substance disorder. Combined MUS and PHY were associated with a higher incidence rate of mood disorder only (OR 2.9 (95%CI:1.27,6.74)). Conclusion In the general population, PHY, MUS and the combination of both are related to mood and anxiety disorder, but odds are highest for combined MUS and PHY in relation to substance use disorder. Combined MUS and PHY are related to a greater incidence of mood disorder. These findings warrant further research into possibilities to improve recognition and early intervention in subjects with combined MUS and

  16. Inference of Super-exponential Human Population Growth via Efficient Computation of the Site Frequency Spectrum for Generalized Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The site frequency spectrum (SFS) and other genetic summary statistics are at the heart of many population genetic studies. Previous studies have shown that human populations have undergone a recent epoch of fast growth in effective population size. These studies assumed that growth is exponential, and the ensuing models leave an excess amount of extremely rare variants. This suggests that human populations might have experienced a recent growth with speed faster than exponential. Recent studies have introduced a generalized growth model where the growth speed can be faster or slower than exponential. However, only simulation approaches were available for obtaining summary statistics under such generalized models. In this study, we provide expressions to accurately and efficiently evaluate the SFS and other summary statistics under generalized models, which we further implement in a publicly available software. Investigating the power to infer deviation of growth from being exponential, we observed that adequate sample sizes facilitate accurate inference; e.g., a sample of 3000 individuals with the amount of data expected from exome sequencing allows observing and accurately estimating growth with speed deviating by ≥10% from that of exponential. Applying our inference framework to data from the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we found that a model with a generalized growth epoch fits the observed SFS significantly better than the equivalent model with exponential growth (P-value [Formula: see text]). The estimated growth speed significantly deviates from exponential (P-value [Formula: see text]), with the best-fit estimate being of growth speed 12% faster than exponential.

  17. Risk factors associated with serum levels of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in a general population.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line Jh; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  18. [Coronary risk assessment in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. General population-based scores or specific scores?].

    PubMed

    Hernáez, Rubén; Choque, Lucía; Giménez, Margarita; Costa, Angels; Márquez, Juan I; Conget, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Coronary risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be calculated using population-based scores or diabetes-specific scores. Our objective was to compare the results with both scores in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the results for 101 patients aged 40 to 65 years with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular disease. Two scales were used, one based on the general population (Framingham function adapted from the REGICOR study), and the other based on the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (UKPDS risk engine). The average 10-year likelihood of coronary events was 5.8 (2.5)% and 15.7 (8.4)% for the REGICOR risk score and the UKPDS risk score, respectively (P<.001), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.525 (P<.01). Risk was higher in men (19.2 [8.7]% based on the UKPDS score, and 5.6 [2.8]% based on the REGICOR score, P<.001). The figures for women were 11.3 [5.9]% and 5.9 [2.1]% with the UKPDS and REGICOR scores, respectively (P<.001). Our results suggest that substantially different findings are obtained when general population-based scores or specific scores are used to assess cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line JH; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  20. Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies with cell-free DNA in the general pregnancy population: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Genevieve; Burigo, John; Sharon, Thomas; Song, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fetal aneuploidy screening in the general pregnancy population using non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as compared to first trimester combined screening (FTS) with serum markers and NT ultrasound. Methods: Using a decision-analytic model, we estimated the number of fetal T21, T18, and T13 cases identified prenatally, the number of invasive procedures performed, corresponding normal fetus losses, and costs of screening using FTS or NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Modeling was based on a 4 million pregnant women cohort, which represents annual births in the U.S. Results: For the general pregnancy population, NIPT identified 15% more trisomy cases, reduced invasive procedures by 88%, and reduced iatrogenic fetal loss by 94% as compared to FTS. The cost per trisomy case identified with FTS was $497 909. At a NIPT unit, cost of $453 and below, there were cost savings as compared to FTS. Accounting for additional trisomy cases identified by NIPT, a NIPT unit cost of $665 provided the same per trisomy cost as that of FTS. Conclusions: NIPT in the general pregnancy population leads to more prenatal identification of fetal trisomy cases as compared to FTS and is more economical at a NIPT unit cost of $453. PMID:26000626

  1. The disruptive effects of pain on n-back task performance in a large general population sample.

    PubMed

    Attridge, Nina; Noonan, Donna; Eccleston, Christopher; Keogh, Edmund

    2015-10-01

    Pain captures attention, displaces current concerns, and prioritises escape and repair. This attentional capture can be measured by its effects on general cognition. Studies on induced pain, naturally occurring acute pain, and chronic pain all demonstrate a detrimental effect on specific tasks of attention, especially those that involve working memory. However, studies to date have relied on relatively small samples and/or one type of pain, thus restricting our ability to generalise to wider populations. We investigated the effect of pain on an n-back task in a large heterogeneous sample of 1318 adults. Participants were recruited from the general population and tested through the internet. Despite the heterogeneity of pain conditions, participant characteristics, and testing environments, we found a performance decrement on the n-back task for those with pain, compared with those without pain; there were significantly more false alarms on nontarget trials. Furthermore, we also found an effect of pain intensity; performance was poorer in participants with higher intensity compared with that in those with lower intensity pain. We suggest that the effects of pain on attention found in the laboratory occur in more naturalistic settings. Pain is common in the general population, and such interruption may have important, as yet uninvestigated, consequences for tasks of everyday cognition that involve working memory, such as concentration, reasoning, motor planning, and prospective memory.

  2. A Sex-Specific Comparison of Major Depressive Disorder Symptomatology in the Canadian Forces and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Julie; Kinley, D Jolene; Bolton, James M; Zamorski, Mark A; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare major depressive disorder (MDD) symptomatology within men and women in a large, representative sample of Canadian military personnel and civilians. Method: We used the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (Cycle 1.2 and Canadian Forces Supplement) (n = 36 984 and n = 8441, respectively) to compare past-year MDD symptomatology among military and civilian women, and military and civilian men. Logistic regression models were used to determine differences in the types of depressive symptoms endorsed in each group. Results: Men in the military with MDD were at lower odds than men in the general population to endorse numerous symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.44; 99% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and inability to cope (AOR 0.53; 99% CI 0.31 to 0.92). Military women with MDD were at lower odds of thinking about their death (AOR 0.52; 99% CI 0.32 to 0.86), relative to women with MDD in the general population. Conclusion: Different MDD symptomatology among males and females in the military, compared with those in the general population, may reflect selection effects (for example, personality characteristics and patterns of comorbidity) or occupational experiences unique to military personnel. Future research examining the mechanisms behind MDD symptomatology in military personnel and civilians is required. PMID:25007423

  3. General effects of climate change on Arctic fishes and fish populations.

    PubMed

    Reist, James D; Wrona, Frederick J; Prowse, Terry D; Power, Michael; Dempson, J Brian; Beamish, Richard J; King, Jacquelynne R; Carmichael, Theresa J; Sawatzky, Chantelle D

    2006-11-01

    Projected shifts in climate forcing variables such as temperature and precipitation are of great relevance to arctic freshwater ecosystems and biota. These will result in many direct and indirect effects upon the ecosystems and fish present therein. Shifts projected for fish populations will range from positive to negative in overall effect, differ among species and also among populations within species depending upon their biology and tolerances, and will be integrated by the fish within their local aquascapes. This results in a wide range of future possibilities for arctic freshwater and diadromous fishes. Owing to a dearth of basic knowledge regarding fish biology and habitat interactions in the north, complicated by scaling issues and uncertainty in future climate projections, only qualitative scenarios can be developed in most cases. This limits preparedness to meet challenges of climate change in the Arctic with respect to fish and fisheries.

  4. A Trans-Theoretical Approach to Physical Activity Profile in General Population of Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Shaye, Zahra Abbasi; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Vakili, Veda

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical-activity is necessity for a healthy lifestyle. Despite public health efforts, a minority of population are involved in healthy levels of physical-activity. This study provides evidence about exercise patterns and predictors of Mashhad-Iran population according to TTM change stages. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a total number of 564 participants from Mashhad in 2014 by using stages of change questionnaire. Analysis showed 23.4% of participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 18 in contemplation, 24.6% in preparation, 8.10% in action, 14.4% in maintenance and 11.5% were in termination phase. Age, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, having compeer and encouragement were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Genders, having company and using bicycle for transportation were predictors of termination phase. Tailor interventions based on the predictors to enhance the physical activity among specific subgroups would be of interest. PMID:26153203

  5. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  6. Cognitive and Psychological Reactions of the General Population Three Months After the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Kyutoku, Yasushi; Tada, Ryoko; Umeyama, Takahiko; Harada, Kenji; Kikuchi, Senichiro; Watanabe, Eiju; Liegey-Dougall, Angela; Dan, Ippeita

    2012-01-01

    Background The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psychological adjustment process of people from the general population has remained uncertain. The current study attempted to establish a path model that sufficiently reflects the early psychological adaptation process of the general population to large-scale natural disasters. Methods and Findings Participants from the primary disaster area (n = 1083) and other areas (n = 2372) voluntarily participated in an online questionnaire study. By constructing path models using a structural equation model procedure (SEM), we examined the structural relationship among psychological constructs known related to disasters. As post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS) were significantly more present in people in the primarily affected area than in those in secondary- or non-affected areas, the path models were constructed for the primary victims. The parsimoniously depicted model with the best fit was achieved for the psychological-adjustment centered model with quality of life (QoL) as a final outcome. Conclusion The paths to QoL via negative routes (from negative cognitive appraisal, PTS, and general stress) were dominant, suggesting the importance of clinical intervention for reducing negative cognitive appraisal, and for caring for general stress and PTS to maintain QoL at an early stage of psychological adaptation to a disaster. The model also depicted the presence of a positive route where positive cognitive appraisal facilitates post-traumatic growth (PTG) to achieve a higher Qo

  7. Generality of the growth kinetics of the average individual cell in different bacterial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Trueba, F J; Neijssel, O M; Woldringh, C L

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of growth of all the cells in a population is reflected in the shape of the size distribution of the population. To ascertain whether the kinetics of growth of the average individual cell is similar for different strains or growth conditions, we compared the shape of normalized size distributions obtained from steady-state populations. Significant differences in the size distributions were found, but these could be ascribed either to the precision achieved at division or to a constriction period which is long relative to the total cell cycle time. The remaining difference is quite small. Thus, without establishing the pattern itself, it is concluded that the basic course of growth is very similar for the various Escherichia coli strains examined and probably also for other rod-shaped bacteria. The effects of differences in culture technique (batch or chemostat culture), growth rate, and differences among strains were not found to influence the shape of the size distributions and hence the growth kinetics in a direct manner; small differences were found, but only when the precision at division or the fraction of constricted cells (long constriction period) were different as well. PMID:6804435

  8. Light and Darkness: Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection among the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, José-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus (HHEV) spreads early in life among the population in areas endemic for genotype 1 and infects mainly adults in areas endemic for genotype 3, where it would be responsible for about 10% of cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis of unknown etiology and for a number of subclinical, unrecognized infections. The overall prevalence of antibody to HHEV is high in most of the former areas and low in most of the later ones, but wide regional differences have been recorded in both cases. “Hot spots” of HHEV infection would exist for both types of strains in particular regions or among particular populations of the world. Studies on pork derivatives, shellfish bivalves, and vegetables for HHEV contamination at the sale point need to be extended for evaluating the impact of the agent on food safety, and the meaning of the finding of HHEV genotype 1 genomes in urban sewage from developed countries should be established through active surveillance. Consensus about technical issues in regard to anti-HEV testing would improve the knowledge of the HHEV epidemiology. Studies in particular regions and populations, and introduction of molecular diagnosis in the clinical setting as a routine tool, would also be required. PMID:24672733

  9. Prevalence, survival analysis and multimorbidity of chronic diseases in the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Claire E; Duz, Marco; Parkin, Timothy D H; Marshall, John F

    2016-09-01

    The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown. Using text mining of first-opinion electronic medical records from seven veterinary practices around the UK, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling, we were able to estimate the apparent prevalence among veterinarian-attended horses of nine chronic diseases, and to assess their relative effects on median life expectancy following diagnosis. With these methods we found evidence of increasing population age. Multimorbidity affected 1.2% of the study population, and had a significant effect upon survival times, with co-occurrence of two diseases, and three or more diseases, leading to 6.6 and 21.3 times the hazard ratio compared to no chronic disease, respectively. Laminitis was involved in 74% of cases of multimorbidity. The population of horses attended by UK veterinarians appears to be aging, and chronic diseases and their co-occurrence are common features, and as such warrant further investigation. PMID:27544263

  10. Modeling Classroom Discourse: Do Models That Predict Dialogic Instruction Properties Generalize across Populations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samei, Borhan; Olney, Andrew M.; Kelly, Sean; Nystrand, Martin; D'Mello, Sidney; Blanchard, Nathan; Graesser, Art

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the effective use of dialogic instruction has a positive impact on student achievement. In this study, we investigate whether linguistic features used to classify properties of classroom discourse generalize across different subpopulations. Results showed that the machine learned models perform equally well when…

  11. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  12. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  13. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  14. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  15. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  16. Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

  17. Is Nephrolithiasis an Unrecognized Extra-Articular Manifestation in Ankylosing Spondylitis? A Prospective Population-Based Swedish National Cohort Study with Matched General Population Comparator Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Ane Krag; Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.; Patschan, Oliver; Askling, Johan; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with several extra-articular manifestations. Nephrolithiasis (NL) has not been recognized as one of those, however, several factors known to increase the risk of NL are at play in AS patients. The objective was to estimate rates and predictors of NL in Swedish patients with AS compared to the general population. Methods and Findings We performed a prospective population-based nationwide cohort study based on linkage of data from Swedish registries. 8,572 AS patients were followed for 49,258 person-years (py) and 39,639 matched general population comparators were followed for 223,985 py. Patients were followed prospectively together with comparator subjects from January 2001 through December 2009. The first occurrence of NL during follow-up was the primary outcome. Hazard Ratios (HR) were used to compare these rates adjusting for comorbidities and treatment, and to assess predictors for NL. Mean age at study entry was 46 years (inter quartile range 36–56 years), 65% were males. Based on 250 vs. 466 NL events, the adjusted HR of NL in AS patients was 2.1 (95%CI 1.8 to 2.4). Predictors of NL within the AS group included prior diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (HR 2.3; 95%CI 1.7 to 3.3), prior diagnosis of NL (HR 16.4; 95%CI 11.5 to 23.4), and patients receiving anti-TNF treatment (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.2 to 2.1). Male sex was a risk factor for NL both in AS patients and in the general population. Limitations The risk for residual confounding and inability to study the chemical nature of NL were considered the main limitations of the study. Conclusions Patients with AS are at increased risk of NL, which may be considered a novel extra-articular manifestation. Previous history of NL, IBD, AS disease severity and male sex were identified as predictors of NL in AS. PMID:25423471

  18. The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the general population of Spain: results from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, L; Ballina, J; Gabriel, R; Laffon, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The objective of the EPISER study was to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), low back pain, hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA), and fibromyalgia in the adult Spanish population, and to assess the impact of these diseases on function and quality of life, and use of health and social resources.
METHODS—2998 subjects aged 20 years or above were randomly selected by stratified multistage cluster sampling from the censuses of 20 municipalities. Trained rheumatologists carried out structured visits at which subjects were asked about rheumatic symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics, completed validated instruments for measuring function (HAQ) and quality of life (SF-12), and underwent a standardised physical examination. Cases were defined by previously validated criteria.
RESULTS—The estimated prevalences with 95% confidence intervals were as follows: RA lifetime cumulative: 0.5% (0.3 to 0.9); low back pain: 14.8% (12.2 to 17.4); symptomatic knee OA: 10.2% (8.5 to 11.9); hand OA: 6.2% (5.9 to 6.5); fibromyalgia: 2.4% (1.5 to 3.2). Most conditions significantly impaired function and quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS—The EPISER study has internal and external validity for application of the results to the adult Spanish population. The diseases studied affect a significant proportion of the population, with various degrees of impact on disability and quality of life resulting in a significant number of physician visits, work disability, and medication use.

 PMID:11602475

  19. Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, J M; Shults, J; Weinstein, R; Lewis, J D; Leonard, M B

    2006-01-01

    Background Childhood onset arthritis is associated with low bone mass and strength. Objective To determine whether childhood onset arthritis is associated with greater fracture risk. Methods In a retrospective cohort study all subjects with onset of arthritis between 1 and 19 years of age in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database were identified. As controls, all sex and age matched subjects from a practice that included a subject with arthritis were included. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for first fracture were generated using Mantel‐Haenszel methods and Poisson regression. Results 1939 subjects with arthritis (51% female) and 207 072 controls (53% female) were identified. The median age at arthritis diagnosis was 10.9 years. A total of 129 (6.7%) first fractures were noted in subjects with arthritis compared with 6910 (3.3%) in controls over a median follow up of 3.90 and 3.95 years in the subjects with arthritis and controls, respectively. The IRR (95% confidence interval) for first fracture among subjects with arthritis, compared with controls, according to the age at the start of follow up were 1.49 (0.91 to 2.31) for age <10 years, 3.13 (2.21 to 4.33) at 10–15 years, 1.75 (1.18 to 2.51) at 15–20 years, 1.40 (0.91 to 2.08) at 20–45 years, and 3.97 (2.23 to 6.59) at >45 years. Conclusions Childhood onset arthritis is associated with a clinically significant increased risk of fracture in children, adolescents and, possibly, adults. Studies are urgently needed to characterise the determinants of structural bone abnormalities in childhood arthritis and devise prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:16627541

  20. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Sidell, F.R.; Leffingwell, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  1. Attitudes toward minorities: a comparison of homosexuals and the general population.

    PubMed

    Beran, N J; Claybaker, C; Dillon, C; Haverkamp, R J

    1992-01-01

    As a prelude to a media campaign to improve the public image of gays, a gay rights organization in Columbus, Ohio, constructed a questionnaire to assess perceptions of and attitudes toward gays and various other minority groups including blacks, Jews, women, communists, and recovering alcoholics. The questionnaire was administered to two samples in the central Ohio area: a sample of the greater Columbus population at large, and a sample of gays and lesbians. This article reports on the comparative findings from these two samples.

  2. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Peter; Curnow, Kirsten J.; Chapman, Steven; Michalopoulos, Steven N.; Hornberger, John; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in the general pregnancy population. Methods Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars. Results Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176) of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176) by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264) in the general screening population. Conclusion Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits. PMID:26158465

  3. Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marjorie M; Talley, Nicholas J; Inganäs, Linn; Engstrand, Lars; Jones, Michael P; Nyhlin, Henry; Agréus, Lars; Kjellstrom, Lars; Öst, Åke; Andreasson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder defined by symptoms in the absence of overt pathology. Colonic spirochetosis (CS), defined by histologic observation of spirochetal strains of Brachyspira in colonic biopsies, is uncommon and considered of doubtful significance. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CS in the general population, identify subtle colon pathologies, and evaluate a link with symptoms of IBS. Colonoscopy was performed in 745 subjects (aged 19-70 years, mean age 51 years, 43% male) with biopsies (ileum and 4 colonic sites) from a random population sample, Stockholm, Sweden, who completed a validated questionnaire of gastrointestinal symptoms; IBS was identified by Rome III criteria. CS was identified by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a general population, 17 individuals (2.28%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2%-3.5%) were diagnosed as having CS by histology; 6 (35%) had IBS. CS was always present in the sigmoid colon, but only 14 rectal biopsies. Eosinophils were increased in colon biopsies in CS cases versus controls, in the transverse (P = .02), sigmoid colon (P = .001), and rectum (P = .0005) with subepithelial eosinophil clusters (P = .053). Lymphoid follicles (at any site) were present in 13 CS (P = .0003). There was a 3-fold increased risk of IBS in CS (odds ratio, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-10.11; P = .015). Polyps and diverticular disease were similar in CS cases and controls. The prevalence of CS in a general population is 2% and associated with nonconstipating IBS. Colonic eosinophilia with lymphoid follicles may signify the presence of CS.

  4. Generalized cable formalism to calculate the magnetic field of single neurons and neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Neurons generate magnetic fields which can be recorded with macroscopic techniques such as magnetoencephalography. The theory that accounts for the genesis of neuronal magnetic fields involves dendritic cable structures in homogeneous resistive extracellular media. Here we generalize this model by considering dendritic cables in extracellular media with arbitrarily complex electric properties. This method is based on a multiscale mean-field theory where the neuron is considered in interaction with a "mean" extracellular medium (characterized by a specific impedance). We first show that, as expected, the generalized cable equation and the standard cable generate magnetic fields that mostly depend on the axial current in the cable, with a moderate contribution of extracellular currents. Less expected, we also show that the nature of the extracellular and intracellular media influence the axial current, and thus also influence neuronal magnetic fields. We illustrate these properties by numerical simulations and suggest experiments to test these findings.

  5. Generalized cable formalism to calculate the magnetic field of single neurons and neuronal populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Neurons generate magnetic fields which can be recorded with macroscopic techniques such as magnetoencephalography. The theory that accounts for the genesis of neuronal magnetic fields involves dendritic cable structures in homogeneous resistive extracellular media. Here we generalize this model by considering dendritic cables in extracellular media with arbitrarily complex electric properties. This method is based on a multiscale mean-field theory where the neuron is considered in interaction with a "mean" extracellular medium (characterized by a specific impedance). We first show that, as expected, the generalized cable equation and the standard cable generate magnetic fields that mostly depend on the axial current in the cable, with a moderate contribution of extracellular currents. Less expected, we also show that the nature of the extracellular and intracellular media influence the axial current, and thus also influence neuronal magnetic fields. We illustrate these properties by numerical simulations and suggest experiments to test these findings.

  6. Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Doering, Stephan; Brähler, Elmar; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. Method Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555) in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. Results Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality. PMID:24124582

  7. A general procedure for predicting rates of inbreeding in populations undergoing mass selection.

    PubMed Central

    Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A; Woolliams, J A

    2000-01-01

    Predictions of rates of inbreeding (DeltaF), based on the concept of long-term genetic contributions assuming the infinitesimal model, are developed for populations with discrete or overlapping generations undergoing mass selection. Phenotypes of individuals are assumed to be recorded prior to reproductive age and to remain constant over time. The prediction method accounts for inheritance of selective advantage both within and between age classes and for changing selection intensities with age. Terms corresponding to previous methods that assume constant selection intensity with age are identified. Predictions are accurate (relative errors < or =8%), except for cases with extreme selection intensities in females in combination with high heritability. With overlapping generations DeltaF reaches a maximum when parents are equally distributed over age classes, which is mainly due to selection of the same individuals in consecutive years. DeltaF/year decreases much more slowly compared to DeltaF/generation as the number of younger individuals increases, whereas the decrease is more similar as the number of older individuals increases. The minimum DeltaF (per year or per generation) is obtained when most parents were in the later age classes, which is mainly due to an increased number of parents per generation. With overlapping generations, the relationship between heritability and DeltaF is dependent on the age structure of the population. PMID:10747075

  8. Outcomes of hepatitis C screening programs targeted at risk groups hidden in the general population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective screening programs are urgently needed to provide undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with therapy. This systematic review of characteristics and outcomes of screening programs for HCV focuses on strategies to identify HCV risk groups hidden in the general population. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1991–2010, including studies that screened the general population using either a newly developed (nonintegrated) screening program or one integrated in existing health care facilities. Look-back studies, prevalence studies, and programs targeting high-risk groups in care (e.g., current drug users) were excluded. Results After reviewing 7052 studies, we identified 67 screening programs: 24 nonintegrated; 41 programs integrated in a variety of health care facilities (e.g., general practitioner); and 2 programs with both integrated and nonintegrated strategies. Together, these programs identified approximately 25,700 HCV-infected individuals. In general, higher HCV prevalence was found in programs in countries with intermediate to high HCV prevalence, in psychiatric clinics, and in programs that used a prescreening selection based on HCV risk factors. Only 6 programs used a comparison group for evaluation purposes, and 1 program used theory about effective promotion for screening. Comparison of the programs and their effectiveness was hampered by lack of reported data on program characteristics, clinical follow-up, and type of diagnostic test. Conclusions A prescreening selection based on risk factors can increase the efficiency of screening in low-prevalence populations, and we need programs with comparison groups to evaluate effectiveness. Also, program characteristics such as type of diagnostic test, screening uptake, and clinical outcomes should be reported systematically. PMID:24450797

  9. Determination of haptoglobin genotype in an Iranian population with idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Al-balaghee, Sukaina; Al-balaghee, Zeinab; Shabani, Ashraf; Ghadam, Parinaz; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Askari Mehr, Ali; Kazemi, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Haptoglobin (Hp) is a plasma α2-sialoglycoprotein that contains alpha and beta chains. It displays in three common phenotypes, Hp1-1, Hp2-1, and Hp2-2. Proteins expressed by polymorphic genes have grossly different molecular sizes resulting in different diffusion rates in the brain. Haptoglobin expressed by the Hp2-2 genotype has lower hemoglobin-binding capacity than Hp1-1 or Hp2-1 and is associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Methods: To determine polymorphism in haptoglobin genes in patients with idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizures, 42 men, 42 women, and 50 controls were selected for this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and studied by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Results: The amplified fragments for the Hp1-1 and Hp2-2 genotypes were 1757 and 3481 base pairs (bp) respectively, and the Hp2-1 genotype had both fragments, in addition to a 349-bp fragment. The distribution of the three major Hp phenotypes in epilepsy patients was 28.6 (1-1), 38.1 (2-1), and 33.3% (2-2) in the men, and 31 (1-1), 40.5 (2-1), and 28.6% (2-2) in the women. The distribution of Hp genotypes in controls was 22 (1-1), 40 (2-1), and 38% (2-2). Conclusion: We show that all Hp genotypes participate in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. PMID:26989737

  10. Cause-specific mortality in individuals with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in comparison with the general population in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ekström, Magnus; Wagner, Philippe; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) predisposes to morbidity and mortality due to early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The risk of death from other causes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, has not been well investigated. We aimed to analyze cause-specific mortality in PiZZ individuals compared with the general Swedish population. Methods Data on 1,561 PiZZ individuals from the Swedish National AAT Deficiency Register, prospectively followed from 1991 to 2014, were analyzed. Causes of death according to the Swedish National Causes of Death Register for the study group were compared with those for the general Swedish population matched for age, sex, and calendar year, with the excess mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 524 deaths during the follow-up period. PiZZ individuals had excess all-cause mortality compared with the Swedish general population (SMR 3.6, 95% CI 3.3–3.9). SMR for ischemic heart disease (IHD) was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3–0.8) and was similar for never and ever-smokers, and in males and females. SMR for lung cancer was 0.9 (95% CI 0.4–1.7). PiZZ individuals had increased mortality compared with the general population for the following diseases: respiratory disease, SMR 48.4 (95% CI 43.0–54.5); primary liver carcinoma, SMR 90.0 (95% CI 59.3–130.9); complicated colon diverticulitis, SMR 20.8 (95% CI 6.7–48.6); and pulmonary embolism, SMR 6.9 (95% CI 3.3–12.7). Conclusion PiZZ individuals had a reduced mortality risk of IHD. Mortality due to respiratory, hepatic disease, diverticulitis, and pulmonary embolism was markedly increased compared with the age- and sex-matched Swedish population. PMID:27555756

  11. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  12. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Linneberg, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR) method. The CE-DUR method was applied in Denmark to estimate the prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and compare it with the prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. Contact allergy prevalence estimates ranging from very liberal ('worst case') to conservative ('best case') assumptions were based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on sales data of the 'standard series'. The estimated 10-year prevalence of contact allergy ranged between 7.3% and 12.9% for adult Danes older than 18 years. The 10-year prevalence of contact allergy measured by CE-DUR was slightly lower than previous prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. This could probably be explained by a decrease in nickel allergy. The CE-DUR approach holds the potential of being an efficient and easy monitoring method of contact allergy prevalence.

  13. Coagulation factor V Leiden mutation in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism and in a general northern European population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuismanen, K; Savontaus, M L; Kozlov, A; Vuorio, A F; Sajantila, A

    1999-12-01

    The R506Q point mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation) is the major underlying defect in resistance to activated protein C (APC), which predisposes to venous thrombosis. The risk of deep vein thrombosis is clearly elevated in carriers of the mutation, but the risk for pulmonary embolism has not been demonstrated to be as high. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the Leiden mutation in an autopsy series of sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases. PCR and subsequent restriction enzyme digestion were applied for genotyping 164 cases of pulmonary embolism. According to our data, the allele frequency of the Leiden mutation is not higher in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases (0.8%, 95% CI 0-1.9%) than in the general Finnish population (1.5%, 95% CI 0-3.3%). In addition to the 97 Finns, we determined the frequency of the Leiden mutation in 255 individuals from the neighbouring populations (Saami, Komi, and Karelians from Russia and Estonians), and found the Saami to have the highest frequency of the Leiden mutation (6.3%, 95% CI 3.2-9.2) in the general northern European population sample studied here.

  14. Assessment of the risk of fragrance allergy in the general population: challenges and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    There are still unanswered questions about the safety of fragrances. In this conference paper, fragrance allergy will be considered in the context of a wider discussion concerning the prevalence and causes of contact dermatitis. No criteria for a reliable diagnosis of 'contact dermatitis' are available. International recommendations and standardization for the patch test method exist; however, the question of whether agents that are positive are causally linked to contact dermatitis remains fraught with uncertainties concerning false-positive rates and clinical relevance. Most of the discussion concerning prevalence or incidence variations of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances concentrate on the frequency of positive patch tests in clinical series, i.e. 'floating numerators'. Risk assessment requires that data from different sources are integrated and compared. Therefore, both a 'sentinel surveillance' system and more refined epidemiological studies in well defined populations are needed to reliably assess risks associated with fragrance exposure.

  15. Looking for Trouble: Preventive Genomic Sequencing in the General Population and the Role of Patient Choice.

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel; Conley, John M; Davis, Arlene M; Van Riper, Marcia; Walker, Rebecca L; Juengst, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomics have led to calls for developing population-based preventive genomic sequencing (PGS) programs with the goal of identifying genetic health risks in adults without known risk factors. One critical issue for minimizing the harms and maximizing the benefits of PGS is determining the kind and degree of control individuals should have over the generation, use, and handling of their genomic information. In this article we examine whether PGS programs should offer individuals the opportunity to selectively opt out of the sequencing or analysis of specific genomic conditions (the menu approach) or whether PGS should be implemented using an all-or-nothing panel approach. We conclude that any responsible scale-up of PGS will require a menu approach that may seem impractical to some, but that draws its justification from a rich mix of normative, legal, and practical considerations.

  16. Looking for Trouble: Preventive Genomic Sequencing in the General Population and the Role of Patient Choice

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel; Conley, John M.; Davis, Arlene M.; Van Riper, Marcia; Walker, Rebecca L.; Juengst, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomics have led to calls for developing population-based preventive genomic sequencing (PGS) programs with the goal of identifying genetic health risks in adults without known risk factors. One critical issue for minimizing the harms and maximizing the benefits of PGS is determining the kind and degree of control individuals should have over the generation, use, and handling of their genomic information. In this article we examine whether PGS programs should offer individuals the opportunity to selectively opt-out of the sequencing or analysis of specific genomic conditions (the menu approach) or whether PGS should be implemented using an all-or-nothing panel approach. We conclude that any responsible scale up of PGS will require a menu approach that may seem impractical to some, but which draws its justification from a rich mix of normative, legal, and practical considerations. PMID:26147254

  17. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the general population: the HypnoLaus study

    PubMed Central

    Heinzer, R; Vat, S; Marques-Vidal, P; Marti-Soler, H; Andries, D; Tobback, N; Mooser, V; Preisig, M; Malhotra, A; Waeber, G; Vollenweider, P; Tafti, M; Haba-Rubio, J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with major morbidity and mortality. However, its prevalence has mainly been selectively studied in populations at risk for sleep-disordered breathing or cardiovascular diseases. Taking into account improvements in recording techniques and new criteria used to define respiratory events, we aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing and associated clinical features in a large population-based sample. Methods Between Sept 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013, we did a population-based study (HypnoLaus) in Lausanne, Switzerland. We invited a cohort of 3043 consecutive participants of the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study to take part. Polysomnography data from 2121 people were included in the final analysis. 1024 (48%) participants were men, with a median age of 57 years (IQR 49–68, range 40–85) and mean body-mass index (BMI) of 25·6 kg/m2 (SD 4·1). Participants underwent complete polysomnographic recordings at home and had extensive phenotyping for diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and depression. The primary outcome was prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, assessed by the apnoea-hypopnoea index. Findings The median apnoea-hypopnoea index was 6·9 events per h (IQR 2·7–14·1) in women and 14·9 per h (7·2–27·1) in men. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe sleep-disordered breathing (≥15 events per h) was 23·4% (95% CI 20·9–26·0) in women and 49·7% (46·6–52·8) in men. After multivariable adjustment, the upper quartile for the apnoea-hypopnoea index (>20·6 events per h) was associated independently with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio 1·60, 95% CI 1·14–2·26; p=0·0292 for trend across severity quartiles), diabetes (2·00, 1·05–3·99; p=0·0467), metabolic syndrome (2·80, 1·86–4·29; p<0·0001), and depression (1·92, 1·01–3·64; p=0·0292). Interpretation The high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing recorded in our population-based sample might

  18. Troponin I and cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population: the BiomarCaRE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Makarova, Nataliya; Ojeda, Francisco; Wild, Philipp; Lackner, Karl J.; Jørgensen, Torben; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Nauck, Matthias; Petersmann, Astrid; Vartiainen, Erkki; Veronesi, Giovanni; Brambilla, Paolo; Costanzo, Simona; Iacoviello, Licia; Linden, Gerard; Yarnell, John; Patterson, Christopher C.; Everett, Brendan M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Kontto, Jukka; Schnabel, Renate B.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kee, Frank; Zeller, Tanja; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Aims Our aims were to evaluate the distribution of troponin I concentrations in population cohorts across Europe, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes, to determine the predictive value beyond the variables used in the ESC SCORE, to test a potentially clinically relevant cut-off value, and to evaluate the improved eligibility for statin therapy based on elevated troponin I concentrations retrospectively. Methods and results Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) project, we analysed individual level data from 10 prospective population-based studies including 74 738 participants. We investigated the value of adding troponin I levels to conventional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular disease by calculating measures of discrimination (C-index) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). We further tested the clinical implication of statin therapy based on troponin concentration in 12 956 individuals free of cardiovascular disease in the JUPITER study. Troponin I remained an independent predictor with a hazard ratio of 1.37 for cardiovascular mortality, 1.23 for cardiovascular disease, and 1.24 for total mortality. The addition of troponin I information to a prognostic model for cardiovascular death constructed of ESC SCORE variables increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.007 and yielded an NRI of 0.048, whereas the addition to prognostic models for cardiovascular disease and total mortality led to lesser C-index discrimination and NRI increment. In individuals above 6 ng/L of troponin I, a concentration near the upper quintile in BiomarCaRE (5.9 ng/L) and JUPITER (5.8 ng/L), rosuvastatin therapy resulted in higher absolute risk reduction compared with individuals <6 ng/L of troponin I, whereas the relative risk reduction was similar. Conclusion In individuals free of cardiovascular disease, the addition of troponin I to variables of established risk score improves prediction of

  19. Risk of Gastroparesis in Subjects with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Melton, L. Joseph; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and upper GI symptoms, a diagnosis of diabetic gastroparesis is often considered, but population-based data on the epidemiology of diabetic gastroparesis are lacking. We aimed to estimate the frequency of and risk factors for gastroparesis among community subjects with DM Methods In this population-based, historical cohort study, the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was used to identify 227 Olmsted County, MN residents with type 1 DM in 1995, a random sample of 360 residents with type 2 DM, and an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 639 non-diabetic residents. Using defined diagnostic criteria, we estimated the subsequent risk of developing gastroparesis in each group through 2006. The risk in DM, compared to frequency matched community controls, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results The cumulative proportions developing gastroparesis over a 10-year time period were 5.2% in type 1 DM, 1.0% in type 2 DM, and 0.2% in controls. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for gastroparesis (relative to controls) was 33 (95% CI: 4.0–274) in type 1 DM and 7.5 (95% CI: 0.8–68) in type 2 DM. The risk of gastroparesis in type 1 DM was significantly greater than in type 2 DM (HR: 4.4 [1.1, 17]). Heartburn (HR: 6.6 [1.7, 25]) at baseline was associated with diabetic gastroparesis in type 1 DM. Conclusions Gastroparesis is relatively uncommon in patients with DM, although an increased risk for gastroparesis was observed in type 1 DM. PMID:22085818

  20. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001). The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  1. Using a factor mixture modeling approach in alcohol dependence in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with drinking problems and the refinement of the diagnostic criteria are inter-related research goals. They have the potential to improve our knowledge of etiology and treatment effects, and to assist in the identification of risk factors or specific genetic factors. Mixture modeling has advantages over traditional modeling that focuses on either the dimensional or categorical latent structure. The mixture modeling combines both latent class and latent trait models, but has not been widely applied in substance use research. The goal of the present study is to assess whether the AD criteria in the population could be better characterized by a continuous dimension, a few discrete subgroups, or a combination of the two. More than seven thousand participants were recruited from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry, and were interviewed to obtain DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, version IV) symptoms and diagnosis of AD. We applied factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture models for symptom items based on the DSM-IV criteria. Our results showed that a mixture model with 1 factor and 3 classes for both genders fit well. The 3 classes were a non-problem drinking group and severe and moderate drinking problem groups. By contrast, models constrained to conform to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were rejected by model fitting indices providing empirical evidence for heterogeneity in the AD diagnosis. Classification analysis showed different characteristics across subgroups, including alcohol-caused behavioral problems, comorbid disorders, age at onset for alcohol-related milestones, and personality. Clinically, the expanded classification of AD may aid in identifying suitable treatments, interventions and additional sources of comorbidity based on these more homogenous subgroups of alcohol use

  2. Radiofrequency exposure in the French general population: band, time, location and activity variability.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Cardis, Elisabeth; Moissonnier, Monika; de Seze, René; Hours, Martine

    2009-11-01

    Information on the exposure of individual persons to radiofrequency (RF) fields is scarce, although such data are crucial in order to develop a suitable exposure assessment method, and frame the hypothesis and design of future epidemiological studies. The main goal of this survey is to assess individual RF exposure on a population basis, while clarifying the relative contribution of different sources to the total exposure. A total of 377 randomly selected people were analyzed. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24-hour measurements (weekday), and kept a time-location-activity diary. Electric field strengths were recorded in 12 different RF bands every 13s. Summary statistics were calculated with the robust regression on order statistics method. Most of the time, recorded field strengths were not detectable with the exposure meter. Total field, cordless phones, WiFi-microwave, and FM transmitters stood apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 46.6%, 17.2%, 14.1%, and 11.0%, respectively. The total field mean value was 0.201V/m, higher in urban areas, during daytime, among adults, and when moving. When focusing on specific channels, the highest mean exposure resulted from FM sources (0.044V/m), followed by WiFi-microwaves (0.038V/m), cordless phones (0.037V/m), and mobile phones (UMTS: 0.036V/m, UMTS: 0.037V/m). Various factors, however, contributed to a high variability in RF exposure assessment. These population-based estimates should therefore be confirmed by further surveys to better characterize the exposure situation in different microenvironments.

  3. Hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the general population: a population-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, D P; Søndergaard, F; Pedersen, L A; Fryzek, J P; Cetin, K; Acquavella, J; Baron, J A; Sørensen, H T

    2010-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) frequently complicates cancer. Data on tumour-specific VTE predictors are limited, but may inform strategies to prevent thrombosis. Methods: We computed incidence rates (IRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE hospitalisation in a cohort of cancer patients (n=57 591) and in a comparison general-population cohort (n=287 476) in Denmark. The subjects entered the study in 1997–2005, and the follow-up continued through 2006. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression, we estimated relative risks (RRs) for VTE predictors, while adjusting for comorbidity. Results: Throughout the follow-up, VTE IR was higher among the cancer patients (IR=8.0, 95% CI=7.6–8.5) than the general population (IR=4.7, 95% CI=4.3–5.1), particularly in the first year after cancer diagnosis (IR=15.0, 95% CI=13.8–16.2, vs IR=8.6, 95% CI=7.6–9.9). Incidence rates of VTE were highest in patients with pancreas (IR=40.9, 95% CI=29.5–56.7), brain (IR=17.7, 95% CI=11.3–27.8) or liver (IR=20.4, 95% CI=9.2–45.3) tumours, multiple myeloma (IR=22.6, 95% CI=15.4–33.2) and among patients with advanced-stage cancers (IR=27.7, 95% CI=24.0–32.0) or those who received chemotherapy or no/symptomatic treatment. The adjusted RR (aRR) for VTE was highest among patients with pancreas (aRR=16.3, 95% CI=8.1–32.6) or brain cancer (aRR=19.8 95% CI=7.1–55.2), multiple myeloma (aRR=46.1, 95% CI=13.1–162.0) and among patients receiving chemotherapy, either alone (aRR=18.5, 95% CI=11.9–28.7) or in combination treatments (aRR=16.2, 95% CI=12.0–21.7). Conclusions: Risk of VTE is higher among cancer patients than in the general population. Predictors of VTE include recency of cancer diagnosis, cancer site, stage and the type of cancer-directed treatment. PMID:20842120

  4. The association between pain and depression and some determinants of depression for the general population of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cai, Beilei; Oderda, Gary M

    2012-09-01

    Pain and depression are major reasons for pharmacotherapy, making the relationship between these two complaints important in defining optimal pharmacotherapy for both. Although the association between the two has been documented in the literature, most of the available work only focused on specific disease group or patients with certain type of pain. Whether the association exists for the general population is still an unsettled issue. The goal of this study was to examine the association between pain and depression and explore the some determinants of depression using national representative survey data for the general population in the United States. This work employed data from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2009, with people older than 18 were included in the study. Ordered logistic regression and generalized ordered logistic regression were performed while incorporating complex survey features. Estimation results suggested that depression and physical pain were positively associated. In addition, individuals with better perceived health, older age, male gender, higher family income, and employed were less depressed. Divorced or separated marital status was associated with higher depression level. This work fills the gap in the literature by using nationally representative survey data set to examine the association between physical pain and depression. Levels of physical pain and many socioeconomic factors were found significantly associated with depression.

  5. General three-state model with biased population replacement: analytical solution and application to language dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  6. General three-state model with biased population replacement: Analytical solution and application to language dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F.; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  7. Use of generalized population ratios to obtain Fe XV line intensities and linewidths at high electron densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized method for obtaining individual level population ratios is used to obtain relative intensities of extreme ultraviolet Fe XV emission lines in the range 284-500 A, which are density dependent for electron densities in the tokamak regime or higher. Four lines in particular are found to attain quite high intensities in the high-density limit. The same calculation provides inelastic contributions to linewidths. The method connects level populations and level widths through total probabilities t(ij), related to 'taboo' probabilities of Markov chain theory. The t(ij) are here evaluated for a real atomic system, being therefore of potential interest to random-walk theorists who have been limited to idealized systems characterized by simplified transition schemes.

  8. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001). The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  9. Heart Rate Variability and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Bossard, Matthias; Schoen, Tobias; Schmidlin, Delia; Muff, Christoph; Maseli, Anna; Leuppi, Jörg D; Miedinger, David; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2016-09-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea seems to have an important influence on the autonomic nervous system. In this study, we assessed the relations of sleep apnea-related parameters with 24-hour heart rate variability (HRV) in a large population of young and healthy adults. Participants aged 25 to 41 years with a body mass index <35 kg/m(2) and without known obstructive sleep apnea were included in a prospective population-based cohort study. HRV was assessed using 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring. The SD of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) was used as the main HRV variable. Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were obtained from nighttime pulse oximetry with nasal airflow measurements. We defined sleep-related breathing disorders as an AHI ≥5 or an ODI ≥5. Multivariable regression models were constructed to assess the relation of HRV with either AHI or ODI. Median age of the 1,255 participants was 37 years, 47% were men, and 9.6% had an AHI ≥5. Linear inverse associations of SDNN across AHI and ODI groups were found (p for trend = 0.006 and 0.0004, respectively). The β coefficients (95% CI) for the relation between SDNN and elevated AHI were -0.20 (-0.40 to -0.11), p = 0.04 and -0.29 (-0.47 to -0.11), p = 0.002 for elevated ODI. After adjustment for 24-hour heart rate, the same β coefficients (95% CI) were -0.06 (-0.22 to 0.11), p = 0.51 and -0.14 (-0.30 to 0.01), p = 0.07, respectively. In conclusion, even early stages of sleep-related breathing disorders are inversely associated with HRV in young and healthy adults, suggesting that they are tightly linked with autonomic dysfunction. However, HRV and 24-hour heart rate seem to have common information. PMID:27553103

  10. Epidemiological Characterization and Risk Factors of Allergic Rhinitis in the General Population in Guangzhou City in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi Bin; Peng, Hua; Lu, Han Gui; Yang, Yan; Yin, Jia; Li, Tian Ying

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in China has increased with an apparent geographic variation. The current study aims to investigate the AR prevalence/classification, diagnosis/treatment conditions, trigger factors, and risk factors in the general population of Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China. A cross-sectional survey was performed in the citizens in Guangzhou from December 2009 to March 2010 by using a stratified multistage cluster sampling method. All subjects were asked to complete a comprehensive questionnaire via a face to face interview. A total of 9,899 questionnaires were valid. The prevalence rate of AR in the general population of Guangzhou was 6.24%, with a significant higher prevalence in urban area (8.32%) versus rural area (3.43%). Among the AR subjects, most (87%) were diagnosed with intermittent AR and 87% suffered from moderate-severe symptoms. High percentages of the AR patients did not have previously physician-based diagnosis (34%) or specific medical treatment (55%). Morning time, winter season, and cold air were the most common trigger factors of AR. Family history of AR, current living place, living place during babyhood, smoking, home renovation, and pet ownership were the significant risk factors associated with AR prevalence in the population. The study demonstrated comprehensive epidemiological and clinical information about the AR in Guangzhou population. Change of living environment and lifestyles had strong impacts on the prevalence of AR. Public health policies should help the patients benefit from a proper diagnosis/treatment and specifically target the local risk factors, in order to control the AR incidence. PMID:25514026

  11. Serum antinuclear and extractable nuclear antigen antibody prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality in the general population over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Ceribelli, Angela; Generali, Elena; Scirè, Carlo A; Alborghetti, Fausto; Colloredo, Guido; Porrati, Luisa; Achenza, Maria I S; De Santis, Maria; Cavaciocchi, Francesca; Massarotti, Marco; Isailovic, Natasa; Paleari, Valentina; Invernizzi, Pietro; Matthias, Torsten; Zucchi, Alberto; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of ANA and anti-ENA in the general population is not well established, especially their clinical significance in healthy subjects. We herein determined the prevalence and predictive value of serum ANA and anti-ENA for connective tissue diseases (CTD), cancer, and mortality. We took advantage of a randomly selected sample of the 1998 general population (Isola I) consisting of 2828 subjects (53% women, age 43±13 years) from a well-defined Northern Italian area. Serum ANA and anti-ENA were tested on the 2690 samples available in 2012 (Isola II, 50% women, age 58±13 years). Administrative databases were searched for CTD, cancer diagnosis, and death cases occurring between enrollment and December 31, 2013. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for incident cases. Serum ANA is positive in 18.1% for any titer and 6.1% for titers ≥1:160, 23% in subjects over 50 years and 13.1% and 6.1% for any titer and titers ≥1:160, respectively, in women. The HR for CTD development was significantly high for all ANA titers, with the highest for ANA ≥1:160 (HR 14.19, 95% CI 3.07-65.68). ANA positivity was not associated with cancer (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.75-1.43), or with mortality (HR adjusted for age and sex 1.40; 95% CI 0.94-2.09). Serum anti-ENA is positive in a minority of subjects with highest figures for anti-nucleosome (1.9%), -histone (1.6%) and -PM/Scl (1.5%). In conclusion, serum ANA prevalence in the general population is highest in senior subjects and in women, while the female predominance is significantly lower compared to overt CTD. Serum ANA is associated with an increased probability of CTD development over time, but does not influence survival or cancer risk.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Prognostic Implications of Exercise-Induced Ventricular Premature Complexes in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonseok; Kwon, Minkyung; Chang, Jinsoo; Harris, David; Gerson, Myron C; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Oh, Seung-Won

    2016-09-01

    Ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) during stress testing in the general population are commonly seen in clinical practice, but their prognostic value is not well understood. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from January 1970 to May 2015 was conducted. Observational cohort studies on general populations evaluating the association between exercise-induced VPCs and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality were included in the analysis. Nine studies comprising 62,488 participants comparing clinical outcomes of patients with and without exercise-induced VPCs were included. The overall combined relative risks (RRs) for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with exercise-induced VPCs were 1.41 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.61) and 1.86 (95% CI 1.51 to 2.30), respectively. In subgroup analysis, both frequent VPCs (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.60) and infrequent VPCs (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.18) were associated with an adverse outcome. VPCs during recovery were associated with an increased risk of death (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.96). VPCs during exercise did not achieve statistical significance (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.34), but only a few studies were included in the analysis. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that exercise-induced VPCs in the general population significantly increase the risk of total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Our study calls for further studies to assess the prognostic significance of exercise-induced VPCs and the utility of efforts to reduce the VPC burden to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:27394411

  13. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-10-30

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. PMID:23623452

  14. Exposure to manganese: health effects on the general population, a pilot study in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos-Burgoa, C; Rios, C; Mercado, L A; Arechiga-Serrano, R; Cano-Valle, F; Eden-Wynter, R A; Texcalac-Sangrador, J L; Villa-Barragan, J P; Rodriguez-Agudelo, Y; Montes, S

    2001-02-01

    To support a risk assessment of manganese exposure in two communities living within a manganese mining district a cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of the adult population of long-term residents. One community was exposed to a point source from an ore primary refining plant. Manganese is an essential mineral for human life. It is also the fourth in importance for industrial metal making. Data were collected on socioeconomic living conditions, emission sources, environmental media concentrations (air, water, soil, dust, food), respiratory symptomatology, and a neuropsychological examination (Mini-Mental Screening test, the Hooper Visual Organization test, the Ardila-Ostroski, and others). We examined 73 subjects (52 women), most of low socioeconomic status. Environmental air concentrations were 2 to 3 times higher than those in other urban concentrations. Manganese blood concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 88 microg/L, with a median concentration of 15, the upper quartile starting at 20 microg/L; the upper 10% was above 25 microg/L. Lead and manganese were highly correlated; there was an inverse relation to hemoglobin. Reduced levels of plasma lipid peroxidation were associated with blood manganese. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified B-Mn as increasing the risk of deficient cognitive performance 12 times (Mini-Mental score of less than 17).

  15. Trinucleotide repeats at the FRAXF locus: Frequency and distribution in the general population

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Walker, M.

    1996-08-09

    FRAXF the third X-chromosomal fragile site to be cloned, has been shown to harbor a polymorphic compound triplet array: (GC-CGTC){sub n} (GCC){sub n}. Expansion and methylation of the GCC-repeat and the neighboring CpG-rich region result in chromosomal fragility. DNAs from 500 anonymous consecutive newborn males were examined to determine the incidence of various repeat numbers. The range of repeats was from 10-38, with the most common alleles having 14 (52.7%), 12 (16.6%), 21 (9.0%), and 22 (5.2%) triplets. Based on the distribution of repeat numbers, we suggest that the 21-repeat allele resulted from hairpin formation involving 7 GCC-repeats in a 14-repeat allele, accompanied by polymerase slippage. Examination of dinucleotide repeats near the FRAXF repeat will be important in testing this hypothesis. Since the clinical phenotype, if any, of FRAXF is unknown, this database will also be valuable for comparisons with repeat numbers in individuals from special populations. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Screening for celiac disease in the general population and in high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Card, Timothy R; Kaukinen, Katri; Bai, Julio; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) occurs in approximately 1% of the Western population. It is a lifelong disorder that is associated with impaired quality of life (QOL) and an excessive risk of comorbidity and death. Objectives To review the literature on screening for CD in relation to the current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for mass screening. Methods We performed a PubMed search to identify indexed papers on CD screening with a publication date from 1900 until 1 June 2014. When we deemed an abstract relevant, we read the corresponding paper in detail. Results CD fulfills several WHO criteria for mass screening (high prevalence, available treatment and difficult clinical detection), but it has not yet been established that treatment of asymptomatic CD may reduce the excessive risk of severe complications, leading to higher QOL nor that it is cost-effective. Conclusions Current evidence is not sufficient to support mass screening for CD, but active case-finding may be appropriate, as we recognize that most patients with CD will still be missed by this strategy. Although proof of benefit is still lacking, screening for CD may be appropriate in high-risk groups. PMID:25922671

  17. Viewing DVM via general behaviors of zooplankton: a way bridging the success of individual and population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shun-Hui; Sun, Song; Han, Bo-Ping

    2006-01-21

    In this paper, we viewed the diel vertical migration (DVM) of copepod in the context of the animal's immediate behaviors of everyday concerns and constructed an instantaneous behavioral criterion effective for DVM and non-DVM behaviors. This criterion employed the function of 'venturous revenue' (VR), which is the product of the food intake and probability of the survival, to evaluate the gains and losses of the behaviors that the copepod could trade-off. The optimal behaviors are to find the optimal habitats to maximize VR. Two types of VRs are formulated and tested by the theoretical analysis and simulations. The sensed VR, monitoring the real-time changes of trade-offs and thereby determining the optimum habitat, is validated to be the effective objective function for the optimization of the behavior; whereas, the realized VR, quantifying the actual profit obtained by an optimal copepod in the sensed-VR-determined habitat, defines the life history of a specific age cohort. The achievement of a robust copepod overwintering stock through integrating the dynamics of the constituent age cohorts subjected to the instantaneous behavioral criterion for DVM clearly exemplified a possible way bridging the immediate pursuit of an individual and the end success of the population.

  18. Overlap of dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux in the general population: one disease or distinct entities?

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The overlap of dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is known to be frequent but whether the overlap group is a distinct entity or not remains unclear. Aims To evaluate whether the overlap of dyspepsia and GER (dyspepsia-GER overlap) occurs more than expected due to chance alone, and evaluate the risk factors for dyspepsia-GER overlap. Methods In 2008 and 2009, a validated Bowel Disease Questionnaire was mailed to a total of 8006 community sample from Olmsted County, MN. Overall, 3831 of the 8006 subjects returned surveys (response rate 48%). Dyspepsia was defined by symptom criteria of Rome III; GER was defined by weekly or more frequent heartburn and/or acid regurgitation. Results Dyspepsia and GER occurred together more commonly than expected by chance. The somatic symptom checklist score was significantly associated with dyspepsia-GER overlap vs. GER alone or dyspepsia alone (OR=1.9 [1.4, 2.5), and 1.6 [1.2, 2.1), respectively). Insomnia was also significantly associated with dyspepsia-GER overlap vs. GER alone or dyspepsia alone (OR=1.4 [1.1, 1.7], OR=1.3 [1.1, 1.6], respectively). Moreover, proton pump inhibitor use was significantly associated with dyspepsia-GER overlap vs. dyspepsia alone (OR=2.4 [1.5, 3.8]). Conclusions Dyspepsia-GER overlap is common in the population and is greater than expected by chance. PMID:22150874

  19. Widespread brain dysconnectivity associated with psychotic-like experiences in the general population.

    PubMed

    Orr, Joseph M; Turner, Jessica A; Mittal, Vijay A

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that psychosis occurs along a continuum. At the high end are formal psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and at the low-end are individuals who experience occasional psychotic symptoms, but are otherwise healthy (non-clinical psychosis, NCP). Schizophrenia has been shown to be marked by altered patterns of connectivity between brain regions, but it is not known if such dysconnectivity exists in NCP. In the current study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare resting-state functional connectivity in NCP individuals (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 27) for four brain networks of interest (fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular, default mode, and cerebellar networks). NCP individuals showed reduced connectivity compared to controls between regions of the default mode network and frontal regions, and between regions in all of the networks and the thalamus. NCP individuals showed greater connectivity compared to controls within regions of frontal control networks. Further, positive symptom scores in NCP individuals were positively correlated with connectivity between the cingulo-opercular network and the visual cortex, and were negatively correlated with connectivity between the cerebellar network and the posterior parietal cortex and dorsal premotor cortex. Connectivity was not correlated with positive symptom scores in controls. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a spectrum of abnormal connectivity underlies the psychosis continuum, and that individuals with sub-clinical psychotic experiences represent a key population for understanding pathogenic processes.

  20. Cultural concepts of tuberculosis and gender among the general population without tuberculosis in rural Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Atre, Sachin R; Kudale, Abhay M; Morankar, Sudhakar N; Rangan, Sheela G; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2004-11-01

    Gender-specific patterns of experience, meaning, and behaviour for tuberculosis (TB) require consideration to guide control programmes. To clarify concepts of gender, culture, and TB in a rural endemic population of Maharashtra, India, this study of 80 men and 80 women employed qualitative and quantitative methods of cultural epidemiology, using a locally adapted semi-structured Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) interviews are instruments for cultural epidemiological study of the distribution of illness-related experiences, meanings, and behaviours. This interview queried respondents without active disease about vignettes depicting a man and woman with typical features of TB. Emotional and social symptoms were frequently reported for both vignettes, but more often considered most distressing for the female vignette; specified problems included arranging marriages, social isolation, and inability to care for children and family. Job loss and reduced income were regarded most troubling for the male vignette. Men and women typically identified sexual experience as the cause of TB for opposite-sex vignettes. With wider access to information about TB, male respondents more frequently recommended allopathic doctors and specialty services. Discussion considers the practical significance of gender-specific cultural concepts of TB. PMID:15548321

  1. Association of hyperglycemia in a general Japanese population with late-night-dinner eating alone, but not breakfast skipping alone.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2015-01-01

    The unhealthy habit of late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) is often observed in adults. Since LNDE can lead to breakfast skipping (BS) the next morning, we examined the associations of LNDE and BS with hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7% and/or pharmacotherapy for diabetes), separately and in combination, in 61,364 apparently healthy Japanese adults aged 30-70 years. Although LNDE alone was significantly associated with hyperglycemia, even after adjustment for body mass index, BS alone was not. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia in the general Japanese population is associated with LNDE alone, but not BS alone.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the General Population of Iran: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Farzin; Almasi Hashiani, Amir; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global public health problem, affecting more than 2 billion people worldwide. Accurate and updated data on HBV prevalence is important for further planning to control the infection. The aim of this study was to update the prevalence estimate of HBV infection in the general population of Iran. Evidence Acquisition A systematic review was done for data on the prevalence of HBV infection in the general Iranian population published between Jan. 1, 1990, and Jan. 1, 2016, in both international and national databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Magiran. All papers with clearly described time and location of the study, proper sampling strategies, and proper analysis methods were included in the present study. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Prevalence of HBV infection with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using Stata software, version 13. Results The polled estimated prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of Iran was 2.2 % (95% CI: 1.9% - 2.6%). The highest prevalence of HBV infection (8.9%, 95% CI: 7.6% - 10.2%) was reported from Golestan province, and the lowest prevalence (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.4% - 1.1%) was seen in Kermanshah province. The prevalence of HBV infection was estimated at 3% (95% CI: 2.2% - 3.8%) for Iranian males and 1.7% (95% CI: 1.2% - 2.3%) for Iranian females. The prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of Iran was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5% - 3.4%) before 2010 and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9% - 1.7%) after 2010. Conclusions In total, Iran was classified within the low–intermediate HBV prevalence areas (2% - 4%), while according to recent data (after 2010), Iran was classified within the low HBV prevalence areas (< 2%), indicating that preventive measures conducted in Iran have been effective. PMID:27257428

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Autistic-Like Traits in a General Population Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E.; Abraham, Lawrence J.; Whitehouse, Andrew J.; Moses, Eric K.

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 × 10−8). However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 × 10−5) add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD etiology, PRKCB1, and CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10−6), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10−6) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second

  4. Performance Scores in General Practice: A Comparison between the Clinical versus Medication-Based Approach to Identify Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Lary, Olivier; Boisnault, Philippe; Naiditch, Michel; Szidon, Philippe; Duhot, Didier; Bourgueil, Yann; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Context From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men) or 60 (for women), and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. Methods A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs), the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG) for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. Results We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement = 96%, kappa = 0.69). The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval) per doctor was 33.7% (31.5–35.9) for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4–41.4) for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3–39.4) and 43.8% (41.4–46.3) on the basis of treatment criteria. Conclusion The two approaches yield very “similar” scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the

  5. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health

  6. Dental and general health in a population of wild ring-tailed lemurs: a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Sauther, Michelle L; Sussman, R W; Cuozzo, F

    2002-02-01

    Data are presented on dental and general health for seven groups of wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, from the Beza Mahafaly Reserve, in southern Madagascar. As part of a study of population demography, adults were captured, collared, and tagged, and biometric measurements, dental casts, and analyses of dental and general health were made. Results indicate that patterns of dental health vary by individual, age, sex, and habitat. Prime adults show more dental attrition than young adults. Prime males living in more marginal habitats show greater mean attrition than those living in richer habitats. Dental damage, specifically to the toothcomb, indicates that mechanical stresses to this region may include the initial harvesting of foods, in addition to grooming. Males exhibit more evidence of past trauma, including scars and chipped teeth. These results indicate that environmental as well as social factors, such as female dominance, may lead to sex differences in health patterns among lemurs. PMID:11815947

  7. Associations of carotid intima-media thickness, tobacco smoking and overweight with hearing disorder in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    John, U; Baumeister, S E; Kessler, C; Völzke, H

    2007-11-01

    It has been argued that smoking or overweight might contribute to hearing disorder by atherogenic narrowing of the nutrient arteries to the cochlea. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker for generalized atherosclerosis. We analyzed a subgroup (n=2619) from a general population sample in north-eastern Germany aged 45-81 years (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Assessments included self-statements about hearing disorder and medical examinations of CIMT. Using ordinal logistic regression for data analysis and after adjustment for cigarettes per day, waist circumference, diabetes, exposure to noise, age and sex, we found CIMT remained a predictor of hearing disorder (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2). Cigarettes per day and waist circumference were related to CIMT but not to hearing disorder. The findings suggest a positive association between CIMT and hearing disorder.

  8. Midlife Blood Pressure and Late-Life GFR and Albuminuria: An Elderly General Population Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Inker, Lesley A.; Okparavero, Aghogho; Tighiouart, Hocine; Aspelund, Thor; Andresdottir, Margret B.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore; Nikulasdottir, Hjalmfridur; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Noubary, Farzad; Mitchell, Gary; Palsson, Runolfur; Indridason, Olafur; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Levey, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in the elderly, but the cause is often not identifiable. Some posit that age-related reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increases in albuminuria are normal, whereas others suggest that they are a consequence of vascular disease. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of a substudy of a prospective cohort. Setting & Participants AGES (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility)-Reykjavik Study. Predictor Exposure to higher blood pressure in midlife. Outcomes & Measurements Measured GFR using plasma clearance of iohexol and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Results GFR was measured in 805 participants with mean age in midlife and late life of 51.0 ±5.8 and 80.8 ±4.0 (SD) years, respectively. Mean measured GFR was 62.4 ±16.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 and median albuminuria was 8.0 (IQR, 5.4–16.5) mg/g. Higher midlife systolic and diastolic blood pressures were associated with lower later life GFR. Associations persisted after adjustment. Higher midlife systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also associated with higher ACR, and associations remained significant even after adjustment. Limitations This is a study of survivors, and people who agreed to participate in this study were healthier than those who refused. Blood pressure may encompass effects of the other risk factors. Results may not be generalizable to populations of other races. We were not able to adjust for measured GFR or albuminuria at the midlife visit. Conclusions Factors other than advanced age may account for the high prevalence of CKD in the elderly. Midlife factors are potential contributing factors to late-life kidney disease. Further studies are needed to identify and treat midlife modifiable factors to prevent the development of CKD. PMID:25987258

  9. Seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica Infection in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in Mexico has been scantily studied. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in adults in rural areas in Durango, Mexico. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, E. histolytica IgG antibodies were determined in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, housing conditions, and behavioral characteristics of the subjects studied was investigated. Results One hundred and eighteen (41.8%) of the 282 rural subjects had anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with source of drinking water (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.58; P = 0.005), and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.27; P = 0.03). In contrast, E. histolytica exposure was negatively associated with consumption of unpasteurized cow milk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31 - 0.96; P = 0.03), and crowding at home (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.64; P = 0.0009). Conclusions The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection found in adults in rural Durango is high compared with those reported in other Mexican populations. The correlates of E. histolytica seropositivity found in the present study may be useful for the planning of optimal preventive measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:25883706

  10. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women.

  11. Association of hemoglobin with ankle-brachial index in general population

    PubMed Central

    Chenglong, Zhang; Jing, Lei; Xia, Ke; Yang, Tianlun

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that both low and high hemoglobin concentrations are predictive of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in various populations. However, an association of hemoglobin with the ankle-brachial index, which is widely used as a screening test for peripheral arterial disease, has not yet been identified. METHODS: We examined 786 subjects (236 women and 550 men) who received routine physical check-ups. The ankle-brachial index and several hematological parameters, including the hemoglobin level, hematocrit and red blood cell count and other demographic and biochemical characteristics were collected. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between the ankle-brachial index and the independent determinants. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to calculate the cut-off level of hemoglobin for a relatively low ankle-brachial index (less than 20% of all subjects, which was 1.02). RESULTS: The hemoglobin level, hematocrit and red blood cell count were correlated with the ankle-brachial index in the males (r=-0.274, r=-0.224 and r=-0.273, respectively, p<0.001 for all), but these associations were not significant in the females. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that the independent determinants of the ankle-brachial index included age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the white blood cell count for the females and age, hypertension, total cholesterol and hemoglobin (β=-0.001, p<0.001) for the males after adjusting for confounding factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut-off level of hemoglobin for predicting a low ankle-brachial index was 156.5 g/L in the males. CONCLUSIONS: A high hemoglobin concentration was independently correlated with a low ankle-brachial index in the healthy males, indicating that an elevation in this level may be associated with an increased

  12. Common polygenic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with cognitive ability in the general population.

    PubMed

    Clarke, T-K; Lupton, M K; Fernandez-Pujals, A M; Starr, J; Davies, G; Cox, S; Pattie, A; Liewald, D C; Hall, L S; MacIntyre, D J; Smith, B H; Hocking, L J; Padmanabhan, S; Thomson, P A; Hayward, C; Hansell, N K; Montgomery, G W; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Porteous, D J; Deary, I J; McIntosh, A M

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been suggested that some aspects of intelligence are preserved or even superior in people with ASD compared with controls, but consistent evidence is lacking. Few studies have examined the genetic overlap between cognitive ability and ASD/ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine the polygenic overlap between ASD/ADHD and cognitive ability in individuals from the general population. Polygenic risk for ADHD and ASD was calculated from genome-wide association studies of ASD and ADHD conducted by the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium. Risk scores were created in three independent cohorts: Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n=9863), the Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921 (n=1522), and the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Sample (BATS) (n=921). We report that polygenic risk for ASD is positively correlated with general cognitive ability (beta=0.07, P=6 × 10(-7), r(2)=0.003), logical memory and verbal intelligence in GS:SFHS. This was replicated in BATS as a positive association with full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) (beta=0.07, P=0.03, r(2)=0.005). We did not find consistent evidence that polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with cognitive function; however, a negative correlation with IQ at age 11 years (beta=-0.08, Z=-3.3, P=0.001) was observed in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. These findings are in individuals from the general population, suggesting that the relationship between genetic risk for ASD and intelligence is partly independent of clinical state. These data suggest that common genetic variation relevant for ASD influences general cognitive ability.

  13. Generalized rate-code model for neuron ensembles with finite populations

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2007-05-15

    We have proposed a generalized Langevin-type rate-code model subjected to multiplicative noise, in order to study stationary and dynamical properties of an ensemble containing a finite number N of neurons. Calculations using the Fokker-Planck equation have shown that, owing to the multiplicative noise, our rate model yields various kinds of stationary non-Gaussian distributions such as {gamma}, inverse-Gaussian-like, and log-normal-like distributions, which have been experimentally observed. The dynamical properties of the rate model have been studied with the use of the augmented moment method (AMM), which was previously proposed by the author from a macroscopic point of view for finite-unit stochastic systems. In the AMM, the original N-dimensional stochastic differential equations (DEs) are transformed into three-dimensional deterministic DEs for the means and fluctuations of local and global variables. The dynamical responses of the neuron ensemble to pulse and sinusoidal inputs calculated by the AMM are in good agreement with those obtained by direct simulation. The synchronization in the neuronal ensemble is discussed. The variabilities of the firing rate and of the interspike interval are shown to increase with increasing magnitude of multiplicative noise, which may be a conceivable origin of the observed large variability in cortical neurons.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  15. Effects of Nighttime Light Radiance on the Sleep of the General Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to verify if the exposure to greater nighttime radiance is associated with changes in the sleep/wake schedule and with greater sleep disturbances. Methods: The target population was the adults (18 years and older) living in California, USA. This represents 24 million of inhabitants. A total of 3,104 subjects participated in the survey (participation rate 85.6%). The participants were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The interviews covered several topics including sleeping habits, sleep quality, sleep disturbances, physical symptoms related to menopause. Chronic insomnia was defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep for at least 3 months. Global nighttime light emissions have been collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) sensors. We extracted the radiance calibrated nighttime lights corresponding to the date of the interviews for a three by three window centered on each coordinate corresponding to an interview address. Results: Dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and/or quality was associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p=0.02). Similarly, excessive sleepiness accompanied with impaired functioning was significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Confusional arousals were also significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Bedtime hour was linearly increasing with the intensity of nighttime radiance: the later the bedtime, the greater the nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Similarly, wakeup time became progressively later as the nighttime radiance increased (p (is) less than 0.0001). Both associations remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Circadian Rhythm Disorders were the

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  17. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  19. Producing selenium-enriched eggs and meat to improve the selenium status of the general population.

    PubMed

    Fisinin, Vladimir I; Papazyan, Tigran T; Surai, Peter F

    2009-01-01

    The role of selenium (Se) in human health and diseases has been discussed in detail in several recent reviews, with the main conclusion being that selenium deficiency is recognised as a global problem which urgently needs resolution. Since selenium content in plant-based food depends on its availability from soil, the level of this element in food and feeds varies among regions. In general, eggs and meat are considered to be good sources of selenium in human diet. When considering ways to improve human selenium intake, there are several potential options. These include direct supplementation, soil fertilisation and supplementation of food staples such as flour, and production of functional foods. Analysing recent publications related to functional food production, it is evident that selenium-enriched eggs can be used as an important delivery system of this trace mineral for humans. In particular, developments and commercialisation of organic forms of selenium have initiated a new era in the availability of selenium-enriched products. It has been shown that egg selenium content can easily be manipulated to give increased levels, especially when organic selenium is included in hens' diet at levels that provide 0.3-0.5 mg/kg selenium in the feed. As a result, technology for the production of eggs delivering approximately 50% (30-35 microg) of the human selenium RDA have been developed and successfully tested. Currently companies all over the world market selenium-enriched eggs including the UK, Ireland, Mexico, Columbia, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, Turkey, Russia and the Ukraine. Prices for enriched eggs vary from country to country, typically being similar to free-range eggs. Selenium-enriched chicken, pork and beef can also be produced when using organic selenium in the diet of poultry and farm animals. The scientific, technological and other advantages and limitations of producing designer/modified eggs as functional foods are discussed in this review.

  20. Change in pulmonary diffusion capacity in a general population sample over 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Storebø, Michael L.; Eagan, Tomas M. L.; Eide, Geir E.; Gulsvik, Amund; Thorsen, Einar; Bakke, Per S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (ΔDLCO) over a 9-year period and its predictors. Methods A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18–73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75%) were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ΔDLCO and the covariables. Results At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD)] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4) and 7.8 (1.6) mmol·min−1·kPa−1 in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD) ΔDLCO was −0.24 (1.31) mmol·min−1·kPa−1. ΔDLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ΔDLCO. Conclusions In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1. PMID:27600696

  1. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    PubMed Central

    Köck, R.; Werner, P.; Friedrich, A.W.; Fegeler, C.; Becker, K.; Bindewald, O.; Bui, T.T.; Eckhoff, C.; Epping, R.; Kähmann, L.; Meurer, M.; Steger, J.; von Auenmüller, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact. PMID:26862431

  2. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population.

    PubMed

    Köck, R; Werner, P; Friedrich, A W; Fegeler, C; Becker, K

    2016-01-01

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4-6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact. PMID:26862431

  3. BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

    2015-02-01

    Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population. PMID:25591950

  4. Rifapentine for latent tuberculosis infection treatment in the general population and human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: summary of evidence.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Júlia Souza; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Sanchez, Mauro Niskier

    2015-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfection are challenges in the control of tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to assess and summarize evidence available in the literature regarding the treatment of LTBI in both the general and HIV-positive population, in order to support decision making by the Brazilian Tuberculosis Control Program for LTBI chemoprophylaxis. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Trip database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and the Brazilian Theses Repository to identify systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials, clinical guidelines, evidence-based synopses, reports of health technology assessment agencies, and theses that investigated rifapentine and isoniazid combination compared to isoniazid monotherapy. We assessed the quality of evidence from randomized clinical trials using the Jadad Scale and recommendations from other evidence sources using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations approach. The available evidence suggests that there are no differences between rifapentine + isoniazid short-course treatment and the standard 6-month isoniazid therapy in reducing active tuberculosis incidence or death. Adherence was better with directly observed rifapentine therapy compared to self-administered isoniazid. The quality of evidence obtained was moderate, and on the basis of this evidence, rifapentine is recommended by one guideline. Available evidence assessment considering the perspective of higher adherence rates, lower costs, and local peculiarity context might support rifapentine use for LTBI in the general or HIV-positive populations. Since novel trials are ongoing, further studies should include patients on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26516958

  5. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %).

  6. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of China: A meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CAO, XIAO-LAN; ZHONG, BAO-LIANG; XIANG, YU-TAO; UNGVARI, GABOR S.; LAI, KELLY Y. C.; CHIU, HELEN F. K.; CAINE, ERIC D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this meta-analysis is to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of Mainland China. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, China Journals Full-Text Databases, Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wan Fang Data. Statistical analysis used the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria for the analysis; five reported on the prevalence of suicidal ideation and seven on that of suicide attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalence figures of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 3.9% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 2.5%–6.0%) and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.7%–0.9%), respectively. The estimated female-male ratio for lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was 1.7 and 2.2, respectively. Only the difference of suicide attempts between the two genders was statistically significant. Conclusion This was the first meta-analysis of the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of Mainland China. The pooled lifetime prevalence of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are relatively low; however, caution is required when assessing these self-report data. Women had a modestly higher prevalence for suicide attempts than men. The frequency for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in urban regions was similar to those in rural areas. PMID:26060259

  7. Organization of brain networks governed by long-range connections index autistic traits in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dimensional approach to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) considers ASD as the extreme of a dimension traversing through the entire population. We explored the potential utility of electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity as a biomarker. We hypothesized that individual differences in autistic traits of typical subjects would involve a long-range connectivity diminution within the delta band. Methods Resting-state EEG functional connectivity was measured for 74 neurotypical subjects. All participants also provided a questionnaire (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) that was completed by an informant who knows the participant in social settings. We conducted multivariate regression between the SRS score and functional connectivity in all EEG frequency bands. We explored modulations of network graph metrics characterizing the optimality of a network using the SRS score. Results Our results show a decay in functional connectivity mainly within the delta and theta bands (the lower part of the EEG spectrum) associated with an increasing number of autistic traits. When inspecting the impact of autistic traits on the global organization of the functional network, we found that the optimal properties of the network are inversely related to the number of autistic traits, suggesting that the autistic dimension, throughout the entire population, modulates the efficiency of functional brain networks. Conclusions EEG functional connectivity at low frequencies and its associated network properties may be associated with some autistic traits in the general population. PMID:23806204

  8. Assessing the phenotypic effects in the general population of rare variants in genes for a dominant Mendelian form of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Flannick, Jason; Beer, Nicola L; Bick, Alexander G; Agarwala, Vineeta; Molnes, Janne; Gupta, Namrata; Burtt, Noël P; Florez, Jose C; Meigs, James B; Taylor, Herman; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Irgens, Henrik; Fox, Ervin; Burslem, Frank; Johansson, Stefan; Brosnan, M Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Molven, Anders; Wilson, James G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Njølstad, Pål R; Rolph, Tim; Seidman, J G; Gabriel, Stacey; Cox, David R; Seidman, Christine E; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David

    2013-11-01

    Genome sequencing can identify individuals in the general population who harbor rare coding variants in genes for Mendelian disorders and who may consequently have increased disease risk. Previous studies of rare variants in phenotypically extreme individuals display ascertainment bias and may demonstrate inflated effect-size estimates. We sequenced seven genes for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in well-phenotyped population samples (n = 4,003). We filtered rare variants according to two prediction criteria for disease-causing mutations: reported previously in MODY or satisfying stringent de novo thresholds (rare, conserved and protein damaging). Approximately 1.5% and 0.5% of randomly selected individuals from the Framingham and Jackson Heart Studies, respectively, carry variants from these two classes. However, the vast majority of carriers remain euglycemic through middle age. Accurate estimates of variant effect sizes from population-based sequencing are needed to avoid falsely predicting a substantial fraction of individuals as being at risk for MODY or other Mendelian diseases. PMID:24097065

  9. Assessing the phenotypic effects in the general population of rare variants in genes for a dominant mendelian form of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Flannick, Jason; Beer, Nicola L; Bick, Alexander G; Agarwala, Vineeta; Molnes, Janne; Gupta, Namrata; Burtt, Noel P; Florez, Jose C; Meigs, James B; Taylor, Herman; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Irgens, Henrik; Fox, Ervin; Burslem, Frank; Johansson, Stefan; Brosnan, M Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Molven, Anders; Wilson, James G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Njølstad, Pål R; Rolph, Tim; Seidman, J.G.; Gabriel, Stacey; Cox, David R; Seidman, Christine; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing can identify individuals in the general population who harbor rare coding variants in genes for Mendelian disorders1–7 – and who consequently may have increased disease risk. However, previous studies of rare variants in phenotypically extreme individuals have ascertainment bias and may demonstrate inflated effect size estimates8–12. We sequenced seven genes for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)13 in well-phenotyped population samples14,15 (n=4,003). Rare variants were filtered according to prediction criteria used to identify disease-causing mutations: i) previously-reported in MODY, and ii) stringent de novo thresholds satisfied (rare, conserved, protein damaging). Approximately 1.5% and 0.5% of randomly selected Framingham and Jackson Heart Study individuals carried variants from these two classes, respectively. However, the vast majority of carriers remained euglycemic through middle age. Accurate estimates of variant effect sizes from population-based sequencing are needed to avoid falsely predicting a significant fraction of individuals as at risk for MODY or other Mendelian diseases. PMID:24097065

  10. The overlooked potential of generalized linear models in astronomy - III. Bayesian negative binomial regression and globular cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Hilbe, J. M.; Buelens, B.; Riggs, J. D.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Killedar, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the third in a series illustrating the power of generalized linear models (GLMs) for the astronomical community, we elucidate the potential of the class of GLMs which handles count data. The size of a galaxy's globular cluster (GC) population (NGC) is a prolonged puzzle in the astronomical literature. It falls in the category of count data analysis, yet it is usually modelled as if it were a continuous response variable. We have developed a Bayesian negative binomial regression model to study the connection between NGC and the following galaxy properties: central black hole mass, dynamical bulge mass, bulge velocity dispersion and absolute visual magnitude. The methodology introduced herein naturally accounts for heteroscedasticity, intrinsic scatter, errors in measurements in both axes (either discrete or continuous) and allows modelling the population of GCs on their natural scale as a non-negative integer variable. Prediction intervals of 99 per cent around the trend for expected NGC comfortably envelope the data, notably including the Milky Way, which has hitherto been considered a problematic outlier. Finally, we demonstrate how random intercept models can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type. Bayesian variable selection methodology allows for automatically identifying galaxy types with different productions of GCs, suggesting that on average S0 galaxies have a GC population 35 per cent smaller than other types with similar brightness.

  11. Recruitment using mobile telephones in an Irish general population sexual health survey: challenges and practical solutions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-coverage of households without a landline telephone is a major concern of telephone survey researchers. Sampling mobile telephone users in national surveys is vital in order to gain access to the growing proportion of households that use mobile telephones extensively or exclusively. The complex logistics of conducting surveys with mobile telephones have been discussed in the literature. This paper outlines the actual challenges encountered during a recent national sexual health survey in Ireland, which utilized a mobile telephone sampling frame to recruit approximately half of the sample. Method The 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey (ICCP-2010) is a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18-45 years living in Ireland (n = 3002; 1416 recruited by landline telephone and 1586 recruited by mobile telephone). The overall response rate for the survey was 69% (79% for the landline telephone strand; 61% for the mobile telephone strand). All interviews were conducted using computer-assisting telephone interviewing. Results During the 18-week fieldwork period, five main challenges relating to the use of mobile telephones were encountered: (1) explaining to respondents how random digit dialling works in relation to mobile telephones; (2) establishing the respondent's eligibility; (3) calling the respondent with the Caller ID blocked or withheld; (4) calling the respondent when they are in any number of locations or situations; and (5) explaining to respondents the importance of refusal conversion calls for the response rate calculation. Details of how the survey protocols and procedures were monitored and adapted throughout the study to ensure a high response rate are outlined. Conclusion It is undeniably more challenging to recruit respondents using mobile telephones as opposed to landline telephones. Respondents are generally not familiar with being contacted on their personal mobile telephone for the purposes of being recruited

  12. Peak Systolic Velocity Measurements with Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Is a Predictor of Incident Stroke among the General Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Dodds, Jodi A.; Xie, Gao-Qiang; Zhang, Pu-Hong; Huang, Yi-Ning; Wang, Bo; Wu, Yang-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective It is necessary to develop an effective and low-cost screening tool for identifying Chinese people at high risk of stroke. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) is a powerful predictor of stroke in the pediatric sickle cell disease population, as demonstrated in the STOP trial. Our study was conducted to determine the prediction value of peak systolic velocities as measured by TCD on subsequent stroke risk in a prospective cohort of the general population from Beijing, China. Methods In 2002, a prospective cohort study was conducted among 1392 residents from 11 villages of the Shijingshan district of Beijing, China. The cohort was scheduled for follow up with regard to incident stroke in 2005, 2007, and 2012 by a study team comprised of epidemiologists, nurses, and physicians. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the factors associated with incident stroke. Results Participants identified by TCD criteria as having intracranial stenosis had a 3.6-fold greater risk of incident stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 3.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86–6.83, P<0.01) than those without TCD evidence of intracranial stenosis. The association remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.31–4.87) after adjusting for other risk factors or confounders. Older age, cigarette smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus remained statistically significant as risk factors after controlling for other factors. Conclusions The study confirmed the screening value of TCD among the general population in urban China. Increasing the availability of TCD screening may help identify subjects as higher risk for stroke. PMID:27513983

  13. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use. Method We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors. Results The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese. Conclusion Our findings indicated

  14. A "suicide pill" for older people: attitudes of physicians, the general population, and relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and 87 relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. The general population and relatives were more in favor than physicians. Fifteen percent of the general population and 36% of the relatives thought a suicide pill should be made available.

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Kathryn E.; Sim, Julius; Jordan, Joanne L.; Jordan, Kelvin P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common and associated with poor general health. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of CWP or assess how this is influenced by sociodemographic factors. This study therefore aimed to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of CWP in the adult general population and explore variation in prevalence by age, sex, geographical location, and criteria used to define CWP. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and AMED were searched using a search strategy combining key words and related database-specific subject terms to identify relevant cohort or cross-sectional studies published since 1990. Included articles were assessed for risk of bias. Prevalence figures for CWP (American College of Rheumatology criteria) were stratified according to geographical location, age, and sex. Potential sources of variation were investigated using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-five articles met the eligibility criteria. Estimates for CWP prevalence ranged from 0% to 24%, with most estimates between 10% and 15%. The random-effects pooled prevalence was 10.6% (95% confidence intervals: 8.6-12.9). When only studies at low risk of bias were considered pooled, prevalence increased to 11.8% (95% confidence intervals: 10.3-13.3), with reduced but still high heterogeneity. Prevalence was higher in women and in those aged more than 40 years. There was some limited evidence of geographic variation and cultural differences. One in 10 adults in the general population report chronic widespread pain with possible sociocultural variation. The possibility of cultural differences in pain reporting should be considered in future research and the clinical assessment of painful conditions. PMID:26270591

  16. Measuring social class differences in cancer patient survival: is it necessary to control for social class differences in general population mortality? A Finnish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dickman, P. W.; Auvinen, A.; Voutilainen, E. T.; Hakulinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Estimation of cancer patient survival by social class has been performed using observed, corrected (cause specific), and relative (with expected survival based on the national population) survival rates. Each of these measures are potentially biased and the optimal method is to calculate relative survival rates using social class specific death rates to estimate expected survival. This study determined the degree to which the choice of survival measure affects the estimation of social class differences in cancer patient survival. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All Finnish residents diagnosed with at least one of 10 common malignant neoplasms during the period 1977-1985 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry and followed up for deaths to the end of 1992. DESIGN: Survival rates were calculated by site, sex, and age at 5, 10, and 15 years subsequent to diagnosis for each of three measures of survival; relative survival, corrected (cause specific) survival, and relative survival adjusted for social class differences in general mortality. Regression models were fitted to each set of rates for the first five years of follow up. MAIN RESULTS: The degree of variation in relative survival resulting from social class decreased, although did not disappear, after controlling for social class differences in general mortality. The results obtained using corrected survival were close to those obtained using relative survival with a social class correction. The differences between the three measures were largest when the proportion of deaths from other causes was large, for example, in cancers with high survival, among older patients, and for longer follow up times. CONCLUSIONS: Although each of the three measures gave comparable results, it is recommended that relative survival rates are used with expected survival adjusted for social class when studying social class variation in cancer patient survival. If this is not an available option, it is recommended

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections among the general population and blood donors in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is a serious public health problem affecting billions of people globally. Limited information is available on this issue in Morocco. This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the aim of determining the seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among the general population and among blood donors. Methods Blood samples from volunteers, have been screened with ELISA tests for detecting the hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV. Within the seroreactive patients for HCV in the general population, RT-PCR was performed by the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas Amplicor. Results HCV and HBV-seropositivity was documented in 1.58% and 1.81% out of 41269 and 23578 participants respectively from the general population. Two patients were found to be co-infected. HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 70.9% of the 195 anti-HCV positive subjects. The anti-HCV prevalence was not different among males and females (P = 0.3). It increased with age; the highest prevalence was observed among subjects with >50 years old (3.12%). Various risk factors for acquiring HCV infection were identified; age, dental treatment, use of glass syringes and surgical history. In addition to these factors, gender and sexual risk behaviors were found to be associated with higher prevalence of hepatitis B. The HBV positivity was significantly higher among males than females participants in all age groups (P < 0.01). The peak was noticed among males aged 30–49 years (2.4%). None of the 152 persons younger than 20 years had HBsAg or anti-HCV. The prevalence of anti-HCV and HBsAg among 169605 blood donors was 0.62% and 0.96% respectively. Conclusions Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis B and C prevalence and risk factors; it confirmed the intermediate endemicity for HCV infection and pointed to a decreasing trend of HBV incidence, which might reclassify Morocco in low HBV endemicity area. This could be

  18. Cross-sectional association between exposure to particulate matter and inflammatory markers in the Japanese general population: NIPPON DATA2010.

    PubMed

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Okamura, Tomonori; Nitta, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Takebayashi, Toru; Ueda, Kayo; Kadota, Aya; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    A suggestive mechanism behind the association between particulate matter and cardiovascular disease is inflammatory response. Earlier population-based studies investigating the association between particulate matter and inflammatory biological markers, in particular C-reactive protein (CRP), showed inconsistent results. In addition, evidence from the Asian population, in which CRP levels are typically lower than those observed in Western populations, was sparse. We examined the cross-sectional association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter and inflammatory markers, including high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count, in a representative population of Japanese community dwellers (NIPPON DATA2010). We analysed data from 2360 participants (1002 men and 1358 women), aged 20 years or older, who resided in 300 randomly selected districts (222 public health centre areas) throughout Japan. We used background concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM, defined as particles with a 100% cut-off level at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and co-pollutants within the public health centre area. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of elevated hs-CRP (> 0.3 mg/dl) or WBC (> 9000/μl). Since smoking is an important confounding factor, we firstly included this in the models, and additionally conducted the analyses after excluding current smokers. The one-month average concentration of SPM was positively associated with hs-CRP (OR per 10 μg/m(3) increase in SPM = 1.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-2.04), and high exposure to SPM on the day of blood draw was associated with increased WBC count, after excluding current smokers (OR = 1.13, 1.01-1.28). Similar association patterns were observed for ozone. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter was associated with inflammatory markers in the general Japanese population. Systemic inflammation may play a role in the link between

  19. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  20. Cadmium exposure and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies among the general and occupational populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Carter, Sue; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of cadmium exposure with the risk of prostate cancer in both the general and occupational populations. Online database searches were performed for studies of prostate cancer risk and cadmium exposure. Twelve cohort studies (5 in the general, 7 in occupational populations) and 9 case-control studies (3 in the general, 6 in occupational populations) were identified. Five/seven cohort studies in the general and occupational populations consist of 78,263/13, 434 participants with a mean follow-up of 12.1/43.0 years, respectively. Case-control studies include 334 cases/670 controls in the general population, and 1,315 cases/4,477 controls in occupational populations. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure in the general population, the weighted relative risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality among cohort studies, and the weighted odds ratio in case-control studies were 1.05 (95%CI [0.91, 1.22]), 0.83 (95%CI [0.35, 1.98]), and 1.27 (95%CI [0.58,2.78]), respectively. For occupational populations, the weighted OR in case-control studies was 1.17 (95%CI [0.85, 1.62]), and the weighted standardized mortality ratio in cohort studies was 98 (95%CI [75, 126]). Accumulated epidemiological evidence does not support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure may increase the risk of prostate cancer in eit